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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/alsa-guide.xml,v 1.27 2004/03/02 21:03:53 aaby Exp $ -->
2<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 4
4<guide link = "/doc/en/alsa-guide.xml"> 5<guide link = "/doc/en/alsa-guide.xml">
5<title>Gentoo Linux ALSA Guide</title> 6<title>Gentoo Linux ALSA Guide</title>
6<author title="Author"><mail link="zu@pandora.be"> 7<author title="Author">
7 Vincent Verleye</mail> 8 <mail link="zu@pandora.be">Vincent Verleye</mail>
8</author> 9</author>
9<author title="Author"><mail link="g2boojum@gentoo.org"> 10<author title="Author">
10 Grant Goodyear</mail> 11 <mail link="g2boojum@gentoo.org">Grant Goodyear</mail>
11</author> 12</author>
12<author title="Author"><mail link="agenkin@gentoo.org"> 13<author title="Author">
13 Arcady Genkin</mail> 14 <mail link="agenkin@gentoo.org">Arcady Genkin</mail>
14</author> 15</author>
16<author title="Author">
17 <mail link="eradicator@gentoo.org">Jeremy Huddleston</mail>
18</author>
15<author title="Editor"><mail link="zhen@gentoo.org"> 19<author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
16 John P. Davis</mail> 20 John P. Davis
17</author> 21</author>
18<author title="Editor"><mail link="swift@gentoo.org"> 22<author title="Editor">
19 Sven Vermeulen</mail> 23 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
20</author> 24</author>
21<author title="Editor"><mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org"> 25<author title="Editor">
22 Benny Chuang</mail> 26 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
23</author> 27</author>
24<author title="Editor"><mail link="blubber@gentoo.org"> 28<author title="Editor">
25 Tiemo Kieft</mail> 29 <mail link="blubber@gentoo.org">Tiemo Kieft</mail>
26</author> 30</author>
31<author title="Editor">
32 <mail link="erwin@gentoo.org">Erwin</mail>
33</author>
34
35<abstract>
36This guide will show you how to set up the Advanced Linux Sound Architecture
37(ALSA) on Gentoo Linux. In addition to the Gentoo Linux Desktop Configuration
38Guide, this guide is supposed to give you more information on this subject.
39</abstract>
27 40
28<license/> 41<license/>
29 42
30<abstract>
31This guide will show you how to set up the Advanced Linux Sound Architecture (ALSA) on Gentoo Linux.
32In addition to the Gentoo Linux Desktop Configuration Guide, this guide is supposed to give you more information on this subject. </abstract>
33
34<version>1.3.3</version> 43<version>1.4.0</version>
35<date>October 9, 2003</date> 44<date>February 22, 2003</date>
36 45
37<chapter> 46<chapter>
38<title>Introduction</title> 47<title>Introduction</title>
39<section> 48<section>
40 <title>What is ALSA?</title> 49<title>What is ALSA?</title>
41<body> 50<body>
51
42<p> 52<p>
43The Advanced Linux Sound Architecture (ALSA) is a project to improve the Linux sound subsystem by rewriting 53The Advanced Linux Sound Architecture (ALSA) is a project to improve the Linux
44large chunks of it. 54sound subsystem by rewriting large chunks of it. It has replaced the Open
45It is anticipated that ALSA will make it into Linux kernel 2.6.x (or 3.x.x -- whichever comes first) as it becomes ready. 55Sound System (OSS) as the default sound subsystem in the 2.6 kernel, but it
56can be used with either 2.4 or 2.6 kernels.
46</p> 57</p>
47 58
48<p> 59<p>
49ALSA provides audio and MIDI functionality for Linux. 60ALSA provides audio and MIDI functionality for Linux.
50</p> 61</p>
51 62
52<p> 63<p>
53Quoted from <uri>http://www.alsa-project.org</uri>, ALSA has the following features: 64Quoted from <uri>http://www.alsa-project.org</uri>, ALSA has the following
54<ul><li> Efficient support for all types of audio interfaces, from consumer soundcards to professional multichannel audio interfaces.</li> 65features:
66</p>
67
68<ul>
69 <li>
70 Efficient support for all types of audio interfaces, from consumer
71 soundcards to professional multichannel audio interfaces
72 </li>
55 <li> Fully modularized sound drivers.</li> 73 <li>Fully modularized sound drivers</li>
56 <li> SMP and thread-safe design.</li> 74 <li>SMP and thread-safe design</li>
75 <li>
57 <li> User space library (alsa-lib) to simplify application programming and provide higher level functionality.</li> 76 User space library (alsa-lib) to simplify application programming and
77 provide higher level functionality
78 </li>
79 <li>
58 <li> Support for the older OSS API, providing binary compatibility for most OSS programs.</li> 80 Support for the older OSS API, providing binary compatibility for most OSS
81 programs
82 </li>
59</ul> 83</ul>
60There's lots more to ALSA however, like support for Full Duplex playback and recording, multiple soundcard support, 84
61hardware mixing of streams, extensive mixer capabilities (to support advanced features of new soundcards), ...
62</p> 85<p>
86There's lots more to ALSA however, like support for Full Duplex playback and
87recording, multiple soundcard support, hardware mixing of streams, extensive
88mixer capabilities (to support advanced features of new soundcards), ...
89</p>
90
63</body> 91</body>
64</section>
65<section> 92</section>
93<section>
66 <title>Why use ALSA?</title> 94<title>Why use ALSA?</title>
67<body> 95<body>
96
68<p> 97<p>
69If your soundcard is supported by the Linux kernel sound system or the commercial OSS/4Front sound driver system, 98Your sound card may be supported by modules available in the 2.4 kernel (these
70which can be found in all 2.4.x Linux kernels, you could just aswell build <e>those modules</e> for use with your soundcard. 99are also provided in the 2.6 kernel under the 'Open Sound System (DEPRECATED)'
100option). Additionally, you might be able to use the commercial OSS/4Front sound
101driver system. If you wish to use either of these systems, then you should read
71If you want this, just read through the <uri link="http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/Sound-HOWTO/index.html">Linux Sound HOWTO</uri>. 102through the <uri link="http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/Sound-HOWTO/index.html">Linux
103Sound HOWTO</uri>.
72</p> 104</p>
105
73<p> 106<p>
74However, those OSS/4Front drivers have some limitations -- being commercial is one. 107The OSS/4Front drivers have some limitations, however. Being commercial is
75ALSA is an attempt to go beyond these limitations and to do so in an open source fashion. 108one. ALSA is an attempt to go beyond these limitations with an open source
76ALSA is a fully GPL and LGPL'ed sound driver system, that provides a professional quality system for recording, playback, 109development model. ALSA is a fully GPL and LGPL'ed sound driver system that
77and MIDI sequencing. 110provides a professional quality system for recording, playback, and MIDI
111sequencing.
78</p> 112</p>
113
79</body> 114</body>
80</section>
81<section> 115</section>
116<section>
82 <title>What cards does ALSA support?</title> 117<title>What cards does ALSA support?</title>
83<body> 118<body>
119
84<p> 120<p>
85ALSA tries to support as many (new) cards as possible by providing open-source drivers. 121ALSA tries to support as many (new) cards as possible by providing open-source
86However, some vendors may provide binary-only packages. 122drivers. However, some vendors may provide binary-only packages.
123</p>
124
87</p> 125<p>
88<p>To know if your card is supported, you can find a Soundcard Matrix of supported and not-supported cards here: 126To know if your card is supported, you can find a Soundcard Matrix of supported
89<uri>http://www.alsa-project.org/alsa-doc/</uri>. 127and not-supported cards here: <uri>http://www.alsa-project.org/alsa-doc/</uri>.
90</p> 128</p>
129
91</body> 130</body>
92</section> 131</section>
93</chapter> 132</chapter>
94 133
95<chapter> 134<chapter>
105USE-variable before you start. 144USE-variable before you start.
106</p> 145</p>
107 146
108</body> 147</body>
109</section> 148</section>
110
111<section> 149<section>
112 <title>Kernel modules</title> 150<title>Kernel modules</title>
113<body> 151<body>
114<p> 152
115Since we're still using 2.4.x kernel sources, we'll have to compile kernel modules and ALSA modules separately. People who are using a 2.5.x kernel can do this from within their kernel configuration, since the ALSA modules are included in the kernel sources and should be built there.
116</p> 153<p>
154When using the 2.4 kernels, you'll need to compile the alsa drivers separately
155from the rest of the kernel. If you are using a 2.6 kernel, you have the
156option of using the ALSA drivers included in the kernel or those provided
157by the <c>alsa-driver</c> package.
158</p>
159
117<p> 160<p>
118First we'll make sure that our kernel configuration is ready for use with ALSA. 161First we'll make sure that our kernel configuration is ready for use with ALSA.
119All you need in your kernel configuration is having Sound Card Support set to be built as a module (M). 162All you need in your kernel configuration is having Sound Card Support set to
120This will build <c>soundcore.o</c>. 163be built as a module (M). This will build <path>soundcore.o</path>.
121</p>
122<p> 164</p>
123<note> 165
124Possibly, this will also work when you built Sound Card Support in the kernel (Y) instead of building it as a module (M).
125However, the official ALSA documentation suggests building it as a module, since ALSA will try loading it.
126</note> 166<note>
167Possibly, this will also work if you build 'Sound Card Support' in the kernel
168(Y) instead of building it as a module (M). However, the official ALSA
169documentation suggests building it as a module, since ALSA will try loading it.
170</note>
171
127</p> 172<p>
128<p>If you already have a working kernel configuration, make sure you remove all sound drivers (except for Sound Card Support). 173If you already have a working kernel configuration, make sure you remove all
129If you wish to do this without having to reboot, you could do like this: 174sound drivers (except for Sound Card Support). If you wish to do this without
175having to reboot, you could do like this:
130</p> 176</p>
131<pre> 177
178<pre caption="Kernel configuration">
132# <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i> 179# <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
133# <i>cp .config ~/</i> 180# <i>cp .config ~/</i>
134# <i>make mrproper</i> 181# <i>make mrproper</i>
135# <i>cp ~/.config .</i> 182# <i>cp ~/.config .</i>
136# <i>make menuconfig</i> 183# <i>make menuconfig</i>
137</pre> 184</pre>
185
138<p> 186<p>
139Now select <e>Sound Card Support</e> as Module (M) and deselect all other sound drivers. 187Now select <e>Sound Card Support</e> as Module (M) and deselect all other sound
188drivers. If you are using 2.6 with the ALSA modules provided by the kernel, select
189the drivers for your sound card as well (look in the <uri
190link="#doc_chap2_sect3">ALSA modules</uri> section below if you need help
140Exit and say Y to save your kernel configuration. 191choosing the right drivers). Exit and say Y to save your kernel configuration.
141After that, build the modules: 192After that, build the modules:
142</p> 193</p>
143<pre> 194
195<pre caption="2.4 Kernel compilation">
144# <i>make dep clean</i> 196# <i>make dep clean</i>
145# <i>make modules modules_install</i> 197# <i>make modules modules_install</i>
146</pre> 198</pre>
199
200<pre caption="2.6 Kernel compilation">
201# <i>make</i>
202# <i>make modules_install</i>
203</pre>
204
205<p>
206If you compiled 2.6 with the ALSA modules provided by the kernel, please skip to
207<uri link="#doc_chap2_sect4">Configuration of ALSA</uri> below.
147<p> 208</p>
209
210<p>
148Before installing your new modules, this last line will delete all your previous modules, 211Before installing your new modules, this last line will delete all your previous
149even the ones from a previous ALSA installation. 212modules, even the ones from a previous ALSA installation.
150</p>
151<p> 213</p>
214
152<impo> 215<impo>
153This means, whenever you recompile your kernel later on, you MUST recompile <c>alsa-driver</c>. 216This means, whenever you recompile your kernel later on, you MUST recompile
217<c>alsa-driver</c>.
154</impo> 218</impo>
155</p>
156<p>
157<note>However, there's no need to reinstall <c>nvidia-kernel</c>, the Nvidia drivers are in a separate directory
158in <path>/lib/modules/*/video</path> and won't get deleted by a <c>make modules modules_install</c>
159</note>
160</p>
161</body>
162</section>
163 219
220</body>
164<section> 221</section>
222<section>
165 <title>ALSA modules</title> 223<title>ALSA modules</title>
166<body> 224<body>
167 225
168<p>
169Now it's time to install the ALSA drivers for your soundcard(s). If your soundcard is PCI, you can find out the name
170and type of your soundcard by looking at the output of /proc/pci.
171</p> 226<p>
172<pre> 227Now it's time to install the ALSA drivers for your soundcard(s). If your
228soundcard is PCI, you can find out the name and type of your soundcard by
229looking at the output of <path>/proc/pci</path>.
230</p>
231
232<pre caption="Search for soundcard information">
173# <i>grep audio /proc/pci</i> 233# <i>grep audio /proc/pci</i>
174</pre> 234</pre>
175 235
176
177<p>
178<warn> 236<warn>
179If you had a previous sound setup and there are still non-ALSA sound modules loaded, unload them <e>now</e>. 237If you had a previous sound setup and there are still non-ALSA sound modules
180Check with <c>lsmod</c> and use <c>rmmod</c> to unload all sound-related modules on your system. 238loaded, unload them <e>now</e>. Check with <c>lsmod</c> and use <c>rmmod</c>
239to unload all sound-related modules on your system. If <c>rmmod</c> complains
240about not being able to unload the modules because they are in use, try using
241<c>/etc/init.c/alsasound stop</c> to remove them.
181</warn> 242</warn>
243
182</p> 244<p>
183 245We could simply do an <c>emerge alsa-driver</c> now, this would compile and
246install <e>all</e> ALSA sound drivers.
184<p> 247</p>
185We could simply do an <c>emerge alsa-driver</c> now, this would compile and install <e>all</e> ALSA sound drivers. 248
186</p> 249<p>
187<p>
188However, to save some time, lookup the <e>Module Name</e> of your soundcard(s) on the 250However, to save some time, lookup the <e>Module Name</e> of your soundcard(s)
189<uri link="http://www.alsa-project.org/alsa-doc">ALSA Soundcard Matrix</uri> by following the <e>Details</e> link in the <e>Driver and Docs</e> column in the row of the chipset of your soundcard. 251on the <uri link="http://www.alsa-project.org/alsa-doc">ALSA Soundcard
252Matrix</uri> by following the <e>Details</e> link in the <e>Driver and Docs</e>
253column in the row of the chipset of your soundcard. Mine is <c>snd-emu10k1</c>,
190Mine is <c>snd-emu10k1</c>, since I have an SBlive! soundcard, with the <e>EMU10K1</e> chipset. 254since I have an SBlive! soundcard, with the <e>EMU10K1</e> chipset. We'll set
191We'll set ALSA_CARDS environment to the value of the module name before emerging (but without the snd prefix), so emerge will only compile the drivers we need. 255ALSA_CARDS environment to the value of the module name before emerging (but
256without the snd prefix), so emerge will only compile the drivers we need.
192</p> 257</p>
193 258
194<pre> 259<pre caption="With 2.4 Kernel">
195# <i>env ALSA_CARDS='emu10k1' emerge alsa-driver</i> 260# <i>env ALSA_CARDS='emu10k1' emerge alsa-driver</i>
196</pre> 261</pre>
262
263<pre caption="With 2.6 Kernel">
264# <i>env ALSA_CARDS='emu10k1' emerge \>=media-sound/alsa-driver-1.0.2c</i>
265</pre>
266
267<note>
2682.6 kernels require alsa-driver to be at least version 1.0.2c.
197<note> 269</note>
198You can also add this value in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, so when you have to emerge the alsa-driver later on you can just run <c>emerge alsa-driver</c>. 270
271<note>
272You can also add this value in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, so when you have
273to emerge the alsa-driver later on you can just run <c>emerge alsa-driver</c>.
199For example, like this: <c>echo 'ALSA_CARDS="emu10k1"' >> /etc/make.conf</c> 274For example, like this: <c>echo 'ALSA_CARDS="emu10k1"' >> /etc/make.conf</c>
200</note> 275</note>
201 276
202<note> 277<note>
203When you want to install ALSA drivers for more than one soundcard, you could set ALSA_CARDS to a space-separated list 278When you want to install ALSA drivers for more than one soundcard, you could
279set ALSA_CARDS to a space-separated list of drivers; like this: <c>env
204of drivers; like this: <c>env ALSA_CARDS='emu10k1 intel8x0 ens1370' emerge alsa-driver</c> 280ALSA_CARDS='emu10k1 intel8x0 ens1370' emerge alsa-driver</c>
281</note>
282
205</note> 283<note>
206
207<note>If you want to have OSS compatibility, make sure to emerge <i>alsa-oss</i>, it is the ALSA/OSS compatibility 284If you want to have OSS compatibility, make sure to emerge <i>alsa-oss</i>, it
208wrapper. </note> 285is the ALSA/OSS compatibility wrapper.
286</note>
209 287
288<note>
210<note>If you plan on recompiling your kernels numerous times, it might 289If you plan on recompiling your kernels numerous times, it might
211be adviseable to emerge <c>alsa-driver</c> with <c>--buildpkg</c>. This 290be adviseable to emerge <c>alsa-driver</c> with <c>--buildpkg</c>. This
212will create a binary package for it. Later, after recompiling your kernel, 291will create a binary package for it. Later, after recompiling your kernel,
213you can just do <c>emerge --usepkg alsa-driver</c> which will install the 292you can just do <c>emerge --usepkg alsa-driver</c> which will install the
214binary package instead of recompiling it completely.</note> 293binary package instead of recompiling it completely. If 'depmod -a' ever
294complains about sound drivers having unreferenced symbols when you do this,
295you will need to recompile the alsa-driver package from source.
296</note>
215 297
216<p> 298<p>
217After this, the ALSA modules should be installed on your system. 299After this, the ALSA modules should be installed on your system.
218</p> 300</p>
301
219</body> 302</body>
220</section>
221<section> 303</section>
304<section>
222 <title>Configuration of ALSA</title> 305<title>Configuration of ALSA</title>
223<body> 306<body>
307
224<p> 308<p>
225Let's start configuring now to get ALSA working properly. 309Let's start configuring now to get ALSA working properly. We'll need to edit
226We'll need to edit some files, to let our system know about the freshly installed ALSA modules. 310some files, to let our system know about the freshly installed ALSA modules.
227</p> 311</p>
228 312
229<p> 313<p>
230First, install <c>alsa-utils</c> on your system: 314First, install <c>alsa-utils</c> on your system:
231</p> 315</p>
235</pre> 319</pre>
236 320
237<p> 321<p>
238Hereafter, we need to edit <path>/etc/modules.d/alsa</path>. 322Hereafter, we need to edit <path>/etc/modules.d/alsa</path>.
239</p> 323</p>
324
240<warn> 325<warn>
241There is no need to edit <path>/etc/modules.conf</path>. Instead, always edit files in <path>/etc/modules.d</path>. 326There is no need to edit <path>/etc/modules.conf</path>. Instead, always edit
327files in <path>/etc/modules.d</path> and run <c>modules-update</c> to generate
328<path>/etc/modules.conf</path> from the updated data.
242</warn> 329</warn>
243<p> 330
244Check the ALSA portion <e>at the bottom of the file</e>.
245By tweaking this line you can specify the max number of soundcards you have (generally, just one).
246</p>
247<pre caption="At the bottom of /etc/modules.d/alsa">
248<comment>Set this to the correct number of cards.</comment>
249options snd cards_limit=1
250</pre>
251<p>
252Now we'll specify the sounddriver(s) ALSA should use. In the same file, edit like this:
253</p>
254<pre caption="In /etc/modules.d/alsa"> 331<pre caption="In /etc/modules.d/alsa">
255## and then run `modules-update' command. 332## and then run `modules-update' command.
256## Read alsa-driver's INSTALL file in /usr/share/doc for more info. 333## Read alsa-driver's INSTALL file in /usr/share/doc for more info.
257## 334##
258## ALSA portion 335## ALSA portion
259alias snd-card-0 snd-emu10k1 336alias snd-card-0 snd-emu10k1
260<comment>## If you have more than one, add:</comment>
261## alias snd-card-1 snd-intel8x0 337## alias snd-card-1 snd-intel8x0
262## alias snd-card-2 snd-ens1370 338## alias snd-card-2 snd-ens1370
263## OSS/Free portion 339## OSS/Free portion
264## alias sound-slot-0 snd-card-0 340alias sound-slot-0 snd-card-0
265## alias sound-slot-1 snd-card-1 341## alias sound-slot-1 snd-card-1
342## alias sound-slot-2 snd-card-2
266## 343##
267</pre> 344</pre>
345
268<note> 346<note>
269If you have more than one soundcard, adjust the <c>cards_limit</c> value and add more snd-card aliases to the file. 347If you have more than one soundcard, add more <c>snd-card</c> and <c>snd-slot</c>
270I don't have experience with this, but you can find examples for configurations with two or more soundcards in 348aliases and adjust the <c>cards_limit</c> value at the end of the file. You can
349find examples for configurations with two or more soundcards in <uri
271<uri link="http://www.alsa-project.org/alsa-doc/alsa-howto/c1660.htm">Chapter 6</uri> 350link="http://www.alsa-project.org/alsa-doc/alsa-howto/c1660.htm">Chapter 6</uri>
351of the <uri
272of the <uri link="http://www.alsa-project.org/alsa-doc/alsa-howto/alsa-howto.html">ALSA Howto</uri>. 352link="http://www.alsa-project.org/alsa-doc/alsa-howto/alsa-howto.html">ALSA
353Howto</uri>.
273</note> 354</note>
355
274<p> 356<p>
275Last thing to do in this file, almost at the end, check if these lines are there and uncommented: 357Last thing to do in this file, almost at the end, check if these lines are there
358and uncommented:
276</p> 359</p>
360
277<pre caption="Near the end of /etc/modules.d/alsa"> 361<pre caption="Near the end of /etc/modules.d/alsa">
278alias /dev/mixer snd-mixer-oss 362alias /dev/mixer snd-mixer-oss
279alias /dev/dsp snd-pcm-oss 363alias /dev/dsp snd-pcm-oss
280alias /dev/midi snd-seq-oss 364alias /dev/midi snd-seq-oss
281</pre> 365</pre>
366
367<p>
368After double-checking the file <path>/etc/modules.d/alsa</path> to make sure
369everyting is ok, run <c>modules-update</c>.
282<p> 370</p>
283Now double-check the file <path>/etc/modules.d/alsa</path> and when you're sure everyting is ok, run <c>modules-update</c>. 371
284<pre> 372<pre caption="Running modules-update">
285# <i>modules-update</i> 373# <i>modules-update</i>
286</pre> 374</pre>
287</p> 375
288<note>
289Running <c>modules-update</c> here will insert the data from <path>/etc/modules.d/alsa</path> into <path>/etc/modules.conf</path>
290</note> 376<note>
291<p> 377Running <c>modules-update</c> here will insert the data from
292You should also verify that /etc/devfsd.conf has the alsa devices and permissions correctly registered. 378<path>/etc/modules.d/alsa</path> into <path>/etc/modules.conf</path>
379</note>
380
293</p> 381<p>
382You should also verify that <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path> has the alsa devices
383and permissions correctly registered.
384</p>
385
294<pre caption="/etc/devfsd.conf"> 386<pre caption="/etc/devfsd.conf">
295# ALSA/OSS stuff 387# ALSA/OSS stuff
296# Comment/change these if you want to change the permissions on 388# Comment/change these if you want to change the permissions on
297# the audio devices 389# the audio devices
298LOOKUP snd MODLOAD ACTION snd 390LOOKUP snd MODLOAD ACTION snd
300LOOKUP mixer MODLOAD 392LOOKUP mixer MODLOAD
301LOOKUP midi MODLOAD 393LOOKUP midi MODLOAD
302REGISTER sound/.* PERMISSIONS root.audio 660 394REGISTER sound/.* PERMISSIONS root.audio 660
303REGISTER snd/.* PERMISSIONS root.audio 660 395REGISTER snd/.* PERMISSIONS root.audio 660
304</pre> 396</pre>
305<note> 397
306Notice that devfsd.conf sets /dev/sound permissions to be root.audio. Thus, for non-root users to use audio they will have to be part of the audio group.
307</note> 398<note>
399Notice that devfsd.conf sets <path>/dev/sound</path> permissions to be
400root.audio. Thus, for non-root users to use audio they will have to be part of
401the audio group.
402</note>
403
308</body> 404</body>
309</section> 405</section>
310</chapter> 406</chapter>
407
311<chapter> 408<chapter>
312<title>Starting ALSA</title> 409<title>Starting ALSA</title>
313<section> 410<section>
314 <title>Adding alsasound to a runlevel</title> 411<title>Adding alsasound to a runlevel</title>
315<body> 412<body>
413
414<p>
415An init script is provided for you which will install all neccessary sound drivers
416for your card (including the OSS support drivers if you set USE=oss). The first
417thing to do now is to make ALSA startup at boot time:
316<p> 418</p>
317First thing to do now, is to make ALSA startup at boottime. Like this: 419
318<pre> 420<pre caption="Add ALSA to the boot runlevel">
319# <i>rc-update add alsasound boot</i> 421# <i>rc-update add alsasound boot</i>
320</pre> 422</pre>
321</p> 423
322<p> 424<warn>
323<warn>Note that the alsasound script should be added to the "boot" runlevel, not the "default" runlevel.</warn> 425Note that the alsasound script should be added to the "boot" runlevel, not the
324</p> 426"default" runlevel.
427</warn>
428
325</body> 429</body>
326</section>
327<section> 430</section>
431<section>
328 <title>Running and unmuting</title> 432<title>Running and unmuting</title>
329<body> 433<body>
434
330<p> 435<p>
331Since we're Linux users, we don't want to reboot. So we'll start the alsasound script manually. 436Since we're Linux users, we don't want to reboot. So we'll start the alsasound
437script manually.
332</p> 438</p>
333<pre> 439
440<pre caption="Starting ALSA">
334# <i>/etc/init.d/alsasound start</i> 441# <i>/etc/init.d/alsasound start</i>
335</pre> 442</pre>
336<p> 443
337ALSA is running now. If everything is ok, you should be able to see the ALSA modules loaded when running <c>lsmod</c>.
338However, sound won't work yet, because the channels are still muted. We need <c>amixer</c> for this.
339</p> 444<p>
445ALSA is running now. If everything is ok, you should be able to see the ALSA
446modules loaded when running <c>lsmod</c>. However, sound won't work yet,
447because the channels are still muted. We need <c>amixer</c> to fix this.
448</p>
449
340<pre caption = "Running amixer"> 450<pre caption = "Running amixer">
341# <i>amixer</i> 451# <i>amixer</i>
342</pre> 452</pre>
343<p> 453
454<!-- alsasound init script will do this for them now...
344<warn> 455<warn>
345You shouldn't get this, but <e>if</e> you get an error about "amixer: Mixer attach default error: No such file or directory", you should manually modprobe 456You shouldn't get this, but <e>if</e> you get an error about "amixer: Mixer
457attach default error: No such file or directory", you should manually modprobe
346<c>snd-mixer-oss</c> and <c>snd-pcm-oss</c> once. After that run amixer again. 458<c>snd-mixer-oss</c> and <c>snd-pcm-oss</c> once. After that run amixer again.
347</warn> 459</warn>
348</p> 460
349<pre caption="only if you get an error when running amixer"> 461<pre caption="Only if you get an error when running amixer">
350# <i>modprobe snd-mixer-oss</i> 462# <i>modprobe snd-mixer-oss</i>
351# <i>modprobe snd-pcm-oss</i> 463# <i>modprobe snd-pcm-oss</i>
352# <i>amixer</i> 464# <i>amixer</i>
353</pre> 465</pre>
466-->
467
354<p> 468<p>
355If you got this far, now unmute Master and PCM channels. Some hardware 469If you got this far, now unmute Master and PCM channels. Some hardware
356even requires you to unmute the center channel or even the surround 470even requires you to unmute the center channel or even the surround
357channel. 471channel.
358</p> 472</p>
359<p> 473
360<pre caption = "Unmuting channels"> 474<pre caption = "Unmuting channels">
361# <i>amixer set Master 100 unmute</i> 475# <i>amixer set Master 100 unmute</i>
362# <i>amixer set PCM 100 unmute</i> 476# <i>amixer set PCM 100 unmute</i>
363<comment>Only if the above doesn't succeed on its own:</comment> 477<comment>Only if the above doesn't succeed on its own:</comment>
364# <i>amixer set Center 100 unmute</i> 478# <i>amixer set Center 100 unmute</i>
365# <i>amixer set Surround 100 unmute</i> 479# <i>amixer set Surround 100 unmute</i>
366<comment>Test the sound:</comment> 480<comment>Test the sound:</comment>
367# <i>aplay $KDEDIR/share/sounds/pop.wav</i> <codenote>(pop.wav is part of KDE)</codenote> 481# <i>aplay $KDEDIR/share/sounds/pop.wav</i> <codenote>(pop.wav is part of KDE)</codenote>
368</pre> 482</pre>
483
369</p> 484<p>
370We check to see if sound is working by using the aplay (alsa play) command. If you hear a pop, then sound is indeed working. 485We check to see if sound is working by using the aplay (alsa play) command. If
486you hear a pop, then sound is indeed working. Then, adjust the volume settings
371Then, adjust the volume settings to your liking; the ncurses-based <c>alsamixer</c> is a great way to get them "just so". 487to your liking; the ncurses-based <c>alsamixer</c> is a great way to get them
488"just so".
372<p> 489</p>
373You may want to emerge <c>alsa-xmms</c> as that will provide ALSA support for XMMS. 490
374</p> 491<p>
375When you reboot your system, the <e>alsasound</e> init script will properly save and restore your volume settings. 492When you reboot your system, the <c>alsasound</c> init script will
493properly save and restore your volume settings.
494</p>
495
376</body> 496</body>
377</section> 497</section>
378</chapter> 498</chapter>
499
500<chapter>
501<title>MIDI Support</title>
502<section>
503<title>Hardware Synthesizer</title>
504<body>
505
506<p>
507Some sound cards (SBLive, Audigy, and others) come with onboard MIDI synthesizers.
508To use them, you must first install the <c>awesfx</c> package.
509</p>
510
511<pre caption="Install awesfx">
512# <i>emerge awesfx</i>
513</pre>
514
515<p>
516Now, you should place your sound fonts in <path>/usr/share/sfbank/</path>. You
517can probably get the sound fonts off of the windows driver CD for your sound card.
518With the SBLive, one of the included sound font files is called 8MBGMSFX.SF2.
519</p>
520
521<p>
522After copying over the sound font you want to use, you need to select it for use
523with <c>/usr/bin/sfxload</c>.
524</p>
525
526<pre caption="Selecting the sound font">
527# <i>/usr/bin/sfxload /usr/share/sfbank/8MBGMSFX.SF2</i>
528</pre>
529
530<note>
531You may wish to place this command in /etc/conf.d/local.start or in the startup
532script for your sound card (/etc/alsa.d/emu10k1) to make sure it gets loaded
533at startup.
534</note>
535
536</body>
537</section>
538<section>
539<title>Timidity++ Virtual Synthesizer</title>
540<body>
541
542<p>
543If your sound card does not come with a hardware synthesizer (or you don't
544want to use it), you can use <c>timidity++</c> to provide you with a virtual
545synthesizer. Start by emerging this package:
546</p>
547
548<pre caption="Installing Timidity++">
549# <i>emerge timidity++</i>
550</pre>
551
552<p>
553A sample configuration file will be installed for you in
554<path>/usr/share/timitidy/config/timidity.cfg</path>. If you don't have a
555timidity++ configuration setup yet, you can just use this one.
556</p>
557
558<pre caption="Use the default Timidity++ configuration file">
559# <i>cp /usr/share/timitidy/config/timidity.cfg /usr/share/timidity</i>
560</pre>
561
562<p>
563Now, you need to enable the init script to run when your system boots
564and enable it now.
565</p>
566
567<pre caption="Add timidity to default runlevel and start it now">
568# <i>rc-update add timidity default</i>
569# <i>/etc/init.d/timidity start</i>
570</pre>
571
572<p>
573Note that there is a configuration file for the init script that you can
574modify in <path>/etc/conf.d/timidity</path>, and sane defaults have been
575chosen for you.
576</p>
577
578</body>
579</section>
580<section>
581<title>Testing MIDI Support</title>
582<body>
583
584<p>
585You can use <c>pmidi</c> to test out your MIDI configuration. To do so,
586you need to first emerge its package.
587</p>
588
589<pre caption="Installing pmidi">
590# <i>emerge pmidi</i>
591</pre>
592
593<p>
594The '-l' command line option to pmidi will list all detected MIDI output ports,
595and '-p' can be used to select the one for playback. Check to see what
596MIDI output ports are available on your system:
597</p>
598
599<pre caption="Listed ports when using hardware sythisizer">
600# <i>pmidi -l</i>
601 Port Client name Port name
602 64:0 Rawmidi 0 - EMU10K1 MPU-401 (U EMU10K1 MPU-401 (UART)
603 65:0 Emu10k1 WaveTable Emu10k1 Port 0
604 65:1 Emu10k1 WaveTable Emu10k1 Port 1
605 65:2 Emu10k1 WaveTable Emu10k1 Port 2
606 65:3 Emu10k1 WaveTable Emu10k1 Port 3
607</pre>
608
609<pre caption="Listed ports when using Timidity++">
610# <i>pmidi -l</i>
611 Port Client name Port name
612 64:0 Rawmidi 0 - ES1371 ES1371
613128:0 TiMidity TiMidity port 0
614128:1 TiMidity TiMidity port 1
615128:2 TiMidity TiMidity port 2
616128:3 TiMidity TiMidity port 3
617</pre>
618
619<p>
620Now, try playing a MIDI file to make sure everything works:
621</p>
622
623<pre caption="Play a song">
624# <i>pmidi -p 65:0 Final\ Fantasy\ 7\ -\ Aerith\'s\ Theme.mid</i>
625or
626# <i>pmidi -p 128:0 Final\ Fantasy\ 7\ -\ Aerith\'s\ Theme.mid</i>
627</pre>
628
629</body>
630</section>
631</chapter>
632
379<chapter> 633<chapter>
380<title>Final Notes</title> 634<title>Final Notes</title>
381<section> 635<section>
382 <title>After kernel-upgrades..</title> 636<title>After kernel-upgrades...</title>
383<body> 637<body>
638
639<p>
384<p>When you ever rebuild your kernel, or upgrade to another kernel, you'll have to rebuild the ALSA modules.</p> 640When you ever rebuild your kernel, or upgrade to another kernel, you'll have to
641rebuild the ALSA modules.
642</p>
643
644<p>
385<p>Although you might have installed <c>alsa-driver</c>, <c>alsa-libs</c> and <c>alsa-utils</c>, only the first will 645Although you might have installed <c>alsa-driver</c>, <c>alsa-lib</c> and
386have to be installed again, since it will put the alsa modules in 646<c>alsa-utils</c>, only the first will have to be installed again, since it will
387<path>/lib/modules/*/kernel/sound/pci/</path>.</p> 647put the alsa modules in <path>/lib/modules/*/kernel/sound/pci/</path>.
648</p>
649
388<pre caption="needed after each kernel compile"> 650<pre caption="Needed after each kernel compile">
389# <i>emerge alsa-driver</i> 651# <i>emerge alsa-driver</i>
390</pre> 652</pre>
653
391</body> 654</body>
392</section>
393<section> 655</section>
656<section>
657<title>alsa-tools and alsa-firmware</title>
658<body>
659
660<p>
661The alsa-tools and alsa-firmware packages contain tools useful to only users of
662specific sound cards. Most users will not need these. If you do need alsa-tools,
663you can set the environment variable 'ALSA_TOOLS' to install just the needed tools
664for your card:
665</p>
666
667<pre caption="Installing alsa-tools">
668# <i>env ALSA_TOOLS='as10k1 ac3dec' emerge alsa-tools</i>
669</pre>
670
671</body>
672</section>
673<section>
674<title>Mixing versions</title>
675<body>
676
677<p>
678Often times, different versions of <c>alsa-driver</c>, <c>alsa-lib</c>,
679<c>alsa-utils</c>, <c>alsa-tools</c>, and <c>alsa-oss</c> will work with each
680other, but it is recommended that you try to keep the versions in sync.
681</p>
682
683</body>
684</section>
685<section>
394 <title>/etc/modules.autoload</title> 686<title>/etc/modules.autoload</title>
395<body> 687<body>
688
689<p>
396<p>You won't have to edit this file for use with ALSA. After our <c>rc-update add alsasound boot</c>, our system will 690You won't have to edit this file for use with ALSA. After doing <c>rc-update add
397load the correct modules at startup.</p> 691alsasound boot</c>, the correct modules will be loaded at startup.
692</p>
693
694<!--
695<p>
398<p>It's not necessary to add <c>snd-pcm-oss</c> or <c>snd-mixer-oss</c> in this file. 696It's not necessary to add <c>snd-pcm-oss</c> or <c>snd-mixer-oss</c> in this
399Check the <uri link="http://www.djcj.org/LAU/guide/alsbook/faq1.html">this FAQ</uri> for more info.</p> 697file. Check the <uri link="http://www.djcj.org/LAU/guide/alsbook/faq1.html">this
400</body> 698FAQ</uri> for more info.
401</section> 699</p>
700-->
402 701
702</body>
703</section>
403<section> 704<section>
404<title>Known bugs</title> 705<title>Known bugs</title>
405<body> 706<body>
406 707
407<note> 708<note>
408This guide lags behind on the alsa-development. Chances are these bugs 709This guide lags behind on the alsa-development. Chances are these bugs
409are already fixed when you read this. 710are already fixed when you read this.
410</note> 711</note>
411 712
412<ul> 713<ul>
413<li> 714 <li>
414If you have <b>lots of noise</b> when using <b>oss</b> emulation, add 715 If you have <b>lots of noise</b> when using <b>oss</b> emulation, add
415<e>options snd-pcm-oss dsp_map=1</e> to 716 <e>options snd-pcm-oss dsp_map=1</e> to <path>/etc/modules.d/alsa</path>
416<path>/etc/modules.d/alsa</path>.
417</li> 717 </li>
418</ul> 718</ul>
419 719
420</body> 720</body>
421</section> 721</section>
722<section>
723<title>Activating Joystick Support</title>
724<body>
422 725
726<p>
727If your soundcard has a joystick plug, you might be interested in activating
728joystick support for your soundcard. If so, start by verifying if your soundcard
729driver has a joystick parameter. You can verify this by running <c>modinfo</c>
730against your <path>snd-&lt;your chipset&gt;</path>. For instance, for the
731<c>snd-via82xx</c>:
732</p>
733
734<pre caption="Running modinfo">
735# <i>modinfo snd-via82xx</i>
736filename: /lib/modules/2.4.22-ck2/snd-via82xx.o
737description: "VIA VT82xx audio"
738author: "Jaroslav Kysela &lt;perex@suse.cz&gt;"
739license: "GPL"
740parm: index int array (min = 1, max = 8), description "Index value for VIA 82xx bridge."
741parm: id string array (min = 1, max = 8), description "ID string for VIA 82xx bridge."
742parm: enable int array (min = 1, max = 8), description "Enable audio part of VIA 82xx bridge."
743parm: mpu_port long array (min = 1, max = 8), description "MPU-401 port. (VT82C686x only)"
744<i>parm: joystick int array (min = 1, max = 8), description "Enable joystick. (VT82C686x only)"</i>
745parm: ac97_clock int array (min = 1, max = 8), description "AC'97 codec clock (default 48000Hz)."
746parm: dxs_support int array (min = 1, max = 8), description "Support for DXS channels
747 (0 = auto, 1 = enable, 2 = disable, 3 = 48k only, 4 = no VRA)"
748</pre>
749
750<p>
751If it has the <c>joystick</c> parameter, then append <c>joystick=1</c> to your
752<c>options</c> line in <path>/etc/modules.d/alsa</path>. For instance, for the
753<c>snd-via82xx</c>:
754</p>
755
756<pre caption="Adding the joystick parameter">
757alias snd-card-0 snd-via82xx
758options snd-via82xx joystick=1
759</pre>
760
761</body>
423<section> 762</section>
763<section>
424 <title>More links..</title> 764<title>More links...</title>
425<body> 765<body>
766
426<p> 767<p>
427You could check these for additional info: 768You could check these for additional info:
428</p> 769</p>
429<p> 770
430<ul> 771<ul>
772 <li>
431<li><uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/desktop.xml">The Gentoo Linux Desktop Configuration Guide</uri></li> 773 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/desktop.xml">The Gentoo Linux
774 Desktop Configuration Guide</uri>
775 </li>
776 <li>
432<li><uri link="http://www.alsa-project.org">ALSA Project Homepage</uri></li> 777 <uri link="http://www.alsa-project.org">ALSA Project Homepage</uri>
778 </li>
779 <li>
433<li><uri link="http://www.alsa-project.org/documentation.php3">ALSA Users Documentation</uri></li> 780 <uri link="http://www.alsa-project.org/documentation.php3">ALSA Users
781 Documentation</uri>
782 </li>
783 <li>
434<li><uri link="http://www.djcj.org">ALSA Howto's and FAQ's</uri></li> 784 <uri link="http://www.djcj.org">ALSA Howto's and FAQ's</uri>
785 </li>
786 <li>
435<li><uri link="http://tldp.org/HOWTO/Sound-HOWTO/index.html">Linux Sound HOWTO</uri></li> 787 <uri link="http://tldp.org/HOWTO/Sound-HOWTO/index.html">Linux Sound
788 HOWTO</uri>
789 </li>
790 <li>
436<li><uri link="http://linux-sound.org/">Sound and MIDI Software For Linux</uri></li> 791 <uri link="http://linux-sound.org/">Sound and MIDI Software For Linux</uri>
792 </li>
437</ul> 793</ul>
438</p> 794
439</body> 795</body>
440</section> 796</section>
441</chapter> 797</chapter>
442</guide> 798</guide>

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