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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?> 1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/alsa-guide.xml,v 1.50 2005/04/24 09:14:23 swift Exp $ -->
2<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 4
4<guide link = "/doc/en/alsa-guide.xml"> 5<guide link="/doc/en/alsa-guide.xml">
5<title>Gentoo Linux ALSA Guide</title> 6<title>Gentoo Linux ALSA Guide</title>
6<author title="Author"><mail link="zu@pandora.be"> 7<author title="Author">
7 Vincent Verleye</mail> 8 <mail link="zu@pandora.be">Vincent Verleye</mail>
8</author> 9</author>
9<author title="Author"><mail link="g2boojum@gentoo.org"> 10<author title="Author">
10 Grant Goodyear</mail> 11 <mail link="g2boojum@gentoo.org">Grant Goodyear</mail>
11</author> 12</author>
12<author title="Author"><mail link="agenkin@gentoo.org"> 13<author title="Author">
13 Arcady Genkin</mail> 14 <mail link="agenkin@gentoo.org">Arcady Genkin</mail>
14</author> 15</author>
16<author title="Author">
17 <mail link="eradicator@gentoo.org">Jeremy Huddleston</mail>
18</author>
15<author title="Editor"><mail link="zhen@gentoo.org"> 19<author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
16 John P. Davis</mail> 20 John P. Davis
17</author> 21</author>
18<author title="Editor"><mail link="swift@gentoo.org"> 22<author title="Editor">
19 Sven Vermeulen</mail> 23 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
20</author> 24</author>
21<author title="Editor"><mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org"> 25<author title="Editor">
22 Benny Chuang</mail> 26 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
23</author> 27</author>
24<author title="Editor"><mail link="blubber@gentoo.org"> 28<author title="Editor">
25 Tiemo Kieft</mail> 29 <mail link="blubber@gentoo.org">Tiemo Kieft</mail>
26</author> 30</author>
31<author title="Editor">
32 <mail link="erwin@gentoo.org">Erwin</mail>
33</author>
34
35<abstract>
36This guide will show you how to set up the Advanced Linux Sound Architecture
37(ALSA) on Gentoo Linux. In addition to the Gentoo Linux Desktop Configuration
38Guide, this guide is supposed to give you more information on this subject.
39</abstract>
27 40
28<license/> 41<license/>
29 42
30<abstract>
31This guide will show you how to set up the Advanced Linux Sound Architecture (ALSA) on Gentoo Linux.
32In addition to the Gentoo Linux Desktop Configuration Guide, this guide is supposed to give you more information on this subject. </abstract>
33
34<version>1.3.3</version> 43<version>1.5.12</version>
35<date>October 9, 2003</date> 44<date>2005-04-24</date>
36 45
37<chapter> 46<chapter>
38<title>Introduction</title> 47<title>The Advanced Linux Sound Architecture</title>
39<section> 48<section>
40 <title>What is ALSA?</title> 49<title>What is ALSA?</title>
41<body>
42<p>
43The Advanced Linux Sound Architecture (ALSA) is a project to improve the Linux sound subsystem by rewriting
44large chunks of it.
45It is anticipated that ALSA will make it into Linux kernel 2.6.x (or 3.x.x -- whichever comes first) as it becomes ready.
46</p>
47
48<p>
49ALSA provides audio and MIDI functionality for Linux.
50</p>
51
52<p>
53Quoted from <uri>http://www.alsa-project.org</uri>, ALSA has the following features:
54<ul><li> Efficient support for all types of audio interfaces, from consumer soundcards to professional multichannel audio interfaces.</li>
55 <li> Fully modularized sound drivers.</li>
56 <li> SMP and thread-safe design.</li>
57 <li> User space library (alsa-lib) to simplify application programming and provide higher level functionality.</li>
58 <li> Support for the older OSS API, providing binary compatibility for most OSS programs.</li>
59</ul>
60There's lots more to ALSA however, like support for Full Duplex playback and recording, multiple soundcard support,
61hardware mixing of streams, extensive mixer capabilities (to support advanced features of new soundcards), ...
62</p>
63</body> 50<body>
64</section> 51
65<section>
66 <title>Why use ALSA?</title>
67<body>
68<p> 52<p>
69If your soundcard is supported by the Linux kernel sound system or the commercial OSS/4Front sound driver system, 53ALSA is the <e>Advanced Linux Sound Architecture</e>, a project dedicated to the
70which can be found in all 2.4.x Linux kernels, you could just aswell build <e>those modules</e> for use with your soundcard. 54development of a high-quality Linux sound subsystem. It has replaced OSS
71If you want this, just read through the <uri link="http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/Sound-HOWTO/index.html">Linux Sound HOWTO</uri>. 55(<e>Open Sound System</e>) as default sound subsystem in the 2.6 kernel series.
72</p> 56</p>
57
73<p> 58<p>
74However, those OSS/4Front drivers have some limitations -- being commercial is one. 59ALSA provides efficient support for all types of audio interfaces, is fully
75ALSA is an attempt to go beyond these limitations and to do so in an open source fashion. 60modularized, is SMP and thread-safe and provides a high-quality user space
76ALSA is a fully GPL and LGPL'ed sound driver system, that provides a professional quality system for recording, playback, 61library called <e>alsa-lib</e> to simplify application programming. It also
77and MIDI sequencing. 62provides a backwards compatibility layer with OSS.
78</p> 63</p>
79</body> 64
80</section>
81<section>
82 <title>What cards does ALSA support?</title>
83<body>
84<p>
85ALSA tries to support as many (new) cards as possible by providing open-source drivers.
86However, some vendors may provide binary-only packages.
87</p>
88<p>To know if your card is supported, you can find a Soundcard Matrix of supported and not-supported cards here:
89<uri>http://www.alsa-project.org/alsa-doc/</uri>.
90</p>
91</body> 65</body>
92</section> 66</section>
93</chapter> 67</chapter>
94
95<chapter> 68<chapter>
96<title>Installation</title> 69<title>Installing ALSA</title>
97<section>
98<title>Gentoo USE flags</title>
99<body>
100
101<p>
102To compile programs with ALSA-support, be sure to add <e>alsa</e> to
103your USE-variable. However, several tools don't support alsa yet, and
104require OSS. ALSA provides OSS-emulation if you define <e>oss</e> in your
105USE-variable before you start.
106</p>
107
108</body>
109</section> 70<section>
71<title>USE Flags</title>
72<body>
110 73
74<p>
75Gentoo provides an <c>alsa</c> USE flag which you should set in
76<path>/etc/make.conf</path> to allow our available packages to compile with
77ALSA support. If you have <c>oss</c> in your USE variable as well, ALSA will
78compile with OSS backward compatibility.
79</p>
80
81</body>
111<section> 82</section>
83<section>
112 <title>Kernel modules</title> 84<title>Kernel Modules</title>
113<body> 85<body>
114<p> 86
115Since we're still using 2.4.x kernel sources, we'll have to compile kernel modules and ALSA modules separately. People who are using a 2.5.x kernel can do this from within their kernel configuration, since the ALSA modules are included in the kernel sources and should be built there.
116</p> 87<p>
88First of all, before continuing, make sure your kernel has <e>Sound Card
89Support</e> enabled. If you used <c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, then
90this is automatically true. Otherwise reconfigure your kernel. Additionally,
91make sure you disable <e>Open Sound System</e> in your kernel configuration.
92If you don't, your system may try to use these drivers rather than the alsa
93ones. If you see a message about 'sound card not detected' and you are sure
94you have the correct driver, this is probably the reason.
117<p> 95</p>
118First we'll make sure that our kernel configuration is ready for use with ALSA. 96
119All you need in your kernel configuration is having Sound Card Support set to be built as a module (M). 97<warn>
120This will build <c>soundcore.o</c>. 98If you use a 2.6 kernel, you may use the drivers provided in the kernel, but
99we still recommend that you use media-sound/alsa-driver as they are more up
100to date than what is provided in the kernel tree. If you still wish to use
101the drivers provided with your kernel, you can skip the rest of this section
102and continue with <uri link="#alsa-utils">Installing the ALSA Utils</uri>.
103</warn>
104
121</p> 105<p>
106The first step in installing your sound drivers is figuring out what sound
107card you have. If you don't already know, an easy trick is to search
108for "audio" in the output of the <c>lspci</c> command. You can install
109this tool with <c>emerge pciutils</c>.
122<p> 110</p>
123<note> 111
124Possibly, this will also work when you built Sound Card Support in the kernel (Y) instead of building it as a module (M). 112<pre caption="Finding out the soundcard type">
125However, the official ALSA documentation suggests building it as a module, since ALSA will try loading it. 113# <i>lspci | grep -i audio</i>
126</note> 114Multimedia audio controller: VIA Technologies, Inc. VT82C686 AC97 Audio Controller (rev 64).
127</p>
128<p>If you already have a working kernel configuration, make sure you remove all sound drivers (except for Sound Card Support).
129If you wish to do this without having to reboot, you could do like this:
130</p>
131<pre> 115</pre>
132# <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i> 116
133# <i>cp .config ~/</i>
134# <i>make mrproper</i>
135# <i>cp ~/.config .</i>
136# <i>make menuconfig</i>
137</pre>
138<p>
139Now select <e>Sound Card Support</e> as Module (M) and deselect all other sound drivers.
140Exit and say Y to save your kernel configuration.
141After that, build the modules:
142</p> 117<p>
118Now go to the <uri link="http://www.alsa-project.org/alsa-doc">ALSA Soundcard
119Matrix</uri> and search for your soundcard. In the above example you should go
120to the "VIA" manufacturer. You will receive a table with the known chipsets of
121that vendor. The chipset in the above example is "via82c686"; the "Details" link
122then informs me that the driver is called <path>via82xx</path>. This is all the
123information you need, so you can safely discard the rest of that document.
124</p>
125
126<p>
127Based on this information we can now install the <c>alsa-driver</c> for our
128soundcard. First edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> and <e>add</e> a new option
129called ALSA_CARDS to it. Inside this variable you declare the soundcard driver
130you want to use:
131</p>
132
133<pre caption="Editing /etc/make.conf for ALSA_CARDS">
134ALSA_CARDS="via82xx"
143<pre> 135</pre>
144# <i>make dep clean</i> 136
145# <i>make modules modules_install</i> 137<warn>
146</pre> 138If you have multiple sound cards in your system, separate them with a comma
147<p> 139in the ALSA_CARDS variable. Ex: ALSA_CARDS="via82xx,emu10k1"
148Before installing your new modules, this last line will delete all your previous modules, 140</warn>
149even the ones from a previous ALSA installation. 141
150</p> 142<p>
143If you want OSS compatibility (highly recommended), you should add 'oss' to
144your USE flags in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. After that, you are ready to
145install <c>alsa-driver</c>:
151<p> 146</p>
147
148<pre caption="Installing ALSA Drivers">
149# <i>emerge alsa-driver</i>
150</pre>
151
152<impo> 152<impo>
153This means, whenever you recompile your kernel later on, you MUST recompile <c>alsa-driver</c>. 153Whenever you (re)compile your kernel sources, chances are that the ALSA drivers
154will be deleted. It is therefore adviseable to rerun <c>emerge alsa-driver</c>
155every time you (re)compile your kernel. Note that this will compile the
156drivers for the kernel in /usr/src/linux, NOT the running kernel.
154</impo> 157</impo>
155</p>
156<p>
157<note>However, there's no need to reinstall <c>nvidia-kernel</c>, the Nvidia drivers are in a separate directory
158in <path>/lib/modules/*/video</path> and won't get deleted by a <c>make modules modules_install</c>
159</note>
160</p>
161</body>
162</section>
163 158
159</body>
164<section> 160</section>
165 <title>ALSA modules</title> 161<section id="alsa-utils">
166<body> 162<title>Installing the ALSA Utils</title>
167
168<p>
169Now it's time to install the ALSA drivers for your soundcard(s). If your soundcard is PCI, you can find out the name
170and type of your soundcard by looking at the output of /proc/pci.
171</p>
172<pre>
173# <i>grep audio /proc/pci</i>
174</pre>
175
176
177<p>
178<warn>
179If you had a previous sound setup and there are still non-ALSA sound modules loaded, unload them <e>now</e>.
180Check with <c>lsmod</c> and use <c>rmmod</c> to unload all sound-related modules on your system.
181</warn>
182</p>
183
184<p>
185We could simply do an <c>emerge alsa-driver</c> now, this would compile and install <e>all</e> ALSA sound drivers.
186</p>
187<p>
188However, to save some time, lookup the <e>Module Name</e> of your soundcard(s) on the
189<uri link="http://www.alsa-project.org/alsa-doc">ALSA Soundcard Matrix</uri> by following the <e>Details</e> link in the <e>Driver and Docs</e> column in the row of the chipset of your soundcard.
190Mine is <c>snd-emu10k1</c>, since I have an SBlive! soundcard, with the <e>EMU10K1</e> chipset.
191We'll set ALSA_CARDS environment to the value of the module name before emerging (but without the snd prefix), so emerge will only compile the drivers we need.
192</p>
193
194<pre>
195# <i>env ALSA_CARDS='emu10k1' emerge alsa-driver</i>
196</pre>
197<note>
198You can also add this value in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, so when you have to emerge the alsa-driver later on you can just run <c>emerge alsa-driver</c>.
199For example, like this: <c>echo 'ALSA_CARDS="emu10k1"' >> /etc/make.conf</c>
200</note>
201
202<note>
203When you want to install ALSA drivers for more than one soundcard, you could set ALSA_CARDS to a space-separated list
204of drivers; like this: <c>env ALSA_CARDS='emu10k1 intel8x0 ens1370' emerge alsa-driver</c>
205</note>
206
207<note>If you want to have OSS compatibility, make sure to emerge <i>alsa-oss</i>, it is the ALSA/OSS compatibility
208wrapper. </note>
209
210<note>If you plan on recompiling your kernels numerous times, it might
211be adviseable to emerge <c>alsa-driver</c> with <c>--buildpkg</c>. This
212will create a binary package for it. Later, after recompiling your kernel,
213you can just do <c>emerge --usepkg alsa-driver</c> which will install the
214binary package instead of recompiling it completely.</note>
215
216<p>
217After this, the ALSA modules should be installed on your system.
218</p>
219</body> 163<body>
220</section> 164
221<section>
222 <title>Configuration of ALSA</title>
223<body>
224<p>
225Let's start configuring now to get ALSA working properly.
226We'll need to edit some files, to let our system know about the freshly installed ALSA modules.
227</p> 165<p>
228 166If the in-kernel OSS compatibility is not sufficient for your needs, you will
167want to install <c>alsa-oss</c>. This will provide you with the 'aoss'
168executable which can be used as demonstrated:
229<p> 169</p>
230First, install <c>alsa-utils</c> on your system: 170
171<pre caption="More OSS compatibility layer">
172# <i>emerge alsa-oss</i>
173# <i>aoss mpg123 music.mp3</i>
174</pre>
175
231</p> 176<p>
177Now install the ALSA Utils on your system (this is mandatory):
178</p>
232 179
233<pre caption = "Emerging alsa-utils"> 180<pre caption="Installing ALSA Utils">
234# <i>emerge alsa-utils</i> 181# <i>emerge alsa-utils</i>
235</pre> 182</pre>
236 183
237<p> 184<p>
238Hereafter, we need to edit <path>/etc/modules.d/alsa</path>. 185Now that the utils are installed, it is time to configure ALSA...
239</p>
240<warn>
241There is no need to edit <path>/etc/modules.conf</path>. Instead, always edit files in <path>/etc/modules.d</path>.
242</warn>
243<p> 186</p>
244Check the ALSA portion <e>at the bottom of the file</e>. 187
245By tweaking this line you can specify the max number of soundcards you have (generally, just one). 188</body>
189</section>
190</chapter>
191<chapter>
192<title>Configuring ALSA</title>
193<section>
194<title>Automatically Loading the Kernel Modules</title>
195<body>
196
246</p> 197<p>
247<pre caption="At the bottom of /etc/modules.d/alsa"> 198If you use a modular kernel (such as when using <c>genkernel</c>) you have to
248<comment>Set this to the correct number of cards.</comment> 199edit <path>/etc/modules.d/alsa</path> so that it activates the necessary
249options snd cards_limit=1 200modules at boot time. For the soundcard in our example:
250</pre>
251<p> 201</p>
252Now we'll specify the sounddriver(s) ALSA should use. In the same file, edit like this: 202
253</p>
254<pre caption="In /etc/modules.d/alsa"> 203<pre caption="/etc/modules.d/alsa">
255## and then run `modules-update' command.
256## Read alsa-driver's INSTALL file in /usr/share/doc for more info.
257##
258## ALSA portion
259alias snd-card-0 snd-emu10k1
260<comment>## If you have more than one, add:</comment>
261## alias snd-card-1 snd-intel8x0 204alias snd-card-0 snd-via82xx
262## alias snd-card-2 snd-ens1370 205<comment># The following is only needed when you want OSS compatibility</comment>
263## OSS/Free portion
264## alias sound-slot-0 snd-card-0 206alias sound-slot-0 snd-via82xx
265## alias sound-slot-1 snd-card-1
266##
267</pre>
268<note>
269If you have more than one soundcard, adjust the <c>cards_limit</c> value and add more snd-card aliases to the file.
270I don't have experience with this, but you can find examples for configurations with two or more soundcards in
271<uri link="http://www.alsa-project.org/alsa-doc/alsa-howto/c1660.htm">Chapter 6</uri>
272of the <uri link="http://www.alsa-project.org/alsa-doc/alsa-howto/alsa-howto.html">ALSA Howto</uri>.
273</note>
274<p>
275Last thing to do in this file, almost at the end, check if these lines are there and uncommented:
276</p>
277<pre caption="Near the end of /etc/modules.d/alsa">
278alias /dev/mixer snd-mixer-oss 207alias /dev/mixer snd-mixer-oss
279alias /dev/dsp snd-pcm-oss 208alias /dev/dsp snd-pcm-oss
280alias /dev/midi snd-seq-oss 209alias /dev/midi snd-seq-oss
281</pre> 210</pre>
211
212<p>
213Now run <c>modules-update</c> to save the changes you made to the
214<path>alsa</path> file into <path>/etc/modules.conf</path>:
282<p> 215</p>
283Now double-check the file <path>/etc/modules.d/alsa</path> and when you're sure everyting is ok, run <c>modules-update</c>. 216
284<pre> 217<pre caption="Running modules-update">
285# <i>modules-update</i> 218# <i>modules-update</i>
286</pre> 219</pre>
220
221</body>
222</section>
223<section>
224<title>Verifying the Device Files</title>
225<body>
226
287</p> 227<p>
288<note> 228This should be done automatically for you on recent installs, but if you run
289Running <c>modules-update</c> here will insert the data from <path>/etc/modules.d/alsa</path> into <path>/etc/modules.conf</path> 229into problems, check that your ALSA devices and permissions are set correctly
290</note> 230by your /dev manager. If you use DevFS, check <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path>
291<p> 231</p>
292You should also verify that /etc/devfsd.conf has the alsa devices and permissions correctly registered. 232
293</p>
294<pre caption="/etc/devfsd.conf"> 233<pre caption="/etc/devfsd.conf">
295# ALSA/OSS stuff 234# ALSA/OSS stuff
296# Comment/change these if you want to change the permissions on 235# Comment/change these if you want to change the permissions on
297# the audio devices 236# the audio devices
298LOOKUP snd MODLOAD ACTION snd 237LOOKUP snd MODLOAD ACTION snd
300LOOKUP mixer MODLOAD 239LOOKUP mixer MODLOAD
301LOOKUP midi MODLOAD 240LOOKUP midi MODLOAD
302REGISTER sound/.* PERMISSIONS root.audio 660 241REGISTER sound/.* PERMISSIONS root.audio 660
303REGISTER snd/.* PERMISSIONS root.audio 660 242REGISTER snd/.* PERMISSIONS root.audio 660
304</pre> 243</pre>
305<note> 244
306Notice that devfsd.conf sets /dev/sound permissions to be root.audio. Thus, for non-root users to use audio they will have to be part of the audio group. 245</body>
307</note> 246</section>
247<section>
248<title>Having ALSA Activated at Boot</title>
249<body>
250
251<p>
252To activate ALSA support at boot, add the <c>alsasound</c> init script to the
253boot runlevel:
254</p>
255
256<pre caption="Adding alsasound to the boot runlevel">
257# <i>rc-update add alsasound boot</i>
258# <i>/etc/init.d/alsasound start</i>
259</pre>
260
261</body>
262</section>
263<section>
264<title>Unmute the Channels</title>
265<body>
266
267<p>
268By default, all sound channels are muted. To fix this, run <c>amixer</c>:
269</p>
270
271<pre caption="Running amixer">
272# <i>amixer</i>
273</pre>
274
275<p>
276If <c>amixer</c> produces lots of output then you're ready to unmute the
277channels. If you receive an error, doublecheck that your soundcard module is
278started.
279</p>
280
281<p>
282Now unmute the <e>Master</e> and <e>PCM</e> channels. If this isn't sufficient,
283also unmute the <e>Center</e> and <e>Surround</e> channels. Do not unmute the
284channels of which you can not change the volume; this might actually result in
285ALSA producing no sound at all...
286</p>
287
288<pre caption="Unmuting the sound channels">
289<comment>(If you prefer an ncurses method:)</comment>
290
291# <i>alsamixer</i>
292
293<comment>(or)</comment>
294
295# <i>amixer set Master 100% unmute</i>
296# <i>amixer set PCM 100% unmute</i>
297<comment>(Only if the above isn't sufficient:)</comment>
298# <i>amixer set Center 100% unmute</i>
299# <i>amixer set Surround 100% unmute</i>
300# <i>amixer set Headphone 100% unmute</i>
301</pre>
302
303
304<p>
305To check if your sound works, play a wave file (using <c>aplay</c>), mp3 (using
306<c>mpg123</c> or even <c>mplayer</c>) or any other sound file for that matter.
307</p>
308
308</body> 309</body>
309</section> 310</section>
310</chapter> 311</chapter>
311<chapter> 312<chapter>
312<title>Starting ALSA</title> 313<title>Activating MIDI Support</title>
313<section>
314 <title>Adding alsasound to a runlevel</title>
315<body>
316<p>
317First thing to do now, is to make ALSA startup at boottime. Like this:
318<pre>
319# <i>rc-update add alsasound boot</i>
320</pre>
321</p>
322<p>
323<warn>Note that the alsasound script should be added to the "boot" runlevel, not the "default" runlevel.</warn>
324</p>
325</body>
326</section> 314<section>
315<title>Installing the Necessary Packages</title>
316<body>
317
318<p>
319Some soundcards come with onboard MIDI synthesizers. To use them, you must first
320install the <c>awesfx</c> package:
321</p>
322
323<pre caption="Installing the awesfx package">
324# <i>emerge awesfx</i>
325</pre>
326
327<p>
328If you have a collection of sound fonts somewhere, place them in
329<path>/usr/share/sfbank</path>. For instance, the SBLive has a sound font file
330called <path>8MBGMSFX.SF2</path> or <path>CT4GMSFX.SF2</path>.
331</p>
332
333<p>
334After copying over the sound font, select them using <c>asfxload</c>:
335</p>
336
337<pre caption="Loading the sound font">
338# <i>asfxload /usr/share/sfbank/8MBGMSFX.SF2</i>
339</pre>
340
341<p>
342You must have this command run every time you boot, so it is adviseable to add
343it to <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path> as well.
344</p>
345
346<p>
347If you can't find soundfonts on your driver CD you can download some online from
348<uri>http://www.parabola.demon.co.uk/alsa/awe64.html</uri>.
349</p>
350
351</body>
327<section> 352</section>
328 <title>Running and unmuting</title> 353<section>
354<title>Timidity++ Virtual Synthesizer</title>
355<body>
356
357<p>
358If your sound card does not come with a hardware synthesizer (or you don't want
359to use it), you can use <c>timidity++</c> to provide you with a virtual
360synthesizer. Start by emerging this package:
361</p>
362
363<pre caption="Installing Timidity++">
364# <i>emerge timidity++</i>
365</pre>
366
367<p>
368For timidity to play sounds, it needs a soundfont. If you do not have any,
369install <c>timidity-eawpatches</c> or <c>timidity-shompatches</c> which will
370give you some soundfonts. You can have multiple soundfont configurations
371installed, and you can place your own in <path>/usr/share/timidity/</path>.
372To switch between different timidity configurations, you should use the
373<e>timidity-update</e> tool provided in the timidity++ package.
374</p>
375
376<pre caption="Installing soundfonts">
377# <i>emerge timidity-eawpatches</i>
378# <i>timidity-update -g -s eawpatches</i>
379
380<comment>(or)</comment>
381
382# <i>emerge timidity-shompatches</i>
383# <i>timidity-update -g -s shompatches</i>
384</pre>
385
386<p>
387Don't forget to add <c>timidity</c> to the default runlevel.
388</p>
389
390<pre caption="Adding timidity to the default runlevel">
391# <i>rc-update add timidity default</i>
392# <i>/etc/init.d/timidity start</i>
393</pre>
394
329<body> 395</body>
330<p> 396</section>
331Since we're Linux users, we don't want to reboot. So we'll start the alsasound script manually. 397<section>
398<title>Testing MIDI Support</title>
399<body>
400
332</p> 401<p>
402You can use <c>aplaymidi</c> from the ALSA Utils to test your MIDI
403configuration.
404</p>
405
406<p>
407To see what MIDI output ports are available on your system, use the <c>-l</c>
408option:
409</p>
410
411<pre caption="Viewing the MIDI output ports">
412# <i>aplaymidi -l</i>
333<pre> 413</pre>
334# <i>/etc/init.d/alsasound start</i> 414
335</pre>
336<p>
337ALSA is running now. If everything is ok, you should be able to see the ALSA modules loaded when running <c>lsmod</c>.
338However, sound won't work yet, because the channels are still muted. We need <c>amixer</c> for this.
339</p> 415<p>
340<pre caption = "Running amixer"> 416If all looks fine, try playing a MIDI file to make sure everything works. With
341# <i>amixer</i> 417the <c>-p</c> option you define what MIDI port you want to use.
342</pre>
343<p> 418</p>
344<warn> 419
345You shouldn't get this, but <e>if</e> you get an error about "amixer: Mixer attach default error: No such file or directory", you should manually modprobe 420<pre caption="Playing a MIDI file">
346<c>snd-mixer-oss</c> and <c>snd-pcm-oss</c> once. After that run amixer again. 421# <i>aplaymidi -p 65:0 "Final Fantasy 7 - Aerith' Theme.mid"</i>
347</warn>
348</p> 422</pre>
349<pre caption="only if you get an error when running amixer"> 423
350# <i>modprobe snd-mixer-oss</i>
351# <i>modprobe snd-pcm-oss</i>
352# <i>amixer</i>
353</pre>
354<p>
355If you got this far, now unmute Master and PCM channels. Some hardware
356even requires you to unmute the center channel or even the surround
357channel.
358</p>
359<p>
360<pre caption = "Unmuting channels">
361# <i>amixer set Master 100 unmute</i>
362# <i>amixer set PCM 100 unmute</i>
363<comment>Only if the above doesn't succeed on its own:</comment>
364# <i>amixer set Center 100 unmute</i>
365# <i>amixer set Surround 100 unmute</i>
366<comment>Test the sound:</comment>
367# <i>aplay $KDEDIR/share/sounds/pop.wav</i> <codenote>(pop.wav is part of KDE)</codenote>
368</pre>
369</p>
370We check to see if sound is working by using the aplay (alsa play) command. If you hear a pop, then sound is indeed working.
371Then, adjust the volume settings to your liking; the ncurses-based <c>alsamixer</c> is a great way to get them "just so".
372<p>
373You may want to emerge <c>alsa-xmms</c> as that will provide ALSA support for XMMS.
374</p>
375When you reboot your system, the <e>alsasound</e> init script will properly save and restore your volume settings.
376</body> 424</body>
377</section> 425</section>
378</chapter> 426</chapter>
379<chapter> 427<chapter>
380<title>Final Notes</title> 428<title>Final Remarks</title>
381<section>
382 <title>After kernel-upgrades..</title>
383<body>
384<p>When you ever rebuild your kernel, or upgrade to another kernel, you'll have to rebuild the ALSA modules.</p>
385<p>Although you might have installed <c>alsa-driver</c>, <c>alsa-libs</c> and <c>alsa-utils</c>, only the first will
386have to be installed again, since it will put the alsa modules in
387<path>/lib/modules/*/kernel/sound/pci/</path>.</p>
388<pre caption="needed after each kernel compile">
389# <i>emerge alsa-driver</i>
390</pre>
391</body>
392</section> 429<section>
430<title>Tools and Firmware</title>
431<body>
432
433<p>
434Some specific sound cards can benefit from certain tools provided by the
435<c>alsa-tools</c> and <c>alsa-firmware</c> packages. If you need
436<c>alsa-tools</c>, be sure to define the ALSA_TOOLS variable in
437<path>/etc/make.conf</path> with the tools you require. For instance:
438</p>
439
440<pre caption="Selecting ALSA Tools in /etc/make.conf">
441ALSA_TOOLS="as10k1 ac3dec"
442</pre>
443
444<p>
445Then install the <c>alsa-tools</c> (and/or <c>alsa-firmware</c>) package(s):
446</p>
447
448<pre caption="Installing ALSA Tools">
449# <i>emerge alsa-tools</i>
450</pre>
451
452</body>
393<section> 453</section>
394 <title>/etc/modules.autoload</title>
395<body>
396<p>You won't have to edit this file for use with ALSA. After our <c>rc-update add alsasound boot</c>, our system will
397load the correct modules at startup.</p>
398<p>It's not necessary to add <c>snd-pcm-oss</c> or <c>snd-mixer-oss</c> in this file.
399Check the <uri link="http://www.djcj.org/LAU/guide/alsbook/faq1.html">this FAQ</uri> for more info.</p>
400</body>
401</section> 454<section>
455<title>Activating Joystick Support</title>
456<body>
402 457
458<p>
459If your soundcard has a joystick plug, you might be interested in activating
460joystick support for your soundcard. If so, start by verifying if your soundcard
461driver has a joystick parameter. You can verify this by running <c>modinfo</c>
462against your kernel module. For instance, for the <c>snd-via82xx</c>:
463</p>
464
465<pre caption="Running modinfo">
466# <i>modinfo snd-via82xx</i>
467filename: /lib/modules/2.4.22-ck2/snd-via82xx.o
468description: "VIA VT82xx audio"
469author: "Jaroslav Kysela &lt;perex@suse.cz&gt;"
470license: "GPL"
471parm: index int array (min = 1, max = 8), description "Index value for
472 VIA 82xx bridge."
473parm: id string array (min = 1, max = 8), description "ID string for VIA
474 82xx bridge."
475parm: enable int array (min = 1, max = 8), description "Enable audio part
476 of VIA 82xx bridge."
477parm: mpu_port long array (min = 1, max = 8), description "MPU-401 port.
478 (VT82C686x only)"
479<i>parm: joystick int array (min = 1, max = 8), description "Enable
480 joystick. (VT82C686x only)"</i>
481parm: ac97_clock int array (min = 1, max = 8), description "AC'97 codec
482 clock (default 48000Hz)."
483parm: dxs_support int array (min = 1, max = 8), description "Support for
484 DXS channels (0 = auto, 1 = enable, 2 = disable, 3 = 48k only, 4 =
485 no VRA)
486</pre>
487
488<p>
489If it has the <c>joystick</c> parameter, append <c>joystick=1</c> to your
490<c>options</c> line in <path>/etc/modules.d/alsa</path>. For instance:
491</p>
492
493<pre caption="Adding the joystick parameter">
494alias snd-card-0 snd-via82xx
495options snd-via82xx joystick=1
496</pre>
497
498</body>
403<section> 499</section>
404<title>Known bugs</title> 500<section>
501<title>Resources</title>
405<body> 502<body>
406
407<note>
408This guide lags behind on the alsa-development. Chances are these bugs
409are already fixed when you read this.
410</note>
411 503
412<ul> 504<ul>
413<li> 505 <li><uri link="http://www.alsa-project.org">The ALSA Project</uri></li>
414If you have <b>lots of noise</b> when using <b>oss</b> emulation, add 506 <li><uri link="http://www.djcj.org">ALSA Howto's and FAQs</uri></li>
415<e>options snd-pcm-oss dsp_map=1</e> to 507 <li><uri link="http://linux-sound.org">Linux Sound/MIDI Software</uri></li>
416<path>/etc/modules.d/alsa</path>.
417</li>
418</ul> 508</ul>
419 509
420</body>
421</section>
422
423<section>
424 <title>More links..</title>
425<body>
426<p>
427You could check these for additional info:
428</p>
429<p>
430<ul>
431<li><uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/desktop.xml">The Gentoo Linux Desktop Configuration Guide</uri></li>
432<li><uri link="http://www.alsa-project.org">ALSA Project Homepage</uri></li>
433<li><uri link="http://www.alsa-project.org/documentation.php3">ALSA Users Documentation</uri></li>
434<li><uri link="http://www.djcj.org">ALSA Howto's and FAQ's</uri></li>
435<li><uri link="http://tldp.org/HOWTO/Sound-HOWTO/index.html">Linux Sound HOWTO</uri></li>
436<li><uri link="http://linux-sound.org/">Sound and MIDI Software For Linux</uri></li>
437</ul>
438</p>
439</body> 510</body>
440</section> 511</section>
441</chapter> 512</chapter>
442</guide> 513</guide>

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