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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/alsa-guide.xml,v 1.21 2003/11/23 16:30:50 swift Exp $ --> 2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/alsa-guide.xml,v 1.34 2004/05/14 09:35:05 cam Exp $ -->
3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4 4
5<guide link = "/doc/en/alsa-guide.xml"> 5<guide link = "/doc/en/alsa-guide.xml">
6<title>Gentoo Linux ALSA Guide</title> 6<title>Gentoo Linux ALSA Guide</title>
7<author title="Author"> 7<author title="Author">
10<author title="Author"> 10<author title="Author">
11 <mail link="g2boojum@gentoo.org">Grant Goodyear</mail> 11 <mail link="g2boojum@gentoo.org">Grant Goodyear</mail>
12</author> 12</author>
13<author title="Author"> 13<author title="Author">
14 <mail link="agenkin@gentoo.org">Arcady Genkin</mail> 14 <mail link="agenkin@gentoo.org">Arcady Genkin</mail>
15</author>
16<author title="Author">
17 <mail link="eradicator@gentoo.org">Jeremy Huddleston</mail>
15</author> 18</author>
16<author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org --> 19<author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
17 John P. Davis 20 John P. Davis
18</author> 21</author>
19<author title="Editor"> 22<author title="Editor">
23 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail> 26 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
24</author> 27</author>
25<author title="Editor"> 28<author title="Editor">
26 <mail link="blubber@gentoo.org">Tiemo Kieft</mail> 29 <mail link="blubber@gentoo.org">Tiemo Kieft</mail>
27</author> 30</author>
28 31<author title="Editor">
29<license/> 32 <mail link="erwin@gentoo.org">Erwin</mail>
33</author>
30 34
31<abstract> 35<abstract>
32This guide will show you how to set up the Advanced Linux Sound Architecture 36This guide will show you how to set up the Advanced Linux Sound Architecture
33(ALSA) on Gentoo Linux. In addition to the Gentoo Linux Desktop Configuration 37(ALSA) on Gentoo Linux. In addition to the Gentoo Linux Desktop Configuration
34Guide, this guide is supposed to give you more information on this subject. 38Guide, this guide is supposed to give you more information on this subject.
35</abstract> 39</abstract>
36 40
41<license/>
42
37<version>1.3.4</version> 43<version>1.4.4</version>
38<date>November 23, 2003</date> 44<date>May 14, 2004</date>
39 45
40<chapter> 46<chapter>
41<title>Introduction</title> 47<title>Introduction</title>
42<section> 48<section>
43<title>What is ALSA?</title> 49<title>What is ALSA?</title>
44<body> 50<body>
45 51
46<p> 52<p>
47The Advanced Linux Sound Architecture (ALSA) is a project to improve the Linux 53The Advanced Linux Sound Architecture (ALSA) is a project to improve the Linux
48sound subsystem by rewriting large chunks of it. It is anticipated that ALSA 54sound subsystem by rewriting large chunks of it. It has replaced the Open
49will make it into Linux kernel 2.6.x (or 3.x.x -- whichever comes first) as it 55Sound System (OSS) as the default sound subsystem in the 2.6 kernel, but it
50becomes ready. 56can be used with either 2.4 or 2.6 kernels.
51</p> 57</p>
52 58
53<p> 59<p>
54ALSA provides audio and MIDI functionality for Linux. 60ALSA provides audio and MIDI functionality for Linux.
55</p> 61</p>
87<section> 93<section>
88<title>Why use ALSA?</title> 94<title>Why use ALSA?</title>
89<body> 95<body>
90 96
91<p> 97<p>
92If your soundcard is supported by the Linux kernel sound system or the 98Your sound card may be supported by modules available in the 2.4 kernel (these
93commercial OSS/4Front sound driver system, which can be found in all 2.4.x 99are also provided in the 2.6 kernel under the 'Open Sound System (DEPRECATED)'
94Linux kernels, you could just aswell build <e>those modules</e> for use with 100option). Additionally, you might be able to use the commercial OSS/4Front sound
95your soundcard. If you want this, just read through the <uri 101driver system. If you wish to use either of these systems, then you should read
96link="http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/Sound-HOWTO/index.html">Linux Sound HOWTO</uri>. 102through the <uri link="http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/Sound-HOWTO/index.html">Linux
103Sound HOWTO</uri>.
97</p> 104</p>
98 105
99<p> 106<p>
100However, those OSS/4Front drivers have some limitations -- being commercial is 107The OSS/4Front drivers have some limitations, however. Being commercial is
101one. ALSA is an attempt to go beyond these limitations and to do so in an open 108one. ALSA is an attempt to go beyond these limitations with an open source
102source fashion. ALSA is a fully GPL and LGPL'ed sound driver system, that 109development model. ALSA is a fully GPL and LGPL'ed sound driver system that
103provides a professional quality system for recording, playback, and MIDI 110provides a professional quality system for recording, playback, and MIDI
104sequencing. 111sequencing.
105</p> 112</p>
106 113
107</body> 114</body>
142<section> 149<section>
143<title>Kernel modules</title> 150<title>Kernel modules</title>
144<body> 151<body>
145 152
146<p> 153<p>
147Since we're still using 2.4.x kernel sources, we'll have to compile kernel 154When using the 2.4 kernels, you'll need to compile the alsa drivers separately
148modules and ALSA modules separately. People who are using a 2.5.x kernel can 155from the rest of the kernel. If you are using a 2.6 kernel, you have the
149do this from within their kernel configuration, since the ALSA modules are 156option of using the ALSA drivers included in the kernel or those provided
150included in the kernel sources and should be built there. 157by the <c>alsa-driver</c> package.
151</p> 158</p>
152 159
153<p> 160<p>
154First we'll make sure that our kernel configuration is ready for use with ALSA. 161First we'll make sure that our kernel configuration is ready for use with ALSA.
155All you need in your kernel configuration is having Sound Card Support set to 162All you need in your kernel configuration is having Sound Card Support set to
156be built as a module (M). This will build <path>soundcore.o</path>. 163be built as a module (M). This will build <path>soundcore.o</path>.
157</p> 164</p>
158 165
159<note> 166<note>
160Possibly, this will also work when you built Sound Card Support in the kernel 167Possibly, this will also work if you build 'Sound Card Support' in the kernel
161(Y) instead of building it as a module (M). However, the official ALSA 168(Y) instead of building it as a module (M). However, the official ALSA
162documentation suggests building it as a module, since ALSA will try loading it. 169documentation suggests building it as a module, since ALSA will try loading it.
163</note> 170</note>
164 171
165<p> 172<p>
176# <i>make menuconfig</i> 183# <i>make menuconfig</i>
177</pre> 184</pre>
178 185
179<p> 186<p>
180Now select <e>Sound Card Support</e> as Module (M) and deselect all other sound 187Now select <e>Sound Card Support</e> as Module (M) and deselect all other sound
181drivers. Exit and say Y to save your kernel configuration. After that, build 188drivers. If you are using 2.6 with the ALSA modules provided by the kernel, select
182the modules: 189the drivers for your sound card as well (look in the <uri
190link="#doc_chap2_sect3">ALSA modules</uri> section below if you need help
191choosing the right drivers). Exit and say Y to save your kernel configuration.
192After that, build the modules:
183</p> 193</p>
184 194
185<pre caption="Kernel compilation"> 195<pre caption="2.4 Kernel compilation">
186# <i>make dep clean</i> 196# <i>make dep clean</i>
187# <i>make modules modules_install</i> 197# <i>make modules modules_install</i>
188</pre> 198</pre>
199
200<pre caption="2.6 Kernel compilation">
201# <i>make</i>
202# <i>make modules_install</i>
203</pre>
204
205<p>
206If you compiled 2.6 with the ALSA modules provided by the kernel, please skip to
207<uri link="#doc_chap2_sect4">Configuration of ALSA</uri> below.
208</p>
189 209
190<p> 210<p>
191Before installing your new modules, this last line will delete all your previous 211Before installing your new modules, this last line will delete all your previous
192modules, even the ones from a previous ALSA installation. 212modules, even the ones from a previous ALSA installation.
193</p> 213</p>
214</pre> 234</pre>
215 235
216<warn> 236<warn>
217If you had a previous sound setup and there are still non-ALSA sound modules 237If you had a previous sound setup and there are still non-ALSA sound modules
218loaded, unload them <e>now</e>. Check with <c>lsmod</c> and use <c>rmmod</c> 238loaded, unload them <e>now</e>. Check with <c>lsmod</c> and use <c>rmmod</c>
219to unload all sound-related modules on your system. 239to unload all sound-related modules on your system. If <c>rmmod</c> complains
240about not being able to unload the modules because they are in use, try using
241<c>/etc/init.c/alsasound stop</c> to remove them.
220</warn> 242</warn>
221 243
222<p> 244<p>
223We could simply do an <c>emerge alsa-driver</c> now, this would compile and 245We could simply do an <c>emerge alsa-driver</c> now, this would compile and
224install <e>all</e> ALSA sound drivers. 246install <e>all</e> ALSA sound drivers.
232since I have an SBlive! soundcard, with the <e>EMU10K1</e> chipset. We'll set 254since I have an SBlive! soundcard, with the <e>EMU10K1</e> chipset. We'll set
233ALSA_CARDS environment to the value of the module name before emerging (but 255ALSA_CARDS environment to the value of the module name before emerging (but
234without the snd prefix), so emerge will only compile the drivers we need. 256without the snd prefix), so emerge will only compile the drivers we need.
235</p> 257</p>
236 258
237<pre caption="Compile correct modules"> 259<pre caption="With 2.4 Kernel">
238# <i>env ALSA_CARDS='emu10k1' emerge alsa-driver</i> 260# <i>env ALSA_CARDS='emu10k1' emerge alsa-driver</i>
239</pre> 261</pre>
262
263<pre caption="With 2.6 Kernel">
264# <i>env ALSA_CARDS='emu10k1' emerge \>=media-sound/alsa-driver-1.0.2c</i>
265</pre>
266
267<note>
2682.6 kernels require alsa-driver to be at least version 1.0.2c.
269</note>
240 270
241<note> 271<note>
242You can also add this value in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, so when you have 272You can also add this value in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, so when you have
243to emerge the alsa-driver later on you can just run <c>emerge alsa-driver</c>. 273to emerge the alsa-driver later on you can just run <c>emerge alsa-driver</c>.
244For example, like this: <c>echo 'ALSA_CARDS="emu10k1"' >> /etc/make.conf</c> 274For example, like this: <c>echo 'ALSA_CARDS="emu10k1"' >> /etc/make.conf</c>
249set ALSA_CARDS to a space-separated list of drivers; like this: <c>env 279set ALSA_CARDS to a space-separated list of drivers; like this: <c>env
250ALSA_CARDS='emu10k1 intel8x0 ens1370' emerge alsa-driver</c> 280ALSA_CARDS='emu10k1 intel8x0 ens1370' emerge alsa-driver</c>
251</note> 281</note>
252 282
253<note> 283<note>
254If you want to have OSS compatibility, make sure to emerge <i>alsa-oss</i>, it 284If you want to have OSS compatibility, make sure to emerge <c>alsa-oss</c>, it
255is the ALSA/OSS compatibility wrapper. 285is the ALSA/OSS compatibility wrapper.
256</note> 286</note>
257 287
258<note> 288<note>
259If you plan on recompiling your kernels numerous times, it might 289If you plan on recompiling your kernels numerous times, it might
260be adviseable to emerge <c>alsa-driver</c> with <c>--buildpkg</c>. This 290be adviseable to emerge <c>alsa-driver</c> with <c>--buildpkg</c>. This
261will create a binary package for it. Later, after recompiling your kernel, 291will create a binary package for it. Later, after recompiling your kernel,
262you can just do <c>emerge --usepkg alsa-driver</c> which will install the 292you can just do <c>emerge --usepkg alsa-driver</c> which will install the
263binary package instead of recompiling it completely. 293binary package instead of recompiling it completely. If 'depmod -a' ever
294complains about sound drivers having unreferenced symbols when you do this,
295you will need to recompile the alsa-driver package from source.
264</note> 296</note>
265 297
266<p> 298<p>
267After this, the ALSA modules should be installed on your system. 299After this, the ALSA modules should be installed on your system.
268</p> 300</p>
290Hereafter, we need to edit <path>/etc/modules.d/alsa</path>. 322Hereafter, we need to edit <path>/etc/modules.d/alsa</path>.
291</p> 323</p>
292 324
293<warn> 325<warn>
294There is no need to edit <path>/etc/modules.conf</path>. Instead, always edit 326There is no need to edit <path>/etc/modules.conf</path>. Instead, always edit
295files in <path>/etc/modules.d</path>. 327files in <path>/etc/modules.d</path> and run <c>modules-update</c> to generate
328<path>/etc/modules.conf</path> from the updated data.
296</warn> 329</warn>
297
298<p>
299Check the ALSA portion <e>at the bottom of the file</e>. By tweaking this line
300you can specify the max number of soundcards you have (generally, just one).
301</p>
302
303<pre caption="At the bottom of /etc/modules.d/alsa">
304<comment>Set this to the correct number of cards.</comment>
305options snd cards_limit=1
306</pre>
307
308<p>
309Now we'll specify the sounddriver(s) ALSA should use. In the same file, edit
310like this:
311</p>
312 330
313<pre caption="In /etc/modules.d/alsa"> 331<pre caption="In /etc/modules.d/alsa">
314## and then run `modules-update' command. 332## and then run `modules-update' command.
315## Read alsa-driver's INSTALL file in /usr/share/doc for more info. 333## Read alsa-driver's INSTALL file in /usr/share/doc for more info.
316## 334##
317## ALSA portion 335## ALSA portion
318alias snd-card-0 snd-emu10k1 336alias snd-card-0 snd-emu10k1
319<comment>## If you have more than one, add:</comment>
320## alias snd-card-1 snd-intel8x0 337## alias snd-card-1 snd-intel8x0
321## alias snd-card-2 snd-ens1370 338## alias snd-card-2 snd-ens1370
322## OSS/Free portion 339## OSS/Free portion
323## alias sound-slot-0 snd-card-0 340alias sound-slot-0 snd-card-0
324## alias sound-slot-1 snd-card-1 341## alias sound-slot-1 snd-card-1
342## alias sound-slot-2 snd-card-2
325## 343##
326</pre> 344</pre>
327 345
328<note> 346<note>
329If you have more than one soundcard, adjust the <c>cards_limit</c> value and add 347If you have more than one soundcard, add more <c>snd-card</c> and <c>snd-slot</c>
330more snd-card aliases to the file. I don't have experience with this, but you 348aliases and adjust the <c>cards_limit</c> value at the end of the file. You can
331can find examples for configurations with two or more soundcards in <uri 349find examples for configurations with two or more soundcards in <uri
332link="http://www.alsa-project.org/alsa-doc/alsa-howto/c1660.htm">Chapter 6</uri> 350link="http://www.alsa-project.org/alsa-doc/alsa-howto/c1660.htm">Chapter 6</uri>
333of the <uri 351of the <uri
334link="http://www.alsa-project.org/alsa-doc/alsa-howto/alsa-howto.html">ALSA 352link="http://www.alsa-project.org/alsa-doc/alsa-howto/alsa-howto.html">ALSA
335Howto</uri>. 353Howto</uri>.
336</note> 354</note>
345alias /dev/dsp snd-pcm-oss 363alias /dev/dsp snd-pcm-oss
346alias /dev/midi snd-seq-oss 364alias /dev/midi snd-seq-oss
347</pre> 365</pre>
348 366
349<p> 367<p>
350Now double-check the file <path>/etc/modules.d/alsa</path> and when you're sure 368After double-checking the file <path>/etc/modules.d/alsa</path> to make sure
351everyting is ok, run <c>modules-update</c>. 369everyting is ok, run <c>modules-update</c>.
352</p> 370</p>
353 371
354<pre caption="Running modules-update"> 372<pre caption="Running modules-update">
355# <i>modules-update</i> 373# <i>modules-update</i>
392<section> 410<section>
393<title>Adding alsasound to a runlevel</title> 411<title>Adding alsasound to a runlevel</title>
394<body> 412<body>
395 413
396<p> 414<p>
415An init script is provided for you which will install all necessary sound
416drivers for your card (including the OSS support drivers if you set USE=oss).
397First thing to do now, is to make ALSA startup at boottime. Like this: 417The first thing to do now is to make ALSA startup at boot time:
398</p> 418</p>
399 419
400<pre caption="Add ALSA to the default runlevel"> 420<pre caption="Add ALSA to the boot runlevel">
401# <i>rc-update add alsasound boot</i> 421# <i>rc-update add alsasound boot</i>
402</pre> 422</pre>
403 423
404<warn> 424<warn>
405Note that the alsasound script should be added to the "boot" runlevel, not the 425Note that the alsasound script should be added to the "boot" runlevel, not the
422</pre> 442</pre>
423 443
424<p> 444<p>
425ALSA is running now. If everything is ok, you should be able to see the ALSA 445ALSA is running now. If everything is ok, you should be able to see the ALSA
426modules loaded when running <c>lsmod</c>. However, sound won't work yet, 446modules loaded when running <c>lsmod</c>. However, sound won't work yet,
427because the channels are still muted. We need <c>amixer</c> for this. 447because the channels are still muted. We need <c>amixer</c> to fix this.
428</p> 448</p>
429 449
430<pre caption = "Running amixer"> 450<pre caption = "Running amixer">
431# <i>amixer</i> 451# <i>amixer</i>
432</pre> 452</pre>
433 453
454<!-- alsasound init script will do this for them now...
434<warn> 455<warn>
435You shouldn't get this, but <e>if</e> you get an error about "amixer: Mixer 456You shouldn't get this, but <e>if</e> you get an error about "amixer: Mixer
436attach default error: No such file or directory", you should manually modprobe 457attach default error: No such file or directory", you should manually modprobe
437<c>snd-mixer-oss</c> and <c>snd-pcm-oss</c> once. After that run amixer again. 458<c>snd-mixer-oss</c> and <c>snd-pcm-oss</c> once. After that run amixer again.
438</warn> 459</warn>
440<pre caption="Only if you get an error when running amixer"> 461<pre caption="Only if you get an error when running amixer">
441# <i>modprobe snd-mixer-oss</i> 462# <i>modprobe snd-mixer-oss</i>
442# <i>modprobe snd-pcm-oss</i> 463# <i>modprobe snd-pcm-oss</i>
443# <i>amixer</i> 464# <i>amixer</i>
444</pre> 465</pre>
466-->
445 467
446<p> 468<p>
447If you got this far, now unmute Master and PCM channels. Some hardware 469If you got this far, now unmute Master and PCM channels. Some hardware
448even requires you to unmute the center channel or even the surround 470even requires you to unmute the center channel or even the surround
449channel. 471channel.
465to your liking; the ncurses-based <c>alsamixer</c> is a great way to get them 487to your liking; the ncurses-based <c>alsamixer</c> is a great way to get them
466"just so". 488"just so".
467</p> 489</p>
468 490
469<p> 491<p>
470You may want to emerge <c>alsa-xmms</c> as that will provide ALSA support for 492When you reboot your system, the <c>alsasound</c> init script will
471XMMS. 493properly save and restore your volume settings.
472</p>
473
474<p> 494</p>
475When you reboot your system, the <c>alsasound</c> init script will properly saveand restore your volume settings. 495
496</body>
497</section>
498</chapter>
499
500<chapter>
501<title>MIDI Support</title>
502<section>
503<title>Hardware Synthesizer</title>
504<body>
505
476</p> 506<p>
507Some sound cards (SBLive, Audigy, and others) come with onboard MIDI synthesizers.
508To use them, you must first install the <c>awesfx</c> package.
509</p>
510
511<pre caption="Install awesfx">
512# <i>emerge awesfx</i>
513</pre>
514
515<p>
516Now, you should place your sound fonts in <path>/usr/share/sfbank/</path>. You
517can probably get the sound fonts off of the windows driver CD for your sound card.
518With the SBLive, one of the included sound font files is called 8MBGMSFX.SF2.
519</p>
520
521<note>
522On some recents CD supplied with a SBLive, the font file is called CT4GMSFX.SF2.
523If it is your case, please replace all occurrences of 8MBGMSFX.SF2 with
524CT4GMSFX.SF2 in the examples.
525</note>
526
527<p>
528After copying over the sound font you want to use, you need to select it for use
529with <c>/usr/bin/sfxload</c>.
530</p>
531
532<pre caption="Selecting the sound font">
533# <i>/usr/bin/sfxload /usr/share/sfbank/8MBGMSFX.SF2</i>
534</pre>
535
536<note>
537You may wish to place this command in /etc/conf.d/local.start or in the startup
538script for your sound card (/etc/alsa.d/emu10k1) to make sure it gets loaded
539at startup.
540</note>
541
542<p>
543If you can't find soundfonts on your driver CD you can download some online from
544<uri>http://www.parabola.demon.co.uk/alsa/awe64.html</uri>.
545</p>
546
547</body>
548</section>
549<section>
550<title>Timidity++ Virtual Synthesizer</title>
551<body>
552
553<p>
554If your sound card does not come with a hardware synthesizer (or you don't
555want to use it), you can use <c>timidity++</c> to provide you with a virtual
556synthesizer. Start by emerging this package:
557</p>
558
559<pre caption="Installing Timidity++">
560# <i>emerge timidity++</i>
561</pre>
562
563<p>
564A sample configuration file will be installed for you in
565<path>/usr/share/timitidy/config/timidity.cfg</path>. If you don't have a
566timidity++ configuration setup yet, you can just use this one.
567</p>
568
569<pre caption="Use the default Timidity++ configuration file">
570# <i>cp /usr/share/timidity/config/timidity.cfg /usr/share/timidity</i>
571</pre>
572
573<p>
574For timidity to play sounds, it needs a soundfont. If you don't have
575any, installing the following package will give you some soundfonts.
576</p>
577
578<pre caption="Installing soundfonts">
579# <i>emerge timidity-eawpatches</i>
580</pre>
581
582<p>
583Now, you need to enable the init script to run when your system boots
584and enable it now.
585</p>
586
587<pre caption="Add timidity to default runlevel and start it now">
588# <i>rc-update add timidity default</i>
589# <i>/etc/init.d/timidity start</i>
590</pre>
591
592<p>
593Note that there is a configuration file for the init script that you can
594modify in <path>/etc/conf.d/timidity</path>, and sane defaults have been
595chosen for you.
596</p>
597
598</body>
599</section>
600<section>
601<title>Testing MIDI Support</title>
602<body>
603
604<p>
605You can use <c>pmidi</c> to test out your MIDI configuration. To do so,
606you need to first emerge its package.
607</p>
608
609<pre caption="Installing pmidi">
610# <i>emerge pmidi</i>
611</pre>
612
613<p>
614The '-l' command line option to pmidi will list all detected MIDI output ports,
615and '-p' can be used to select the one for playback. Check to see what
616MIDI output ports are available on your system:
617</p>
618
619<pre caption="Listed ports when using hardware synthesizer">
620# <i>pmidi -l</i>
621 Port Client name Port name
622 64:0 Rawmidi 0 - EMU10K1 MPU-401 (U EMU10K1 MPU-401 (UART)
623 65:0 Emu10k1 WaveTable Emu10k1 Port 0
624 65:1 Emu10k1 WaveTable Emu10k1 Port 1
625 65:2 Emu10k1 WaveTable Emu10k1 Port 2
626 65:3 Emu10k1 WaveTable Emu10k1 Port 3
627</pre>
628
629<pre caption="Listed ports when using Timidity++">
630# <i>pmidi -l</i>
631 Port Client name Port name
632 64:0 Rawmidi 0 - ES1371 ES1371
633128:0 TiMidity TiMidity port 0
634128:1 TiMidity TiMidity port 1
635128:2 TiMidity TiMidity port 2
636128:3 TiMidity TiMidity port 3
637</pre>
638
639<p>
640Now, try playing a MIDI file to make sure everything works:
641</p>
642
643<pre caption="Play a song">
644# <i>pmidi -p 65:0 Final\ Fantasy\ 7\ -\ Aerith\'s\ Theme.mid</i>
645or
646# <i>pmidi -p 128:0 Final\ Fantasy\ 7\ -\ Aerith\'s\ Theme.mid</i>
647</pre>
477 648
478</body> 649</body>
479</section> 650</section>
480</chapter> 651</chapter>
481 652
482<chapter> 653<chapter>
483<title>Final Notes</title> 654<title>Final Notes</title>
484<section> 655<section>
485<title>After kernel-upgrades..</title> 656<title>After kernel-upgrades...</title>
486<body> 657<body>
487 658
488<p> 659<p>
489When you ever rebuild your kernel, or upgrade to another kernel, you'll have to 660When you ever rebuild your kernel, or upgrade to another kernel, you'll have to
490rebuild the ALSA modules. 661rebuild the ALSA modules.
491</p> 662</p>
492 663
493<p> 664<p>
494Although you might have installed <c>alsa-driver</c>, <c>alsa-libs</c> and 665Although you might have installed <c>alsa-driver</c>, <c>alsa-lib</c> and
495<c>alsa-utils</c>, only the first will have to be installed again, since it will 666<c>alsa-utils</c>, only the first will have to be installed again, since it will
496put the alsa modules in <path>/lib/modules/*/kernel/sound/pci/</path>. 667put the alsa modules in <path>/lib/modules/*/kernel/sound/pci/</path>.
497</p> 668</p>
498 669
499<pre caption="needed after each kernel compile"> 670<pre caption="Needed after each kernel compile">
500# <i>emerge alsa-driver</i> 671# <i>emerge alsa-driver</i>
501</pre> 672</pre>
502 673
503</body> 674</body>
504</section> 675</section>
505<section> 676<section>
677<title>alsa-tools and alsa-firmware</title>
678<body>
679
680<p>
681The alsa-tools and alsa-firmware packages contain tools useful to only users of
682specific sound cards. Most users will not need these. If you do need alsa-tools,
683you can set the environment variable 'ALSA_TOOLS' to install just the needed tools
684for your card:
685</p>
686
687<pre caption="Installing alsa-tools">
688# <i>env ALSA_TOOLS='as10k1 ac3dec' emerge alsa-tools</i>
689</pre>
690
691</body>
692</section>
693<section>
694<title>Mixing versions</title>
695<body>
696
697<p>
698Often times, different versions of <c>alsa-driver</c>, <c>alsa-lib</c>,
699<c>alsa-utils</c>, <c>alsa-tools</c>, and <c>alsa-oss</c> will work with each
700other, but it is recommended that you try to keep the versions in sync.
701</p>
702
703</body>
704</section>
705<section>
506<title>/etc/modules.autoload</title> 706<title>/etc/modules.autoload</title>
507<body> 707<body>
508 708
509<p> 709<p>
510You won't have to edit this file for use with ALSA. After our <c>rc-update add 710You won't have to edit this file for use with ALSA. After doing <c>rc-update add
511alsasound boot</c>, our system will load the correct modules at startup. 711alsasound boot</c>, the correct modules will be loaded at startup.
512</p> 712</p>
513 713
714<!--
514<p> 715<p>
515It's not necessary to add <c>snd-pcm-oss</c> or <c>snd-mixer-oss</c> in this 716It's not necessary to add <c>snd-pcm-oss</c> or <c>snd-mixer-oss</c> in this
516file. Check the <uri link="http://www.djcj.org/LAU/guide/alsbook/faq1.html">this 717file. Check the <uri link="http://www.djcj.org/LAU/guide/alsbook/faq1.html">this
517FAQ</uri> for more info. 718FAQ</uri> for more info.
518</p> 719</p>
720-->
519 721
520</body> 722</body>
521</section> 723</section>
522<section> 724<section>
523<title>Known bugs</title> 725<title>Known bugs</title>
577</pre> 779</pre>
578 780
579</body> 781</body>
580</section> 782</section>
581<section> 783<section>
582<title>More links..</title> 784<title>More links...</title>
583<body> 785<body>
584 786
585<p> 787<p>
586You could check these for additional info: 788You could check these for additional info:
587</p> 789</p>

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