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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?> 1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/alsa-guide.xml,v 1.21 2003/11/23 16:30:50 swift Exp $ --> 2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/alsa-guide.xml,v 1.46 2004/12/08 11:12:50 neysx Exp $ -->
3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4 4
5<guide link = "/doc/en/alsa-guide.xml"> 5<guide link="/doc/en/alsa-guide.xml">
6<title>Gentoo Linux ALSA Guide</title> 6<title>Gentoo Linux ALSA Guide</title>
7<author title="Author"> 7<author title="Author">
8 <mail link="zu@pandora.be">Vincent Verleye</mail> 8 <mail link="zu@pandora.be">Vincent Verleye</mail>
9</author> 9</author>
10<author title="Author"> 10<author title="Author">
11 <mail link="g2boojum@gentoo.org">Grant Goodyear</mail> 11 <mail link="g2boojum@gentoo.org">Grant Goodyear</mail>
12</author> 12</author>
13<author title="Author"> 13<author title="Author">
14 <mail link="agenkin@gentoo.org">Arcady Genkin</mail> 14 <mail link="agenkin@gentoo.org">Arcady Genkin</mail>
15</author> 15</author>
16<author title="Author">
17 <mail link="eradicator@gentoo.org">Jeremy Huddleston</mail>
18</author>
16<author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org --> 19<author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
17 John P. Davis 20 John P. Davis
18</author> 21</author>
19<author title="Editor"> 22<author title="Editor">
20 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail> 23 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
21</author> 24</author>
22<author title="Editor"> 25<author title="Editor">
23 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail> 26 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
24</author> 27</author>
25<author title="Editor"> 28<author title="Editor">
26 <mail link="blubber@gentoo.org">Tiemo Kieft</mail> 29 <mail link="blubber@gentoo.org">Tiemo Kieft</mail>
27</author> 30</author>
28 31<author title="Editor">
29<license/> 32 <mail link="erwin@gentoo.org">Erwin</mail>
33</author>
30 34
31<abstract> 35<abstract>
32This guide will show you how to set up the Advanced Linux Sound Architecture 36This guide will show you how to set up the Advanced Linux Sound Architecture
33(ALSA) on Gentoo Linux. In addition to the Gentoo Linux Desktop Configuration 37(ALSA) on Gentoo Linux. In addition to the Gentoo Linux Desktop Configuration
34Guide, this guide is supposed to give you more information on this subject. 38Guide, this guide is supposed to give you more information on this subject.
35</abstract> 39</abstract>
36 40
41<license/>
42
37<version>1.3.4</version> 43<version>1.5.8</version>
38<date>November 23, 2003</date> 44<date>2004-12-08</date>
39 45
40<chapter> 46<chapter>
41<title>Introduction</title> 47<title>The Advanced Linux Sound Architecture</title>
42<section> 48<section>
43<title>What is ALSA?</title> 49<title>What is ALSA?</title>
44<body> 50<body>
45 51
46<p> 52<p>
47The Advanced Linux Sound Architecture (ALSA) is a project to improve the Linux 53ALSA is the <e>Advanced Linux Sound Architecture</e>, a project dedicated to the
48sound subsystem by rewriting large chunks of it. It is anticipated that ALSA 54development of a high-quality Linux sound subsystem. It has replaced OSS
49will make it into Linux kernel 2.6.x (or 3.x.x -- whichever comes first) as it 55(<e>Open Sound System</e>) as default sound subsystem in the 2.6 kernel series.
50becomes ready.
51</p>
52
53<p>
54ALSA provides audio and MIDI functionality for Linux.
55</p>
56
57<p>
58Quoted from <uri>http://www.alsa-project.org</uri>, ALSA has the following
59features:
60</p>
61
62<ul>
63 <li>
64 Efficient support for all types of audio interfaces, from consumer
65 soundcards to professional multichannel audio interfaces
66 </li>
67 <li>Fully modularized sound drivers</li>
68 <li>SMP and thread-safe design</li>
69 <li>
70 User space library (alsa-lib) to simplify application programming and
71 provide higher level functionality
72 </li>
73 <li>
74 Support for the older OSS API, providing binary compatibility for most OSS
75 programs
76 </li>
77</ul>
78
79<p>
80There's lots more to ALSA however, like support for Full Duplex playback and
81recording, multiple soundcard support, hardware mixing of streams, extensive
82mixer capabilities (to support advanced features of new soundcards), ...
83</p>
84
85</body>
86</section>
87<section>
88<title>Why use ALSA?</title>
89<body>
90
91<p>
92If your soundcard is supported by the Linux kernel sound system or the
93commercial OSS/4Front sound driver system, which can be found in all 2.4.x
94Linux kernels, you could just aswell build <e>those modules</e> for use with
95your soundcard. If you want this, just read through the <uri
96link="http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/Sound-HOWTO/index.html">Linux Sound HOWTO</uri>.
97</p> 56</p>
98 57
99<p>
100However, those OSS/4Front drivers have some limitations -- being commercial is
101one. ALSA is an attempt to go beyond these limitations and to do so in an open
102source fashion. ALSA is a fully GPL and LGPL'ed sound driver system, that
103provides a professional quality system for recording, playback, and MIDI
104sequencing.
105</p>
106
107</body>
108</section>
109<section>
110<title>What cards does ALSA support?</title>
111<body>
112
113<p>
114ALSA tries to support as many (new) cards as possible by providing open-source
115drivers. However, some vendors may provide binary-only packages.
116</p> 58<p>
117 59ALSA provides efficient support for all types of audio interfaces, is fully
118<p> 60modularized, is SMP and thread-safe and provides a high-quality user space
119To know if your card is supported, you can find a Soundcard Matrix of supported 61library called <e>alsa-lib</e> to simplify application programming. It also
120and not-supported cards here: <uri>http://www.alsa-project.org/alsa-doc/</uri>. 62provides a backwards compatibility layer with OSS.
121</p> 63</p>
122 64
123</body> 65</body>
124</section> 66</section>
125</chapter> 67</chapter>
126
127<chapter> 68<chapter>
128<title>Installation</title> 69<title>Installing ALSA</title>
129<section>
130<title>Gentoo USE flags</title>
131<body>
132
133<p>
134To compile programs with ALSA-support, be sure to add <e>alsa</e> to
135your USE-variable. However, several tools don't support alsa yet, and
136require OSS. ALSA provides OSS-emulation if you define <e>oss</e> in your
137USE-variable before you start.
138</p>
139
140</body>
141</section> 70<section>
71<title>USE Flags</title>
72<body>
73
74<p>
75Gentoo provides an <c>alsa</c> USE flag which you should set in
76<path>/etc/make.conf</path> to allow our available packages to compile with
77ALSA support. If you have <c>oss</c> in your USE variable as well, ALSA will
78compile with OSS backward compatibility.
79</p>
80
81</body>
142<section> 82</section>
83<section>
143<title>Kernel modules</title> 84<title>Kernel Modules</title>
144<body> 85<body>
145 86
146<p>
147Since we're still using 2.4.x kernel sources, we'll have to compile kernel
148modules and ALSA modules separately. People who are using a 2.5.x kernel can
149do this from within their kernel configuration, since the ALSA modules are
150included in the kernel sources and should be built there.
151</p> 87<p>
152 88First of all, before continuing, make sure your kernel has <e>Sound Card
89Support</e> enabled. If you used <c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, then
90this is automatically true. Otherwise reconfigure your kernel. Additionally,
91make sure you disable <e>Open Sound System</e> in your kernel configuration.
92If you don't, your system may try to use these drivers rather than the alsa
93ones. If you see a message about 'sound card not detected' and you are sure
94you have the correct driver, this is probably the reason.
153<p> 95</p>
154First we'll make sure that our kernel configuration is ready for use with ALSA. 96
155All you need in your kernel configuration is having Sound Card Support set to 97<warn>
156be built as a module (M). This will build <path>soundcore.o</path>. 98If you use a 2.6 kernel, you may use the drivers provided in the kernel, but
99we still recommend that you use media-sound/alsa-driver as they are more up
100to date than what is provided in the kernel tree. If you still wish to use
101the drivers provided with your kernel, you can skip the rest of this section
102and continue with <uri link="#alsa-utils">Installing the ALSA Utils</uri>.
103</warn>
104
157</p> 105<p>
158 106The first step in installing your sound drivers is figuring out what sound
159<note> 107card you have. If you don't already know, an easy trick is to search
160Possibly, this will also work when you built Sound Card Support in the kernel 108for "audio" in the output of the <c>lspci</c> command. You can install
161(Y) instead of building it as a module (M). However, the official ALSA 109this tool with <c>emerge pciutils</c>.
162documentation suggests building it as a module, since ALSA will try loading it.
163</note>
164
165<p> 110</p>
166If you already have a working kernel configuration, make sure you remove all 111
167sound drivers (except for Sound Card Support). If you wish to do this without 112<pre caption="Finding out the soundcard type">
168having to reboot, you could do like this: 113# <i>lspci | grep -i audio</i>
114Multimedia audio controller: VIA Technologies, Inc. VT82C686 AC97 Audio Controller (rev 64).
115</pre>
116
169</p> 117<p>
170 118Now go to the <uri link="http://www.alsa-project.org/alsa-doc">ALSA Soundcard
171<pre caption="Kernel configuration"> 119Matrix</uri> and search for your soundcard. In the above example you should go
172# <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i> 120to the "VIA" manufacturer. You will receive a table with the known chipsets of
173# <i>cp .config ~/</i> 121that vendor. The chipset in the above example is "via82c686"; the "Details" link
174# <i>make mrproper</i> 122then informs me that the driver is called <path>via82xx</path>. This is all the
175# <i>cp ~/.config .</i> 123information you need, so you can safely discard the rest of that document.
176# <i>make menuconfig</i>
177</pre>
178
179<p> 124</p>
180Now select <e>Sound Card Support</e> as Module (M) and deselect all other sound 125
181drivers. Exit and say Y to save your kernel configuration. After that, build
182the modules:
183</p> 126<p>
184 127Based on this information we can now install the <c>alsa-driver</c> for our
185<pre caption="Kernel compilation"> 128soundcard. First edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> and <e>add</e> a new option
186# <i>make dep clean</i> 129called ALSA_CARDS to it. Inside this variable you declare the soundcard driver
187# <i>make modules modules_install</i> 130you want to use:
188</pre>
189
190<p> 131</p>
191Before installing your new modules, this last line will delete all your previous 132
192modules, even the ones from a previous ALSA installation. 133<pre caption="Editing /etc/make.conf for ALSA_CARDS">
134ALSA_CARDS="via82xx"
135</pre>
136
137<warn>
138If you have multiple sound cards in your system, separate them with a comma
139in the ALSA_CARDS variable. Ex: ALSA_CARDS="via82xx,emu10k1"
140</warn>
141
193</p> 142<p>
143If you want OSS compatibility (highly recommended), you should add 'oss' to
144your USE flags in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. After that, you are ready to
145install <c>alsa-driver</c>:
146</p>
147
148<pre caption="Installing ALSA Drivers">
149# <i>emerge alsa-driver</i>
150</pre>
194 151
195<impo> 152<impo>
196This means, whenever you recompile your kernel later on, you MUST recompile 153Whenever you (re)compile your kernel sources, chances are that the ALSA drivers
197<c>alsa-driver</c>. 154will be deleted. It is therefore adviseable to rerun <c>emerge alsa-driver</c>
155every time you (re)compile your kernel. Note that this will compile the
156drivers for the kernel in /usr/src/linux, NOT the running kernel.
198</impo> 157</impo>
199 158
200</body> 159</body>
201</section> 160</section>
202<section> 161<section id="alsa-utils">
203<title>ALSA modules</title> 162<title>Installing the ALSA Utils</title>
204<body>
205
206<p>
207Now it's time to install the ALSA drivers for your soundcard(s). If your
208soundcard is PCI, you can find out the name and type of your soundcard by
209looking at the output of <path>/proc/pci</path>.
210</p>
211
212<pre caption="Search for soundcard information">
213# <i>grep audio /proc/pci</i>
214</pre>
215
216<warn>
217If you had a previous sound setup and there are still non-ALSA sound modules
218loaded, unload them <e>now</e>. Check with <c>lsmod</c> and use <c>rmmod</c>
219to unload all sound-related modules on your system.
220</warn>
221
222<p>
223We could simply do an <c>emerge alsa-driver</c> now, this would compile and
224install <e>all</e> ALSA sound drivers.
225</p>
226
227<p>
228However, to save some time, lookup the <e>Module Name</e> of your soundcard(s)
229on the <uri link="http://www.alsa-project.org/alsa-doc">ALSA Soundcard
230Matrix</uri> by following the <e>Details</e> link in the <e>Driver and Docs</e>
231column in the row of the chipset of your soundcard. Mine is <c>snd-emu10k1</c>,
232since I have an SBlive! soundcard, with the <e>EMU10K1</e> chipset. We'll set
233ALSA_CARDS environment to the value of the module name before emerging (but
234without the snd prefix), so emerge will only compile the drivers we need.
235</p>
236
237<pre caption="Compile correct modules">
238# <i>env ALSA_CARDS='emu10k1' emerge alsa-driver</i>
239</pre>
240
241<note>
242You can also add this value in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, so when you have
243to emerge the alsa-driver later on you can just run <c>emerge alsa-driver</c>.
244For example, like this: <c>echo 'ALSA_CARDS="emu10k1"' >> /etc/make.conf</c>
245</note>
246
247<note>
248When you want to install ALSA drivers for more than one soundcard, you could
249set ALSA_CARDS to a space-separated list of drivers; like this: <c>env
250ALSA_CARDS='emu10k1 intel8x0 ens1370' emerge alsa-driver</c>
251</note>
252
253<note>
254If you want to have OSS compatibility, make sure to emerge <i>alsa-oss</i>, it
255is the ALSA/OSS compatibility wrapper.
256</note>
257
258<note>
259If you plan on recompiling your kernels numerous times, it might
260be adviseable to emerge <c>alsa-driver</c> with <c>--buildpkg</c>. This
261will create a binary package for it. Later, after recompiling your kernel,
262you can just do <c>emerge --usepkg alsa-driver</c> which will install the
263binary package instead of recompiling it completely.
264</note>
265
266<p>
267After this, the ALSA modules should be installed on your system.
268</p>
269
270</body> 163<body>
271</section>
272<section>
273<title>Configuration of ALSA</title>
274<body>
275 164
276<p>
277Let's start configuring now to get ALSA working properly. We'll need to edit
278some files, to let our system know about the freshly installed ALSA modules.
279</p> 165<p>
280 166If the in-kernel OSS compatibility is not sufficient for your needs, you will
167want to install <c>alsa-oss</c>. This will provide you with the 'aoss'
168executable which can be used as demonstrated:
281<p> 169</p>
282First, install <c>alsa-utils</c> on your system: 170
171<pre caption="More OSS compatibility layer">
172# <i>emerge alsa-oss</i>
173# <i>aoss mpg123 music.mp3</i>
174</pre>
175
283</p> 176<p>
177Now install the ALSA Utils on your system (this is mandatory):
178</p>
284 179
285<pre caption = "Emerging alsa-utils"> 180<pre caption="Installing ALSA Utils">
286# <i>emerge alsa-utils</i> 181# <i>emerge alsa-utils</i>
287</pre> 182</pre>
288 183
289<p> 184<p>
290Hereafter, we need to edit <path>/etc/modules.d/alsa</path>. 185Now that the utils are installed, it is time to configure ALSA...
291</p>
292
293<warn>
294There is no need to edit <path>/etc/modules.conf</path>. Instead, always edit
295files in <path>/etc/modules.d</path>.
296</warn>
297
298<p> 186</p>
299Check the ALSA portion <e>at the bottom of the file</e>. By tweaking this line 187
300you can specify the max number of soundcards you have (generally, just one). 188</body>
189</section>
190</chapter>
191<chapter>
192<title>Configuring ALSA</title>
193<section>
194<title>Automatically Loading the Kernel Modules</title>
195<body>
196
301</p> 197<p>
302 198If you use a modular kernel (such as when using <c>genkernel</c>) you have to
303<pre caption="At the bottom of /etc/modules.d/alsa"> 199edit <path>/etc/modules.d/alsa</path> so that it activates the necessary
304<comment>Set this to the correct number of cards.</comment> 200modules at boot time. For the soundcard in our example:
305options snd cards_limit=1
306</pre>
307
308<p> 201</p>
309Now we'll specify the sounddriver(s) ALSA should use. In the same file, edit
310like this:
311</p>
312 202
313<pre caption="In /etc/modules.d/alsa"> 203<pre caption="/etc/modules.d/alsa">
314## and then run `modules-update' command.
315## Read alsa-driver's INSTALL file in /usr/share/doc for more info.
316##
317## ALSA portion
318alias snd-card-0 snd-emu10k1
319<comment>## If you have more than one, add:</comment>
320## alias snd-card-1 snd-intel8x0 204alias snd-card-0 snd-via82xx
321## alias snd-card-2 snd-ens1370 205<comment># The following is only needed when you want OSS compatibility</comment>
322## OSS/Free portion
323## alias sound-slot-0 snd-card-0 206alias sound-slot-0 snd-card-0
324## alias sound-slot-1 snd-card-1
325##
326</pre>
327
328<note>
329If you have more than one soundcard, adjust the <c>cards_limit</c> value and add
330more snd-card aliases to the file. I don't have experience with this, but you
331can find examples for configurations with two or more soundcards in <uri
332link="http://www.alsa-project.org/alsa-doc/alsa-howto/c1660.htm">Chapter 6</uri>
333of the <uri
334link="http://www.alsa-project.org/alsa-doc/alsa-howto/alsa-howto.html">ALSA
335Howto</uri>.
336</note>
337
338<p>
339Last thing to do in this file, almost at the end, check if these lines are there
340and uncommented:
341</p>
342
343<pre caption="Near the end of /etc/modules.d/alsa">
344alias /dev/mixer snd-mixer-oss 207alias /dev/mixer snd-mixer-oss
345alias /dev/dsp snd-pcm-oss 208alias /dev/dsp snd-pcm-oss
346alias /dev/midi snd-seq-oss 209alias /dev/midi snd-seq-oss
347</pre> 210</pre>
348 211
349<p> 212<p>
350Now double-check the file <path>/etc/modules.d/alsa</path> and when you're sure 213Now run <c>modules-update</c> to save the changes you made to the
351everyting is ok, run <c>modules-update</c>. 214<path>alsa</path> file into <path>/etc/modules.conf</path>:
352</p> 215</p>
353 216
354<pre caption="Running modules-update"> 217<pre caption="Running modules-update">
355# <i>modules-update</i> 218# <i>modules-update</i>
356</pre> 219</pre>
357 220
358<note> 221</body>
359Running <c>modules-update</c> here will insert the data from 222</section>
360<path>/etc/modules.d/alsa</path> into <path>/etc/modules.conf</path> 223<section>
361</note> 224<title>Verifying the Device Files</title>
225<body>
362 226
363<p> 227<p>
364You should also verify that <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path> has the alsa devices 228This should be done automatically for you on recent installs, but if you run
365and permissions correctly registered. 229into problems, check that your ALSA devices and permissions are set correctly
230by your /dev manager. If you use DevFS, check <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path>
366</p> 231</p>
367 232
368<pre caption="/etc/devfsd.conf"> 233<pre caption="/etc/devfsd.conf">
369# ALSA/OSS stuff 234# ALSA/OSS stuff
370# Comment/change these if you want to change the permissions on 235# Comment/change these if you want to change the permissions on
375LOOKUP midi MODLOAD 240LOOKUP midi MODLOAD
376REGISTER sound/.* PERMISSIONS root.audio 660 241REGISTER sound/.* PERMISSIONS root.audio 660
377REGISTER snd/.* PERMISSIONS root.audio 660 242REGISTER snd/.* PERMISSIONS root.audio 660
378</pre> 243</pre>
379 244
380<note>
381Notice that devfsd.conf sets <path>/dev/sound</path> permissions to be
382root.audio. Thus, for non-root users to use audio they will have to be part of
383the audio group.
384</note>
385
386</body> 245</body>
387</section>
388</chapter>
389
390<chapter>
391<title>Starting ALSA</title>
392<section> 246</section>
393<title>Adding alsasound to a runlevel</title> 247<section>
248<title>Having ALSA Activated at Boot</title>
394<body> 249<body>
395 250
396<p>
397First thing to do now, is to make ALSA startup at boottime. Like this:
398</p> 251<p>
252To activate ALSA support at boot, add the <c>alsasound</c> init script to the
253boot runlevel:
254</p>
399 255
400<pre caption="Add ALSA to the default runlevel"> 256<pre caption="Adding alsasound to the boot runlevel">
401# <i>rc-update add alsasound boot</i> 257# <i>rc-update add alsasound boot</i>
402</pre>
403
404<warn>
405Note that the alsasound script should be added to the "boot" runlevel, not the
406"default" runlevel.
407</warn>
408
409</body>
410</section>
411<section>
412<title>Running and unmuting</title>
413<body>
414
415<p>
416Since we're Linux users, we don't want to reboot. So we'll start the alsasound
417script manually.
418</p>
419
420<pre caption="Starting ALSA">
421# <i>/etc/init.d/alsasound start</i> 258# <i>/etc/init.d/alsasound start</i>
422</pre> 259</pre>
423 260
424<p> 261</body>
425ALSA is running now. If everything is ok, you should be able to see the ALSA 262</section>
426modules loaded when running <c>lsmod</c>. However, sound won't work yet, 263<section>
427because the channels are still muted. We need <c>amixer</c> for this. 264<title>Unmute the Channels</title>
265<body>
266
428</p> 267<p>
268By default, all sound channels are muted. To fix this, run <c>amixer</c>:
269</p>
429 270
430<pre caption = "Running amixer"> 271<pre caption="Running amixer">
431# <i>amixer</i> 272# <i>amixer</i>
432</pre> 273</pre>
433 274
434<warn> 275<p>
435You shouldn't get this, but <e>if</e> you get an error about "amixer: Mixer 276If <c>amixer</c> produces lots of output then you're ready to unmute the
436attach default error: No such file or directory", you should manually modprobe 277channels. If you receive an error, doublecheck that your soundcard module is
437<c>snd-mixer-oss</c> and <c>snd-pcm-oss</c> once. After that run amixer again. 278started.
438</warn> 279</p>
439 280
440<pre caption="Only if you get an error when running amixer"> 281<p>
441# <i>modprobe snd-mixer-oss</i> 282Now unmute the <e>Master</e> and <e>PCM</e> channels. If this isn't sufficient,
442# <i>modprobe snd-pcm-oss</i> 283also unmute the <e>Center</e> and <e>Surround</e> channels.
284</p>
285
286<pre caption="Unmuting the sound channels">
287<comment>If you prefer an ncurses method:</comment>
443# <i>amixer</i> 288# <i>alsamixer</i>
444</pre>
445 289
446<p> 290or
447If you got this far, now unmute Master and PCM channels. Some hardware
448even requires you to unmute the center channel or even the surround
449channel.
450</p>
451 291
452<pre caption = "Unmuting channels">
453# <i>amixer set Master 100 unmute</i> 292# <i>amixer set Master 100 unmute</i>
454# <i>amixer set PCM 100 unmute</i> 293# <i>amixer set PCM 100 unmute</i>
455<comment>Only if the above doesn't succeed on its own:</comment> 294<comment>(Only if the above isn't sufficient:)</comment>
456# <i>amixer set Center 100 unmute</i> 295# <i>amixer set Center 100 unmute</i>
457# <i>amixer set Surround 100 unmute</i> 296# <i>amixer set Surround 100 unmute</i>
458<comment>Test the sound:</comment> 297# <i>amixer set Headphone 100 unmute</i>
459# <i>aplay $KDEDIR/share/sounds/pop.wav</i> <codenote>(pop.wav is part of KDE)</codenote>
460</pre> 298</pre>
461 299
462<p> 300
463We check to see if sound is working by using the aplay (alsa play) command. If
464you hear a pop, then sound is indeed working. Then, adjust the volume settings
465to your liking; the ncurses-based <c>alsamixer</c> is a great way to get them
466"just so".
467</p> 301<p>
468 302To check if your sound works, play a wave file (using <c>aplay</c>), mp3 (using
469<p> 303<c>mpg123</c> or even <c>mplayer</c>) or any other sound file for that matter.
470You may want to emerge <c>alsa-xmms</c> as that will provide ALSA support for
471XMMS.
472</p>
473
474<p>
475When you reboot your system, the <c>alsasound</c> init script will properly saveand restore your volume settings.
476</p> 304</p>
477 305
478</body> 306</body>
479</section> 307</section>
480</chapter> 308</chapter>
481
482<chapter> 309<chapter>
483<title>Final Notes</title> 310<title>Activating MIDI Support</title>
484<section>
485<title>After kernel-upgrades..</title>
486<body>
487
488<p>
489When you ever rebuild your kernel, or upgrade to another kernel, you'll have to
490rebuild the ALSA modules.
491</p>
492
493<p>
494Although you might have installed <c>alsa-driver</c>, <c>alsa-libs</c> and
495<c>alsa-utils</c>, only the first will have to be installed again, since it will
496put the alsa modules in <path>/lib/modules/*/kernel/sound/pci/</path>.
497</p>
498
499<pre caption="needed after each kernel compile">
500# <i>emerge alsa-driver</i>
501</pre>
502
503</body>
504</section> 311<section>
312<title>Installing the Necessary Packages</title>
313<body>
314
315<p>
316Some soundcards come with onboard MIDI synthesizers. To use them, you must first
317install the <c>awesfx</c> package:
318</p>
319
320<pre caption="Installing the awesfx package">
321# <i>emerge awesfx</i>
322</pre>
323
324<p>
325If you have a collection of sound fonts somewhere, place them in
326<path>/usr/share/sfbank</path>. For instance, the SBLive has a sound font file
327called <path>8MBGMSFX.SF2</path> or <path>CT4GMSFX.SF2</path>.
328</p>
329
330<p>
331After copying over the sound font, select them using <c>asfxload</c>:
332</p>
333
334<pre caption="Loading the sound font">
335# <i>asfxload /usr/share/sfbank/8MBGMSFX.SF2</i>
336</pre>
337
338<p>
339You must have this command run every time you boot, so it is adviseable to add
340it to <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path> as well.
341</p>
342
343<p>
344If you can't find soundfonts on your driver CD you can download some online from
345<uri>http://www.parabola.demon.co.uk/alsa/awe64.html</uri>.
346</p>
347
348</body>
505<section> 349</section>
506<title>/etc/modules.autoload</title>
507<body>
508
509<p>
510You won't have to edit this file for use with ALSA. After our <c>rc-update add
511alsasound boot</c>, our system will load the correct modules at startup.
512</p>
513
514<p>
515It's not necessary to add <c>snd-pcm-oss</c> or <c>snd-mixer-oss</c> in this
516file. Check the <uri link="http://www.djcj.org/LAU/guide/alsbook/faq1.html">this
517FAQ</uri> for more info.
518</p>
519
520</body>
521</section> 350<section>
351<title>Timidity++ Virtual Synthesizer</title>
352<body>
353
354<p>
355If your sound card does not come with a hardware synthesizer (or you don't want
356to use it), you can use <c>timidity++</c> to provide you with a virtual
357synthesizer. Start by emerging this package:
358</p>
359
360<pre caption="Installing Timidity++">
361# <i>emerge timidity++</i>
362</pre>
363
364<p>
365For timidity to play sounds, it needs a soundfont. If you do not have any,
366install <c>timidity-eawpatches</c> or <c>timidity-shompatches</c> which will
367give you some soundfonts. You can have multiple soundfont configurations
368installed, and you can place your own in <path>/usr/share/timidity/</path>.
369To switch between different timidity configurations, you should use the
370<e>timidity-update</e> tool provided in the timidity++ package.
371</p>
372
373<pre caption="Installing soundfonts">
374# <i>emerge timidity-eawpatches</i>
375# timidity-update -g -s eawpatches
376
377<comment> or </comment>
378
379# <i>emerge timidity-shompatches</i>
380# timidity-update -g -s shompatches
381</pre>
382
383<p>
384Don't forget to add <c>timidity</c> to the default runlevel.
385</p>
386
387<pre caption="Adding timidity to the default runlevel">
388# <i>rc-update add timidity default</i>
389# <i>/etc/init.d/timidity start</i>
390</pre>
391
392</body>
522<section> 393</section>
523<title>Known bugs</title> 394<section>
395<title>Testing MIDI Support</title>
396<body>
397
398<p>
399You can use <c>aplaymidi</c> from the ALSA Utils to test your MIDI
400configuration.
401</p>
402
403<p>
404To see what MIDI output ports are available on your system, use the <c>-l</c>
405option:
406</p>
407
408<pre caption="Viewing the MIDI output ports">
409# <i>aplaymidi -l</i>
410</pre>
411
412<p>
413If all looks fine, try playing a MIDI file to make sure everything works. With
414the <c>-p</c> option you define what MIDI port you want to use.
415</p>
416
417<pre caption="Playing a MIDI file">
418# <i>aplaymidi -p 65:0 "Final Fantasy 7 - Aerith' Theme.mid"</i>
419</pre>
420
524<body> 421</body>
422</section>
423</chapter>
424<chapter>
425<title>Final Remarks</title>
426<section>
427<title>Tools and Firmware</title>
428<body>
525 429
526<note> 430<p>
527This guide lags behind on the alsa-development. Chances are these bugs 431Some specific sound cards can benefit from certain tools provided by the
528are already fixed when you read this. 432<c>alsa-tools</c> and <c>alsa-firmware</c> packages. If you need
529</note> 433<c>alsa-tools</c>, be sure to define the ALSA_TOOLS variable in
434<path>/etc/make.conf</path> with the tools you require. For instance:
435</p>
530 436
531<ul> 437<pre caption="Selecting ALSA Tools in /etc/make.conf">
532 <li> 438ALSA_TOOLS="as10k1 ac3dec"
533 If you have <b>lots of noise</b> when using <b>oss</b> emulation, add 439</pre>
534 <e>options snd-pcm-oss dsp_map=1</e> to <path>/etc/modules.d/alsa</path> 440
535 </li> 441<p>
536</ul> 442Then install the <c>alsa-tools</c> (and/or <c>alsa-firmware</c>) package(s):
443</p>
444
445<pre caption="Installing ALSA Tools">
446# <i>emerge alsa-tools</i>
447</pre>
537 448
538</body> 449</body>
539</section> 450</section>
540<section> 451<section>
541<title>Activating Joystick Support</title> 452<title>Activating Joystick Support</title>
543 454
544<p> 455<p>
545If your soundcard has a joystick plug, you might be interested in activating 456If your soundcard has a joystick plug, you might be interested in activating
546joystick support for your soundcard. If so, start by verifying if your soundcard 457joystick support for your soundcard. If so, start by verifying if your soundcard
547driver has a joystick parameter. You can verify this by running <c>modinfo</c> 458driver has a joystick parameter. You can verify this by running <c>modinfo</c>
548against your <path>snd-&lt;your chipset&gt;</path>. For instance, for the 459against your kernel module. For instance, for the <c>snd-via82xx</c>:
549<c>snd-via82xx</c>:
550</p> 460</p>
551 461
552<pre caption="Running modinfo"> 462<pre caption="Running modinfo">
553# <i>modinfo snd-via82xx</i> 463# <i>modinfo snd-via82xx</i>
554filename: /lib/modules/2.4.22-ck2/snd-via82xx.o 464filename: /lib/modules/2.4.22-ck2/snd-via82xx.o
555description: "VIA VT82xx audio" 465description: "VIA VT82xx audio"
556author: "Jaroslav Kysela &lt;perex@suse.cz&gt;" 466author: "Jaroslav Kysela &lt;perex@suse.cz&gt;"
557license: "GPL" 467license: "GPL"
558parm: index int array (min = 1, max = 8), description "Index value for VIA 82xx bridge." 468parm: index int array (min = 1, max = 8), description "Index value for
469 VIA 82xx bridge."
559parm: id string array (min = 1, max = 8), description "ID string for VIA 82xx bridge." 470parm: id string array (min = 1, max = 8), description "ID string for VIA
471 82xx bridge."
560parm: enable int array (min = 1, max = 8), description "Enable audio part of VIA 82xx bridge." 472parm: enable int array (min = 1, max = 8), description "Enable audio part
473 of VIA 82xx bridge."
561parm: mpu_port long array (min = 1, max = 8), description "MPU-401 port. (VT82C686x only)" 474parm: mpu_port long array (min = 1, max = 8), description "MPU-401 port.
475 (VT82C686x only)"
562<i>parm: joystick int array (min = 1, max = 8), description "Enable joystick. (VT82C686x only)"</i> 476<i>parm: joystick int array (min = 1, max = 8), description "Enable
477 joystick. (VT82C686x only)"</i>
563parm: ac97_clock int array (min = 1, max = 8), description "AC'97 codec clock (default 48000Hz)." 478parm: ac97_clock int array (min = 1, max = 8), description "AC'97 codec
479 clock (default 48000Hz)."
564parm: dxs_support int array (min = 1, max = 8), description "Support for DXS channels 480parm: dxs_support int array (min = 1, max = 8), description "Support for
565 (0 = auto, 1 = enable, 2 = disable, 3 = 48k only, 4 = no VRA)" 481 DXS channels (0 = auto, 1 = enable, 2 = disable, 3 = 48k only, 4 =
482 no VRA)
566</pre> 483</pre>
567 484
568<p> 485<p>
569If it has the <c>joystick</c> parameter, then append <c>joystick=1</c> to your 486If it has the <c>joystick</c> parameter, append <c>joystick=1</c> to your
570<c>options</c> line in <path>/etc/modules.d/alsa</path>. For instance, for the 487<c>options</c> line in <path>/etc/modules.d/alsa</path>. For instance:
571<c>snd-via82xx</c>:
572</p> 488</p>
573 489
574<pre caption="Adding the joystick parameter"> 490<pre caption="Adding the joystick parameter">
575alias snd-card-0 snd-via82xx 491alias snd-card-0 snd-via82xx
576options snd-via82xx joystick=1 492options snd-via82xx joystick=1
577</pre> 493</pre>
578 494
579</body> 495</body>
580</section> 496</section>
581<section> 497<section>
582<title>More links..</title> 498<title>Resources</title>
583<body> 499<body>
584
585<p>
586You could check these for additional info:
587</p>
588 500
589<ul> 501<ul>
590 <li>
591 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/desktop.xml">The Gentoo Linux
592 Desktop Configuration Guide</uri>
593 </li>
594 <li>
595 <uri link="http://www.alsa-project.org">ALSA Project Homepage</uri> 502 <li><uri link="http://www.alsa-project.org">The ALSA Project</uri></li>
596 </li>
597 <li>
598 <uri link="http://www.alsa-project.org/documentation.php3">ALSA Users
599 Documentation</uri>
600 </li>
601 <li>
602 <uri link="http://www.djcj.org">ALSA Howto's and FAQ's</uri> 503 <li><uri link="http://www.djcj.org">ALSA Howto's and FAQs</uri></li>
603 </li>
604 <li>
605 <uri link="http://tldp.org/HOWTO/Sound-HOWTO/index.html">Linux Sound
606 HOWTO</uri>
607 </li>
608 <li>
609 <uri link="http://linux-sound.org/">Sound and MIDI Software For Linux</uri> 504 <li><uri link="http://linux-sound.org">Linux Sound/MIDI Software</uri></li>
610 </li>
611</ul> 505</ul>
612 506
613</body> 507</body>
614</section> 508</section>
615</chapter> 509</chapter>

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