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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/alsa-guide.xml,v 1.38 2004/07/30 12:42:06 swift Exp $ --> 2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/alsa-guide.xml,v 1.69 2006/07/07 14:40:08 rane Exp $ -->
3
3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 4<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4 5
5<guide link = "/doc/en/alsa-guide.xml"> 6<guide link="/doc/en/alsa-guide.xml">
6<title>Gentoo Linux ALSA Guide</title> 7<title>Gentoo Linux ALSA Guide</title>
8
7<author title="Author"> 9<author title="Author">
8 <mail link="zu@pandora.be">Vincent Verleye</mail> 10 <mail link="fox2mike@gentoo.org">Shyam Mani</mail>
9</author> 11</author>
10<author title="Author">
11 <mail link="g2boojum@gentoo.org">Grant Goodyear</mail>
12</author>
13<author title="Author">
14 <mail link="agenkin@gentoo.org">Arcady Genkin</mail>
15</author>
16<author title="Author">
17 <mail link="eradicator@gentoo.org">Jeremy Huddleston</mail>
18</author>
19<author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
20 John P. Davis
21</author>
22<author title="Editor">
23 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
24</author>
25<author title="Editor">
26 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
27</author>
28<author title="Editor">
29 <mail link="blubber@gentoo.org">Tiemo Kieft</mail>
30</author>
31<author title="Editor">
32 <mail link="erwin@gentoo.org">Erwin</mail>
33</author>
34 12
35<abstract> 13<abstract>
36This guide will show you how to set up the Advanced Linux Sound Architecture 14This document helps a user setup ALSA on Gentoo Linux.
37(ALSA) on Gentoo Linux. In addition to the Gentoo Linux Desktop Configuration
38Guide, this guide is supposed to give you more information on this subject.
39</abstract> 15</abstract>
40 16
17<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
18<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
41<license/> 19<license/>
42 20
43<version>1.5.1</version> 21<version>2.14</version>
44<date>July 30, 2004</date> 22<date>2006-07-06</date>
45 23
46<chapter> 24<chapter>
47<title>The Advanced Linux Sound Architecture</title> 25<title>Introduction</title>
48<section> 26<section>
49<title>What is ALSA?</title> 27<title>What is ALSA?</title>
50<body> 28<body>
51 29
52<p> 30<p>
53ALSA is the <e>Advanced Linux Sound Architecture</e>, a project dedicated to the 31ALSA, which stands for <e>Advanced Linux Sound Architecture</e>, provides
54development of a high-quality Linux sound subsystem. It has replaced OSS 32audio and MIDI (<e>Musical Instrument Digital Interface</e>) functionality to
55(<e>Open Sound System</e>) as default sound subsystem in the 2.6 kernel series. 33the Linux operating system. ALSA is the default sound subsystem in the 2.6
56</p> 34kernel thereby replacing OSS (<e>Open Sound System</e>), which was used in the
57 352.4 kernels.
58<p> 36</p>
59ALSA provides efficient support for all types of audio interfaces, is fully 37
60modularized, is SMP and thread-safe and provides a high-quality user space 38<p>
61library called <e>alsa-lib</e> to simplify application programming. It also 39ALSA's main features include efficient support for all types of audio
62provides a backwards compatibility layer with OSS. 40interfaces ranging from consumer sound cards to professional sound
41equipment, fully modularized drivers, SMP and thread safety, backward
42compatibility with OSS and a user-space library <c>alsa-lib</c> to make
43application development a breeze.
44</p>
45
46</body>
47</section>
48<section>
49<title>ALSA on Gentoo</title>
50<body>
51
52<p>
53One of Gentoo's main strengths lies in giving the user maximum control over
54how a system is installed/configured. ALSA on Gentoo follows the same
55principle. There are two ways you can get ALSA support up and running on your
56system. We shall look at them in detail in the next chapter.
63</p> 57</p>
64 58
65</body> 59</body>
66</section> 60</section>
67</chapter> 61</chapter>
62
68<chapter> 63<chapter>
69<title>Installing ALSA</title> 64<title>Installing ALSA</title>
70<section> 65<section>
71<title>USE Flags</title> 66<title>Options</title>
72<body>
73
74<p>
75Gentoo provides an <c>alsa</c> USE flag which you should set in
76<path>/etc/make.conf</path> to allow our available packages to compile with
77ALSA support. If you have <c>oss</c> in your USE variable as well, ALSA will
78compile with OSS backward compatibility.
79</p>
80
81</body> 67<body>
82</section> 68
69<warn>
70The methods shown below are mutually exclusive. You cannot have ALSA compiled
71in your kernel and use <c>media-sound/alsa-driver</c>. It <e>will</e> fail.
72</warn>
73
74<p>
75The two options are :
76</p>
77
78<ol>
79 <li>
80 Use ALSA provided by your kernel. This is the preferred/recommended
81 method.
82 </li>
83 <li>
84 Use Gentoo's <c>media-sound/alsa-driver</c> package.
85 </li>
86</ol>
87
88<p>
89We shall take a peek into both before finally deciding on one.
90</p>
91
92<p>
93If you were to use ALSA provided by the kernel, the following are the pros and
94cons :
95</p>
96
97<table>
98<tr>
99 <th>Kernel ALSA</th>
100 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
101</tr>
102<tr>
103 <th>+</th>
104 <ti>Pretty stable as drivers are integrated into kernel.</ti>
105</tr>
106<tr>
107 <th>+</th>
108 <ti>One shot solution, no repeating emerges.</ti>
109</tr>
110<tr>
111 <th>-</th>
112 <ti>Might be a slightly older version than <c>alsa-driver</c>.</ti>
113</tr>
114</table>
115
116<p>
117And, if you were to use alsa-driver,
118</p>
119
120<table>
121<tr>
122 <th>alsa-driver</th>
123 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
124</tr>
125<tr>
126 <th>+</th>
127 <ti>Latest drivers from the ALSA Project.</ti>
128</tr>
129<tr>
130 <th>-</th>
131 <ti>Every kernel recompile requires a re-emerge of <c>alsa-driver</c>.</ti>
132</tr>
133<tr>
134 <th>-</th>
135 <ti>Needs certain kernel config options disabled to work correctly.</ti>
136</tr>
137</table>
138
139</body>
83<section> 140</section>
84<title>Kernel Modules</title> 141<section>
142<title>So...</title>
143<body>
144
145<p>
146The main difference between using <c>alsa-driver</c> and ALSA that comes with
147the kernel is that <c>alsa-driver</c> is generally more up to date than the
148version in the kernel. Since this does not make any huge difference as
149such, you are encouraged to use the ALSA provided by the kernel for ease of use.
150Before reporting any sound related issues to <uri
151link="https://bugs.gentoo.org">Gentoo Bugzilla</uri>, please try to reproduce
152them using <c>alsa-driver</c> and file the bug report no matter what the
153result.
154</p>
155
85<body> 156</body>
157</section>
158<section id="lspci">
159<title>Before you proceed</title>
160<body>
86 161
87<p>
88First of all, before continuing, make sure your kernel has <e>Sound Card
89Support</e> enabled. If you used <c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, then
90this is automatically true. Otherwise reconfigure your kernel.
91</p> 162<p>
92 163Whichever method of install you choose, you need to know what drivers your
164sound card uses. In most cases, sound cards (onboard and otherwise) are PCI
165based and <c>lspci</c> will help you in digging out the required information.
166Please <c>emerge sys-apps/pciutils</c> to get <c>lspci</c>, if you don't have it
167installed already. In case you have a USB sound card, <c>lsusb</c> from
168<c>sys-apps/usbutils</c> <e>might</e> be of help. For ISA cards, try using
169<c>sys-apps/isapnptools</c>. Also, the following pages <e>may</e> help users
170with ISA based sound cards.
93<p> 171</p>
94If you use a 2.6 kernel you can skip the rest of this section and continue with 172
95<uri link="#alsa-utils">Installing the ALSA Utils</uri> as 2.6 already has the 173<ul>
96necessary ALSA drivers in it. Of course, don't forget to enable support for the 174 <li>
97sound card you have when configuring your kernel. 175 <uri link="http://www.roestock.demon.co.uk/isapnptools/">The ISAPNPTOOLS
176 Page</uri>
177 </li>
178 <li>
179 <uri link="http://www2.linuxjournal.com/article/3269">LinuxJournal PnP
180 Article</uri>
181 </li>
182 <li>
183 <uri link="http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/Sound-HOWTO/x320.html">TLDP Sound
184 HowTo</uri>
185 </li>
186</ul>
187
188<note>
189For ease of use/explanation, we assume the user has a PCI based sound card for
190the remainder of this guide.
191</note>
192
98</p> 193<p>
99 194We now proceed to find out details about the sound card.
100<p> 195</p>
101Users of 2.4 kernel sources will have to install the necessary ALSA drivers for 196
102their soundcard. First find out what soundcard you have. An easy trick is to 197<pre caption="Soundcard Details">
103search for "audio" in <path>/proc/pci</path>: 198# <i>lspci -v | grep -i audio</i>
1990000:00:0a.0 Multimedia audio controller: Creative Labs SB Live! EMU10k1 (rev 06)
200</pre>
201
104</p> 202<p>
105 203We now know that the sound card on the machine is a Sound Blaster Live! and
106<pre caption="Finding out the soundcard type"> 204the card manufacturer is Creative Labs. Head over to the
107# <i>grep -i audio /proc/pci</i> 205<uri link="http://www.alsa-project.org/alsa-doc/"> ALSA Soundcard Matrix</uri>
108Multimedia audio controller: VIA Technologies, Inc. VT82C686 AC97 Audio 206page and select Creative Labs from the drop down menu. You will be taken to
109Controller (rev 64). 207the Creative Labs matrix page where you can see that the SB Live! uses the
110</pre> 208<c>emu10k1</c> module. That is the information we need for now. If you are
111 209interested in detailed information, you can click on the link next to the
210"Details" and that will take you to the <c>emu10k1</c> specific page.
112<p> 211</p>
113Now go to the <uri link="http://www.alsa-project.org/alsa-doc">ALSA Soundcard 212
114Matrix</uri> and search for your soundcard. In the above example you should go 213</body>
115to the "VIA" manufacturer. You will receive a table with the known chipsets of 214</section>
116that vendor. The chipset in the above example is "via82c686"; the "Details" link 215<section id="kernel">
117then informs me that the driver is called <path>via82xx</path>. 216<title>Using ALSA provided by your Kernel</title>
217<body>
218
118</p> 219<p>
119 220If you're a person who likes to keep things simple like I do, then this is
221the way to go.
120<p> 222</p>
121Based on this information we can now install the <c>alsa-driver</c> for our 223
122soundcard. First edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> and <e>add</e> a new option 224<note>
123called ALSA_CARDS to it. Inside this variable you declare the soundcard driver 225Since the 2005.0 release, Gentoo Linux uses 2.6 as the default kernel. Unless
124you want to use: 226you are specifically using the 2.4 profile, <c>gentoo-sources</c> will be a
2272.6 kernel on <e>most</e> architectures. Please check that your kernel is a
2282.6 series kernel. This method will <e>not</e> work on a 2.4 kernel.
229</note>
230
125</p> 231<p>
126 232Let us now configure the kernel to enable ALSA.
127<pre caption="Editing /etc/make.conf for ALSA_CARDS">
128ALSA_CARDS="via82xx"
129</pre>
130
131<p> 233</p>
132Now install <c>alsa-driver</c>: 234
235<impo>
236<c>genkernel</c> users should now run <c>genkernel --menuconfig all</c> and
237then follow the instructions in <uri link="#doc_chap2_pre3">Kernel Options for
238ALSA</uri>.
239</impo>
240
241<pre caption="Heading over to the source">
242# <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
243# <i>make menuconfig</i>
244</pre>
245
246<note>
247The above example assumes that <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symlink points to
248the kernel sources you want to use. Please ensure the same before proceeding.
249</note>
250
133</p> 251<p>
252Now we will look at some of the options we will have to enable in the 2.6
253kernel to ensure proper ALSA support for our sound card.
254</p>
134 255
256<p>
257Please note that for the sake of ease, all examples show ALSA built as modules.
258It is advisable to follow the same as it then allows the use of <c>alsaconf</c>
259which is a boon when you want to configure your card. Please do <e>not</e> skip
260the <uri link="#alsa-config">Configuration</uri> section of this document. If
261you still like to have options built-in, ensure that you make changes to your
262config accordingly.
263</p>
264
265<pre caption="Kernel Options for ALSA">
266Device Drivers ---&gt;
267 Sound ---&gt;
268
269<comment>(This needs to be enabled)</comment>
270&lt;M&gt; Sound card support
271
272<comment>(Make sure OSS is disabled)</comment>
273Open Sound System ---&gt;
274 &lt; &gt; Open Sound System (DEPRECATED)
275
276<comment>(Move one step back and enter ALSA)</comment>
277Advanced Linux Sound Architecture ---&gt;
278 &lt;M&gt; Advanced Linux Sound Architecture
279 <comment>(Select this if you want MIDI sequencing and routing)</comment>
280 &lt;M&gt; Sequencer support
281 <comment>(Old style /dev/mixer* and /dev/dsp* support. Recommended.)</comment>
282 &lt;M&gt; OSS Mixer API
283 &lt;M&gt; OSS PCM (digital audio) API
284
285<comment>(You now have a choice of devices to enable support for. Generally,
286you will have one type of device and not more. If you have more than one
287sound card, please enable them all here.)</comment>
288
289<comment>(Mostly for testing and development purposes, not needed for normal
290users unless you know what you are doing.)</comment>
291Generic devices ---&gt;
292
293<comment>(For ISA Sound cards)</comment>
294ISA devices ---&gt;
295<comment>(IF you had the Gravis, you would select this option)</comment>
296 &lt;M&gt; Gravis UltraSound Extreme
297
298<comment>(Move one level back and into PCI devices. Most sound cards today are
299PCI devices)</comment>
300PCI devices ---&gt;
301 <comment>(We now select the emu10k1 driver for our card)</comment>
302 &lt;M&gt; Emu10k1 (SB Live!, Audigy, E-mu APS)
303 <comment>(Or an Intel card would be)</comment>
304 &lt;M&gt; Intel/SiS/nVidia/AMD/ALi AC97 Controller
305 <comment>(Or if you have a VIA Card)</comment>
306 &lt;M&gt; VIA 82C686A/B, 8233/8235 AC97 Controller
307
308<comment>(Move one level back and select in case you have an USB sound card)</comment>
309USB Devices ---&gt;
310</pre>
311
312<p>
313Now that your options are set, you can (re)compile the kernel and ALSA support
314for your card should be functional once you reboot into the new kernel. Don't
315forget to update your GRUB configuration to use the newly built kernel.
316You can now proceed to <uri link="#alsa-utilities">ALSA Utilities</uri> and
317see if everything is working as it should.
318</p>
319
320</body>
321</section>
322<section id="alsa-driver">
323<title>Using the ALSA Driver package</title>
324<body>
325
326<p>
327So you've decided to go the <c>alsa-driver</c> way. Let's get started then.
328There are a few minor things to be done to ensure only the drivers for your
329sound card are compiled. Although this is not really necessary, it cuts down
330on the unnecessary drivers that will be compiled otherwise.
331</p>
332
333<p>
334If you don't have an idea of what drivers your sound card might need, please
335take a look at the <uri link="#lspci">lspci</uri> section of this guide. Once
336you have your driver name (<c>emu10k1</c> in our example), edit
337<path>/etc/make.conf</path> and add a variable, <c>ALSA_CARDS</c>.
338</p>
339
340<pre caption="Adding ALSA_CARDS to make.conf">
341<comment>(For one sound card)</comment>
342ALSA_CARDS="emu10k1"
343<comment>(For more than one, separate names with spaces)</comment>
344ALSA_CARDS="emu10k1 via82xx"
345</pre>
346
347<p>
348If you have compiled your kernel and want to use <c>alsa-driver</c>, please
349ensure the following before proceeding, else <c>alsa-driver</c> is likely to
350fail. The next code listing gives you one way of performing the checks.
351</p>
352
353<note>
354<c>genkernel</c> users can proceed with <uri link="#doc_chap2_pre6">Installing
355alsa-driver</uri> as their configuration is in sync with the one shown below by
356default.
357</note>
358
359<ol>
360 <li>
361 <c>CONFIG_SOUND</c> is set. (Basic Sound support enabled)
362 </li>
363 <li>
364 <c>CONFIG_SOUND_PRIME</c> is not set. (In-built OSS support disabled)
365 </li>
366 <li>
367 <c>CONFIG_SND</c> is not set. (In-built ALSA support disabled)
368 </li>
369 <li>
370 <path>/usr/src/linux</path> points to the kernel you want ALSA working on.
371 </li>
372</ol>
373
374<pre caption=".config checks">
375<comment>(Assuming the linux symlink points to the correct kernel)</comment>
376# <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
377# <i>grep SOUND .config</i>
378<comment>(1. is true)</comment>
379CONFIG_SOUND=y
380<comment>(2. is true)</comment>
381CONFIG_SOUND_PRIME is not set
382# <i>grep SND .config</i>
383<comment>(and 3. is true)</comment>
384CONFIG_SND is not set
385</pre>
386
387<p>
388Now all you have to do is type the magic words... and no, it's not abracadabra.
389</p>
390
135<pre caption="Installing ALSA Drivers"> 391<pre caption="Installing alsa-driver">
136# <i>emerge alsa-driver</i> 392# <i>emerge alsa-driver</i>
137</pre> 393</pre>
138 394
139<impo> 395<impo>
140Whenever you (re)compile your kernel sources, chances are that the ALSA drivers 396Please note that you will have to run <c>emerge alsa-driver</c> after every
141will be overwritten. It is therefore adviseable to rerun <c>emerge 397kernel (re)compile, as the earlier drivers are deleted.
142alsa-driver</c> every time you (re)compile your kernel <e>after</e> having
143rebooted into the new kernel.
144</impo> 398</impo>
145 399
146</body> 400</body>
147</section> 401</section>
402</chapter>
403
404<chapter>
405<title>Configuring/Testing ALSA</title>
148<section id="alsa-utils"> 406<section id="alsa-utilities">
149<title>Installing the ALSA Utils</title> 407<title>ALSA Utilities</title>
150<body> 408<body>
151 409
152<p>
153If you want backwards compatibility with OSS, you need to install
154<c>alsa-oss</c>:
155</p> 410<p>
156 411<c>alsa-utils</c> forms an integral part of ALSA as it has a truckload of
157<pre caption="Installing the ALSA OSS compatibility layer"> 412programs that are highly useful, including the ALSA Initscripts. Hence we
158# <i>emerge alsa-oss</i> 413strongly recommend that you install <c>alsa-utils</c>
159</pre>
160
161<p> 414</p>
162Now install the ALSA Utils on your system (this is mandatory):
163</p>
164 415
165<pre caption="Installing ALSA Utils"> 416<pre caption="Install alsa-utils">
166# <i>emerge alsa-utils</i> 417# <i>emerge alsa-utils</i>
167</pre> 418</pre>
168 419
420<note>
421If you activated ALSA in your <uri link="#kernel">kernel</uri> <e>and</e> did
422not compile ALSA as modules, please proceed to the
423<uri link="#initscript">ALSA Initscript</uri> section. The rest of you need
424to configure ALSA. This is made very easy by the existence of the
425<c>alsaconf</c> tool provided by <c>alsa-utils</c>.
426</note>
427
428</body>
429</section>
430<section id="alsa-config">
431<title>Configuration</title>
432<body>
433
434<note>
435Please shut down any programs that <e>might</e> access the sound card while
436running <c>alsaconf</c>.
437</note>
438
439<p>
440The easiest way to configure your sound card is to run <c>alsaconf</c>. Just
441type <c>alsaconf</c> in a shell as root.
169<p> 442</p>
170Now that the utils are installed, it is time to configure ALSA... 443
444<pre caption="Invoking alsaconf">
445# <i>alsaconf</i>
446</pre>
447
448<p>
449You will now see a neat menu guided interface that will automatically probe
450your devices and try to find out your sound card. You will be asked to pick
451your sound card from a list. Once that's done, it will ask you permission to
452automatically make required changes to <path>/etc/modules.d/alsa</path>.
453It will then adjust your volume settings to optimum levels, run
454<c>modules-update</c> and start the <path>/etc/init.d/alsasound</path> service.
455Once <c>alsaconf</c> exits, you can proceed with setting up the ALSA
456initscript.
457</p>
458
459</body>
460</section>
461<section id="initscript">
462<title>ALSA Initscript</title>
463<body>
464
465<p>
466We're now almost all setup. Whichever method you chose to install ALSA, you'll
467need to have something load your modules or initialize ALSA and restore your
468volume settings when your system comes up. The ALSA Initscript handles all of
469this for you and is called <c>alsasound</c>. Add it to the boot runlevel.
470</p>
471
472<pre caption="Adding ALSA to the boot runlevel">
473# <i>rc-update add alsasound boot</i>
474 * alsasound added to runlevel boot
475 * rc-update complete.
476</pre>
477
478<p>
479Next, just check the <path>/etc/conf.d/alsasound</path> file and ensure that
480SAVE_ON_STOP variable is set to yes. This saves your sound settings when you
481shutdown your system.
482</p>
483
484</body>
485</section>
486<section>
487<title>Audio Group</title>
488<body>
489
490<p>
491Before we move on to testing, there's one last <e>important</e> thing that needs
492to be setup. Rule of thumb in a *nix OS : Do not run as root unless needed.
493This applies here as well ;) How? Well, most of the times you should be logged
494in as a user and would like to listen to music or access your soundcard. For
495that to happen, you need to be in the "audio" group. At this point, we'll add
496users to the audio group, so that they won't have any issues when they want to
497access sound devices. We'll use <c>gpasswd</c> here and you need to be logged in
498as root for this to work.
499</p>
500
501<pre caption="Adding users to the audio group">
502<comment>(Substitute &lt;username&gt; with your user)</comment>
503# <i>gpasswd -a &lt;username&gt; audio </i>
504Adding user &lt;username&gt; to group audio
505</pre>
506
507</body>
508</section>
509<section>
510<title>Volume Check!</title>
511<body>
512
513<p>
514We've completed all the setups and pre-requisites, so let's fire up ALSA. If
515you ran <c>alsaconf</c>, you can skip this step, since <c>alsaconf</c> already
516does this for you.
517</p>
518
519<pre caption="Start the service">
520<comment>(ALSA as modules)</comment>
521# <i>/etc/init.d/alsasound start</i>
522 * Loading ALSA modules ...
523 * Loading: snd-card-0 ... [ ok ]
524 * Loading: snd-pcm-oss ... [ ok ]
525 * Loading: snd-seq ... [ ok ]
526 * Loading: snd-emu10k1-synth ... [ ok ]
527 * Loading: snd-seq-midi ... [ ok ]
528 * Restoring Mixer Levels ... [ ok ]
529<comment>(ALSA compiled in)</comment>
530# <i>/etc/init.d/alsasound start</i>
531 * Loading ALSA modules ...
532 * Restoring Mixer Levels ... [ ok ]
533</pre>
534
535<p>
536Now that the required things have been taken care of, we need to check up on
537the volume as in certain cases, it is muted. We use <c>alsamixer</c> for this
538purpose.
539</p>
540
541<pre caption="Starting alsamixer">
542<comment>(Opens up a console program. Only required settings are shown)</comment>
543# <i>alsamixer</i>
544</pre>
545
546<impo>
547If you have issues starting up <c>alsamixer</c> and get errors such as
548alsamixer: function snd_ctl_open failed for default: No such file or directory,
549this is usually an issue with udev setting up the devices. Run <c>killall
550udevd; udevstart</c> to reload <path>/dev</path> entries and fire up
551<c>alsamixer</c>. It should solve the issue.
552</impo>
553
554<p>
555This is how the ALSA Mixer <e>might</e> look the first time you open it. Pay
556attention to the Master and PCM channels which both have an MM below them.
557That means they are muted. If you try to play anything with <c>alsamixer</c>
558in this state, you will not hear anything on your speakers.
559</p>
560
561<figure link="/images/docs/alsa-mixermuted.png" short="AlsaMixer Muted" caption="The Alsa Mixer Main Window, Muted"/>
562
563<p>
564Now, we shall unmute the channels, and set volume levels as needed.
565</p>
566
567<warn>
568Both Master <e>and</e> PCM need to be unmuted and set to audible volume levels
569if you want to hear some output on your speakers.
570</warn>
571
572<ul>
573 <li>
574 To move between channels, use your left and right arrow keys. (&lt;-
575 &amp; -&gt;)
576 </li>
577 <li>
578 To toggle mute, move to the specific channel, for example Master and press
579 the <e>m</e> key on the keyboard.
580 </li>
581 <li>
582 To increase and decrease the volume levels, use the up and down arrow keys
583 respectively.
584 </li>
585</ul>
586
587<note>
588Be careful when setting your Bass and Treble values. 50 is usually a good
589number for both. Extremely high values of Bass may cause <e>jarring</e>
590on speakers that are not designed to handle them.
591</note>
592
593<p>
594After you're all done, your ALSA Mixer should look similar to the one below.
595Note the 00 instead of the MM and also the volume levels for some optimum
596settings.
597</p>
598
599<figure link="/images/docs/alsa-mixerunmuted.png" short="AlsaMixer Unmuted" caption="Alsa Mixer ready to roll"/>
600
601</body>
602</section>
603<section>
604<title>Sound Check!</title>
605<body>
606
607<p>
608Finally. Some music. If everything above is perfect, you should now be able to
609listen to some good music. A quick way to test is to use a command line tool
610like <c>media-sound/madplay</c>. You could also use something more well known
611like <c>mpg123</c> or <c>xmms</c>. If you are an ogg fan, you could use
612<c>ogg123</c> provided by <c>media-sound/vorbis-tools</c>. Use any player you
613are comfortable with. As always, <c>emerge</c> what you need.
614</p>
615
616<pre caption="Getting the software">
617<comment>(Install the applications you want)</comment>
618# <i>emerge madplay mpg123 xmms</i>
619<comment>(To play .ogg files)</comment>
620# <i>emerge vorbis-tools</i>
621</pre>
622
623<p>
624And then play your favorite sound track...
625</p>
626
627<pre caption="Playing Music">
628# <i>madplay -v /mnt/shyam/Music/Paul\ Oakenfold\ -\ Dread\ Rock.mp3</i>
629MPEG Audio Decoder 0.15.2 (beta) - Copyright (C) 2000-2004 Robert Leslie et al.
630 Title: Dread Rock
631 Artist: Paul Oakenfold
632 Album: Matrix Reloaded
633 Year: 2003
634 Genre: Soundtrack
635 Soundtrack
636 00:04:19 Layer III, 160 kbps, 44100 Hz, joint stereo (MS), no CRC
637
638# <i>ogg123 Paul\ Oakenfold\ -\ Dread\ Rock.ogg</i>
639Audio Device: Advanced Linux Sound Architecture (ALSA) output
640
641Playing: Paul Oakenfold - Dread Rock.ogg
642Ogg Vorbis stream: 2 channel, 44100 Hz
643Genre: Soundtrack
644Transcoded: mp3;160
645Title: Dread Rock
646Artist: Paul Oakenfold
647Date: 2003
648Album: Matrix Reloaded
649Time: 00:11.31 [04:28.75] of 04:40.06 (200.6 kbps) Output Buffer 96.9%
650</pre>
651
652</body>
653</section>
654<section>
655<title>ALSA and USE</title>
656<body>
657
658<p>
659You can now add the <c>alsa</c> use flag to <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to
660ensure that your applications that support ALSA get built with it. Some
661architectures like x86 and amd64 have the flag enabled by default.
662</p>
663
664</body>
665</section>
666<section>
667<title>Issues?</title>
668<body>
669
670<p>
671If for some reason you're unable to hear sound, the first thing to do would
672be to check your <uri link="#doc_chap3_pre6">alsamixer</uri> settings. 80% of
673the issues lie with muted channels or low volume. Also check your Window
674Manager's sound applet and verify that volumes are set to audible levels.
675</p>
676
677<p>
678<path>/proc</path> is your friend. And in this case, <path>/proc/asound</path>
679is your best friend. We shall just take a short look at how much info is made
680available to us there.
681</p>
682
683<pre caption="Fun with /proc/asound">
684<comment>(First and foremost, if /proc/asound/cards shows your card, ALSA has
685picked up your sound card fine.)</comment>
686# <i>cat /proc/asound/cards</i>
6870 [Live ]: EMU10K1 - Sound Blaster Live!
688 Sound Blaster Live! (rev.6, serial:0x80271102) at 0xb800, irq 11
689
690<comment>(If you run ALSA off the kernel like I do and wonder how far behind
691you are from alsa-driver, this displays current running ALSA version)</comment>
692# <i>cat /proc/asound/version</i>
693Advanced Linux Sound Architecture Driver Version 1.0.8 (Thu Jan 13 09:39:32 2005 UTC).
694
695<comment>(ALSA OSS emulation details)</comment>
696# <i>cat /proc/asound/oss/sndstat</i>
697Sound Driver:3.8.1a-980706 (ALSA v1.0.8 emulation code)
698Kernel: Linux airwolf.zion 2.6.11ac1 #2 Wed May 4 00:35:08 IST 2005 i686
699Config options: 0
700
701Installed drivers:
702Type 10: ALSA emulation
703
704Card config:
705Sound Blaster Live! (rev.6, serial:0x80271102) at 0xb800, irq 11
706
707Audio devices:
7080: EMU10K1 (DUPLEX)
709
710Synth devices: NOT ENABLED IN CONFIG
711
712Midi devices:
7130: EMU10K1 MPU-401 (UART)
714
715Timers:
7167: system timer
717
718Mixers:
7190: SigmaTel STAC9721/23
720</pre>
721
722<p>
723The other most common issue users face is the dreaded "Unknown symbol in module"
724error. An example of the same is shown below.
725</p>
726
727<pre caption="Unknown Symbol in module error">
728# <i>/etc/init.d/alsasound start</i>
729 * Loading ALSA modules ...
730 * Loading: snd-card-0 ... [ ok ]
731 * Loading: snd-pcm-oss ...
732WARNING: Error inserting snd_mixer_oss
733(/lib/modules/2.6.12-gentoo-r6/kernel/sound/core/oss/snd-mixer-oss.ko): Unknown
734symbol in module, or unknown parameter (see dmesg) FATAL: Error inserting
735snd_pcm_oss
736(/lib/modules/2.6.12-gentoo-r6/kernel/sound/core/oss/snd-pcm-oss.ko): Unknown
737symbol in module, or unknown parameter (see dmesg)
738 [ !! ]
739 * Loading: snd-mixer-oss ...
740FATAL: Error inserting snd_mixer_oss
741(/lib/modules/2.6.12-gentoo-r6/kernel/sound/core/oss/snd-mixer-oss.ko): Unknown
742symbol in module, or unknown parameter (see dmesg)
743 [ !! ]
744 * Loading: snd-seq ... [ ok ]
745 * Loading: snd-emu10k1-synth ... [ ok ]
746 * Loading: snd-seq-midi ... [ ok ]
747 * Restoring Mixer Levels ... [ ok ]
748</pre>
749
750<p>
751And when you take a look at <c>dmesg</c> as suggested, you're quite likely to
752see:
753</p>
754
755<pre caption="dmesg output">
756<comment>(Only relevant portions are shown below)</comment>
757# <i>dmesg | less</i>
758ACPI: PCI Interrupt 0000:02:06.0[A] -> Link [APC3] -> GSI 18 (level, low) -> IRQ 209
759snd_mixer_oss: Unknown symbol snd_unregister_oss_device
760snd_mixer_oss: Unknown symbol snd_register_oss_device
761snd_mixer_oss: Unknown symbol snd_mixer_oss_notify_callback
762snd_mixer_oss: Unknown symbol snd_oss_info_register
763snd_pcm_oss: Unknown symbol snd_unregister_oss_device
764snd_pcm_oss: Unknown symbol snd_register_oss_device
765snd_pcm_oss: Unknown symbol snd_mixer_oss_ioctl_card
766snd_pcm_oss: Unknown symbol snd_oss_info_register
767snd_mixer_oss: Unknown symbol snd_unregister_oss_device
768snd_mixer_oss: Unknown symbol snd_register_oss_device
769snd_mixer_oss: Unknown symbol snd_mixer_oss_notify_callback
770snd_mixer_oss: Unknown symbol snd_oss_info_register
771</pre>
772
773<p>
774The above issue is caused when you switch from <c>alsa-driver</c> to in-kernel
775ALSA because when you unmerge <c>alsa-driver</c> the module files are config
776protected and hence get left behind. So, when you switch to in-kernel
777drivers, running <c>modprobe</c> gives you a mix of <c>alsa-driver</c> and
778in-kernel modules thus causing the above errors.
779</p>
780
781<p>
782The solution is quite easy. We just need to manually remove the problem causing
783directory after you unmerge <c>alsa-driver</c>. Be sure to remove the correct
784kernel version and not the current one!
785</p>
786
787<pre caption="Removing the alsa-driver modules">
788# <i>rm -rf /lib/modules/$(uname -r)/alsa-driver</i>
789</pre>
790
791<p>
792Another reason for error messages similar to the ones above could be a file in
793<path>/etc/modules.d</path> supplying a <c>device_mode</c> parameter when it
794isn't required. Confirm that this is indeed the issue and find out which file
795is the culprit.
796</p>
797
798<pre caption="Confirming and searching for device_mode">
799<comment>(Check dmesg to confirm)</comment>
800# <i>dmesg | grep device_mode</i>
801snd: Unknown parameter `device_mode'
802<comment>(Now, to get to the source of the issue)</comment>
803# <i>grep device_mode /etc/modules.d/*</i>
804</pre>
805
806<p>
807Usually it is a file called <path>alsa</path> with the line <c>options snd
808device_mode=0666</c>. Remove this line and restart the alsasound service and
809that should take care of this issue.
171</p> 810</p>
172 811
173</body> 812</body>
174</section> 813</section>
175</chapter> 814</chapter>
815
176<chapter> 816<chapter>
177<title>Configuring ALSA</title> 817<title>Other things ALSA</title>
178<section>
179<title>Automatically Loading the Kernel Modules</title>
180<body>
181
182<p>
183If you use a modular kernel (such as when using <c>genkernel</c>) you have to
184edit <path>/etc/modules.d/alsa</path> so that it activates the necesary modules
185at boot time. For the soundcard in our example:
186</p>
187
188<pre caption="/etc/modules.d/alsa">
189alias snd-card-0 snd-via82xx
190<comment># The following is only needed when you want OSS compatibility</comment>
191alias sound-slot-0 snd-card-0
192alias /dev/mixer snd-mixer-oss
193alias /dev/dsp snd-pcm-oss
194alias /dev/midi snd-seq-oss
195</pre>
196
197<p>
198Now run <c>modules-update</c> to save the changes you made to the
199<path>alsa</path> file into <path>/etc/modules.conf</path>:
200</p>
201
202<pre caption="Running modules-update">
203# <i>modules-update</i>
204</pre>
205
206</body>
207</section> 818<section>
208<section> 819<title>Setting up MIDI support</title>
209<title>Verifying the Device Files</title>
210<body>
211
212<p>
213If you use DevFS (which is the default for Gentoo installations) make sure that
214<path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path> has the ALSA devices and permissions correctly
215registered:
216</p>
217
218<pre caption="/etc/devfsd.conf">
219# ALSA/OSS stuff
220# Comment/change these if you want to change the permissions on
221# the audio devices
222LOOKUP snd MODLOAD ACTION snd
223LOOKUP dsp MODLOAD
224LOOKUP mixer MODLOAD
225LOOKUP midi MODLOAD
226REGISTER sound/.* PERMISSIONS root.audio 660
227REGISTER snd/.* PERMISSIONS root.audio 660
228</pre>
229
230</body> 820<body>
231</section>
232<section>
233<title>Having ALSA Activated at Boot</title>
234<body>
235 821
236<p>
237To activate ALSA support at boot, add the <c>alsasound</c> init script to the
238boot runlevel:
239</p> 822<p>
240 823If your sound card is one of those that come with on-board MIDI synthesizers
241<pre caption="Adding alsasound to the boot runlevel"> 824and you would like to listen to some .mid files, you have to install
242# <i>rc-update add alsasound boot</i> 825<c>awesfx</c> which is basically a set of utilities for controlling the AWE32
243# <i>/etc/init.d/alsasound start</i> 826driver. We need to install it first. If you don't have a hardware synthesizer,
244</pre> 827you can use a virtual one. Please see the section on
245 828<uri link="#vsynth">Virtual Synthesizers</uri> for more information.
246</body>
247</section>
248<section>
249<title>Unmute the Channels</title>
250<body>
251
252<p> 829</p>
253By default, all sound channels are muted. To fix this, run <c>amixer</c>:
254</p>
255 830
256<pre caption="Running amixer">
257# <i>amixer</i>
258</pre>
259
260<p>
261If <c>amixer</c> produces lots of output then you're ready to unmute the
262channels. If you receive an error, doublecheck that your soundcard module is
263started.
264</p>
265
266<p>
267Now unmute the <e>Master</e> and <e>PCM</e> channels. If this isn't sufficient,
268also unmute the <e>Center</e> and <e>Surround</e> channels.
269</p>
270
271<pre caption="Unmuting the sound channels">
272# <i>amixer set Master 100 unmute</i>
273# <i>amixer set PCM 100 unmute</i>
274<comment>(Only if the above isn't sufficient:)</comment>
275# <i>amixer set Center 100 unmute</i>
276# <i>amixer set Surround 100 unmute</i>
277</pre>
278
279<p>
280To check if your sound works, play a wave file (using <c>aplay</c>), mp3 (using
281<c>mpg123</c> or even <c>mplayer</c>) or any other sound file for that matter.
282</p>
283
284<p>
285To fine-tune the sound channel settings you can use the <c>alsamixer</c>
286application.
287</p>
288
289</body>
290</section>
291</chapter>
292<chapter>
293<title>Activating MIDI Support</title>
294<section>
295<title>Installing the Necessary Packages</title>
296<body>
297
298<p>
299Some soundcards come with onboard MIDI synthesizers. To use them, you must first
300install the <c>awesfx</c> package:
301</p>
302
303<pre caption="Installing the awesfx package"> 831<pre caption="Installing awesfx">
304# <i>emerge awesfx</i> 832# <i>emerge awesfx</i>
305</pre> 833</pre>
306 834
307<p> 835<note>
308If you have a collection of sound fonts somewhere, place them in 836You will need to copy over SoundFont (SF2) files from your sound card's driver
309<path>/usr/share/sfbank</path>. For instance, the SBLive has a sound font file 837CD or a Windows installation into <path>/usr/share/sounds/sf2/</path>. For
310called <path>8MBGMSFX.SF2</path> or <path>CT4GMSFX.SF2</path>. 838example a sound font file for the Creative SBLive! card would be 8MBGMSFX.SF2.
839</note>
840
311</p> 841<p>
312 842After copying over the Soundfont files, we can then play a midi file as shown.
843You can also add the <c>asfxload</c> command to
844<path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>, so that the sound font is loaded
845every time the system starts up.
313<p> 846</p>
314After copying over the sound font, select them using <c>sfxload</c>:
315</p>
316 847
848<note>
849<path>/mnt</path> paths mentioned in the code listing(s) below will <e>not</e>
850be the same in your machine. They are just an example. Please be careful to
851change the path to suit your machine.
852</note>
853
317<pre caption="Loading the sound font"> 854<pre caption="Loading Soundfonts">
855<comment>(First, copy the Soundfont)</comment>
856# <i>cp /mnt/win2k/Program\ Files/CreativeSBLive2k/SFBank/8MBGMSFX.SF2 /usr/share/sounds/sf2/</i>
857<comment>(Or get it from your SoundBlaster CD)</comment>
858# <i>cp /mnt/cdrom/AUDIO/ENGLISH/SFBANK/8MBGMSFX.SF2 /usr/share/sounds/sf2/</i>
859<comment>(We load the specific Soundfont)</comment>
318# <i>sfxload /usr/share/sfbank/8MBGMSFX.SF2</i> 860# <i>asfxload /usr/share/sounds/sf2/8MBGMSFX.SF2</i>
319</pre> 861</pre>
320 862
321<p>
322You must have this command run every time you boot, so it is adviseable to add
323it to <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path> as well.
324</p> 863<p>
325 864You can now play midi files using a program like <c>aplaymidi</c>. Run
865<c>aplaymidi -l</c> to get a list of available ports and then pick one
866to play the file on.
326<p> 867</p>
327If you can't find soundfonts on your driver CD you can download some online from 868
328<uri>http://www.parabola.demon.co.uk/alsa/awe64.html</uri>. 869<pre caption="Playing MIDI">
870<comment>(Check open ports)</comment>
871# <i>aplaymidi -l</i>
872 Port Client name Port name
873 64:0 EMU10K1 MPU-401 (UART) EMU10K1 MPU-401 (UART)
874 65:0 Emu10k1 WaveTable Emu10k1 Port 0
875 65:1 Emu10k1 WaveTable Emu10k1 Port 1
876 65:2 Emu10k1 WaveTable Emu10k1 Port 2
877 65:3 Emu10k1 WaveTable Emu10k1 Port 3
878<comment>(Pick a port, and play a mid file)</comment>
879# <i> aplaymidi --port=65:0 /mnt/shyam/music/midi/mi2.mid</i>
329</p> 880</pre>
330 881
331</body> 882</body>
332</section>
333<section> 883</section>
884<section id="vsynth">
334<title>Timidity++ Virtual Synthesizer</title> 885<title>Virtual Synthesizers</title>
335<body> 886<body>
336 887
337<p>
338If your sound card does not come with a hardware synthesizer (or you don't want
339to use it), you can use <c>timidity++</c> to provide you with a virtual
340synthesizer. Start by emerging this package:
341</p> 888<p>
889If your sound card lacks a hardware synthesizer, you could use a virtual one
890like <c>timidity++</c>. Installation is a breeze.
891</p>
342 892
343<pre caption="Installing Timidity++"> 893<pre caption="Installing timidity++">
344# <i>emerge timidity++</i> 894# <i>emerge timidity++</i>
345</pre> 895</pre>
346 896
347<p> 897<p>
348For timidity to play sounds, it needs a soundfont. If you do not have any, 898For timidity to play sounds, it needs a sound font. If you do not have any,
349install <c>timidity-eawpatches</c> which will give you some soundfonts. 899install <c>timidity-eawpatches</c> or <c>timidity-shompatches</c> which will
900give you some sound fonts. You can have multiple sound font configurations
901installed, and you can place your own in <path>/usr/share/timidity/</path>.
902To switch between different timidity configurations, you should use the
903<c>timidity-update</c> tool provided in the timidity++ package.
350</p> 904</p>
351 905
352<pre caption="Installing timidity-eawpatches"> 906<pre caption="Installing sound fonts">
353# <i>emerge timidity-eawpatches</i> 907# <i>emerge timidity-eawpatches</i>
908# <i>timidity-update -g -s eawpatches</i>
909
910<comment>(or)</comment>
911
912# <i>emerge timidity-shompatches</i>
913# <i>timidity-update -g -s shompatches</i>
354</pre> 914</pre>
355 915
356<p> 916<p>
357Don't forget to add <c>timidity</c> to the default runlevel. 917Don't forget to add <c>timidity</c> to the default runlevel.
358</p> 918</p>
360<pre caption="Adding timidity to the default runlevel"> 920<pre caption="Adding timidity to the default runlevel">
361# <i>rc-update add timidity default</i> 921# <i>rc-update add timidity default</i>
362# <i>/etc/init.d/timidity start</i> 922# <i>/etc/init.d/timidity start</i>
363</pre> 923</pre>
364 924
925<p>
926You can now try out <uri link="#doc_chap4_pre3">Playing MIDI</uri> files.
927</p>
928
365</body> 929</body>
366</section>
367<section> 930</section>
368<title>Testing MIDI Support</title>
369<body>
370
371<p>
372You can use <c>pmidi</c> to test your MIDI configuration:
373</p>
374
375<pre caption="Installing pmidi">
376# <i>emerge pmidi</i>
377</pre>
378
379<p>
380To see what MIDI output ports are available on your system, use the <c>-l</c>
381option:
382</p>
383
384<pre caption="Viewing the MIDI output ports">
385# <i>pmidi -l</i>
386</pre>
387
388<p>
389If all looks fine, try playing a MIDI file to make sure everything works. With
390the <c>-p</c> option you define what MIDI port you want to use.
391</p>
392
393<pre caption="Playing a MIDI file">
394# <i>pmidi -p 65:0 "Final Fantasy 7 - Aerith' Theme.mid"</i>
395</pre>
396
397</body>
398</section>
399</chapter>
400<chapter>
401<title>Final Remarks</title>
402<section> 931<section>
403<title>Tools and Firmware</title> 932<title>Tools and Firmware</title>
404<body> 933<body>
405 934
406<p> 935<p>
413<pre caption="Selecting ALSA Tools in /etc/make.conf"> 942<pre caption="Selecting ALSA Tools in /etc/make.conf">
414ALSA_TOOLS="as10k1 ac3dec" 943ALSA_TOOLS="as10k1 ac3dec"
415</pre> 944</pre>
416 945
417<p> 946<p>
947If the ALSA_TOOLS variable is not set, all available tools will be built.
418Then install the <c>alsa-tools</c> (and/or <c>alsa-firmware</c>) package(s): 948Now, install the <c>alsa-tools</c> (and/or <c>alsa-firmware</c>) package(s):
419</p> 949</p>
420 950
421<pre caption="Installing ALSA Tools"> 951<pre caption="Installing ALSA Tools">
422# <i>emerge alsa-tools</i> 952# <i>emerge alsa-tools</i>
423</pre> 953</pre>
424 954
425</body> 955</body>
426</section> 956</section>
427<section> 957<section>
428<title>Activating Joystick Support</title> 958<title>A Big thank you to...</title>
429<body>
430
431<p>
432If your soundcard has a joystick plug, you might be interested in activating
433joystick support for your soundcard. If so, start by verifying if your soundcard
434driver has a joystick parameter. You can verify this by running <c>modinfo</c>
435against your kernel module. For instance, for the <c>snd-via82xx</c>:
436</p>
437
438<pre caption="Running modinfo">
439# <i>modinfo snd-via82xx</i>
440filename: /lib/modules/2.4.22-ck2/snd-via82xx.o
441description: "VIA VT82xx audio"
442author: "Jaroslav Kysela &lt;perex@suse.cz&gt;"
443license: "GPL"
444parm: index int array (min = 1, max = 8), description "Index value for
445 VIA 82xx bridge."
446parm: id string array (min = 1, max = 8), description "ID string for VIA
447 82xx bridge."
448parm: enable int array (min = 1, max = 8), description "Enable audio part
449 of VIA 82xx bridge."
450parm: mpu_port long array (min = 1, max = 8), description "MPU-401 port.
451 (VT82C686x only)"
452<i>parm: joystick int array (min = 1, max = 8), description "Enable
453 joystick. (VT82C686x only)"</i>
454parm: ac97_clock int array (min = 1, max = 8), description "AC'97 codec
455 clock (default 48000Hz)."
456parm: dxs_support int array (min = 1, max = 8), description "Support for
457 DXS channels (0 = auto, 1 = enable, 2 = disable, 3 = 48k only, 4 =
458 no VRA)
459</pre>
460
461<p>
462If it has the <c>joystick</c> parameter, append <c>joystick=1</c> to your
463<c>options</c> line in <path>/etc/modules.d/alsa</path>. For instance:
464</p>
465
466<pre caption="Adding the joystick parameter">
467alias snd-card-0 snd-via82xx
468options snd-via82xx joystick=1
469</pre>
470
471</body> 959<body>
472</section> 960
961<p>
962Everyone who contributed to the earlier version of the Gentoo ALSA Guide:
963Vincent Verleye, Grant Goodyear, Arcady Genkin, Jeremy Huddleston,
964John P. Davis, Sven Vermeulen, Benny Chuang, Tiemo Kieft and Erwin.
965</p>
966
967</body>
473<section> 968</section>
969<section>
474<title>Resources</title> 970<title>References</title>
475<body> 971<body>
476 972
477<ul> 973<ul>
478 <li><uri link="http://www.alsa-project.org">The ALSA Project</uri></li> 974 <li><uri link="http://www.alsa-project.org/">The ALSA Project</uri></li>
479 <li><uri link="http://www.djcj.org">ALSA Howto's and FAQs</uri></li>
480 <li><uri link="http://linux-sound.org">Linux Sound/MIDI Software</uri></li> 975 <li><uri link="http://linux-sound.org">Linux Sound/MIDI Software</uri></li>
481</ul> 976</ul>
482 977
483</body> 978</body>
484</section> 979</section>

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