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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/alsa-guide.xml,v 1.22 2003/12/20 18:39:29 aaby Exp $ -->
2<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 4
4<guide link = "/doc/en/alsa-guide.xml"> 5<guide link = "/doc/en/alsa-guide.xml">
5<title>Gentoo Linux ALSA Guide</title> 6<title>Gentoo Linux ALSA Guide</title>
6<author title="Author"><mail link="zu@pandora.be"> 7<author title="Author">
7 Vincent Verleye</mail> 8 <mail link="zu@pandora.be">Vincent Verleye</mail>
8</author> 9</author>
9 10<author title="Author">
10<author title="Editor"><mail link="zhen@gentoo.org"> 11 <mail link="g2boojum@gentoo.org">Grant Goodyear</mail>
11 John P. Davis</mail>
12</author> 12</author>
13<author title="Author">
14 <mail link="agenkin@gentoo.org">Arcady Genkin</mail>
15</author>
16<author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
17 John P. Davis
18</author>
19<author title="Editor">
20 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
21</author>
22<author title="Editor">
23 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
24</author>
25<author title="Editor">
26 <mail link="blubber@gentoo.org">Tiemo Kieft</mail>
27</author>
28
29<license/>
13 30
14<abstract> 31<abstract>
15This guide will show you how to set up the Advanced Linux Sound Architecture (ALSA) on Gentoo Linux. 32This guide will show you how to set up the Advanced Linux Sound Architecture
16In addition to the Gentoo Linux Desktop Configuration Guide, this guide is supposed to give you more information on this subject. </abstract> 33(ALSA) on Gentoo Linux. In addition to the Gentoo Linux Desktop Configuration
34Guide, this guide is supposed to give you more information on this subject.
35</abstract>
17 36
18<version>1.2</version> 37<version>1.3.4</version>
19<date>09 February 2003</date> 38<date>November 23, 2003</date>
20 39
21<chapter> 40<chapter>
22<title>Introduction</title> 41<title>Introduction</title>
23<section> 42<section>
24 <title>What is ALSA?</title> 43<title>What is ALSA?</title>
25<body> 44<body>
45
26<p> 46<p>
27The Advanced Linux Sound Architecture (ALSA) is a project to improve the Linux sound subsystem by rewriting 47The Advanced Linux Sound Architecture (ALSA) is a project to improve the Linux
28large chunks of it. 48sound subsystem by rewriting large chunks of it. It is anticipated that ALSA
29It is anticipated that ALSA will make it into Linux kernel 2.6.x (or 3.x.x -- whichever comes first) as it becomes ready. 49will make it into Linux kernel 2.6.x (or 3.x.x -- whichever comes first) as it
50becomes ready.
30</p> 51</p>
31 52
32<p> 53<p>
33ALSA provides audio and MIDI functionality for Linux. 54ALSA provides audio and MIDI functionality for Linux.
34</p> 55</p>
35 56
36<p> 57<p>
37Quoted from <uri>http://www.alsa-project.org</uri>, ALSA has the following features: 58Quoted from <uri>http://www.alsa-project.org</uri>, ALSA has the following
38<ul><li> Efficient support for all types of audio interfaces, from consumer soundcards to professional multichannel audio interfaces.</li> 59features:
60</p>
61
62<ul>
63 <li>
64 Efficient support for all types of audio interfaces, from consumer
65 soundcards to professional multichannel audio interfaces
66 </li>
39 <li> Fully modularized sound drivers.</li> 67 <li>Fully modularized sound drivers</li>
40 <li> SMP and thread-safe design.</li> 68 <li>SMP and thread-safe design</li>
69 <li>
41 <li> User space library (alsa-lib) to simplify application programming and provide higher level functionality.</li> 70 User space library (alsa-lib) to simplify application programming and
71 provide higher level functionality
72 </li>
73 <li>
42 <li> Support for the older OSS API, providing binary compatibility for most OSS programs.</li> 74 Support for the older OSS API, providing binary compatibility for most OSS
75 programs
76 </li>
43</ul> 77</ul>
44There's lots more to ALSA however, like support for Full Duplex playback and recording, multiple soundcard support, 78
45hardware mixing of streams, extensive mixer capabilities (to support advanced features of new soundcards), ...
46</p> 79<p>
80There's lots more to ALSA however, like support for Full Duplex playback and
81recording, multiple soundcard support, hardware mixing of streams, extensive
82mixer capabilities (to support advanced features of new soundcards), ...
83</p>
84
47</body> 85</body>
48</section>
49<section> 86</section>
87<section>
50 <title>Why use ALSA?</title> 88<title>Why use ALSA?</title>
51<body> 89<body>
90
52<p> 91<p>
53If your soundcard is supported by the Linux kernel sound system or the commercial OSS/4Front sound driver system, 92If your soundcard is supported by the Linux kernel sound system or the
93commercial OSS/4Front sound driver system, which can be found in all 2.4.x
54which can be found in all 2.4.x Linux kernels, you could just aswell build <e>those modules</e> for use with your soundcard. 94Linux kernels, you could just aswell build <e>those modules</e> for use with
95your soundcard. If you want this, just read through the <uri
55If you want this, just read through the <uri link="http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/Sound-HOWTO/index.html">Linux Sound HOWTO</uri>. 96link="http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/Sound-HOWTO/index.html">Linux Sound HOWTO</uri>.
56</p> 97</p>
98
57<p> 99<p>
58However, those OSS/4Front drivers have some limitations -- being commercial is one. 100However, those OSS/4Front drivers have some limitations -- being commercial is
59ALSA is an attempt to go beyond these limitations and to do so in an open source fashion. 101one. ALSA is an attempt to go beyond these limitations and to do so in an open-source fashion. ALSA is a fully GPL and LGPL'ed sound driver system, that
60ALSA is a fully GPL and LGPL'ed sound driver system, that provides a professional quality system for recording, playback, 102provides a professional quality system for recording, playback, and MIDI
61and MIDI sequencing. 103sequencing.
62</p> 104</p>
105
63</body> 106</body>
64</section>
65<section> 107</section>
108<section>
66 <title>What cards does ALSA support?</title> 109<title>What cards does ALSA support?</title>
67<body> 110<body>
111
68<p> 112<p>
69ALSA tries to support as many (new) cards as possible by providing open-source drivers. 113ALSA tries to support as many (new) cards as possible by providing open-source
70However, some vendors may provide binary-only packages. 114drivers. However, some vendors may provide binary-only packages.
115</p>
116
71</p> 117<p>
72<p>To know if your card is supported, you can find a Soundcard Matrix of supported and not-supported cards here: 118To know if your card is supported, you can find a Soundcard Matrix of supported
73<uri>http://www.alsa-project.org/alsa-doc/</uri>. 119and not-supported cards here: <uri>http://www.alsa-project.org/alsa-doc/</uri>.
74</p> 120</p>
121
75</body> 122</body>
76</section> 123</section>
77</chapter> 124</chapter>
78 125
79<chapter> 126<chapter>
80<title>Installation</title> 127<title>Installation</title>
81<section> 128<section>
129<title>Gentoo USE flags</title>
130<body>
131
132<p>
133To compile programs with ALSA-support, be sure to add <e>alsa</e> to
134your USE-variable. However, several tools don't support alsa yet, and
135require OSS. ALSA provides OSS-emulation if you define <e>oss</e> in your
136USE-variable before you start.
137</p>
138
139</body>
140</section>
141<section>
82 <title>Kernel modules</title> 142<title>Kernel modules</title>
83<body> 143<body>
84<p> 144
85Since we're still using 2.4.x kernel sources, we'll have to compile kernel modules and ALSA modules separately.
86</p> 145<p>
146Since we're still using 2.4.x kernel sources, we'll have to compile kernel
147modules and ALSA modules separately. People who are using a 2.5.x kernel can
148do this from within their kernel configuration, since the ALSA modules are
149included in the kernel sources and should be built there.
150</p>
151
87<p> 152<p>
88First we'll make sure that our kernel configuration is ready for use with ALSA. 153First we'll make sure that our kernel configuration is ready for use with ALSA.
89All you need in your kernel configuration is having Sound Card Support set to be built as a module (M). 154All you need in your kernel configuration is having Sound Card Support set to
90This will build <c>soundcore.o</c>. 155be built as a module (M). This will build <path>soundcore.o</path>.
91</p>
92<p> 156</p>
93<note> 157
94Possibly, this will also work when you built Sound Card Support in the kernel (Y) instead of building it as a module (M).
95However, the official ALSA documentation suggests building it as a module, since ALSA will try loading it.
96</note> 158<note>
159Possibly, this will also work when you built Sound Card Support in the kernel
160(Y) instead of building it as a module (M). However, the official ALSA
161documentation suggests building it as a module, since ALSA will try loading it.
162</note>
163
97</p> 164<p>
98<p>If you already have a working kernel configuration, make sure you remove all sound drivers (except for Sound Card Support). 165If you already have a working kernel configuration, make sure you remove all
99If you wish to do this without having to reboot, you could do like this: 166sound drivers (except for Sound Card Support). If you wish to do this without
167having to reboot, you could do like this:
100</p> 168</p>
101<pre> 169
170<pre caption="Kernel configuration">
102# <c>cd /usr/src/linux</c> 171# <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
103# <c>cp .config ~/</c> 172# <i>cp .config ~/</i>
104# <c>make mrproper</c> 173# <i>make mrproper</i>
105# <c>cp ~/.config .</c> 174# <i>cp ~/.config .</i>
106# <c>make menuconfig</c> 175# <i>make menuconfig</i>
107</pre> 176</pre>
177
108<p> 178<p>
109Now select <e>Sound Card Support</e> as Module (M) and deselect all other sound drivers. 179Now select <e>Sound Card Support</e> as Module (M) and deselect all other sound
110Exit and say Y to save your kernel configuration. 180drivers. Exit and say Y to save your kernel configuration. After that, build
111After that, build the modules: 181the modules:
112</p> 182</p>
113<pre> 183
184<pre caption="Kernel compilation">
114# <c>make dep clean</c> 185# <i>make dep clean</i>
115# <c>make modules modules_install</c> 186# <i>make modules modules_install</i>
116</pre> 187</pre>
188
117<p> 189<p>
118Before installing your new modules, this last line will delete all your previous modules, 190Before installing your new modules, this last line will delete all your previous
119even the ones from a previous ALSA installation. 191modules, even the ones from a previous ALSA installation.
120</p>
121<p> 192</p>
193
122<impo> 194<impo>
123This means, whenever you recompile your kernel later on, you MUST recompile <c>alsa-driver</c>. 195This means, whenever you recompile your kernel later on, you MUST recompile
196<c>alsa-driver</c>.
124</impo> 197</impo>
125</p>
126<p>
127<note>However, there's no need to reinstall <c>nvidia-kernel</c>, the Nvidia drivers are in a separate directory
128in <path>/lib/modules/*/video</path> and won't get deleted by a <c>make modules modules_install</c>
129</note>
130</p>
131</body>
132</section>
133 198
199</body>
134<section> 200</section>
201<section>
135 <title>ALSA modules</title> 202<title>ALSA modules</title>
136<body> 203<body>
137 204
138<p>
139Now it's time to install the ALSA drivers for your soundcard(s). If your soundcard is PCI, you can find out the name
140and type of your soundcard by looking at the output of /proc/pci
141<pre>#<c>grep audio /proc/pci</c></pre>
142</p> 205<p>
143 206Now it's time to install the ALSA drivers for your soundcard(s). If your
207soundcard is PCI, you can find out the name and type of your soundcard by
208looking at the output of <path>/proc/pci</path>.
144<p> 209</p>
210
211<pre caption="Search for soundcard information">
212# <i>grep audio /proc/pci</i>
213</pre>
214
145<warn> 215<warn>
146If you had a previous sound setup and there are still non-ALSA sound modules loaded, unload them <e>now</e>. 216If you had a previous sound setup and there are still non-ALSA sound modules
147Check with <c>lsmod</c> and use <c>rmmod</c> to unload all sound-related modules on your system. 217loaded, unload them <e>now</e>. Check with <c>lsmod</c> and use <c>rmmod</c>
218to unload all sound-related modules on your system.
148</warn> 219</warn>
220
149</p> 221<p>
150 222We could simply do an <c>emerge alsa-driver</c> now, this would compile and
223install <e>all</e> ALSA sound drivers.
151<p> 224</p>
152We could simply do an <c>emerge alsa-driver</c> now, this would compile and install <e>all</e> ALSA sound drivers. 225
153</p> 226<p>
154<p>
155However, to save some time, lookup the <e>Module Name</e> of your soundcard(s) on the 227However, to save some time, lookup the <e>Module Name</e> of your soundcard(s)
156<uri link="http://www.alsa-project.org/alsa-doc">ALSA Soundcard Matrix</uri> under the <e>Install</e> section. 228on the <uri link="http://www.alsa-project.org/alsa-doc">ALSA Soundcard
157Mine is <c>EMU10K1</c>, since I have an SBlive! soundcard. 229Matrix</uri> by following the <e>Details</e> link in the <e>Driver and Docs</e>
158We'll set ALSA_CARDS environment to this value before emerging, so emerge will only compile the drivers we need. 230column in the row of the chipset of your soundcard. Mine is <c>snd-emu10k1</c>,
159</p> 231since I have an SBlive! soundcard, with the <e>EMU10K1</e> chipset. We'll set
160 232ALSA_CARDS environment to the value of the module name before emerging (but
233without the snd prefix), so emerge will only compile the drivers we need.
161<p> 234</p>
162<pre> 235
236<pre caption="Compile correct modules">
163# <c>env ALSA_CARDS='emu10k1' emerge alsa-driver</c> 237# <i>env ALSA_CARDS='emu10k1' emerge alsa-driver</i>
164</pre>
165</p> 238</pre>
166<p> 239
167<note>
168When you want to install ALSA drivers for more than one soundcard, you could set ALSA_CARDS to a space-separated list
169of drivers; like this: <c>env ALSA_CARDS='emu10k1 intel8x0 ens1370' emerge alsa-driver</c>
170</note> 240<note>
241You can also add this value in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, so when you have
242to emerge the alsa-driver later on you can just run <c>emerge alsa-driver</c>.
243For example, like this: <c>echo 'ALSA_CARDS="emu10k1"' >> /etc/make.conf</c>
244</note>
171 245
246<note>
247When you want to install ALSA drivers for more than one soundcard, you could
248set ALSA_CARDS to a space-separated list of drivers; like this: <c>env
249ALSA_CARDS='emu10k1 intel8x0 ens1370' emerge alsa-driver</c>
250</note>
251
252<note>
172<note>If you want to have OSS compatibility, make sure to emerge <i>alsa-oss</i>, it is the ALSA/OSS compatibility 253If you want to have OSS compatibility, make sure to emerge <i>alsa-oss</i>, it
173wrapper. </note> 254is the ALSA/OSS compatibility wrapper.
255</note>
174 256
175</p> 257<note>
258If you plan on recompiling your kernels numerous times, it might
259be adviseable to emerge <c>alsa-driver</c> with <c>--buildpkg</c>. This
260will create a binary package for it. Later, after recompiling your kernel,
261you can just do <c>emerge --usepkg alsa-driver</c> which will install the
262binary package instead of recompiling it completely.
263</note>
264
176<p> 265<p>
177After this, the ALSA modules should be installed on your system. 266After this, the ALSA modules should be installed on your system.
178</p> 267</p>
268
179</body> 269</body>
180</section>
181<section> 270</section>
271<section>
182 <title>Configuration of ALSA</title> 272<title>Configuration of ALSA</title>
183<body> 273<body>
274
184<p> 275<p>
185Let's start configuring now to get ALSA working properly. 276Let's start configuring now to get ALSA working properly. We'll need to edit
186We'll need to edit some files, to let our system know about the freshly installed ALSA modules. 277some files, to let our system know about the freshly installed ALSA modules.
187</p>
188<p> 278</p>
189First file to edit is <path>/etc/modules.d/alsa</path>. 279
190</p> 280<p>
281First, install <c>alsa-utils</c> on your system:
282</p>
283
284<pre caption = "Emerging alsa-utils">
285# <i>emerge alsa-utils</i>
286</pre>
287
288<p>
289Hereafter, we need to edit <path>/etc/modules.d/alsa</path>.
290</p>
291
191<warn> 292<warn>
192There is no need to edit <path>/etc/modules.conf</path>. Instead, always edit files in <path>/etc/modules.d</path>. 293There is no need to edit <path>/etc/modules.conf</path>. Instead, always edit
294files in <path>/etc/modules.d</path>.
193</warn> 295</warn>
296
194<p> 297<p>
195Check the ALSA portion <e>at the bottom of the file</e>. 298Check the ALSA portion <e>at the bottom of the file</e>. By tweaking this line
196By tweaking this line you can specify the max number of soundcards you have (generally, just one). 299you can specify the max number of soundcards you have (generally, just one).
197</p>
198<p> 300</p>
301
199<pre caption="At the top of /etc/modules.d/alsa"> 302<pre caption="At the bottom of /etc/modules.d/alsa">
200# Alsa 0.9.X kernel modules' configuration file. 303<comment>Set this to the correct number of cards.</comment>
201# $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/alsa-guide.xml,v 1.7 2003/02/09 23:27:14 zhen Exp $ 304options snd cards_limit=1
202
203# ALSA portion
204alias char-major-116 snd
205<c>options snd major=116 cards_limit=1</c>
206# OSS/Free portion
207alias char-major-14 soundcore
208
209##
210## IMPORTANT:
211</pre> 305</pre>
306
212</p> 307<p>
213<p>
214Now we'll specify the sounddriver(s) ALSA should use. In the same file, edit like this: 308Now we'll specify the sounddriver(s) ALSA should use. In the same file, edit
309like this:
310</p>
311
215<pre caption="A bit lower in /etc/modules.d/alsa"> 312<pre caption="In /etc/modules.d/alsa">
216## and then run `update-modules' command. 313## and then run `modules-update' command.
217## Read alsa-driver's INSTALL file in /usr/share/doc for more info. 314## Read alsa-driver's INSTALL file in /usr/share/doc for more info.
218## 315##
219## ALSA portion 316## ALSA portion
220<c>alias snd-card-0 snd-emu10k1</c> 317alias snd-card-0 snd-emu10k1
221<c>## If you have more than one, add: 318<comment>## If you have more than one, add:</comment>
222## alias snd-card-1 snd-intel8x0 319## alias snd-card-1 snd-intel8x0
223## alias snd-card-2 snd-ens1370</c> 320## alias snd-card-2 snd-ens1370
224## OSS/Free portion 321## OSS/Free portion
225## alias sound-slot-0 snd-card-0 322## alias sound-slot-0 snd-card-0
226## alias sound-slot-1 snd-card-1 323## alias sound-slot-1 snd-card-1
227## 324##
228</pre> 325</pre>
229</p> 326
230<p>
231<note> 327<note>
232If you have more than one soundcard, adjust the <c>cards_limit</c> value and add more snd-card aliases to the file. 328If you have more than one soundcard, adjust the <c>cards_limit</c> value and add
233I don't have experience with this, but you can find examples for configurations with two or more soundcards in 329more snd-card aliases to the file. I don't have experience with this, but you
330can find examples for configurations with two or more soundcards in <uri
234<uri link="http://www.alsa-project.org/alsa-doc/alsa-howto/c1660.htm">Chapter 6</uri> 331link="http://www.alsa-project.org/alsa-doc/alsa-howto/c1660.htm">Chapter 6</uri>
332of the <uri
235of the <uri link="http://www.alsa-project.org/alsa-doc/alsa-howto/alsa-howto.html">ALSA Howto</uri>. 333link="http://www.alsa-project.org/alsa-doc/alsa-howto/alsa-howto.html">ALSA
334Howto</uri>.
236</note> 335</note>
336
237</p> 337<p>
338Last thing to do in this file, almost at the end, check if these lines are there
339and uncommented:
238<p> 340</p>
239Last thing to do in this file, at the very bottom, check if these lines are there and uncommented: 341
240<pre caption="at the very bottom of /etc/modules.d/alsa"> 342<pre caption="Near the end of /etc/modules.d/alsa">
241alias /dev/mixer snd-mixer-oss 343alias /dev/mixer snd-mixer-oss
242alias /dev/dsp snd-pcm-oss 344alias /dev/dsp snd-pcm-oss
243alias /dev/midi snd-seq-oss 345alias /dev/midi snd-seq-oss
244</pre> 346</pre>
347
245</p> 348<p>
349Now double-check the file <path>/etc/modules.d/alsa</path> and when you're sure
350everyting is ok, run <c>modules-update</c>.
246<p> 351</p>
247Now double-check the file <path>/etc/modules.d/alsa</path> and when you're sure everyting is ok, run <c>update-modules</c>. 352
353<pre caption="Running modules-update">
354# <i>modules-update</i>
248<pre> 355</pre>
249# <c>update-modules</c> 356
250</pre>
251</p>
252<note>
253Running <c>update-modules</c> here will insert the data from <path>/etc/modules.d/alsa</path> into <path>/etc/modules.conf</path>
254</note> 357<note>
255<p> 358Running <c>modules-update</c> here will insert the data from
256You should also verify that /etc/devfsd.conf has the alsa devices and permissions correctly registered. 359<path>/etc/modules.d/alsa</path> into <path>/etc/modules.conf</path>
360</note>
361
257</p> 362<p>
258<pre> 363You should also verify that <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path> has the alsa devices
259# nano -w /etc/devfsd.conf 364and permissions correctly registered.
260</pre> 365</p>
261<pre> 366
367<pre caption="/etc/devfsd.conf">
262# ALSA/OSS stuff 368# ALSA/OSS stuff
263# Comment/change these if you want to change the permissions on 369# Comment/change these if you want to change the permissions on
264# the audio devices 370# the audio devices
265LOOKUP snd MODLOAD ACTION snd 371LOOKUP snd MODLOAD ACTION snd
266LOOKUP dsp MODLOAD 372LOOKUP dsp MODLOAD
267LOOKUP mixer MODLOAD 373LOOKUP mixer MODLOAD
268LOOKUP midi MODLOAD 374LOOKUP midi MODLOAD
269REGISTER sound/.* PERMISSIONS root.audio 660 375REGISTER sound/.* PERMISSIONS root.audio 660
270REGISTER snd/.* PERMISSIONS root.audio 660 376REGISTER snd/.* PERMISSIONS root.audio 660
271</pre> 377</pre>
272<note> 378
273Notice that devfsd.conf sets /dev/sound permissions to be root.audio. Thus, for non-root users to use audio they will have to be part of the audio group.
274</note> 379<note>
380Notice that devfsd.conf sets <path>/dev/sound</path> permissions to be
381root.audio. Thus, for non-root users to use audio they will have to be part of
382the audio group.
383</note>
384
275</body> 385</body>
276</section> 386</section>
277</chapter> 387</chapter>
388
278<chapter> 389<chapter>
279<title>Starting ALSA</title> 390<title>Starting ALSA</title>
280<section> 391<section>
281 <title>Adding alsasound to a runlevel</title> 392<title>Adding alsasound to a runlevel</title>
282<body> 393<body>
394
283<p> 395<p>
284First thing to do now, is to make ALSA startup at boottime. Like this: 396First thing to do now, is to make ALSA startup at boottime. Like this:
285<pre> 397</p>
398
399<pre caption="Add ALSA to the boot runlevel">
286# <c>rc-update add alsasound boot</c> 400# <i>rc-update add alsasound boot</i>
287</pre>
288</p>
289<p>
290<warn>Note that the alsasound script should be added to the "boot" runlevel, not the "default" runlevel.</warn>
291</p>
292</body>
293</section>
294<section>
295 <title>Running and unmuting</title>
296<body>
297<p>
298Since we're Linux users, we don't want to reboot. So we'll start the alsasound script manually.
299</p>
300<pre> 401</pre>
301# <c>/etc/init.d/alsasound start</c> 402
302</pre>
303<p>
304ALSA is running now. If everything is ok, you should be able to see the ALSA modules loaded when running <c>lsmod</c>.
305However, sound won't work yet, because the channels are still muted. We need <c>alsa-utils</c> for this.
306</p>
307<pre>
308# <c>emerge alsa-utils</c>
309# <c>amixer</c>
310</pre>
311<p>
312<warn> 403<warn>
313You shouldn't get this, but <e>if</e> you get an error about "amixer: Mixer attach default error: No such file or directory", you should manually insmod 404Note that the alsasound script should be added to the "boot" runlevel, not the
405"default" runlevel.
406</warn>
407
408</body>
409</section>
410<section>
411<title>Running and unmuting</title>
412<body>
413
414<p>
415Since we're Linux users, we don't want to reboot. So we'll start the alsasound
416script manually.
417</p>
418
419<pre caption="Starting ALSA">
420# <i>/etc/init.d/alsasound start</i>
421</pre>
422
423<p>
424ALSA is running now. If everything is ok, you should be able to see the ALSA
425modules loaded when running <c>lsmod</c>. However, sound won't work yet,
426because the channels are still muted. We need <c>amixer</c> to fix this.
427</p>
428
429<pre caption = "Running amixer">
430# <i>amixer</i>
431</pre>
432
433<warn>
434You shouldn't get this, but <e>if</e> you get an error about "amixer: Mixer
435attach default error: No such file or directory", you should manually modprobe
314<c>snd-mixer-oss</c> and <c>snd-pcm-oss</c> once. After that run amixer again. 436<c>snd-mixer-oss</c> and <c>snd-pcm-oss</c> once. After that run amixer again.
315</warn> 437</warn>
316</p> 438
317<pre caption="only if you get an error when running amixer"> 439<pre caption="Only if you get an error when running amixer">
318# <c>insmod snd-mixer-oss</c> 440# <i>modprobe snd-mixer-oss</i>
319# <c>insmod snd-pcm-oss</c> 441# <i>modprobe snd-pcm-oss</i>
320# <c>amixer</c> 442# <i>amixer</i>
321</pre>
322<p>
323If you got this far, now unmute both Master and PCM channels.
324</p>
325<p>
326<pre> 443</pre>
444
445<p>
446If you got this far, now unmute Master and PCM channels. Some hardware
447even requires you to unmute the center channel or even the surround
448channel.
449</p>
450
451<pre caption = "Unmuting channels">
327# <c>amixer set Master 100 unmute</c> 452# <i>amixer set Master 100 unmute</i>
328# <c>amixer set PCM 100 unmute</c> 453# <i>amixer set PCM 100 unmute</i>
454<comment>Only if the above doesn't succeed on its own:</comment>
455# <i>amixer set Center 100 unmute</i>
456# <i>amixer set Surround 100 unmute</i>
457<comment>Test the sound:</comment>
329# <c>aplay /usr/kde/3/share/sounds/pop.wav</c> <codenote>(pop.wav is part of KDE)</codenote> 458# <i>aplay $KDEDIR/share/sounds/pop.wav</i> <codenote>(pop.wav is part of KDE)</codenote>
330</pre> 459</pre>
460
331</p> 461<p>
332We check to see if sound is working by using the aplay (alsa play) command. If you hear a pop, then sound is indeed working. 462We check to see if sound is working by using the aplay (alsa play) command. If
463you hear a pop, then sound is indeed working. Then, adjust the volume settings
333Then, adjust the volume settings to your liking; the ncurses-based <c>alsamixer</c> is a great way to get them "just so". 464to your liking; the ncurses-based <c>alsamixer</c> is a great way to get them
465"just so".
334<p> 466</p>
467
468<p>
335You may want to emerge <c>alsa-xmms</c> as that will provide ALSA support for XMMS. 469You may want to emerge <c>alsa-xmms</c> as that will provide ALSA support for
470XMMS.
471</p>
472
336</p> 473<p>
337When you reboot your system, the <e>alsasound</e> init script will properly save and restore your volume settings. 474When you reboot your system, the <c>alsasound</c> init script will
475properly save and restore your volume settings.
476</p>
477
338</body> 478</body>
339</section> 479</section>
340</chapter> 480</chapter>
481
341<chapter> 482<chapter>
342<title>Final Notes</title> 483<title>Final Notes</title>
343<section> 484<section>
344 <title>After kernel-upgrades..</title> 485<title>After kernel-upgrades...</title>
345<body> 486<body>
487
488<p>
346<p>When you ever rebuild your kernel, or upgrade to another kernel, you'll have to rebuild the ALSA modules.</p> 489When you ever rebuild your kernel, or upgrade to another kernel, you'll have to
490rebuild the ALSA modules.
491</p>
492
493<p>
347<p>Although you might have installed <c>alsa-driver</c>, <c>alsa-libs</c> and <c>alsa-utils</c>, only the first will 494Although you might have installed <c>alsa-driver</c>, <c>alsa-libs</c> and
348have to be installed again, since it will put the alsa modules in 495<c>alsa-utils</c>, only the first will have to be installed again, since it will
349<path>/lib/modules/*/kernel/sound/pci/</path>.</p> 496put the alsa modules in <path>/lib/modules/*/kernel/sound/pci/</path>.
497</p>
498
350<pre caption="needed after each kernel compile"> 499<pre caption="Needed after each kernel compile">
351emerge alsa-driver 500# <i>emerge alsa-driver</i>
352</pre> 501</pre>
502
353</body> 503</body>
354</section>
355<section> 504</section>
505<section>
356 <title>/etc/modules.autoload</title> 506<title>/etc/modules.autoload</title>
357<body> 507<body>
508
509<p>
358<p>You won't have to edit this file for use with ALSA. After our <c>rc-update add alsasound boot</c>, our system will 510You won't have to edit this file for use with ALSA. After our <c>rc-update add
359load the correct modules at startup.</p> 511alsasound boot</c>, our system will load the correct modules at startup.
512</p>
513
514<p>
360<p>It's not necessary to add <c>snd-pcm-oss</c> or <c>snd-mixer-oss</c> in this file. 515It's not necessary to add <c>snd-pcm-oss</c> or <c>snd-mixer-oss</c> in this
361Check the <uri link="http://www.djcj.org/LAU/guide/alsbook/faq1.html">this FAQ</uri> for more info.</p> 516file. Check the <uri link="http://www.djcj.org/LAU/guide/alsbook/faq1.html">this
517FAQ</uri> for more info.
518</p>
519
362</body> 520</body>
363</section>
364<section> 521</section>
522<section>
523<title>Known bugs</title>
524<body>
525
526<note>
527This guide lags behind on the alsa-development. Chances are these bugs
528are already fixed when you read this.
529</note>
530
531<ul>
532 <li>
533 If you have <b>lots of noise</b> when using <b>oss</b> emulation, add
534 <e>options snd-pcm-oss dsp_map=1</e> to <path>/etc/modules.d/alsa</path>
535 </li>
536</ul>
537
538</body>
539</section>
540<section>
541<title>Activating Joystick Support</title>
542<body>
543
544<p>
545If your soundcard has a joystick plug, you might be interested in activating
546joystick support for your soundcard. If so, start by verifying if your soundcard
547driver has a joystick parameter. You can verify this by running <c>modinfo</c>
548against your <path>snd-&lt;your chipset&gt;</path>. For instance, for the
549<c>snd-via82xx</c>:
550</p>
551
552<pre caption="Running modinfo">
553# <i>modinfo snd-via82xx</i>
554filename: /lib/modules/2.4.22-ck2/snd-via82xx.o
555description: "VIA VT82xx audio"
556author: "Jaroslav Kysela &lt;perex@suse.cz&gt;"
557license: "GPL"
558parm: index int array (min = 1, max = 8), description "Index value for VIA 82xx bridge."
559parm: id string array (min = 1, max = 8), description "ID string for VIA 82xx bridge."
560parm: enable int array (min = 1, max = 8), description "Enable audio part of VIA 82xx bridge."
561parm: mpu_port long array (min = 1, max = 8), description "MPU-401 port. (VT82C686x only)"
562<i>parm: joystick int array (min = 1, max = 8), description "Enable joystick. (VT82C686x only)"</i>
563parm: ac97_clock int array (min = 1, max = 8), description "AC'97 codec clock (default 48000Hz)."
564parm: dxs_support int array (min = 1, max = 8), description "Support for DXS channels
565 (0 = auto, 1 = enable, 2 = disable, 3 = 48k only, 4 = no VRA)"
566</pre>
567
568<p>
569If it has the <c>joystick</c> parameter, then append <c>joystick=1</c> to your
570<c>options</c> line in <path>/etc/modules.d/alsa</path>. For instance, for the
571<c>snd-via82xx</c>:
572</p>
573
574<pre caption="Adding the joystick parameter">
575alias snd-card-0 snd-via82xx
576options snd-via82xx joystick=1
577</pre>
578
579</body>
580</section>
581<section>
365 <title>More links..</title> 582<title>More links...</title>
366<body> 583<body>
584
367<p> 585<p>
368You could check these for additional info: 586You could check these for additional info:
369</p> 587</p>
370<p> 588
371<ul> 589<ul>
372<li><uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/desktop.html">The Gentoo Linux Desktop Configuration Guide</uri></li> 590 <li>
591 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/desktop.xml">The Gentoo Linux
592 Desktop Configuration Guide</uri>
593 </li>
594 <li>
373<li><uri link="http://www.alsa-project.org">ALSA Project Homepage</uri></li> 595 <uri link="http://www.alsa-project.org">ALSA Project Homepage</uri>
596 </li>
597 <li>
374<li><uri link="http://www.alsa-project.org/documentation.php3">ALSA Users Documentation</uri></li> 598 <uri link="http://www.alsa-project.org/documentation.php3">ALSA Users
599 Documentation</uri>
600 </li>
601 <li>
375<li><uri link="http://www.djcj.org">ALSA Howto's and FAQ's</uri></li> 602 <uri link="http://www.djcj.org">ALSA Howto's and FAQ's</uri>
603 </li>
604 <li>
376<li><uri link="http://tldp.org/HOWTO/Sound-HOWTO/index.html">Linux Sound HOWTO</uri></li> 605 <uri link="http://tldp.org/HOWTO/Sound-HOWTO/index.html">Linux Sound
606 HOWTO</uri>
607 </li>
608 <li>
377<li><uri link="http://linux-sound.org/">Sound and MIDI Software For Linux</uri></li> 609 <uri link="http://linux-sound.org/">Sound and MIDI Software For Linux</uri>
610 </li>
378</ul> 611</ul>
379</p> 612
380</body> 613</body>
381</section> 614</section>
382</chapter> 615</chapter>
383</guide> 616</guide>

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