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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/alsa-guide.xml,v 1.28 2004/03/10 18:42:08 swift Exp $ -->
2<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 4
4<guide link = "/doc/en/alsa-guide.xml"> 5<guide link = "/doc/en/alsa-guide.xml">
5<title>Gentoo Linux ALSA Guide</title> 6<title>Gentoo Linux ALSA Guide</title>
6<author title="Author"><mail link="zu@pandora.be"> 7<author title="Author">
7 Vincent Verleye</mail> 8 <mail link="zu@pandora.be">Vincent Verleye</mail>
8</author> 9</author>
9 10<author title="Author">
10<author title="Editor"><mail link="zhen@gentoo.org"> 11 <mail link="g2boojum@gentoo.org">Grant Goodyear</mail>
11 John P. Davis</mail>
12</author> 12</author>
13<author title="Author">
14 <mail link="agenkin@gentoo.org">Arcady Genkin</mail>
15</author>
16<author title="Author">
17 <mail link="eradicator@gentoo.org">Jeremy Huddleston</mail>
18</author>
19<author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
20 John P. Davis
21</author>
22<author title="Editor">
23 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
24</author>
25<author title="Editor">
26 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
27</author>
28<author title="Editor">
29 <mail link="blubber@gentoo.org">Tiemo Kieft</mail>
30</author>
31<author title="Editor">
32 <mail link="erwin@gentoo.org">Erwin</mail>
33</author>
13 34
14<abstract> 35<abstract>
15This guide will show you how to set up the Advanced Linux Sound Architecture (ALSA) on Gentoo Linux. 36This guide will show you how to set up the Advanced Linux Sound Architecture
16In addition to the Gentoo Linux Desktop Configuration Guide, this guide is supposed to give you more information on this subject. </abstract> 37(ALSA) on Gentoo Linux. In addition to the Gentoo Linux Desktop Configuration
38Guide, this guide is supposed to give you more information on this subject.
39</abstract>
17 40
41<license/>
42
18<version>1.2</version> 43<version>1.4.1</version>
19<date>09 February 2003</date> 44<date>March 10, 2004</date>
20 45
21<chapter> 46<chapter>
22<title>Introduction</title> 47<title>Introduction</title>
23<section> 48<section>
24 <title>What is ALSA?</title> 49<title>What is ALSA?</title>
25<body> 50<body>
51
26<p> 52<p>
27The Advanced Linux Sound Architecture (ALSA) is a project to improve the Linux sound subsystem by rewriting 53The Advanced Linux Sound Architecture (ALSA) is a project to improve the Linux
28large chunks of it. 54sound subsystem by rewriting large chunks of it. It has replaced the Open
29It is anticipated that ALSA will make it into Linux kernel 2.6.x (or 3.x.x -- whichever comes first) as it becomes ready. 55Sound System (OSS) as the default sound subsystem in the 2.6 kernel, but it
56can be used with either 2.4 or 2.6 kernels.
30</p> 57</p>
31 58
32<p> 59<p>
33ALSA provides audio and MIDI functionality for Linux. 60ALSA provides audio and MIDI functionality for Linux.
34</p> 61</p>
35 62
36<p> 63<p>
37Quoted from <uri>http://www.alsa-project.org</uri>, ALSA has the following features: 64Quoted from <uri>http://www.alsa-project.org</uri>, ALSA has the following
38<ul><li> Efficient support for all types of audio interfaces, from consumer soundcards to professional multichannel audio interfaces.</li> 65features:
66</p>
67
68<ul>
69 <li>
70 Efficient support for all types of audio interfaces, from consumer
71 soundcards to professional multichannel audio interfaces
72 </li>
39 <li> Fully modularized sound drivers.</li> 73 <li>Fully modularized sound drivers</li>
40 <li> SMP and thread-safe design.</li> 74 <li>SMP and thread-safe design</li>
75 <li>
41 <li> User space library (alsa-lib) to simplify application programming and provide higher level functionality.</li> 76 User space library (alsa-lib) to simplify application programming and
77 provide higher level functionality
78 </li>
79 <li>
42 <li> Support for the older OSS API, providing binary compatibility for most OSS programs.</li> 80 Support for the older OSS API, providing binary compatibility for most OSS
81 programs
82 </li>
43</ul> 83</ul>
44There's lots more to ALSA however, like support for Full Duplex playback and recording, multiple soundcard support, 84
45hardware mixing of streams, extensive mixer capabilities (to support advanced features of new soundcards), ...
46</p> 85<p>
86There's lots more to ALSA however, like support for Full Duplex playback and
87recording, multiple soundcard support, hardware mixing of streams, extensive
88mixer capabilities (to support advanced features of new soundcards), ...
89</p>
90
47</body> 91</body>
48</section>
49<section> 92</section>
93<section>
50 <title>Why use ALSA?</title> 94<title>Why use ALSA?</title>
51<body> 95<body>
96
52<p> 97<p>
53If your soundcard is supported by the Linux kernel sound system or the commercial OSS/4Front sound driver system, 98Your sound card may be supported by modules available in the 2.4 kernel (these
54which can be found in all 2.4.x Linux kernels, you could just aswell build <e>those modules</e> for use with your soundcard. 99are also provided in the 2.6 kernel under the 'Open Sound System (DEPRECATED)'
100option). Additionally, you might be able to use the commercial OSS/4Front sound
101driver system. If you wish to use either of these systems, then you should read
55If you want this, just read through the <uri link="http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/Sound-HOWTO/index.html">Linux Sound HOWTO</uri>. 102through the <uri link="http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/Sound-HOWTO/index.html">Linux
103Sound HOWTO</uri>.
56</p> 104</p>
105
57<p> 106<p>
58However, those OSS/4Front drivers have some limitations -- being commercial is one. 107The OSS/4Front drivers have some limitations, however. Being commercial is
59ALSA is an attempt to go beyond these limitations and to do so in an open source fashion. 108one. ALSA is an attempt to go beyond these limitations with an open source
60ALSA is a fully GPL and LGPL'ed sound driver system, that provides a professional quality system for recording, playback, 109development model. ALSA is a fully GPL and LGPL'ed sound driver system that
61and MIDI sequencing. 110provides a professional quality system for recording, playback, and MIDI
111sequencing.
62</p> 112</p>
113
63</body> 114</body>
64</section>
65<section> 115</section>
116<section>
66 <title>What cards does ALSA support?</title> 117<title>What cards does ALSA support?</title>
67<body> 118<body>
119
68<p> 120<p>
69ALSA tries to support as many (new) cards as possible by providing open-source drivers. 121ALSA tries to support as many (new) cards as possible by providing open-source
70However, some vendors may provide binary-only packages. 122drivers. However, some vendors may provide binary-only packages.
123</p>
124
71</p> 125<p>
72<p>To know if your card is supported, you can find a Soundcard Matrix of supported and not-supported cards here: 126To know if your card is supported, you can find a Soundcard Matrix of supported
73<uri>http://www.alsa-project.org/alsa-doc/</uri>. 127and not-supported cards here: <uri>http://www.alsa-project.org/alsa-doc/</uri>.
74</p> 128</p>
129
75</body> 130</body>
76</section> 131</section>
77</chapter> 132</chapter>
78 133
79<chapter> 134<chapter>
80<title>Installation</title> 135<title>Installation</title>
81<section> 136<section>
137<title>Gentoo USE flags</title>
138<body>
139
140<p>
141To compile programs with ALSA-support, be sure to add <e>alsa</e> to
142your USE-variable. However, several tools don't support alsa yet, and
143require OSS. ALSA provides OSS-emulation if you define <e>oss</e> in your
144USE-variable before you start.
145</p>
146
147</body>
148</section>
149<section>
82 <title>Kernel modules</title> 150<title>Kernel modules</title>
83<body> 151<body>
84<p> 152
85Since we're still using 2.4.x kernel sources, we'll have to compile kernel modules and ALSA modules separately.
86</p> 153<p>
154When using the 2.4 kernels, you'll need to compile the alsa drivers separately
155from the rest of the kernel. If you are using a 2.6 kernel, you have the
156option of using the ALSA drivers included in the kernel or those provided
157by the <c>alsa-driver</c> package.
158</p>
159
87<p> 160<p>
88First we'll make sure that our kernel configuration is ready for use with ALSA. 161First we'll make sure that our kernel configuration is ready for use with ALSA.
89All you need in your kernel configuration is having Sound Card Support set to be built as a module (M). 162All you need in your kernel configuration is having Sound Card Support set to
90This will build <c>soundcore.o</c>. 163be built as a module (M). This will build <path>soundcore.o</path>.
91</p>
92<p> 164</p>
93<note> 165
94Possibly, this will also work when you built Sound Card Support in the kernel (Y) instead of building it as a module (M).
95However, the official ALSA documentation suggests building it as a module, since ALSA will try loading it.
96</note> 166<note>
167Possibly, this will also work if you build 'Sound Card Support' in the kernel
168(Y) instead of building it as a module (M). However, the official ALSA
169documentation suggests building it as a module, since ALSA will try loading it.
170</note>
171
97</p> 172<p>
98<p>If you already have a working kernel configuration, make sure you remove all sound drivers (except for Sound Card Support). 173If you already have a working kernel configuration, make sure you remove all
99If you wish to do this without having to reboot, you could do like this: 174sound drivers (except for Sound Card Support). If you wish to do this without
175having to reboot, you could do like this:
100</p> 176</p>
101<pre> 177
178<pre caption="Kernel configuration">
102# <c>cd /usr/src/linux</c> 179# <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
103# <c>cp .config ~/</c> 180# <i>cp .config ~/</i>
104# <c>make mrproper</c> 181# <i>make mrproper</i>
105# <c>cp ~/.config .</c> 182# <i>cp ~/.config .</i>
106# <c>make menuconfig</c> 183# <i>make menuconfig</i>
107</pre> 184</pre>
185
108<p> 186<p>
109Now select <e>Sound Card Support</e> as Module (M) and deselect all other sound drivers. 187Now select <e>Sound Card Support</e> as Module (M) and deselect all other sound
188drivers. If you are using 2.6 with the ALSA modules provided by the kernel, select
189the drivers for your sound card as well (look in the <uri
190link="#doc_chap2_sect3">ALSA modules</uri> section below if you need help
110Exit and say Y to save your kernel configuration. 191choosing the right drivers). Exit and say Y to save your kernel configuration.
111After that, build the modules: 192After that, build the modules:
112</p> 193</p>
113<pre> 194
195<pre caption="2.4 Kernel compilation">
114# <c>make dep clean</c> 196# <i>make dep clean</i>
115# <c>make modules modules_install</c> 197# <i>make modules modules_install</i>
116</pre> 198</pre>
199
200<pre caption="2.6 Kernel compilation">
201# <i>make</i>
202# <i>make modules_install</i>
203</pre>
204
205<p>
206If you compiled 2.6 with the ALSA modules provided by the kernel, please skip to
207<uri link="#doc_chap2_sect4">Configuration of ALSA</uri> below.
117<p> 208</p>
209
210<p>
118Before installing your new modules, this last line will delete all your previous modules, 211Before installing your new modules, this last line will delete all your previous
119even the ones from a previous ALSA installation. 212modules, even the ones from a previous ALSA installation.
120</p>
121<p> 213</p>
214
122<impo> 215<impo>
123This means, whenever you recompile your kernel later on, you MUST recompile <c>alsa-driver</c>. 216This means, whenever you recompile your kernel later on, you MUST recompile
217<c>alsa-driver</c>.
124</impo> 218</impo>
125</p>
126<p>
127<note>However, there's no need to reinstall <c>nvidia-kernel</c>, the Nvidia drivers are in a separate directory
128in <path>/lib/modules/*/video</path> and won't get deleted by a <c>make modules modules_install</c>
129</note>
130</p>
131</body>
132</section>
133 219
220</body>
134<section> 221</section>
222<section>
135 <title>ALSA modules</title> 223<title>ALSA modules</title>
136<body> 224<body>
137 225
138<p>
139Now it's time to install the ALSA drivers for your soundcard(s). If your soundcard is PCI, you can find out the name
140and type of your soundcard by looking at the output of /proc/pci
141<pre>#<c>grep audio /proc/pci</c></pre>
142</p> 226<p>
143 227Now it's time to install the ALSA drivers for your soundcard(s). If your
228soundcard is PCI, you can find out the name and type of your soundcard by
229looking at the output of <path>/proc/pci</path>.
144<p> 230</p>
231
232<pre caption="Search for soundcard information">
233# <i>grep audio /proc/pci</i>
234</pre>
235
145<warn> 236<warn>
146If you had a previous sound setup and there are still non-ALSA sound modules loaded, unload them <e>now</e>. 237If you had a previous sound setup and there are still non-ALSA sound modules
147Check with <c>lsmod</c> and use <c>rmmod</c> to unload all sound-related modules on your system. 238loaded, unload them <e>now</e>. Check with <c>lsmod</c> and use <c>rmmod</c>
239to unload all sound-related modules on your system. If <c>rmmod</c> complains
240about not being able to unload the modules because they are in use, try using
241<c>/etc/init.c/alsasound stop</c> to remove them.
148</warn> 242</warn>
243
149</p> 244<p>
150 245We could simply do an <c>emerge alsa-driver</c> now, this would compile and
246install <e>all</e> ALSA sound drivers.
151<p> 247</p>
152We could simply do an <c>emerge alsa-driver</c> now, this would compile and install <e>all</e> ALSA sound drivers. 248
153</p> 249<p>
154<p>
155However, to save some time, lookup the <e>Module Name</e> of your soundcard(s) on the 250However, to save some time, lookup the <e>Module Name</e> of your soundcard(s)
156<uri link="http://www.alsa-project.org/alsa-doc">ALSA Soundcard Matrix</uri> under the <e>Install</e> section. 251on the <uri link="http://www.alsa-project.org/alsa-doc">ALSA Soundcard
157Mine is <c>EMU10K1</c>, since I have an SBlive! soundcard. 252Matrix</uri> by following the <e>Details</e> link in the <e>Driver and Docs</e>
158We'll set ALSA_CARDS environment to this value before emerging, so emerge will only compile the drivers we need. 253column in the row of the chipset of your soundcard. Mine is <c>snd-emu10k1</c>,
159</p> 254since I have an SBlive! soundcard, with the <e>EMU10K1</e> chipset. We'll set
160 255ALSA_CARDS environment to the value of the module name before emerging (but
256without the snd prefix), so emerge will only compile the drivers we need.
161<p> 257</p>
162<pre> 258
259<pre caption="With 2.4 Kernel">
163# <c>env ALSA_CARDS='emu10k1' emerge alsa-driver</c> 260# <i>env ALSA_CARDS='emu10k1' emerge alsa-driver</i>
164</pre>
165</p> 261</pre>
166<p> 262
167<note> 263<pre caption="With 2.6 Kernel">
168When you want to install ALSA drivers for more than one soundcard, you could set ALSA_CARDS to a space-separated list 264# <i>env ALSA_CARDS='emu10k1' emerge \>=media-sound/alsa-driver-1.0.2c</i>
169of drivers; like this: <c>env ALSA_CARDS='emu10k1 intel8x0 ens1370' emerge alsa-driver</c> 265</pre>
266
170</note> 267<note>
2682.6 kernels require alsa-driver to be at least version 1.0.2c.
269</note>
171 270
271<note>
272You can also add this value in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>, so when you have
273to emerge the alsa-driver later on you can just run <c>emerge alsa-driver</c>.
274For example, like this: <c>echo 'ALSA_CARDS="emu10k1"' >> /etc/make.conf</c>
275</note>
276
277<note>
278When you want to install ALSA drivers for more than one soundcard, you could
279set ALSA_CARDS to a space-separated list of drivers; like this: <c>env
280ALSA_CARDS='emu10k1 intel8x0 ens1370' emerge alsa-driver</c>
281</note>
282
283<note>
172<note>If you want to have OSS compatibility, make sure to emerge <i>alsa-oss</i>, it is the ALSA/OSS compatibility 284If you want to have OSS compatibility, make sure to emerge <i>alsa-oss</i>, it
173wrapper. </note> 285is the ALSA/OSS compatibility wrapper.
286</note>
174 287
175</p> 288<note>
289If you plan on recompiling your kernels numerous times, it might
290be adviseable to emerge <c>alsa-driver</c> with <c>--buildpkg</c>. This
291will create a binary package for it. Later, after recompiling your kernel,
292you can just do <c>emerge --usepkg alsa-driver</c> which will install the
293binary package instead of recompiling it completely. If 'depmod -a' ever
294complains about sound drivers having unreferenced symbols when you do this,
295you will need to recompile the alsa-driver package from source.
296</note>
297
176<p> 298<p>
177After this, the ALSA modules should be installed on your system. 299After this, the ALSA modules should be installed on your system.
178</p> 300</p>
301
179</body> 302</body>
180</section>
181<section> 303</section>
304<section>
182 <title>Configuration of ALSA</title> 305<title>Configuration of ALSA</title>
183<body> 306<body>
307
184<p> 308<p>
185Let's start configuring now to get ALSA working properly. 309Let's start configuring now to get ALSA working properly. We'll need to edit
186We'll need to edit some files, to let our system know about the freshly installed ALSA modules. 310some files, to let our system know about the freshly installed ALSA modules.
187</p>
188<p> 311</p>
189First file to edit is <path>/etc/modules.d/alsa</path>. 312
190</p> 313<p>
314First, install <c>alsa-utils</c> on your system:
315</p>
316
317<pre caption = "Emerging alsa-utils">
318# <i>emerge alsa-utils</i>
319</pre>
320
321<p>
322Hereafter, we need to edit <path>/etc/modules.d/alsa</path>.
323</p>
324
191<warn> 325<warn>
192There is no need to edit <path>/etc/modules.conf</path>. Instead, always edit files in <path>/etc/modules.d</path>. 326There is no need to edit <path>/etc/modules.conf</path>. Instead, always edit
327files in <path>/etc/modules.d</path> and run <c>modules-update</c> to generate
328<path>/etc/modules.conf</path> from the updated data.
193</warn> 329</warn>
194<p>
195Check the ALSA portion <e>at the bottom of the file</e>.
196By tweaking this line you can specify the max number of soundcards you have (generally, just one).
197</p>
198<p>
199<pre caption="At the top of /etc/modules.d/alsa">
200# Alsa 0.9.X kernel modules' configuration file.
201# $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/alsa-guide.xml,v 1.7 2003/02/09 23:27:14 zhen Exp $
202 330
203# ALSA portion
204alias char-major-116 snd
205<c>options snd major=116 cards_limit=1</c>
206# OSS/Free portion
207alias char-major-14 soundcore
208
209##
210## IMPORTANT:
211</pre>
212</p>
213<p>
214Now we'll specify the sounddriver(s) ALSA should use. In the same file, edit like this:
215<pre caption="A bit lower in /etc/modules.d/alsa"> 331<pre caption="In /etc/modules.d/alsa">
216## and then run `update-modules' command. 332## and then run `modules-update' command.
217## Read alsa-driver's INSTALL file in /usr/share/doc for more info. 333## Read alsa-driver's INSTALL file in /usr/share/doc for more info.
218## 334##
219## ALSA portion 335## ALSA portion
220<c>alias snd-card-0 snd-emu10k1</c> 336alias snd-card-0 snd-emu10k1
221<c>## If you have more than one, add:
222## alias snd-card-1 snd-intel8x0 337## alias snd-card-1 snd-intel8x0
223## alias snd-card-2 snd-ens1370</c> 338## alias snd-card-2 snd-ens1370
224## OSS/Free portion 339## OSS/Free portion
225## alias sound-slot-0 snd-card-0 340alias sound-slot-0 snd-card-0
226## alias sound-slot-1 snd-card-1 341## alias sound-slot-1 snd-card-1
342## alias sound-slot-2 snd-card-2
227## 343##
228</pre> 344</pre>
229</p> 345
230<p>
231<note> 346<note>
232If you have more than one soundcard, adjust the <c>cards_limit</c> value and add more snd-card aliases to the file. 347If you have more than one soundcard, add more <c>snd-card</c> and <c>snd-slot</c>
233I don't have experience with this, but you can find examples for configurations with two or more soundcards in 348aliases and adjust the <c>cards_limit</c> value at the end of the file. You can
349find examples for configurations with two or more soundcards in <uri
234<uri link="http://www.alsa-project.org/alsa-doc/alsa-howto/c1660.htm">Chapter 6</uri> 350link="http://www.alsa-project.org/alsa-doc/alsa-howto/c1660.htm">Chapter 6</uri>
351of the <uri
235of the <uri link="http://www.alsa-project.org/alsa-doc/alsa-howto/alsa-howto.html">ALSA Howto</uri>. 352link="http://www.alsa-project.org/alsa-doc/alsa-howto/alsa-howto.html">ALSA
353Howto</uri>.
236</note> 354</note>
355
237</p> 356<p>
357Last thing to do in this file, almost at the end, check if these lines are there
358and uncommented:
238<p> 359</p>
239Last thing to do in this file, at the very bottom, check if these lines are there and uncommented: 360
240<pre caption="at the very bottom of /etc/modules.d/alsa"> 361<pre caption="Near the end of /etc/modules.d/alsa">
241alias /dev/mixer snd-mixer-oss 362alias /dev/mixer snd-mixer-oss
242alias /dev/dsp snd-pcm-oss 363alias /dev/dsp snd-pcm-oss
243alias /dev/midi snd-seq-oss 364alias /dev/midi snd-seq-oss
244</pre> 365</pre>
366
245</p> 367<p>
368After double-checking the file <path>/etc/modules.d/alsa</path> to make sure
369everyting is ok, run <c>modules-update</c>.
246<p> 370</p>
247Now double-check the file <path>/etc/modules.d/alsa</path> and when you're sure everyting is ok, run <c>update-modules</c>. 371
372<pre caption="Running modules-update">
373# <i>modules-update</i>
248<pre> 374</pre>
249# <c>update-modules</c> 375
250</pre>
251</p>
252<note>
253Running <c>update-modules</c> here will insert the data from <path>/etc/modules.d/alsa</path> into <path>/etc/modules.conf</path>
254</note> 376<note>
255<p> 377Running <c>modules-update</c> here will insert the data from
256You should also verify that /etc/devfsd.conf has the alsa devices and permissions correctly registered. 378<path>/etc/modules.d/alsa</path> into <path>/etc/modules.conf</path>
379</note>
380
257</p> 381<p>
258<pre> 382You should also verify that <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path> has the alsa devices
259# nano -w /etc/devfsd.conf 383and permissions correctly registered.
260</pre> 384</p>
261<pre> 385
386<pre caption="/etc/devfsd.conf">
262# ALSA/OSS stuff 387# ALSA/OSS stuff
263# Comment/change these if you want to change the permissions on 388# Comment/change these if you want to change the permissions on
264# the audio devices 389# the audio devices
265LOOKUP snd MODLOAD ACTION snd 390LOOKUP snd MODLOAD ACTION snd
266LOOKUP dsp MODLOAD 391LOOKUP dsp MODLOAD
267LOOKUP mixer MODLOAD 392LOOKUP mixer MODLOAD
268LOOKUP midi MODLOAD 393LOOKUP midi MODLOAD
269REGISTER sound/.* PERMISSIONS root.audio 660 394REGISTER sound/.* PERMISSIONS root.audio 660
270REGISTER snd/.* PERMISSIONS root.audio 660 395REGISTER snd/.* PERMISSIONS root.audio 660
271</pre> 396</pre>
272<note> 397
273Notice that devfsd.conf sets /dev/sound permissions to be root.audio. Thus, for non-root users to use audio they will have to be part of the audio group.
274</note> 398<note>
399Notice that devfsd.conf sets <path>/dev/sound</path> permissions to be
400root.audio. Thus, for non-root users to use audio they will have to be part of
401the audio group.
402</note>
403
275</body> 404</body>
276</section> 405</section>
277</chapter> 406</chapter>
407
278<chapter> 408<chapter>
279<title>Starting ALSA</title> 409<title>Starting ALSA</title>
280<section> 410<section>
281 <title>Adding alsasound to a runlevel</title> 411<title>Adding alsasound to a runlevel</title>
282<body> 412<body>
413
414<p>
415An init script is provided for you which will install all neccessary sound drivers
416for your card (including the OSS support drivers if you set USE=oss). The first
417thing to do now is to make ALSA startup at boot time:
283<p> 418</p>
284First thing to do now, is to make ALSA startup at boottime. Like this: 419
285<pre> 420<pre caption="Add ALSA to the boot runlevel">
286# <c>rc-update add alsasound boot</c> 421# <i>rc-update add alsasound boot</i>
287</pre>
288</p>
289<p>
290<warn>Note that the alsasound script should be added to the "boot" runlevel, not the "default" runlevel.</warn>
291</p>
292</body>
293</section>
294<section>
295 <title>Running and unmuting</title>
296<body>
297<p>
298Since we're Linux users, we don't want to reboot. So we'll start the alsasound script manually.
299</p>
300<pre> 422</pre>
301# <c>/etc/init.d/alsasound start</c> 423
302</pre>
303<p>
304ALSA is running now. If everything is ok, you should be able to see the ALSA modules loaded when running <c>lsmod</c>.
305However, sound won't work yet, because the channels are still muted. We need <c>alsa-utils</c> for this.
306</p>
307<pre>
308# <c>emerge alsa-utils</c>
309# <c>amixer</c>
310</pre>
311<p>
312<warn> 424<warn>
313You shouldn't get this, but <e>if</e> you get an error about "amixer: Mixer attach default error: No such file or directory", you should manually insmod 425Note that the alsasound script should be added to the "boot" runlevel, not the
426"default" runlevel.
427</warn>
428
429</body>
430</section>
431<section>
432<title>Running and unmuting</title>
433<body>
434
435<p>
436Since we're Linux users, we don't want to reboot. So we'll start the alsasound
437script manually.
438</p>
439
440<pre caption="Starting ALSA">
441# <i>/etc/init.d/alsasound start</i>
442</pre>
443
444<p>
445ALSA is running now. If everything is ok, you should be able to see the ALSA
446modules loaded when running <c>lsmod</c>. However, sound won't work yet,
447because the channels are still muted. We need <c>amixer</c> to fix this.
448</p>
449
450<pre caption = "Running amixer">
451# <i>amixer</i>
452</pre>
453
454<!-- alsasound init script will do this for them now...
455<warn>
456You shouldn't get this, but <e>if</e> you get an error about "amixer: Mixer
457attach default error: No such file or directory", you should manually modprobe
314<c>snd-mixer-oss</c> and <c>snd-pcm-oss</c> once. After that run amixer again. 458<c>snd-mixer-oss</c> and <c>snd-pcm-oss</c> once. After that run amixer again.
315</warn> 459</warn>
316</p> 460
317<pre caption="only if you get an error when running amixer"> 461<pre caption="Only if you get an error when running amixer">
318# <c>insmod snd-mixer-oss</c> 462# <i>modprobe snd-mixer-oss</i>
319# <c>insmod snd-pcm-oss</c> 463# <i>modprobe snd-pcm-oss</i>
320# <c>amixer</c> 464# <i>amixer</i>
321</pre>
322<p>
323If you got this far, now unmute both Master and PCM channels.
324</p>
325<p>
326<pre> 465</pre>
466-->
467
468<p>
469If you got this far, now unmute Master and PCM channels. Some hardware
470even requires you to unmute the center channel or even the surround
471channel.
472</p>
473
474<pre caption = "Unmuting channels">
327# <c>amixer set Master 100 unmute</c> 475# <i>amixer set Master 100 unmute</i>
328# <c>amixer set PCM 100 unmute</c> 476# <i>amixer set PCM 100 unmute</i>
477<comment>Only if the above doesn't succeed on its own:</comment>
478# <i>amixer set Center 100 unmute</i>
479# <i>amixer set Surround 100 unmute</i>
480<comment>Test the sound:</comment>
329# <c>aplay /usr/kde/3/share/sounds/pop.wav</c> <codenote>(pop.wav is part of KDE)</codenote> 481# <i>aplay $KDEDIR/share/sounds/pop.wav</i> <codenote>(pop.wav is part of KDE)</codenote>
330</pre> 482</pre>
483
331</p> 484<p>
332We check to see if sound is working by using the aplay (alsa play) command. If you hear a pop, then sound is indeed working. 485We check to see if sound is working by using the aplay (alsa play) command. If
486you hear a pop, then sound is indeed working. Then, adjust the volume settings
333Then, adjust the volume settings to your liking; the ncurses-based <c>alsamixer</c> is a great way to get them "just so". 487to your liking; the ncurses-based <c>alsamixer</c> is a great way to get them
488"just so".
334<p> 489</p>
335You may want to emerge <c>alsa-xmms</c> as that will provide ALSA support for XMMS. 490
336</p> 491<p>
337When you reboot your system, the <e>alsasound</e> init script will properly save and restore your volume settings. 492When you reboot your system, the <c>alsasound</c> init script will
493properly save and restore your volume settings.
494</p>
495
338</body> 496</body>
339</section> 497</section>
340</chapter> 498</chapter>
499
500<chapter>
501<title>MIDI Support</title>
502<section>
503<title>Hardware Synthesizer</title>
504<body>
505
506<p>
507Some sound cards (SBLive, Audigy, and others) come with onboard MIDI synthesizers.
508To use them, you must first install the <c>awesfx</c> package.
509</p>
510
511<pre caption="Install awesfx">
512# <i>emerge awesfx</i>
513</pre>
514
515<p>
516Now, you should place your sound fonts in <path>/usr/share/sfbank/</path>. You
517can probably get the sound fonts off of the windows driver CD for your sound card.
518With the SBLive, one of the included sound font files is called 8MBGMSFX.SF2.
519</p>
520
521<note>
522On some recents CD supplied with a SBLive, the font file is called CT4GMSFX.SF2.
523If it is your case, please replace all occurences of 8MBGMSFX.SF2 with
524CT4GMSFX.SF2 in the examples.
525</note>
526
527<p>
528After copying over the sound font you want to use, you need to select it for use
529with <c>/usr/bin/sfxload</c>.
530</p>
531
532<pre caption="Selecting the sound font">
533# <i>/usr/bin/sfxload /usr/share/sfbank/8MBGMSFX.SF2</i>
534</pre>
535
536<note>
537You may wish to place this command in /etc/conf.d/local.start or in the startup
538script for your sound card (/etc/alsa.d/emu10k1) to make sure it gets loaded
539at startup.
540</note>
541
542</body>
543</section>
544<section>
545<title>Timidity++ Virtual Synthesizer</title>
546<body>
547
548<p>
549If your sound card does not come with a hardware synthesizer (or you don't
550want to use it), you can use <c>timidity++</c> to provide you with a virtual
551synthesizer. Start by emerging this package:
552</p>
553
554<pre caption="Installing Timidity++">
555# <i>emerge timidity++</i>
556</pre>
557
558<p>
559A sample configuration file will be installed for you in
560<path>/usr/share/timitidy/config/timidity.cfg</path>. If you don't have a
561timidity++ configuration setup yet, you can just use this one.
562</p>
563
564<pre caption="Use the default Timidity++ configuration file">
565# <i>cp /usr/share/timitidy/config/timidity.cfg /usr/share/timidity</i>
566</pre>
567
568<p>
569Now, you need to enable the init script to run when your system boots
570and enable it now.
571</p>
572
573<pre caption="Add timidity to default runlevel and start it now">
574# <i>rc-update add timidity default</i>
575# <i>/etc/init.d/timidity start</i>
576</pre>
577
578<p>
579Note that there is a configuration file for the init script that you can
580modify in <path>/etc/conf.d/timidity</path>, and sane defaults have been
581chosen for you.
582</p>
583
584</body>
585</section>
586<section>
587<title>Testing MIDI Support</title>
588<body>
589
590<p>
591You can use <c>pmidi</c> to test out your MIDI configuration. To do so,
592you need to first emerge its package.
593</p>
594
595<pre caption="Installing pmidi">
596# <i>emerge pmidi</i>
597</pre>
598
599<p>
600The '-l' command line option to pmidi will list all detected MIDI output ports,
601and '-p' can be used to select the one for playback. Check to see what
602MIDI output ports are available on your system:
603</p>
604
605<pre caption="Listed ports when using hardware synthesizer">
606# <i>pmidi -l</i>
607 Port Client name Port name
608 64:0 Rawmidi 0 - EMU10K1 MPU-401 (U EMU10K1 MPU-401 (UART)
609 65:0 Emu10k1 WaveTable Emu10k1 Port 0
610 65:1 Emu10k1 WaveTable Emu10k1 Port 1
611 65:2 Emu10k1 WaveTable Emu10k1 Port 2
612 65:3 Emu10k1 WaveTable Emu10k1 Port 3
613</pre>
614
615<pre caption="Listed ports when using Timidity++">
616# <i>pmidi -l</i>
617 Port Client name Port name
618 64:0 Rawmidi 0 - ES1371 ES1371
619128:0 TiMidity TiMidity port 0
620128:1 TiMidity TiMidity port 1
621128:2 TiMidity TiMidity port 2
622128:3 TiMidity TiMidity port 3
623</pre>
624
625<p>
626Now, try playing a MIDI file to make sure everything works:
627</p>
628
629<pre caption="Play a song">
630# <i>pmidi -p 65:0 Final\ Fantasy\ 7\ -\ Aerith\'s\ Theme.mid</i>
631or
632# <i>pmidi -p 128:0 Final\ Fantasy\ 7\ -\ Aerith\'s\ Theme.mid</i>
633</pre>
634
635</body>
636</section>
637</chapter>
638
341<chapter> 639<chapter>
342<title>Final Notes</title> 640<title>Final Notes</title>
343<section> 641<section>
344 <title>After kernel-upgrades..</title> 642<title>After kernel-upgrades...</title>
345<body> 643<body>
644
645<p>
346<p>When you ever rebuild your kernel, or upgrade to another kernel, you'll have to rebuild the ALSA modules.</p> 646When you ever rebuild your kernel, or upgrade to another kernel, you'll have to
647rebuild the ALSA modules.
648</p>
649
650<p>
347<p>Although you might have installed <c>alsa-driver</c>, <c>alsa-libs</c> and <c>alsa-utils</c>, only the first will 651Although you might have installed <c>alsa-driver</c>, <c>alsa-lib</c> and
348have to be installed again, since it will put the alsa modules in 652<c>alsa-utils</c>, only the first will have to be installed again, since it will
349<path>/lib/modules/*/kernel/sound/pci/</path>.</p> 653put the alsa modules in <path>/lib/modules/*/kernel/sound/pci/</path>.
654</p>
655
350<pre caption="needed after each kernel compile"> 656<pre caption="Needed after each kernel compile">
351emerge alsa-driver 657# <i>emerge alsa-driver</i>
352</pre> 658</pre>
659
353</body> 660</body>
354</section>
355<section> 661</section>
662<section>
663<title>alsa-tools and alsa-firmware</title>
664<body>
665
666<p>
667The alsa-tools and alsa-firmware packages contain tools useful to only users of
668specific sound cards. Most users will not need these. If you do need alsa-tools,
669you can set the environment variable 'ALSA_TOOLS' to install just the needed tools
670for your card:
671</p>
672
673<pre caption="Installing alsa-tools">
674# <i>env ALSA_TOOLS='as10k1 ac3dec' emerge alsa-tools</i>
675</pre>
676
677</body>
678</section>
679<section>
680<title>Mixing versions</title>
681<body>
682
683<p>
684Often times, different versions of <c>alsa-driver</c>, <c>alsa-lib</c>,
685<c>alsa-utils</c>, <c>alsa-tools</c>, and <c>alsa-oss</c> will work with each
686other, but it is recommended that you try to keep the versions in sync.
687</p>
688
689</body>
690</section>
691<section>
356 <title>/etc/modules.autoload</title> 692<title>/etc/modules.autoload</title>
357<body> 693<body>
694
695<p>
358<p>You won't have to edit this file for use with ALSA. After our <c>rc-update add alsasound boot</c>, our system will 696You won't have to edit this file for use with ALSA. After doing <c>rc-update add
359load the correct modules at startup.</p> 697alsasound boot</c>, the correct modules will be loaded at startup.
698</p>
699
700<!--
701<p>
360<p>It's not necessary to add <c>snd-pcm-oss</c> or <c>snd-mixer-oss</c> in this file. 702It's not necessary to add <c>snd-pcm-oss</c> or <c>snd-mixer-oss</c> in this
361Check the <uri link="http://www.djcj.org/LAU/guide/alsbook/faq1.html">this FAQ</uri> for more info.</p> 703file. Check the <uri link="http://www.djcj.org/LAU/guide/alsbook/faq1.html">this
704FAQ</uri> for more info.
705</p>
706-->
707
362</body> 708</body>
363</section>
364<section> 709</section>
710<section>
711<title>Known bugs</title>
712<body>
713
714<note>
715This guide lags behind on the alsa-development. Chances are these bugs
716are already fixed when you read this.
717</note>
718
719<ul>
720 <li>
721 If you have <b>lots of noise</b> when using <b>oss</b> emulation, add
722 <e>options snd-pcm-oss dsp_map=1</e> to <path>/etc/modules.d/alsa</path>
723 </li>
724</ul>
725
726</body>
727</section>
728<section>
729<title>Activating Joystick Support</title>
730<body>
731
732<p>
733If your soundcard has a joystick plug, you might be interested in activating
734joystick support for your soundcard. If so, start by verifying if your soundcard
735driver has a joystick parameter. You can verify this by running <c>modinfo</c>
736against your <path>snd-&lt;your chipset&gt;</path>. For instance, for the
737<c>snd-via82xx</c>:
738</p>
739
740<pre caption="Running modinfo">
741# <i>modinfo snd-via82xx</i>
742filename: /lib/modules/2.4.22-ck2/snd-via82xx.o
743description: "VIA VT82xx audio"
744author: "Jaroslav Kysela &lt;perex@suse.cz&gt;"
745license: "GPL"
746parm: index int array (min = 1, max = 8), description "Index value for VIA 82xx bridge."
747parm: id string array (min = 1, max = 8), description "ID string for VIA 82xx bridge."
748parm: enable int array (min = 1, max = 8), description "Enable audio part of VIA 82xx bridge."
749parm: mpu_port long array (min = 1, max = 8), description "MPU-401 port. (VT82C686x only)"
750<i>parm: joystick int array (min = 1, max = 8), description "Enable joystick. (VT82C686x only)"</i>
751parm: ac97_clock int array (min = 1, max = 8), description "AC'97 codec clock (default 48000Hz)."
752parm: dxs_support int array (min = 1, max = 8), description "Support for DXS channels
753 (0 = auto, 1 = enable, 2 = disable, 3 = 48k only, 4 = no VRA)"
754</pre>
755
756<p>
757If it has the <c>joystick</c> parameter, then append <c>joystick=1</c> to your
758<c>options</c> line in <path>/etc/modules.d/alsa</path>. For instance, for the
759<c>snd-via82xx</c>:
760</p>
761
762<pre caption="Adding the joystick parameter">
763alias snd-card-0 snd-via82xx
764options snd-via82xx joystick=1
765</pre>
766
767</body>
768</section>
769<section>
365 <title>More links..</title> 770<title>More links...</title>
366<body> 771<body>
772
367<p> 773<p>
368You could check these for additional info: 774You could check these for additional info:
369</p> 775</p>
370<p> 776
371<ul> 777<ul>
372<li><uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/desktop.html">The Gentoo Linux Desktop Configuration Guide</uri></li> 778 <li>
779 <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/desktop.xml">The Gentoo Linux
780 Desktop Configuration Guide</uri>
781 </li>
782 <li>
373<li><uri link="http://www.alsa-project.org">ALSA Project Homepage</uri></li> 783 <uri link="http://www.alsa-project.org">ALSA Project Homepage</uri>
784 </li>
785 <li>
374<li><uri link="http://www.alsa-project.org/documentation.php3">ALSA Users Documentation</uri></li> 786 <uri link="http://www.alsa-project.org/documentation.php3">ALSA Users
787 Documentation</uri>
788 </li>
789 <li>
375<li><uri link="http://www.djcj.org">ALSA Howto's and FAQ's</uri></li> 790 <uri link="http://www.djcj.org">ALSA Howto's and FAQ's</uri>
791 </li>
792 <li>
376<li><uri link="http://tldp.org/HOWTO/Sound-HOWTO/index.html">Linux Sound HOWTO</uri></li> 793 <uri link="http://tldp.org/HOWTO/Sound-HOWTO/index.html">Linux Sound
794 HOWTO</uri>
795 </li>
796 <li>
377<li><uri link="http://linux-sound.org/">Sound and MIDI Software For Linux</uri></li> 797 <uri link="http://linux-sound.org/">Sound and MIDI Software For Linux</uri>
798 </li>
378</ul> 799</ul>
379</p> 800
380</body> 801</body>
381</section> 802</section>
382</chapter> 803</chapter>
383</guide> 804</guide>

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