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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?> 1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/alsa-guide.xml,v 1.49 2005/03/06 12:27:59 swift Exp $ -->
2<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 4
4<guide link = "/doc/en/alsa-guide.xml"> 5<guide link="/doc/en/alsa-guide.xml">
5<title>Gentoo Linux ALSA Guide</title> 6<title>Gentoo Linux ALSA Guide</title>
6<author title="Author"><mail link="zu@pandora.be"> 7<author title="Author">
7 Vincent Verleye</mail> 8 <mail link="zu@pandora.be">Vincent Verleye</mail>
8</author> 9</author>
9 10<author title="Author">
11 <mail link="g2boojum@gentoo.org">Grant Goodyear</mail>
12</author>
13<author title="Author">
14 <mail link="agenkin@gentoo.org">Arcady Genkin</mail>
15</author>
16<author title="Author">
17 <mail link="eradicator@gentoo.org">Jeremy Huddleston</mail>
18</author>
10<author title="Editor"><mail link="zhen@gentoo.org"> 19<author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
11 John P. Davis</mail> 20 John P. Davis
21</author>
22<author title="Editor">
23 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
24</author>
25<author title="Editor">
26 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
27</author>
28<author title="Editor">
29 <mail link="blubber@gentoo.org">Tiemo Kieft</mail>
30</author>
31<author title="Editor">
32 <mail link="erwin@gentoo.org">Erwin</mail>
12</author> 33</author>
13 34
14<abstract> 35<abstract>
15This guide will show you how to set up the Advanced Linux Sound Architecture (ALSA) on Gentoo Linux. 36This guide will show you how to set up the Advanced Linux Sound Architecture
16In addition to the Gentoo Linux Desktop Configuration Guide, this guide is supposed to give you more information on this subject. </abstract> 37(ALSA) on Gentoo Linux. In addition to the Gentoo Linux Desktop Configuration
38Guide, this guide is supposed to give you more information on this subject.
39</abstract>
17 40
41<license/>
42
18<version>1.2</version> 43<version>1.5.11</version>
19<date>09 February 2003</date> 44<date>2005-03-06</date>
20 45
21<chapter> 46<chapter>
22<title>Introduction</title> 47<title>The Advanced Linux Sound Architecture</title>
23<section> 48<section>
24 <title>What is ALSA?</title> 49<title>What is ALSA?</title>
25<body>
26<p>
27The Advanced Linux Sound Architecture (ALSA) is a project to improve the Linux sound subsystem by rewriting
28large chunks of it.
29It is anticipated that ALSA will make it into Linux kernel 2.6.x (or 3.x.x -- whichever comes first) as it becomes ready.
30</p>
31
32<p>
33ALSA provides audio and MIDI functionality for Linux.
34</p>
35
36<p>
37Quoted from <uri>http://www.alsa-project.org</uri>, ALSA has the following features:
38<ul><li> Efficient support for all types of audio interfaces, from consumer soundcards to professional multichannel audio interfaces.</li>
39 <li> Fully modularized sound drivers.</li>
40 <li> SMP and thread-safe design.</li>
41 <li> User space library (alsa-lib) to simplify application programming and provide higher level functionality.</li>
42 <li> Support for the older OSS API, providing binary compatibility for most OSS programs.</li>
43</ul>
44There's lots more to ALSA however, like support for Full Duplex playback and recording, multiple soundcard support,
45hardware mixing of streams, extensive mixer capabilities (to support advanced features of new soundcards), ...
46</p>
47</body> 50<body>
48</section> 51
49<section>
50 <title>Why use ALSA?</title>
51<body>
52<p> 52<p>
53If your soundcard is supported by the Linux kernel sound system or the commercial OSS/4Front sound driver system, 53ALSA is the <e>Advanced Linux Sound Architecture</e>, a project dedicated to the
54which can be found in all 2.4.x Linux kernels, you could just aswell build <e>those modules</e> for use with your soundcard. 54development of a high-quality Linux sound subsystem. It has replaced OSS
55If you want this, just read through the <uri link="http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/Sound-HOWTO/index.html">Linux Sound HOWTO</uri>. 55(<e>Open Sound System</e>) as default sound subsystem in the 2.6 kernel series.
56</p> 56</p>
57
57<p> 58<p>
58However, those OSS/4Front drivers have some limitations -- being commercial is one. 59ALSA provides efficient support for all types of audio interfaces, is fully
59ALSA is an attempt to go beyond these limitations and to do so in an open source fashion. 60modularized, is SMP and thread-safe and provides a high-quality user space
60ALSA is a fully GPL and LGPL'ed sound driver system, that provides a professional quality system for recording, playback, 61library called <e>alsa-lib</e> to simplify application programming. It also
61and MIDI sequencing. 62provides a backwards compatibility layer with OSS.
62</p> 63</p>
63</body> 64
64</section>
65<section>
66 <title>What cards does ALSA support?</title>
67<body>
68<p>
69ALSA tries to support as many (new) cards as possible by providing open-source drivers.
70However, some vendors may provide binary-only packages.
71</p>
72<p>To know if your card is supported, you can find a Soundcard Matrix of supported and not-supported cards here:
73<uri>http://www.alsa-project.org/alsa-doc/</uri>.
74</p>
75</body> 65</body>
76</section> 66</section>
77</chapter> 67</chapter>
78
79<chapter> 68<chapter>
80<title>Installation</title> 69<title>Installing ALSA</title>
70<section>
71<title>USE Flags</title>
72<body>
73
74<p>
75Gentoo provides an <c>alsa</c> USE flag which you should set in
76<path>/etc/make.conf</path> to allow our available packages to compile with
77ALSA support. If you have <c>oss</c> in your USE variable as well, ALSA will
78compile with OSS backward compatibility.
79</p>
80
81</body>
81<section> 82</section>
83<section>
82 <title>Kernel modules</title> 84<title>Kernel Modules</title>
83<body> 85<body>
84<p> 86
85Since we're still using 2.4.x kernel sources, we'll have to compile kernel modules and ALSA modules separately.
86</p> 87<p>
88First of all, before continuing, make sure your kernel has <e>Sound Card
89Support</e> enabled. If you used <c>genkernel</c> to build your kernel, then
90this is automatically true. Otherwise reconfigure your kernel. Additionally,
91make sure you disable <e>Open Sound System</e> in your kernel configuration.
92If you don't, your system may try to use these drivers rather than the alsa
93ones. If you see a message about 'sound card not detected' and you are sure
94you have the correct driver, this is probably the reason.
87<p> 95</p>
88First we'll make sure that our kernel configuration is ready for use with ALSA. 96
89All you need in your kernel configuration is having Sound Card Support set to be built as a module (M). 97<warn>
90This will build <c>soundcore.o</c>. 98If you use a 2.6 kernel, you may use the drivers provided in the kernel, but
99we still recommend that you use media-sound/alsa-driver as they are more up
100to date than what is provided in the kernel tree. If you still wish to use
101the drivers provided with your kernel, you can skip the rest of this section
102and continue with <uri link="#alsa-utils">Installing the ALSA Utils</uri>.
103</warn>
104
91</p> 105<p>
106The first step in installing your sound drivers is figuring out what sound
107card you have. If you don't already know, an easy trick is to search
108for "audio" in the output of the <c>lspci</c> command. You can install
109this tool with <c>emerge pciutils</c>.
92<p> 110</p>
93<note> 111
94Possibly, this will also work when you built Sound Card Support in the kernel (Y) instead of building it as a module (M). 112<pre caption="Finding out the soundcard type">
95However, the official ALSA documentation suggests building it as a module, since ALSA will try loading it. 113# <i>lspci | grep -i audio</i>
96</note> 114Multimedia audio controller: VIA Technologies, Inc. VT82C686 AC97 Audio Controller (rev 64).
97</p>
98<p>If you already have a working kernel configuration, make sure you remove all sound drivers (except for Sound Card Support).
99If you wish to do this without having to reboot, you could do like this:
100</p>
101<pre> 115</pre>
102# <c>cd /usr/src/linux</c> 116
103# <c>cp .config ~/</c>
104# <c>make mrproper</c>
105# <c>cp ~/.config .</c>
106# <c>make menuconfig</c>
107</pre>
108<p>
109Now select <e>Sound Card Support</e> as Module (M) and deselect all other sound drivers.
110Exit and say Y to save your kernel configuration.
111After that, build the modules:
112</p> 117<p>
118Now go to the <uri link="http://www.alsa-project.org/alsa-doc">ALSA Soundcard
119Matrix</uri> and search for your soundcard. In the above example you should go
120to the "VIA" manufacturer. You will receive a table with the known chipsets of
121that vendor. The chipset in the above example is "via82c686"; the "Details" link
122then informs me that the driver is called <path>via82xx</path>. This is all the
123information you need, so you can safely discard the rest of that document.
124</p>
125
126<p>
127Based on this information we can now install the <c>alsa-driver</c> for our
128soundcard. First edit <path>/etc/make.conf</path> and <e>add</e> a new option
129called ALSA_CARDS to it. Inside this variable you declare the soundcard driver
130you want to use:
131</p>
132
133<pre caption="Editing /etc/make.conf for ALSA_CARDS">
134ALSA_CARDS="via82xx"
113<pre> 135</pre>
114# <c>make dep clean</c> 136
115# <c>make modules modules_install</c> 137<warn>
116</pre> 138If you have multiple sound cards in your system, separate them with a comma
117<p> 139in the ALSA_CARDS variable. Ex: ALSA_CARDS="via82xx,emu10k1"
118Before installing your new modules, this last line will delete all your previous modules, 140</warn>
119even the ones from a previous ALSA installation. 141
120</p> 142<p>
143If you want OSS compatibility (highly recommended), you should add 'oss' to
144your USE flags in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. After that, you are ready to
145install <c>alsa-driver</c>:
121<p> 146</p>
147
148<pre caption="Installing ALSA Drivers">
149# <i>emerge alsa-driver</i>
150</pre>
151
122<impo> 152<impo>
123This means, whenever you recompile your kernel later on, you MUST recompile <c>alsa-driver</c>. 153Whenever you (re)compile your kernel sources, chances are that the ALSA drivers
154will be deleted. It is therefore adviseable to rerun <c>emerge alsa-driver</c>
155every time you (re)compile your kernel. Note that this will compile the
156drivers for the kernel in /usr/src/linux, NOT the running kernel.
124</impo> 157</impo>
125</p>
126<p>
127<note>However, there's no need to reinstall <c>nvidia-kernel</c>, the Nvidia drivers are in a separate directory
128in <path>/lib/modules/*/video</path> and won't get deleted by a <c>make modules modules_install</c>
129</note>
130</p>
131</body>
132</section>
133 158
159</body>
134<section> 160</section>
135 <title>ALSA modules</title> 161<section id="alsa-utils">
136<body> 162<title>Installing the ALSA Utils</title>
137
138<p>
139Now it's time to install the ALSA drivers for your soundcard(s). If your soundcard is PCI, you can find out the name
140and type of your soundcard by looking at the output of /proc/pci
141<pre>#<c>grep audio /proc/pci</c></pre>
142</p>
143
144<p>
145<warn>
146If you had a previous sound setup and there are still non-ALSA sound modules loaded, unload them <e>now</e>.
147Check with <c>lsmod</c> and use <c>rmmod</c> to unload all sound-related modules on your system.
148</warn>
149</p>
150
151<p>
152We could simply do an <c>emerge alsa-driver</c> now, this would compile and install <e>all</e> ALSA sound drivers.
153</p>
154<p>
155However, to save some time, lookup the <e>Module Name</e> of your soundcard(s) on the
156<uri link="http://www.alsa-project.org/alsa-doc">ALSA Soundcard Matrix</uri> under the <e>Install</e> section.
157Mine is <c>EMU10K1</c>, since I have an SBlive! soundcard.
158We'll set ALSA_CARDS environment to this value before emerging, so emerge will only compile the drivers we need.
159</p>
160
161<p>
162<pre>
163# <c>env ALSA_CARDS='emu10k1' emerge alsa-driver</c>
164</pre>
165</p>
166<p>
167<note>
168When you want to install ALSA drivers for more than one soundcard, you could set ALSA_CARDS to a space-separated list
169of drivers; like this: <c>env ALSA_CARDS='emu10k1 intel8x0 ens1370' emerge alsa-driver</c>
170</note>
171
172<note>If you want to have OSS compatibility, make sure to emerge <i>alsa-oss</i>, it is the ALSA/OSS compatibility
173wrapper. </note>
174
175</p>
176<p>
177After this, the ALSA modules should be installed on your system.
178</p>
179</body> 163<body>
180</section> 164
165<p>
166If the in-kernel OSS compatibility is not sufficient for your needs, you will
167want to install <c>alsa-oss</c>. This will provide you with the 'aoss'
168executable which can be used as demonstrated:
169</p>
170
171<pre caption="More OSS compatibility layer">
172# <i>emerge alsa-oss</i>
173# <i>aoss mpg123 music.mp3</i>
174</pre>
175
176<p>
177Now install the ALSA Utils on your system (this is mandatory):
178</p>
179
180<pre caption="Installing ALSA Utils">
181# <i>emerge alsa-utils</i>
182</pre>
183
184<p>
185Now that the utils are installed, it is time to configure ALSA...
186</p>
187
188</body>
181<section> 189</section>
190</chapter>
191<chapter>
182 <title>Configuration of ALSA</title> 192<title>Configuring ALSA</title>
193<section>
194<title>Automatically Loading the Kernel Modules</title>
183<body> 195<body>
184<p> 196
185Let's start configuring now to get ALSA working properly.
186We'll need to edit some files, to let our system know about the freshly installed ALSA modules.
187</p> 197<p>
198If you use a modular kernel (such as when using <c>genkernel</c>) you have to
199edit <path>/etc/modules.d/alsa</path> so that it activates the necessary
200modules at boot time. For the soundcard in our example:
188<p> 201</p>
189First file to edit is <path>/etc/modules.d/alsa</path>. 202
190</p>
191<warn>
192There is no need to edit <path>/etc/modules.conf</path>. Instead, always edit files in <path>/etc/modules.d</path>.
193</warn>
194<p>
195Check the ALSA portion <e>at the bottom of the file</e>.
196By tweaking this line you can specify the max number of soundcards you have (generally, just one).
197</p>
198<p>
199<pre caption="At the top of /etc/modules.d/alsa"> 203<pre caption="/etc/modules.d/alsa">
200# Alsa 0.9.X kernel modules' configuration file.
201# $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/alsa-guide.xml,v 1.7 2003/02/09 23:27:14 zhen Exp $
202
203# ALSA portion
204alias char-major-116 snd
205<c>options snd major=116 cards_limit=1</c>
206# OSS/Free portion
207alias char-major-14 soundcore
208
209##
210## IMPORTANT:
211</pre>
212</p>
213<p>
214Now we'll specify the sounddriver(s) ALSA should use. In the same file, edit like this:
215<pre caption="A bit lower in /etc/modules.d/alsa">
216## and then run `update-modules' command.
217## Read alsa-driver's INSTALL file in /usr/share/doc for more info.
218##
219## ALSA portion
220<c>alias snd-card-0 snd-emu10k1</c>
221<c>## If you have more than one, add:
222## alias snd-card-1 snd-intel8x0 204alias snd-card-0 snd-via82xx
223## alias snd-card-2 snd-ens1370</c> 205<comment># The following is only needed when you want OSS compatibility</comment>
224## OSS/Free portion
225## alias sound-slot-0 snd-card-0 206alias sound-slot-0 snd-via82xx
226## alias sound-slot-1 snd-card-1
227##
228</pre>
229</p>
230<p>
231<note>
232If you have more than one soundcard, adjust the <c>cards_limit</c> value and add more snd-card aliases to the file.
233I don't have experience with this, but you can find examples for configurations with two or more soundcards in
234<uri link="http://www.alsa-project.org/alsa-doc/alsa-howto/c1660.htm">Chapter 6</uri>
235of the <uri link="http://www.alsa-project.org/alsa-doc/alsa-howto/alsa-howto.html">ALSA Howto</uri>.
236</note>
237</p>
238<p>
239Last thing to do in this file, at the very bottom, check if these lines are there and uncommented:
240<pre caption="at the very bottom of /etc/modules.d/alsa">
241alias /dev/mixer snd-mixer-oss 207alias /dev/mixer snd-mixer-oss
242alias /dev/dsp snd-pcm-oss 208alias /dev/dsp snd-pcm-oss
243alias /dev/midi snd-seq-oss 209alias /dev/midi snd-seq-oss
244</pre> 210</pre>
211
245</p> 212<p>
213Now run <c>modules-update</c> to save the changes you made to the
214<path>alsa</path> file into <path>/etc/modules.conf</path>:
246<p> 215</p>
247Now double-check the file <path>/etc/modules.d/alsa</path> and when you're sure everyting is ok, run <c>update-modules</c>. 216
217<pre caption="Running modules-update">
218# <i>modules-update</i>
248<pre> 219</pre>
249# <c>update-modules</c> 220
250</pre> 221</body>
222</section>
223<section>
224<title>Verifying the Device Files</title>
225<body>
226
251</p> 227<p>
252<note> 228This should be done automatically for you on recent installs, but if you run
253Running <c>update-modules</c> here will insert the data from <path>/etc/modules.d/alsa</path> into <path>/etc/modules.conf</path> 229into problems, check that your ALSA devices and permissions are set correctly
254</note> 230by your /dev manager. If you use DevFS, check <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path>
255<p> 231</p>
256You should also verify that /etc/devfsd.conf has the alsa devices and permissions correctly registered. 232
257</p> 233<pre caption="/etc/devfsd.conf">
258<pre>
259# nano -w /etc/devfsd.conf
260</pre>
261<pre>
262# ALSA/OSS stuff 234# ALSA/OSS stuff
263# Comment/change these if you want to change the permissions on 235# Comment/change these if you want to change the permissions on
264# the audio devices 236# the audio devices
265LOOKUP snd MODLOAD ACTION snd 237LOOKUP snd MODLOAD ACTION snd
266LOOKUP dsp MODLOAD 238LOOKUP dsp MODLOAD
267LOOKUP mixer MODLOAD 239LOOKUP mixer MODLOAD
268LOOKUP midi MODLOAD 240LOOKUP midi MODLOAD
269REGISTER sound/.* PERMISSIONS root.audio 660 241REGISTER sound/.* PERMISSIONS root.audio 660
270REGISTER snd/.* PERMISSIONS root.audio 660 242REGISTER snd/.* PERMISSIONS root.audio 660
271</pre> 243</pre>
272<note> 244
273Notice that devfsd.conf sets /dev/sound permissions to be root.audio. Thus, for non-root users to use audio they will have to be part of the audio group. 245</body>
274</note> 246</section>
247<section>
248<title>Having ALSA Activated at Boot</title>
249<body>
250
251<p>
252To activate ALSA support at boot, add the <c>alsasound</c> init script to the
253boot runlevel:
254</p>
255
256<pre caption="Adding alsasound to the boot runlevel">
257# <i>rc-update add alsasound boot</i>
258# <i>/etc/init.d/alsasound start</i>
259</pre>
260
261</body>
262</section>
263<section>
264<title>Unmute the Channels</title>
265<body>
266
267<p>
268By default, all sound channels are muted. To fix this, run <c>amixer</c>:
269</p>
270
271<pre caption="Running amixer">
272# <i>amixer</i>
273</pre>
274
275<p>
276If <c>amixer</c> produces lots of output then you're ready to unmute the
277channels. If you receive an error, doublecheck that your soundcard module is
278started.
279</p>
280
281<p>
282Now unmute the <e>Master</e> and <e>PCM</e> channels. If this isn't sufficient,
283also unmute the <e>Center</e> and <e>Surround</e> channels.
284</p>
285
286<pre caption="Unmuting the sound channels">
287<comment>(If you prefer an ncurses method:)</comment>
288
289# <i>alsamixer</i>
290
291<comment>(or)</comment>
292
293# <i>amixer set Master 100% unmute</i>
294# <i>amixer set PCM 100% unmute</i>
295<comment>(Only if the above isn't sufficient:)</comment>
296# <i>amixer set Center 100% unmute</i>
297# <i>amixer set Surround 100% unmute</i>
298# <i>amixer set Headphone 100% unmute</i>
299</pre>
300
301
302<p>
303To check if your sound works, play a wave file (using <c>aplay</c>), mp3 (using
304<c>mpg123</c> or even <c>mplayer</c>) or any other sound file for that matter.
305</p>
306
275</body> 307</body>
276</section> 308</section>
277</chapter> 309</chapter>
278<chapter> 310<chapter>
279<title>Starting ALSA</title> 311<title>Activating MIDI Support</title>
280<section>
281 <title>Adding alsasound to a runlevel</title>
282<body>
283<p>
284First thing to do now, is to make ALSA startup at boottime. Like this:
285<pre>
286# <c>rc-update add alsasound boot</c>
287</pre>
288</p>
289<p>
290<warn>Note that the alsasound script should be added to the "boot" runlevel, not the "default" runlevel.</warn>
291</p>
292</body>
293</section> 312<section>
313<title>Installing the Necessary Packages</title>
314<body>
315
316<p>
317Some soundcards come with onboard MIDI synthesizers. To use them, you must first
318install the <c>awesfx</c> package:
319</p>
320
321<pre caption="Installing the awesfx package">
322# <i>emerge awesfx</i>
323</pre>
324
325<p>
326If you have a collection of sound fonts somewhere, place them in
327<path>/usr/share/sfbank</path>. For instance, the SBLive has a sound font file
328called <path>8MBGMSFX.SF2</path> or <path>CT4GMSFX.SF2</path>.
329</p>
330
331<p>
332After copying over the sound font, select them using <c>asfxload</c>:
333</p>
334
335<pre caption="Loading the sound font">
336# <i>asfxload /usr/share/sfbank/8MBGMSFX.SF2</i>
337</pre>
338
339<p>
340You must have this command run every time you boot, so it is adviseable to add
341it to <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path> as well.
342</p>
343
344<p>
345If you can't find soundfonts on your driver CD you can download some online from
346<uri>http://www.parabola.demon.co.uk/alsa/awe64.html</uri>.
347</p>
348
349</body>
294<section> 350</section>
295 <title>Running and unmuting</title> 351<section>
352<title>Timidity++ Virtual Synthesizer</title>
353<body>
354
355<p>
356If your sound card does not come with a hardware synthesizer (or you don't want
357to use it), you can use <c>timidity++</c> to provide you with a virtual
358synthesizer. Start by emerging this package:
359</p>
360
361<pre caption="Installing Timidity++">
362# <i>emerge timidity++</i>
363</pre>
364
365<p>
366For timidity to play sounds, it needs a soundfont. If you do not have any,
367install <c>timidity-eawpatches</c> or <c>timidity-shompatches</c> which will
368give you some soundfonts. You can have multiple soundfont configurations
369installed, and you can place your own in <path>/usr/share/timidity/</path>.
370To switch between different timidity configurations, you should use the
371<e>timidity-update</e> tool provided in the timidity++ package.
372</p>
373
374<pre caption="Installing soundfonts">
375# <i>emerge timidity-eawpatches</i>
376# <i>timidity-update -g -s eawpatches</i>
377
378<comment>(or)</comment>
379
380# <i>emerge timidity-shompatches</i>
381# <i>timidity-update -g -s shompatches</i>
382</pre>
383
384<p>
385Don't forget to add <c>timidity</c> to the default runlevel.
386</p>
387
388<pre caption="Adding timidity to the default runlevel">
389# <i>rc-update add timidity default</i>
390# <i>/etc/init.d/timidity start</i>
391</pre>
392
296<body> 393</body>
297<p> 394</section>
298Since we're Linux users, we don't want to reboot. So we'll start the alsasound script manually. 395<section>
396<title>Testing MIDI Support</title>
397<body>
398
299</p> 399<p>
400You can use <c>aplaymidi</c> from the ALSA Utils to test your MIDI
401configuration.
402</p>
403
404<p>
405To see what MIDI output ports are available on your system, use the <c>-l</c>
406option:
407</p>
408
409<pre caption="Viewing the MIDI output ports">
410# <i>aplaymidi -l</i>
300<pre> 411</pre>
301# <c>/etc/init.d/alsasound start</c> 412
302</pre>
303<p>
304ALSA is running now. If everything is ok, you should be able to see the ALSA modules loaded when running <c>lsmod</c>.
305However, sound won't work yet, because the channels are still muted. We need <c>alsa-utils</c> for this.
306</p> 413<p>
414If all looks fine, try playing a MIDI file to make sure everything works. With
415the <c>-p</c> option you define what MIDI port you want to use.
416</p>
417
418<pre caption="Playing a MIDI file">
419# <i>aplaymidi -p 65:0 "Final Fantasy 7 - Aerith' Theme.mid"</i>
307<pre> 420</pre>
308# <c>emerge alsa-utils</c> 421
309# <c>amixer</c>
310</pre>
311<p>
312<warn>
313You shouldn't get this, but <e>if</e> you get an error about "amixer: Mixer attach default error: No such file or directory", you should manually insmod
314<c>snd-mixer-oss</c> and <c>snd-pcm-oss</c> once. After that run amixer again.
315</warn>
316</p>
317<pre caption="only if you get an error when running amixer">
318# <c>insmod snd-mixer-oss</c>
319# <c>insmod snd-pcm-oss</c>
320# <c>amixer</c>
321</pre>
322<p>
323If you got this far, now unmute both Master and PCM channels.
324</p>
325<p>
326<pre>
327# <c>amixer set Master 100 unmute</c>
328# <c>amixer set PCM 100 unmute</c>
329# <c>aplay /usr/kde/3/share/sounds/pop.wav</c> <codenote>(pop.wav is part of KDE)</codenote>
330</pre>
331</p>
332We check to see if sound is working by using the aplay (alsa play) command. If you hear a pop, then sound is indeed working.
333Then, adjust the volume settings to your liking; the ncurses-based <c>alsamixer</c> is a great way to get them "just so".
334<p>
335You may want to emerge <c>alsa-xmms</c> as that will provide ALSA support for XMMS.
336</p>
337When you reboot your system, the <e>alsasound</e> init script will properly save and restore your volume settings.
338</body> 422</body>
339</section> 423</section>
340</chapter> 424</chapter>
341<chapter> 425<chapter>
342<title>Final Notes</title> 426<title>Final Remarks</title>
343<section>
344 <title>After kernel-upgrades..</title>
345<body>
346<p>When you ever rebuild your kernel, or upgrade to another kernel, you'll have to rebuild the ALSA modules.</p>
347<p>Although you might have installed <c>alsa-driver</c>, <c>alsa-libs</c> and <c>alsa-utils</c>, only the first will
348have to be installed again, since it will put the alsa modules in
349<path>/lib/modules/*/kernel/sound/pci/</path>.</p>
350<pre caption="needed after each kernel compile">
351emerge alsa-driver
352</pre>
353</body>
354</section> 427<section>
428<title>Tools and Firmware</title>
429<body>
430
431<p>
432Some specific sound cards can benefit from certain tools provided by the
433<c>alsa-tools</c> and <c>alsa-firmware</c> packages. If you need
434<c>alsa-tools</c>, be sure to define the ALSA_TOOLS variable in
435<path>/etc/make.conf</path> with the tools you require. For instance:
436</p>
437
438<pre caption="Selecting ALSA Tools in /etc/make.conf">
439ALSA_TOOLS="as10k1 ac3dec"
440</pre>
441
442<p>
443Then install the <c>alsa-tools</c> (and/or <c>alsa-firmware</c>) package(s):
444</p>
445
446<pre caption="Installing ALSA Tools">
447# <i>emerge alsa-tools</i>
448</pre>
449
450</body>
355<section> 451</section>
356 <title>/etc/modules.autoload</title>
357<body>
358<p>You won't have to edit this file for use with ALSA. After our <c>rc-update add alsasound boot</c>, our system will
359load the correct modules at startup.</p>
360<p>It's not necessary to add <c>snd-pcm-oss</c> or <c>snd-mixer-oss</c> in this file.
361Check the <uri link="http://www.djcj.org/LAU/guide/alsbook/faq1.html">this FAQ</uri> for more info.</p>
362</body>
363</section> 452<section>
453<title>Activating Joystick Support</title>
454<body>
455
456<p>
457If your soundcard has a joystick plug, you might be interested in activating
458joystick support for your soundcard. If so, start by verifying if your soundcard
459driver has a joystick parameter. You can verify this by running <c>modinfo</c>
460against your kernel module. For instance, for the <c>snd-via82xx</c>:
461</p>
462
463<pre caption="Running modinfo">
464# <i>modinfo snd-via82xx</i>
465filename: /lib/modules/2.4.22-ck2/snd-via82xx.o
466description: "VIA VT82xx audio"
467author: "Jaroslav Kysela &lt;perex@suse.cz&gt;"
468license: "GPL"
469parm: index int array (min = 1, max = 8), description "Index value for
470 VIA 82xx bridge."
471parm: id string array (min = 1, max = 8), description "ID string for VIA
472 82xx bridge."
473parm: enable int array (min = 1, max = 8), description "Enable audio part
474 of VIA 82xx bridge."
475parm: mpu_port long array (min = 1, max = 8), description "MPU-401 port.
476 (VT82C686x only)"
477<i>parm: joystick int array (min = 1, max = 8), description "Enable
478 joystick. (VT82C686x only)"</i>
479parm: ac97_clock int array (min = 1, max = 8), description "AC'97 codec
480 clock (default 48000Hz)."
481parm: dxs_support int array (min = 1, max = 8), description "Support for
482 DXS channels (0 = auto, 1 = enable, 2 = disable, 3 = 48k only, 4 =
483 no VRA)
484</pre>
485
486<p>
487If it has the <c>joystick</c> parameter, append <c>joystick=1</c> to your
488<c>options</c> line in <path>/etc/modules.d/alsa</path>. For instance:
489</p>
490
491<pre caption="Adding the joystick parameter">
492alias snd-card-0 snd-via82xx
493options snd-via82xx joystick=1
494</pre>
495
496</body>
364<section> 497</section>
365 <title>More links..</title> 498<section>
499<title>Resources</title>
366<body> 500<body>
367<p> 501
368You could check these for additional info:
369</p>
370<p>
371<ul> 502<ul>
372<li><uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/desktop.html">The Gentoo Linux Desktop Configuration Guide</uri></li>
373<li><uri link="http://www.alsa-project.org">ALSA Project Homepage</uri></li> 503 <li><uri link="http://www.alsa-project.org">The ALSA Project</uri></li>
374<li><uri link="http://www.alsa-project.org/documentation.php3">ALSA Users Documentation</uri></li>
375<li><uri link="http://www.djcj.org">ALSA Howto's and FAQ's</uri></li> 504 <li><uri link="http://www.djcj.org">ALSA Howto's and FAQs</uri></li>
376<li><uri link="http://tldp.org/HOWTO/Sound-HOWTO/index.html">Linux Sound HOWTO</uri></li>
377<li><uri link="http://linux-sound.org/">Sound and MIDI Software For Linux</uri></li> 505 <li><uri link="http://linux-sound.org">Linux Sound/MIDI Software</uri></li>
378</ul> 506</ul>
379</p> 507
380</body> 508</body>
381</section> 509</section>
382</chapter> 510</chapter>
383</guide> 511</guide>

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