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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/alsa-guide.xml,v 1.62 2005/09/10 18:02:53 swift Exp $ -->
3
2<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 4<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 5
4<guide link = "/doc/en/alsa-guide.xml"> 6<guide link="/doc/en/alsa-guide.xml">
5<title>Gentoo Linux ALSA Guide</title> 7<title>Gentoo Linux ALSA Guide</title>
6<author title="Author"><mail link="zu@pandora.be"> 8
7 Vincent Verleye</mail> 9<author title="Author">
10 <mail link="fox2mike@gentoo.org">Shyam Mani</mail>
8</author> 11</author>
9 12
10<author title="Editor"><mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">
11 John P. Davis</mail>
12</author>
13
14<abstract> 13<abstract>
15This guide will show you how to set up the Advanced Linux Sound Architecture (ALSA) on Gentoo Linux. 14This document helps a user setup ALSA on Gentoo Linux.
16In addition to the Gentoo Linux Desktop Configuration Guide, this guide is supposed to give you more information on this subject. </abstract> 15</abstract>
17 16
17<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
18<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
19<license/>
20
18<version>1.2</version> 21<version>2.10</version>
19<date>09 February 2003</date> 22<date>2005-09-10</date>
20 23
21<chapter> 24<chapter>
22<title>Introduction</title> 25<title>Introduction</title>
23<section> 26<section>
24 <title>What is ALSA?</title> 27<title>What is ALSA?</title>
28<body>
29
30<p>
31ALSA, which stands for <e>Advanced Linux Sound Architecture</e>, provides
32audio and MIDI (<e>Musical Instrument Digital Interface</e>) functionality to
33the Linux operating system. ALSA is the default sound subsystem in the 2.6
34kernel thereby replacing OSS (<e>Open Sound System</e>), which was used in the
352.4 kernels.
36</p>
37
38<p>
39ALSA's main features include efficient support for all types of audio
40interfaces ranging from consumer sound cards to professional sound
41equipment, fully modularized drivers, SMP and thread safety, backward
42compatibility with OSS and a user-space library <c>alsa-lib</c> to make
43application development a breeze.
44</p>
45
25<body> 46</body>
26<p> 47</section>
27The Advanced Linux Sound Architecture (ALSA) is a project to improve the Linux sound subsystem by rewriting 48<section>
28large chunks of it. 49<title>ALSA on Gentoo</title>
29It is anticipated that ALSA will make it into Linux kernel 2.6.x (or 3.x.x -- whichever comes first) as it becomes ready. 50<body>
51
30</p> 52<p>
31 53One of Gentoo's main strengths lies in giving the user maximum control over
54how a system is installed/configured. ALSA on Gentoo follows the same
55principle. There are two ways you can get ALSA support up and running on your
56system. We shall look at them in detail in the next chapter.
32<p> 57</p>
33ALSA provides audio and MIDI functionality for Linux. 58
59</body>
60</section>
61</chapter>
62
63<chapter>
64<title>Installing ALSA</title>
65<section>
66<title>Options</title>
67<body>
68
69<warn>
70The methods shown below are mutually exclusive. You cannot have ALSA compiled
71in your kernel and use <c>media-sound/alsa-driver</c>. It <e>will</e> fail.
72</warn>
73
34</p> 74<p>
35 75The two options are :
36<p> 76</p>
37Quoted from <uri>http://www.alsa-project.org</uri>, ALSA has the following features: 77
38<ul><li> Efficient support for all types of audio interfaces, from consumer soundcards to professional multichannel audio interfaces.</li> 78<ol>
39 <li> Fully modularized sound drivers.</li> 79 <li>
40 <li> SMP and thread-safe design.</li> 80 Use ALSA provided by your kernel. This is the preferred/recommended
41 <li> User space library (alsa-lib) to simplify application programming and provide higher level functionality.</li> 81 method.
42 <li> Support for the older OSS API, providing binary compatibility for most OSS programs.</li> 82 </li>
83 <li>
84 Use Gentoo's <c>media-sound/alsa-driver</c> package.
85 </li>
86</ol>
87
88<p>
89We shall take a peek into both before finally deciding on one.
90</p>
91
92<p>
93If you were to use ALSA provided by the kernel, the following are the pros and
94cons :
95</p>
96
97<table>
98<tr>
99 <th>Kernel ALSA</th>
100 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
101</tr>
102<tr>
103 <th>+</th>
104 <ti>Pretty stable as drivers are integrated into kernel.</ti>
105</tr>
106<tr>
107 <th>+</th>
108 <ti>One shot solution, no repeating emerges.</ti>
109</tr>
110<tr>
111 <th>-</th>
112 <ti>Might be a slightly older version than <c>alsa-driver</c>.</ti>
113</tr>
114</table>
115
116<p>
117And, if you were to use alsa-driver,
118</p>
119
120<table>
121<tr>
122 <th>alsa-driver</th>
123 <th>Pros and Cons</th>
124</tr>
125<tr>
126 <th>+</th>
127 <ti>Latest drivers from the ALSA Project.</ti>
128</tr>
129<tr>
130 <th>-</th>
131 <ti>Every kernel recompile requires a re-emerge of <c>alsa-driver</c>.</ti>
132</tr>
133<tr>
134 <th>-</th>
135 <ti>Needs certain kernel config options disabled to work correctly.</ti>
136</tr>
137</table>
138
139</body>
140</section>
141<section>
142<title>So...</title>
143<body>
144
145<p>
146The main difference between using <c>alsa-driver</c> and ALSA that comes with
147the kernel is that <c>alsa-driver</c> is generally more up to date than the
148version in the kernel. Since this does not make any huge difference as
149such, you are encouraged to use the ALSA provided by the kernel for ease of use.
150Before reporting any sound related issues to <uri
151link="https://bugs.gentoo.org">Gentoo Bugzilla</uri>, please try to reproduce
152them using <c>alsa-driver</c> and file the bug report no matter what the
153result.
154</p>
155
156</body>
157</section>
158<section id="lspci">
159<title>Before you proceed</title>
160<body>
161
162<p>
163Whichever method of install you choose, you need to know what drivers your
164sound card uses. In most cases, sound cards (onboard and otherwise) are PCI
165based and <c>lspci</c> will help you in digging out the required information.
166Please <c>emerge sys-apps/pciutils</c> to get <c>lspci</c>, if you don't have it
167installed already. In case you have a USB sound card, <c>lsusb</c> from
168<c>sys-apps/usbutils</c> <e>might</e> be of help. For ISA cards, try using
169<c>sys-apps/isapnptools</c>. Also, the following pages <e>may</e> help users
170with ISA based sound cards.
171</p>
172
173<ul>
174 <li>
175 <uri link="http://www.roestock.demon.co.uk/isapnptools/">The ISAPNPTOOLS
176 Page</uri>
177 </li>
178 <li>
179 <uri link="http://www2.linuxjournal.com/article/3269">LinuxJournal PnP
180 Article</uri>
181 </li>
182 <li>
183 <uri link="http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/Sound-HOWTO/x320.html">TLDP Sound
184 HowTo</uri>
185 </li>
43</ul> 186</ul>
44There's lots more to ALSA however, like support for Full Duplex playback and recording, multiple soundcard support, 187
45hardware mixing of streams, extensive mixer capabilities (to support advanced features of new soundcards), ... 188<note>
189For ease of use/explanation, we assume the user has a PCI based sound card for
190the remainder of this guide.
191</note>
192
46</p> 193<p>
194We now proceed to find out details about the sound card.
195</p>
196
197<pre caption="Soundcard Details">
198# <i>lspci -v | grep -i audio</i>
1990000:00:0a.0 Multimedia audio controller: Creative Labs SB Live! EMU10k1 (rev 06)
200</pre>
201
202<p>
203We now know that the sound card on the machine is a Sound Blaster Live! and
204the card manufacturer is Creative Labs. Head over to the
205<uri link="http://www.alsa-project.org/alsa-doc/"> ALSA Soundcard Matrix</uri>
206page and select Creative Labs from the drop down menu. You will be taken to
207the Creative Labs matrix page where you can see that the SB Live! uses the
208<c>emu10k1</c> module. That is the information we need for now. If you are
209interested in detailed information, you can click on the link next to the
210"Details" and that will take you to the <c>emu10k1</c> specific page.
211</p>
212
47</body> 213</body>
48</section>
49<section> 214</section>
50 <title>Why use ALSA?</title> 215<section id="kernel">
51<body> 216<title>Using ALSA provided by your Kernel</title>
52<p>
53If your soundcard is supported by the Linux kernel sound system or the commercial OSS/4Front sound driver system,
54which can be found in all 2.4.x Linux kernels, you could just aswell build <e>those modules</e> for use with your soundcard.
55If you want this, just read through the <uri link="http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/Sound-HOWTO/index.html">Linux Sound HOWTO</uri>.
56</p>
57<p>
58However, those OSS/4Front drivers have some limitations -- being commercial is one.
59ALSA is an attempt to go beyond these limitations and to do so in an open source fashion.
60ALSA is a fully GPL and LGPL'ed sound driver system, that provides a professional quality system for recording, playback,
61and MIDI sequencing.
62</p>
63</body> 217<body>
64</section> 218
219<p>
220If you're a person who likes to keep things simple like I do, then this is
221the way to go.
222</p>
223
224<note>
225Since the 2005.0 release, Gentoo Linux uses 2.6 as the default kernel. Unless
226you are specifically using the 2.4 profile, <c>gentoo-sources</c> will be a
2272.6 kernel on <e>most</e> architectures. Please check that your kernel is a
2282.6 series kernel. This method will <e>not</e> work on a 2.4 kernel.
229</note>
230
231<p>
232Let us now configure the kernel to enable ALSA.
233</p>
234
235<impo>
236<c>genkernel</c> users should now run <c>genkernel --menuconfig all</c> and then follow
237the instructions in <uri link="#doc_chap2_pre3">Kernel Options for ALSA</uri>.
238</impo>
239
240<pre caption="Heading over to the source">
241# <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
242# <i>make menuconfig</i>
243</pre>
244
245<note>
246The above example assumes that <path>/usr/src/linux</path> symlink points to
247the kernel sources you want to use. Please ensure the same before proceeding.
248</note>
249
250<p>
251Now we will look at some of the options we will have to enable in the 2.6
252kernel to ensure proper ALSA support for our sound card.
253</p>
254
255<p>
256Please note that for the sake of ease, all examples show ALSA built as modules.
257It is advisable to follow the same as it then allows the use of <c>alsaconf</c>
258which is a boon when you want to configure your card. Please do <e>not</e> skip the <uri
259link="#alsa-config">Configuration</uri> section of this document. If you still
260like to have options built-in, ensure that you make changes to your config
261accordingly.
262</p>
263
264<pre caption="Kernel Options for ALSA">
265Device Drivers ---&gt;
266 Sound ---&gt;
267
268<comment>(This needs to be enabled)</comment>
269&lt;M&gt; Sound card support
270
271<comment>(Make sure OSS is disabled)</comment>
272Open Sound System ---&gt;
273 &lt; &gt; Open Sound System (DEPRECATED)
274
275<comment>(Move one step back and enter ALSA)</comment>
276Advanced Linux Sound Architecture ---&gt;
277 &lt;M&gt; Advanced Linux Sound Architecture
278 <comment>(Select this if you want MIDI sequencing and routing)</comment>
279 &lt;M&gt; Sequencer support
280 <comment>(Old style /dev/mixer* and /dev/dsp* support. Recommended.)</comment>
281 &lt;M&gt; OSS Mixer API
282 &lt;M&gt; OSS PCM (digital audio) API
283
284<comment>(You now have a choice of devices to enable support for. Generally,
285you will have one type of device and not more. If you have more than one
286sound card, please enable them all here.)</comment>
287
288<comment>(Mostly for testing and development purposes, not needed for normal
289users unless you know what you are doing.)</comment>
290Generic devices ---&gt;
291
292<comment>(For ISA Sound cards)</comment>
293ISA devices ---&gt;
294<comment>(IF you had the Gravis, you would select this option)</comment>
295 &lt;M&gt; Gravis UltraSound Extreme
296
297<comment>(Move one level back and into PCI devices. Most sound cards today are
298PCI devices)</comment>
299PCI devices ---&gt;
300 <comment>(We now select the emu10k1 driver for our card)</comment>
301 &lt;M&gt; Emu10k1 (SB Live!, Audigy, E-mu APS)
302 <comment>(Or an Intel card would be)</comment>
303 &lt;M&gt; Intel/SiS/nVidia/AMD/ALi AC97 Controller
304 <comment>(Or if you have a VIA Card)</comment>
305 &lt;M&gt; VIA 82C686A/B, 8233/8235 AC97 Controller
306
307<comment>(Move one level back and select in case you have an USB sound card)</comment>
308USB Devices ---&gt;
309</pre>
310
311<p>
312Now that your options are set, you can (re)compile the kernel and ALSA support
313for your card should be functional once you reboot into the new kernel. Don't
314forget to update your GRUB configuration to use the newly built kernel.
315You can now proceed to <uri link="#alsa-utilities">ALSA Utilities</uri> and
316see if everything is working as it should.
317</p>
318
319</body>
65<section> 320</section>
66 <title>What cards does ALSA support?</title> 321<section id="alsa-driver">
322<title>Using the ALSA Driver package</title>
67<body> 323<body>
68<p> 324
69ALSA tries to support as many (new) cards as possible by providing open-source drivers.
70However, some vendors may provide binary-only packages.
71</p> 325<p>
72<p>To know if your card is supported, you can find a Soundcard Matrix of supported and not-supported cards here: 326So you've decided to go the <c>alsa-driver</c> way. Let's get started then.
73<uri>http://www.alsa-project.org/alsa-doc/</uri>. 327There are a few minor things to be done to ensure only the drivers for your
328sound card are compiled. Although this is not really necessary, it cuts down
329on the unnecessary drivers that will be compiled otherwise.
330</p>
331
74</p> 332<p>
333If you don't have an idea of what drivers your sound card might need, please
334take a look at the <uri link="#lspci">lspci</uri> section of this guide. Once
335you have your driver name (<c>emu10k1</c> in our example), edit
336<path>/etc/make.conf</path> and add a variable, <c>ALSA_CARDS</c>.
337</p>
338
339<pre caption="Adding ALSA_CARDS to make.conf">
340<comment>(For one sound card)</comment>
341ALSA_CARDS="emu10k1"
342<comment>(For more than one, separate names with spaces)</comment>
343ALSA_CARDS="emu10k1 via82xx"
344</pre>
345
346<p>
347If you have compiled your kernel and want to use <c>alsa-driver</c>, please
348ensure the following before proceeding, else <c>alsa-driver</c> is likely to
349fail. The next code listing gives you one way of performing the checks.
350</p>
351
352<note>
353<c>genkernel</c> users can proceed with <uri link="#doc_chap2_pre6">Installing
354alsa-driver</uri> as their configuration is in sync with the one shown below by
355default.
356</note>
357
358<ol>
359 <li>
360 <c>CONFIG_SOUND</c> is set. (Basic Sound support enabled)
361 </li>
362 <li>
363 <c>CONFIG_SOUND_PRIME</c> is not set. (In-built OSS support disabled)
364 </li>
365 <li>
366 <c>CONFIG_SND</c> is not set. (In-built ALSA support disabled)
367 </li>
368 <li>
369 <path>/usr/src/linux</path> points to the kernel you want ALSA working on.
370 </li>
371</ol>
372
373<pre caption=".config checks">
374<comment>(Assuming the linux symlink points to the correct kernel)</comment>
375# <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
376# <i>grep SOUND .config</i>
377<comment>(1. is true)</comment>
378CONFIG_SOUND=y
379<comment>(2. is true)</comment>
380CONFIG_SOUND_PRIME is not set
381# <i>grep SND .config</i>
382<comment>(and 3. is true)</comment>
383CONFIG_SND is not set
384</pre>
385
386<p>
387Now all you have to do is type the magic words... and no, it's not abracadabra.
388</p>
389
390<pre caption="Installing alsa-driver">
391# <i>emerge alsa-driver</i>
392</pre>
393
394<impo>
395Please note that you will have to run <c>emerge alsa-driver</c> after every
396kernel (re)compile, as the earlier drivers are deleted.
397</impo>
398
75</body> 399</body>
76</section> 400</section>
77</chapter> 401</chapter>
78 402
79<chapter> 403<chapter>
80<title>Installation</title> 404<title>Configuring/Testing ALSA</title>
81<section> 405<section id="alsa-utilities">
82 <title>Kernel modules</title> 406<title>ALSA Utilities</title>
83<body> 407<body>
84<p> 408
85Since we're still using 2.4.x kernel sources, we'll have to compile kernel modules and ALSA modules separately.
86</p> 409<p>
410<c>alsa-utils</c> forms an integral part of ALSA as it has a truckload of
411programs that are highly useful, including the ALSA Initscripts. Hence we
412strongly recommend that you install <c>alsa-utils</c>
87<p> 413</p>
88First we'll make sure that our kernel configuration is ready for use with ALSA. 414
89All you need in your kernel configuration is having Sound Card Support set to be built as a module (M). 415<pre caption="Install alsa-utils">
90This will build <c>soundcore.o</c>. 416# <i>emerge alsa-utils</i>
91</p> 417</pre>
92<p> 418
93<note> 419<note>
94Possibly, this will also work when you built Sound Card Support in the kernel (Y) instead of building it as a module (M). 420If you activated ALSA in your <uri link="#kernel">kernel</uri> <e>and</e> did
95However, the official ALSA documentation suggests building it as a module, since ALSA will try loading it. 421not compile ALSA as modules, please proceed to the
422<uri link="#initscript">ALSA Initscript</uri> section. The rest of you need
423to configure ALSA. This is made very easy by the existence of the
424<c>alsaconf</c> tool provided by <c>alsa-utils</c>.
96</note> 425</note>
426
427</body>
428</section>
429<section id="alsa-config">
430<title>Configuration</title>
431<body>
432
433<note>
434Please shut down any programs that <e>might</e> access the sound card while
435running <c>alsaconf</c>.
436</note>
437
97</p> 438<p>
98<p>If you already have a working kernel configuration, make sure you remove all sound drivers (except for Sound Card Support). 439The easiest way to configure your sound card is to run <c>alsaconf</c>. Just
99If you wish to do this without having to reboot, you could do like this: 440type <c>alsaconf</c> in a shell as root.
100</p> 441</p>
442
443<pre caption="Invoking alsaconf">
444# <i>alsaconf</i>
101<pre> 445</pre>
102# <c>cd /usr/src/linux</c> 446
103# <c>cp .config ~/</c>
104# <c>make mrproper</c>
105# <c>cp ~/.config .</c>
106# <c>make menuconfig</c>
107</pre>
108<p>
109Now select <e>Sound Card Support</e> as Module (M) and deselect all other sound drivers.
110Exit and say Y to save your kernel configuration.
111After that, build the modules:
112</p> 447<p>
448You will now see a neat menu guided interface that will automatically probe
449your devices and try to find out your sound card. You will be asked to pick
450your sound card from a list. Once that's done, it will ask you permission to
451automatically make required changes to <path>/etc/modules.d/alsa</path>.
452It will then adjust your volume settings to optimum levels, run
453<c>modules-update</c> and start the <path>/etc/init.d/alsasound</path> service.
454Once <c>alsaconf</c> exits, you can proceed with setting up the ALSA initscript.
455</p>
456
457</body>
458</section>
459<section id="initscript">
460<title>ALSA Initscript</title>
461<body>
462
463<p>
464We're now almost all setup. Whichever method you chose to install ALSA, you'll
465need to have something load your modules or initialize ALSA and restore your
466volume settings when your system comes up. The ALSA Initscript handles all of
467this for you and is called <c>alsasound</c>. Add it to the boot runlevel.
468</p>
469
470<pre caption="Adding ALSA to the boot runlevel">
471# <i>rc-update add alsasound boot</i>
472 * alsasound added to runlevel boot
473 * rc-update complete.
113<pre> 474</pre>
114# <c>make dep clean</c> 475
115# <c>make modules modules_install</c>
116</pre>
117<p>
118Before installing your new modules, this last line will delete all your previous modules,
119even the ones from a previous ALSA installation.
120</p> 476<p>
477Next, just check the <path>/etc/conf.d/alsasound</path> file and ensure that
478SAVE_ON_STOP variable is set to yes. This saves your sound settings when you
479shutdown your system.
121<p> 480</p>
481
482</body>
483</section>
484<section>
485<title>Audio Group</title>
486<body>
487
488<p>
489Before we move on to testing, there's one last <e>important</e> thing that needs
490to be setup. Rule of thumb in a *nix OS : Do not run as root unless needed.
491This applies here as well ;) How? Well, most of the times you should be logged
492in as a user and would like to listen to music or access your soundcard. For
493that to happen, you need to be in the "audio" group. At this point, we'll add
494users to the audio group, so that they won't have any issues when they want to
495access sound devices. We'll use <c>gpasswd</c> here and you need to be logged in
496as root for this to work.
497</p>
498
499<pre caption="Adding users to the audio group">
500<comment>(Substitute &lt;username&gt; with your user)</comment>
501# <i>gpasswd -a &lt;username&gt; audio </i>
502Adding user &lt;username&gt; to group audio
503</pre>
504
505</body>
506</section>
507<section>
508<title>Volume Check!</title>
509<body>
510
511<p>
512We've completed all the setups and pre-requisites, so let's fire up ALSA. If
513you ran <c>alsaconf</c>, you can skip this step, since <c>alsaconf</c> already
514does this for you.
515</p>
516
517<pre caption="Start the service">
518<comment>(ALSA as modules)</comment>
519# <i>/etc/init.d/alsasound start</i>
520 * Loading ALSA modules ...
521 * Loading: snd-card-0 ... [ ok ]
522 * Loading: snd-pcm-oss ... [ ok ]
523 * Loading: snd-seq ... [ ok ]
524 * Loading: snd-emu10k1-synth ... [ ok ]
525 * Loading: snd-seq-midi ... [ ok ]
526 * Restoring Mixer Levels ... [ ok ]
527<comment>(ALSA compiled in)</comment>
528# <i>/etc/init.d/alsasound start</i>
529 * Loading ALSA modules ...
530 * Restoring Mixer Levels ... [ ok ]
531</pre>
532
533<p>
534Now that the required things have been taken care of, we need to check up on
535the volume as in certain cases, it is muted. We use <c>alsamixer</c> for this
536purpose.
537</p>
538
539<pre caption="Starting alsamixer">
540<comment>(Opens up a console program. Only required settings are shown)</comment>
541# <i>alsamixer</i>
542</pre>
543
122<impo> 544<impo>
123This means, whenever you recompile your kernel later on, you MUST recompile <c>alsa-driver</c>. 545If you have issues starting up <c>alsamixer</c> and get errors such as
546alsamixer: function snd_ctl_open failed for default: No such file or directory,
547this is usually an issue with udev setting up the devices. Run <c>killall
548udevd; udevstart</c> to reload <path>/dev</path> entries and fire up
549<c>alsamixer</c>. It should solve the issue.
124</impo> 550</impo>
551
125</p> 552<p>
553This is how the ALSA Mixer <e>might</e> look the first time you open it. Pay
554attention to the Master and PCM channels which both have an MM below them.
555That means they are muted. If you try to play anything with <c>alsamixer</c>
556in this state, you will not hear anything on your speakers.
126<p> 557</p>
127<note>However, there's no need to reinstall <c>nvidia-kernel</c>, the Nvidia drivers are in a separate directory 558
128in <path>/lib/modules/*/video</path> and won't get deleted by a <c>make modules modules_install</c> 559<figure link="/images/docs/alsa-mixermuted.png" short="AlsaMixer Muted" caption="The Alsa Mixer Main Window, Muted"/>
560
561<p>
562Now, we shall unmute the channels, and set volume levels as needed.
563</p>
564
565<warn>
566Both Master <e>and</e> PCM need to be unmuted and set to audible volume levels
567if you want to hear some output on your speakers.
568</warn>
569
570<ul>
571 <li>
572 To move between channels, use your left and right arrow keys. (&lt;-
573 &amp; -&gt;)
574 </li>
575 <li>
576 To toggle mute, move to the specific channel, for example Master and press
577 the <e>m</e> key on the keyboard.
578 </li>
579 <li>
580 To increase and decrease the volume levels, use the up and down arrow keys
581 respectively.
582 </li>
583</ul>
584
585<note>
586Be careful when setting your Bass and Treble values. 50 is usually a good
587number for both. Extremely high values of Bass may cause <e>jarring</e>
588on speakers that are not designed to handle them.
129</note> 589</note>
590
130</p> 591<p>
131</body> 592After you're all done, your ALSA Mixer should look similar to the one below.
132</section> 593Note the 00 instead of the MM and also the volume levels for some optimum
594settings.
595</p>
133 596
597<figure link="/images/docs/alsa-mixerunmuted.png" short="AlsaMixer Unmuted" caption="Alsa Mixer ready to roll"/>
598
599</body>
134<section> 600</section>
135 <title>ALSA modules</title> 601<section>
602<title>Sound Check!</title>
136<body> 603<body>
137 604
138<p>
139Now it's time to install the ALSA drivers for your soundcard(s). If your soundcard is PCI, you can find out the name
140and type of your soundcard by looking at the output of /proc/pci
141<pre>#<c>grep audio /proc/pci</c></pre>
142</p> 605<p>
143 606The irritating way to check your soundcard is to see if you can hear static on
607the speakers. This isn't exactly fun, but hey, it tells you the card is
608configured and working.
144<p> 609</p>
145<warn>
146If you had a previous sound setup and there are still non-ALSA sound modules loaded, unload them <e>now</e>.
147Check with <c>lsmod</c> and use <c>rmmod</c> to unload all sound-related modules on your system.
148</warn>
149</p>
150 610
151<p> 611<pre caption="Bring on the static">
152We could simply do an <c>emerge alsa-driver</c> now, this would compile and install <e>all</e> ALSA sound drivers. 612# <i>cat /dev/urandom > /dev/dsp</i>
153</p>
154<p>
155However, to save some time, lookup the <e>Module Name</e> of your soundcard(s) on the
156<uri link="http://www.alsa-project.org/alsa-doc">ALSA Soundcard Matrix</uri> under the <e>Install</e> section.
157Mine is <c>EMU10K1</c>, since I have an SBlive! soundcard.
158We'll set ALSA_CARDS environment to this value before emerging, so emerge will only compile the drivers we need.
159</p>
160
161<p>
162<pre> 613</pre>
163# <c>env ALSA_CARDS='emu10k1' emerge alsa-driver</c> 614
164</pre>
165</p>
166<p>
167<note> 615<note>
168When you want to install ALSA drivers for more than one soundcard, you could set ALSA_CARDS to a space-separated list 616<path>/dev/dsp</path> is a symlink to <path>/dev/sound/dsp</path> and should be
169of drivers; like this: <c>env ALSA_CARDS='emu10k1 intel8x0 ens1370' emerge alsa-driver</c> 617automatically created. Try re-directing the output to
618<path>/dev/sound/dsp</path> in case you don't get a "No such file or directory"
619error.
170</note> 620</note>
171 621
172<note>If you want to have OSS compatibility, make sure to emerge <i>alsa-oss</i>, it is the ALSA/OSS compatibility
173wrapper. </note>
174
175</p> 622<p>
623You should hear static. Press <c>Ctrl + C</c> to stop. If you don't hear
624anything, now is a good time to go back and check/trace out the issue and
625rectify it.
176<p> 626</p>
177After this, the ALSA modules should be installed on your system. 627
178</p> 628<p>
629Finally. Some music. If everything above is perfect, you should now be able to
630listen to some good music. A quick way to test is to use a command line tool
631like <c>media-sound/madplay</c>. You could also use something more well known
632like <c>mpg123</c> or <c>xmms</c>. If you are an ogg fan, you could use
633<c>ogg123</c> provided by <c>media-sound/vorbis-tools</c>. Use any player you
634are comfortable with. As always, <c>emerge</c> what you need.
635</p>
636
637<pre caption="Getting the software">
638<comment>(Install the applications you want)</comment>
639# <i>emerge madplay mpg123 xmms</i>
640<comment>(To play .ogg files)</comment>
641# <i>emerge vorbis-tools</i>
642</pre>
643
644<p>
645And then play your favorite sound track...
646</p>
647
648<pre caption="Playing Music">
649# <i>madplay -v /mnt/shyam/Music/Paul\ Oakenfold\ -\ Dread\ Rock.mp3</i>
650MPEG Audio Decoder 0.15.2 (beta) - Copyright (C) 2000-2004 Robert Leslie et al.
651 Title: Dread Rock
652 Artist: Paul Oakenfold
653 Album: Matrix Reloaded
654 Year: 2003
655 Genre: Soundtrack
656 Soundtrack
657 00:04:19 Layer III, 160 kbps, 44100 Hz, joint stereo (MS), no CRC
658
659# <i>ogg123 Paul\ Oakenfold\ -\ Dread\ Rock.ogg</i>
660Audio Device: Advanced Linux Sound Architecture (ALSA) output
661
662Playing: Paul Oakenfold - Dread Rock.ogg
663Ogg Vorbis stream: 2 channel, 44100 Hz
664Genre: Soundtrack
665Transcoded: mp3;160
666Title: Dread Rock
667Artist: Paul Oakenfold
668Date: 2003
669Album: Matrix Reloaded
670Time: 00:11.31 [04:28.75] of 04:40.06 (200.6 kbps) Output Buffer 96.9%
671</pre>
672
179</body> 673</body>
180</section>
181<section> 674</section>
182 <title>Configuration of ALSA</title> 675<section>
676<title>ALSA and USE</title>
677<body>
678
679<p>
680You can now add the <c>alsa</c> use flag to <path>/etc/make.conf</path> to
681ensure that your applications that support ALSA get built with it. Some
682architectures like x86 and amd64 have the flag enabled by default.
683</p>
684
183<body> 685</body>
184<p> 686</section>
185Let's start configuring now to get ALSA working properly. 687<section>
186We'll need to edit some files, to let our system know about the freshly installed ALSA modules. 688<title>Issues?</title>
689<body>
690
187</p> 691<p>
692If for some reason you're unable to hear sound, the first thing to do would
693be to check your <uri link="#doc_chap3_pre6">alsamixer</uri> settings. 80% of
694the issues lie with muted channels or low volume. Also check your Window
695Manager's sound applet and verify that volumes are set to audible levels.
188<p> 696</p>
189First file to edit is <path>/etc/modules.d/alsa</path>. 697
190</p> 698<p>
191<warn> 699<path>/proc</path> is your friend. And in this case, <path>/proc/asound</path>
192There is no need to edit <path>/etc/modules.conf</path>. Instead, always edit files in <path>/etc/modules.d</path>. 700is your best friend. We shall just take a short look at how much info is made
193</warn> 701available to us there.
194<p> 702</p>
195Check the ALSA portion <e>at the bottom of the file</e>. 703
196By tweaking this line you can specify the max number of soundcards you have (generally, just one). 704<pre caption="Fun with /proc/asound">
705<comment>(First and foremost, if /proc/asound/cards shows your card, ALSA has
706picked up your sound card fine.)</comment>
707# <i>cat /proc/asound/cards</i>
7080 [Live ]: EMU10K1 - Sound Blaster Live!
709 Sound Blaster Live! (rev.6, serial:0x80271102) at 0xb800, irq 11
710
711<comment>(If you run ALSA off the kernel like I do and wonder how far behind
712you are from alsa-driver, this displays current running ALSA version)</comment>
713# <i>cat /proc/asound/version</i>
714Advanced Linux Sound Architecture Driver Version 1.0.8 (Thu Jan 13 09:39:32 2005 UTC).
715
716<comment>(ALSA OSS emulation details)</comment>
717# <i>cat /proc/asound/oss/sndstat</i>
718Sound Driver:3.8.1a-980706 (ALSA v1.0.8 emulation code)
719Kernel: Linux airwolf.zion 2.6.11ac1 #2 Wed May 4 00:35:08 IST 2005 i686
720Config options: 0
721
722Installed drivers:
723Type 10: ALSA emulation
724
725Card config:
726Sound Blaster Live! (rev.6, serial:0x80271102) at 0xb800, irq 11
727
728Audio devices:
7290: EMU10K1 (DUPLEX)
730
731Synth devices: NOT ENABLED IN CONFIG
732
733Midi devices:
7340: EMU10K1 MPU-401 (UART)
735
736Timers:
7377: system timer
738
739Mixers:
7400: SigmaTel STAC9721/23
741</pre>
742
197</p> 743<p>
744The other most common issue users face is the dreaded "Unknown symbol in module"
745error. An example of the same is shown below.
198<p> 746</p>
199<pre caption="At the top of /etc/modules.d/alsa">
200# Alsa 0.9.X kernel modules' configuration file.
201# $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/alsa-guide.xml,v 1.7 2003/02/09 23:27:14 zhen Exp $
202 747
203# ALSA portion 748<pre caption="Unknown Symbol in module error">
204alias char-major-116 snd 749# <i>/etc/init.d/alsasound start</i>
205<c>options snd major=116 cards_limit=1</c> 750 * Loading ALSA modules ...
206# OSS/Free portion 751 * Loading: snd-card-0 ... [ ok ]
207alias char-major-14 soundcore 752 * Loading: snd-pcm-oss ...
208 753WARNING: Error inserting snd_mixer_oss
209## 754(/lib/modules/2.6.12-gentoo-r6/kernel/sound/core/oss/snd-mixer-oss.ko): Unknown
210## IMPORTANT: 755symbol in module, or unknown parameter (see dmesg) FATAL: Error inserting
756snd_pcm_oss
757(/lib/modules/2.6.12-gentoo-r6/kernel/sound/core/oss/snd-pcm-oss.ko): Unknown
758symbol in module, or unknown parameter (see dmesg)
759 [ !! ]
760 * Loading: snd-mixer-oss ...
761FATAL: Error inserting snd_mixer_oss
762(/lib/modules/2.6.12-gentoo-r6/kernel/sound/core/oss/snd-mixer-oss.ko): Unknown
763symbol in module, or unknown parameter (see dmesg)
764 [ !! ]
765 * Loading: snd-seq ... [ ok ]
766 * Loading: snd-emu10k1-synth ... [ ok ]
767 * Loading: snd-seq-midi ... [ ok ]
768 * Restoring Mixer Levels ... [ ok ]
211</pre> 769</pre>
770
212</p> 771<p>
772And when you take a look at <c>dmesg</c> as suggested, you're quite likely to
773see:
213<p> 774</p>
214Now we'll specify the sounddriver(s) ALSA should use. In the same file, edit like this: 775
215<pre caption="A bit lower in /etc/modules.d/alsa"> 776<pre caption="dmesg output">
216## and then run `update-modules' command. 777<comment>(Only relevant portions are shown below)</comment>
217## Read alsa-driver's INSTALL file in /usr/share/doc for more info. 778# <i>dmesg | less</i>
218## 779ACPI: PCI Interrupt 0000:02:06.0[A] -> Link [APC3] -> GSI 18 (level, low) -> IRQ 209
219## ALSA portion 780snd_mixer_oss: Unknown symbol snd_unregister_oss_device
220<c>alias snd-card-0 snd-emu10k1</c> 781snd_mixer_oss: Unknown symbol snd_register_oss_device
221<c>## If you have more than one, add: 782snd_mixer_oss: Unknown symbol snd_mixer_oss_notify_callback
222## alias snd-card-1 snd-intel8x0 783snd_mixer_oss: Unknown symbol snd_oss_info_register
223## alias snd-card-2 snd-ens1370</c> 784snd_pcm_oss: Unknown symbol snd_unregister_oss_device
224## OSS/Free portion 785snd_pcm_oss: Unknown symbol snd_register_oss_device
225## alias sound-slot-0 snd-card-0 786snd_pcm_oss: Unknown symbol snd_mixer_oss_ioctl_card
226## alias sound-slot-1 snd-card-1 787snd_pcm_oss: Unknown symbol snd_oss_info_register
227## 788snd_mixer_oss: Unknown symbol snd_unregister_oss_device
789snd_mixer_oss: Unknown symbol snd_register_oss_device
790snd_mixer_oss: Unknown symbol snd_mixer_oss_notify_callback
791snd_mixer_oss: Unknown symbol snd_oss_info_register
228</pre> 792</pre>
793
229</p> 794<p>
795The above issue is caused when you switch from <c>alsa-driver</c> to in-kernel
796ALSA because when you unmerge <c>alsa-driver</c> the module files are config
797protected and hence get left behind. So, when you switch to in-kernel
798drivers, running <c>modprobe</c> gives you a mix of <c>alsa-driver</c> and
799in-kernel modules thus causing the above errors.
230<p> 800</p>
801
802<p>
803The solution is quite easy. We just need to manually remove the problem causing
804directory after you unmerge <c>alsa-driver</c>. Be sure to remove the correct
805kernel version and not the current one!
806</p>
807
808<pre caption="Removing the alsa-driver modules">
809<comment>(Replace KERNELVER with your kernel version)</comment>
810# <i>rm -rf /lib/modules/KERNELVER/alsa-driver</i>
811</pre>
812
813</body>
814</section>
815</chapter>
816
817<chapter>
818<title>Other things ALSA</title>
819<section>
820<title>Setting up MIDI support</title>
821<body>
822
823<p>
824If your sound card is one of those that come with on-board MIDI synthesizers
825and you would like to listen to some .mid files, you have to install
826<c>awesfx</c> which is basically a set of utilities for controlling the AWE32
827driver. We need to install it first. If you don't have a hardware synthesizer,
828you can use a virtual one. Please see the section on
829<uri link="#vsynth">Virtual Synthesizers</uri> for more information.
830</p>
831
832<pre caption="Installing awesfx">
833# <i>emerge awesfx</i>
834</pre>
835
231<note> 836<note>
232If you have more than one soundcard, adjust the <c>cards_limit</c> value and add more snd-card aliases to the file. 837You will need to copy over SoundFont (SF2) files from your sound card's driver
233I don't have experience with this, but you can find examples for configurations with two or more soundcards in 838CD or a Windows installation into <path>/usr/share/sounds/sf2/</path>. For
234<uri link="http://www.alsa-project.org/alsa-doc/alsa-howto/c1660.htm">Chapter 6</uri> 839example a sound font file for the Creative SBLive! card would be 8MBGMSFX.SF2.
235of the <uri link="http://www.alsa-project.org/alsa-doc/alsa-howto/alsa-howto.html">ALSA Howto</uri>.
236</note> 840</note>
841
237</p> 842<p>
843After copying over the Soundfont files, we can then play a midi file as shown.
844You can also add the <c>asfxload</c> command to
845<path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>, so that the sound font is loaded
846every time the system starts up.
238<p> 847</p>
239Last thing to do in this file, at the very bottom, check if these lines are there and uncommented: 848
240<pre caption="at the very bottom of /etc/modules.d/alsa">
241alias /dev/mixer snd-mixer-oss
242alias /dev/dsp snd-pcm-oss
243alias /dev/midi snd-seq-oss
244</pre>
245</p>
246<p>
247Now double-check the file <path>/etc/modules.d/alsa</path> and when you're sure everyting is ok, run <c>update-modules</c>.
248<pre>
249# <c>update-modules</c>
250</pre>
251</p>
252<note> 849<note>
253Running <c>update-modules</c> here will insert the data from <path>/etc/modules.d/alsa</path> into <path>/etc/modules.conf</path> 850<path>/mnt</path> paths mentioned in the code listing(s) below will <e>not</e>
851be the same in your machine. They are just an example. Please be careful to
852change the path to suit your machine.
254</note> 853</note>
255<p> 854
256You should also verify that /etc/devfsd.conf has the alsa devices and permissions correctly registered. 855<pre caption="Loading Soundfonts">
257</p> 856<comment>(First, copy the Soundfont)</comment>
857# <i>cp /mnt/win2k/Program\ Files/CreativeSBLive2k/SFBank/8MBGMSFX.SF2 /usr/share/sounds/sf2/</i>
858<comment>(Or get it from your SoundBlaster CD)</comment>
859# <i>cp /mnt/cdrom/AUDIO/ENGLISH/SFBANK/8MBGMSFX.SF2 /usr/share/sounds/sf2/</i>
860<comment>(We load the specific Soundfont)</comment>
861# <i>asfxload /usr/share/sounds/sf2/8MBGMSFX.SF2</i>
258<pre> 862</pre>
259# nano -w /etc/devfsd.conf 863
864<p>
865You can now play midi files using a program like <c>aplaymidi</c>. Run
866<c>aplaymidi -l</c> to get a list of available ports and then pick one
867to play the file on.
260</pre> 868</p>
869
870<pre caption="Playing MIDI">
871<comment>(Check open ports)</comment>
872# <i>aplaymidi -l</i>
873 Port Client name Port name
874 64:0 EMU10K1 MPU-401 (UART) EMU10K1 MPU-401 (UART)
875 65:0 Emu10k1 WaveTable Emu10k1 Port 0
876 65:1 Emu10k1 WaveTable Emu10k1 Port 1
877 65:2 Emu10k1 WaveTable Emu10k1 Port 2
878 65:3 Emu10k1 WaveTable Emu10k1 Port 3
879<comment>(Pick a port, and play a mid file)</comment>
880# <i> aplaymidi --port=65:0 /mnt/shyam/music/midi/mi2.mid</i>
261<pre> 881</pre>
262# ALSA/OSS stuff 882
263# Comment/change these if you want to change the permissions on
264# the audio devices
265LOOKUP snd MODLOAD ACTION snd
266LOOKUP dsp MODLOAD
267LOOKUP mixer MODLOAD
268LOOKUP midi MODLOAD
269REGISTER sound/.* PERMISSIONS root.audio 660
270REGISTER snd/.* PERMISSIONS root.audio 660
271</pre>
272<note>
273Notice that devfsd.conf sets /dev/sound permissions to be root.audio. Thus, for non-root users to use audio they will have to be part of the audio group.
274</note>
275</body> 883</body>
276</section>
277</chapter>
278<chapter>
279<title>Starting ALSA</title>
280<section> 884</section>
281 <title>Adding alsasound to a runlevel</title> 885<section id="vsynth">
282<body> 886<title>Virtual Synthesizers</title>
283<p>
284First thing to do now, is to make ALSA startup at boottime. Like this:
285<pre>
286# <c>rc-update add alsasound boot</c>
287</pre>
288</p>
289<p>
290<warn>Note that the alsasound script should be added to the "boot" runlevel, not the "default" runlevel.</warn>
291</p>
292</body> 887<body>
293</section> 888
889<p>
890If your sound card lacks a hardware synthesizer, you could use a virtual one
891like <c>timidity++</c>. Installation is a breeze.
892</p>
893
894<pre caption="Installing timidity++">
895# <i>emerge timidity++</i>
896</pre>
897
898<p>
899For timidity to play sounds, it needs a sound font. If you do not have any,
900install <c>timidity-eawpatches</c> or <c>timidity-shompatches</c> which will
901give you some sound fonts. You can have multiple sound font configurations
902installed, and you can place your own in <path>/usr/share/timidity/</path>.
903To switch between different timidity configurations, you should use the
904<c>timidity-update</c> tool provided in the timidity++ package.
905</p>
906
907<pre caption="Installing sound fonts">
908# <i>emerge timidity-eawpatches</i>
909# <i>timidity-update -g -s eawpatches</i>
910
911<comment>(or)</comment>
912
913# <i>emerge timidity-shompatches</i>
914# <i>timidity-update -g -s shompatches</i>
915</pre>
916
917<p>
918Don't forget to add <c>timidity</c> to the default runlevel.
919</p>
920
921<pre caption="Adding timidity to the default runlevel">
922# <i>rc-update add timidity default</i>
923# <i>/etc/init.d/timidity start</i>
924</pre>
925
926<p>
927You can now try out <uri link="#doc_chap4_pre3">Playing MIDI</uri> files.
928</p>
929
930</body>
294<section> 931</section>
295 <title>Running and unmuting</title>
296<body>
297<p>
298Since we're Linux users, we don't want to reboot. So we'll start the alsasound script manually.
299</p>
300<pre>
301# <c>/etc/init.d/alsasound start</c>
302</pre>
303<p>
304ALSA is running now. If everything is ok, you should be able to see the ALSA modules loaded when running <c>lsmod</c>.
305However, sound won't work yet, because the channels are still muted. We need <c>alsa-utils</c> for this.
306</p>
307<pre>
308# <c>emerge alsa-utils</c>
309# <c>amixer</c>
310</pre>
311<p>
312<warn>
313You shouldn't get this, but <e>if</e> you get an error about "amixer: Mixer attach default error: No such file or directory", you should manually insmod
314<c>snd-mixer-oss</c> and <c>snd-pcm-oss</c> once. After that run amixer again.
315</warn>
316</p>
317<pre caption="only if you get an error when running amixer">
318# <c>insmod snd-mixer-oss</c>
319# <c>insmod snd-pcm-oss</c>
320# <c>amixer</c>
321</pre>
322<p>
323If you got this far, now unmute both Master and PCM channels.
324</p>
325<p>
326<pre>
327# <c>amixer set Master 100 unmute</c>
328# <c>amixer set PCM 100 unmute</c>
329# <c>aplay /usr/kde/3/share/sounds/pop.wav</c> <codenote>(pop.wav is part of KDE)</codenote>
330</pre>
331</p>
332We check to see if sound is working by using the aplay (alsa play) command. If you hear a pop, then sound is indeed working.
333Then, adjust the volume settings to your liking; the ncurses-based <c>alsamixer</c> is a great way to get them "just so".
334<p>
335You may want to emerge <c>alsa-xmms</c> as that will provide ALSA support for XMMS.
336</p>
337When you reboot your system, the <e>alsasound</e> init script will properly save and restore your volume settings.
338</body>
339</section> 932<section>
340</chapter> 933<title>Tools and Firmware</title>
341<chapter> 934<body>
342<title>Final Notes</title> 935
936<p>
937Some specific sound cards can benefit from certain tools provided by the
938<c>alsa-tools</c> and <c>alsa-firmware</c> packages. If you need
939<c>alsa-tools</c>, be sure to define the ALSA_TOOLS variable in
940<path>/etc/make.conf</path> with the tools you require. For instance:
941</p>
942
943<pre caption="Selecting ALSA Tools in /etc/make.conf">
944ALSA_TOOLS="as10k1 ac3dec"
945</pre>
946
947<p>
948If the ALSA_TOOLS variable is not set, all available tools will be built.
949Now, install the <c>alsa-tools</c> (and/or <c>alsa-firmware</c>) package(s):
950</p>
951
952<pre caption="Installing ALSA Tools">
953# <i>emerge alsa-tools</i>
954</pre>
955
956</body>
343<section> 957</section>
344 <title>After kernel-upgrades..</title>
345<body>
346<p>When you ever rebuild your kernel, or upgrade to another kernel, you'll have to rebuild the ALSA modules.</p>
347<p>Although you might have installed <c>alsa-driver</c>, <c>alsa-libs</c> and <c>alsa-utils</c>, only the first will
348have to be installed again, since it will put the alsa modules in
349<path>/lib/modules/*/kernel/sound/pci/</path>.</p>
350<pre caption="needed after each kernel compile">
351emerge alsa-driver
352</pre>
353</body>
354</section> 958<section>
959<title>A Big thank you to...</title>
960<body>
961
962<p>
963Everyone who contributed to the earlier version of the Gentoo ALSA Guide:
964Vincent Verleye, Grant Goodyear, Arcady Genkin, Jeremy Huddleston,
965John P. Davis, Sven Vermeulen, Benny Chuang, Tiemo Kieft and Erwin.
966</p>
967
968</body>
355<section> 969</section>
356 <title>/etc/modules.autoload</title>
357<body>
358<p>You won't have to edit this file for use with ALSA. After our <c>rc-update add alsasound boot</c>, our system will
359load the correct modules at startup.</p>
360<p>It's not necessary to add <c>snd-pcm-oss</c> or <c>snd-mixer-oss</c> in this file.
361Check the <uri link="http://www.djcj.org/LAU/guide/alsbook/faq1.html">this FAQ</uri> for more info.</p>
362</body>
363</section> 970<section>
364<section> 971<title>References</title>
365 <title>More links..</title>
366<body> 972<body>
367<p> 973
368You could check these for additional info:
369</p>
370<p>
371<ul> 974<ul>
372<li><uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/desktop.html">The Gentoo Linux Desktop Configuration Guide</uri></li>
373<li><uri link="http://www.alsa-project.org">ALSA Project Homepage</uri></li> 975 <li><uri link="http://www.alsa-project.org/">The ALSA Project</uri></li>
374<li><uri link="http://www.alsa-project.org/documentation.php3">ALSA Users Documentation</uri></li>
375<li><uri link="http://www.djcj.org">ALSA Howto's and FAQ's</uri></li>
376<li><uri link="http://tldp.org/HOWTO/Sound-HOWTO/index.html">Linux Sound HOWTO</uri></li>
377<li><uri link="http://linux-sound.org/">Sound and MIDI Software For Linux</uri></li> 976 <li><uri link="http://linux-sound.org">Linux Sound/MIDI Software</uri></li>
378</ul> 977</ul>
379</p> 978
380</body> 979</body>
381</section> 980</section>
382</chapter> 981</chapter>
383</guide> 982</guide>

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