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1 zhen 1.3 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 antifa 1.11 <?xml-stylesheet href="/xsl/guide.xsl" type="text/xsl"?>
3 drobbins 1.1
4    
5 zhen 1.2 <guide link="/doc/en/altinstall.xml">
6 drobbins 1.1 <title>The Gentoo Linux alternative installation method HOWTO</title>
7 gerrynjr 1.9 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="gerrynjr@gentoo.org">Gerald Normandin Jr.</mail></author>
8     <author title="Contributor"><mail link="lordviram@rebelpacket.net">Travis Tilley</mail></author>
9     <author title="Contributor"><mail link="volontir@yahoo.com">Oleg Raisky</mail></author>
10     <author title="Contributor"><mail link="luminousit@hotmail.com">Alex Garbutt</mail></author>
11     <author title="Contributor"><mail link="alex@openvs.com">Alexandre Georges</mail></author>
12 drobbins 1.1 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="davoid@gentoo.org">Faust A.
13     Tanasescu</mail></author>
14 swift 1.7 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="aliz@gentoo.org">Daniel Ahlberg</mail></author>
15     <author title="Editor"><mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail></author>
16 gerrynjr 1.9 <author title="Editor"><mail link="antifa@gentoo.org">Ken Nowack</mail></author>
17 drobbins 1.1 <abstract>
18     This HOWTO is meant to be a repository of alternative Gentoo installation
19     methods, for those with special installation needs such as lack of a cdrom
20     or a computer that cant boot cds.
21     </abstract>
22    
23 gerrynjr 1.9 <version>0.31</version>
24     <date>17 July 2003</date>
25    
26     <license/>
27 drobbins 1.1
28     <chapter>
29     <title>About this document</title>
30     <section>
31     <body>
32    
33     <p>If the standard boot-from-CD install method doesn't work for you
34     (or you just don't like it),
35     help is now here. This document serves to
36     provide a repository of alternative Gentoo Linux installation techniques
37     to those who need them.
38     Or, if you prefer, it serves as
39     a place to put your wacky installation methods. If you have an
40     installation method that you yourself find useful, or you have devised an
41     amusing way of installing gentoo, please dont hesitate to write something
42 gerrynjr 1.9 up and <mail link="antifa@gentoo.org">send it to me.</mail></p>
43    
44    
45     </body>
46     </section>
47     </chapter>
48    
49     <chapter>
50     <title>Booting the LiveCD with Smart BootManager</title>
51     <section>
52    
53     <body>
54     <p>Download Smart BootManager <uri link="http://btmgr.sourceforge.net/index.php3?body=download.html">http://btmgr.sourceforge.net/index.php3?body=download.html</uri>. Linux source or binary format and windows .exe versions are available as well as many language packs. However, at this time, the prefered method would be to use the binary format, as the source will not compile with newer versions of nasm.</p>
55    
56     <p>Either compile the package from source or just grab the binary. There are several options that can be utilized while creating your boot floppy, as seen below.</p>
57    
58     <pre caption="Smart BootManager Options">
59     <i>sbminst [-t theme] [-d drv] [-b backup_file] [-u backup_file]
60    
61     -t theme select the theme to be used, in which the theme could be:
62     us = English theme de = German theme
63     hu = Hungarian theme zh = Chinese theme
64     ru = Russian theme cz = Czech theme
65     es = Spanish theme fr = French theme
66     pt = Portuguese theme
67    
68    
69     -d drv set the drive that you want to install Smart BootManager on;
70     for Linux:
71     /dev/fd0 is the first floppy driver,
72     /dev/hda is the first IDE harddisk driver.
73     /dev/sda is the first SCSI harddisk driver.
74     for DOS:
75     0 is the first floppy drive
76     128 is the first hard drive;
77    
78     -c disable CD-ROM booting feature;
79    
80     -b backup_file backup the data that will be overwrited for
81     future uninstallation;
82    
83     -u backup_file uninstall Smart BootManager, should be used alone;
84    
85     -y do not ask any question or warning.</i>
86     </pre>
87    
88     <pre caption="Using sbminst to build the boot floppy">
89     # <i>sbminst -t us -d /dev/fd0</i>
90     </pre>
91     <note> Replace fd0 with your repective floppy device name if yours is different. </note>
92     <p>Now simply place the floppy in the floppy drive of the computer you'd like to boot the LiveCD on, as well as placing the LiveCD in the CD-ROM and boot the computer.</p>
93    
94     <p>You'll be greeted with the Smart BootManager dialog. Select your CD-ROM and press ENTER to boot the LiveCD. Once booted proceed with the standard installation instructions.</p>
95    
96     <p>Further information on Smart BootManager may be found at <uri>http://btmgr.sourceforge.net/</uri></p>
97     </body>
98     </section>
99     </chapter>
100    
101    
102     <chapter>
103     <title>Knoppix Installation</title>
104     <section>
105    
106     <body>
107     <p>Booting from the <uri link="http://www.knoppix.org/">Knoppix</uri> LiveCD is a way to have a fully functional linux system while you're compiling Gentoo. Tux Racer will help you pass the time while you wait for bootstrap.</p>
108    
109     <p>Boot from the Knoppix CD. It generally does a really good job of hardware detection. Although, you may have to add some boot options. </p>
110    
111     <p>By default Knoppix boots into a KDE 3.0 desktop. The first thing I did was open a konsole and typed <c>sudo passwd root</c>. This lets you set the root password for Knoppix.</p>
112    
113     <p> Next, I su to root and typed <c>usermod -d /root -m root</c>. This sets user roots home directory to /root (the Gentoo way) from /home/root (the Knoppix way). If you do not do this, then you will receive errors when emerging about "/home/root: not found" or something to that effect.</p>
114    
115     <p>I then typed <c>exit</c> and then <c>su</c> back into root. This loads the change that was made with the usermod command. At this point, you can pick up with the standard install documentation at step 6. </p>
116     </body>
117     </section>
118     </chapter>
119    
120     <chapter>
121     <title>Installing from Stage 1 without network access</title>
122     <section>
123     <body>
124    
125    
126     <p>Burn a LiveCD iso.</p>
127    
128     <p>Get the latest portage snapshot from <uri>http://distro.ibiblio.org/pub/linux/distributions/gentoo/snapshots/</uri> (or your favorite <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror</uri>). Either place this tarball on an existing partition on the box your are installing to, or burn it to a CD.</p>
129    
130     <p>You'll also need a package list for the stage packages. Place the following dl-list.sh script on the same medium as the portage snapshot, you'll need it later.</p>
131    
132     <pre caption="dl-list.sh">
133     #!/bin/bash
134    
135     # set your defaults here:
136     user_defs() {
137    
138     # portage directory (without a trailing "/"):
139     portage_dir="/usr/portage"
140    
141     # default download mirror (without a trailing "/"):
142     gentoo_mirror="http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/Linux/distributions/gentoo"
143    
144     # default sourceforge mirror (unc, telia, belnet):
145     sourceforge_mirror="unc"
146    
147     # fix gnu mirror entries
148     gnu_url="ftp:\/\/ftp.gnu.org\/pub\/gnu"
149    
150     }
151    
152    
153     #------------------------------------------------------------
154    
155     # function to remove temporary files
156     cleanup() {
157    
158     rm -f $temp_file_1 $temp_file_2
159     exit $1
160    
161     }
162    
163     # set user defaults
164     user_defs
165    
166     # set the complete url for the sourceforge mirror
167     # (the \'s are needed because this goes in a sed command)
168     sourceforge_mirror_complete="http:\/\/$sourceforge_mirror.dl.sourceforge.net\/sourceforge"
169    
170     # initialize counters
171     num_files=0
172     num_alt_urls=0
173     total_size=0
174    
175     # initialize lists (arrays)
176     declare -a def_urls_arr
177     declare -a alt_urls_arr
178    
179     # create 2 temporary files
180     temp_file_1=`mktemp -t dl-list.XXXXXX` || cleanup 1
181     temp_file_2=`mktemp -t dl-list.XXXXXX` || cleanup 1
182    
183     # run "emerge -p &lt;args&gt;" (too easy to forget the "-p" in the command line...)
184     emerge -p $@ &gt; $temp_file_1 || cleanup 1
185    
186     # remove the lines that do not contain the word "ebuild"
187     sed -n -e '/ebuild/p' $temp_file_1 &gt; $temp_file_2
188    
189     # count how many lines were left
190     num_ebuilds=`wc -l $temp_file_2 | sed -e 's/\(.*\) \(.*\)/\1/'`
191    
192     # extract the useful information from those lines: category, package and version
193     #sed -e 's:\(.*\) \(.*\)/\(.*\)-\([0-9].*\) \(.*\) \(.*\):\2 \3 \4:' $temp_file_2 &gt; $temp_file_1
194     sed -e 's:\(.*\) \(.*\)/\(.*\)-\([0-9].*\):\2 \3 \4:' $temp_file_2 &gt; $temp_file_1
195    
196     # display starting message :)
197     echo -n "Generating list " &gt;&amp;2
198    
199     # process each package in turn
200     while read category package version rest
201     do
202    
203     # form the name of the digest file
204    
205     digest_file="$portage_dir/$category/$package/files/digest-$package-$version"
206    
207     # process the contents of the digest file
208     while read md5_flag md5_sum file_name file_size
209     do
210    
211     # form the default url to download the file
212     def_urls_arr[$num_files]="$gentoo_mirror/distfiles/$file_name"
213    
214     # increment the file counter
215     num_files=$(($num_files + 1))
216    
217     # update the size accumulator (in kilobytes)
218     total_size=$(($total_size + $file_size / 1024))
219    
220     done &lt; $digest_file
221    
222     # form the "ebuild depend" command line
223     ebuild_depend_cmd="ebuild $portage_dir/$category/$package/$package-${version}.ebuild depend"
224    
225     # execute the "ebuild depend" command
226     $ebuild_depend_cmd || cleanup 1
227    
228     # form the name of the dependency file
229     dependency_file="/var/cache/edb/dep/$category/$package-$version"
230    
231     # read in the 4th line from the dependency file,
232     # which contains the official download urls
233     alt_urls=`head -n 4 $dependency_file | tail -n 1`
234    
235     # ignore empty url list
236     if [ -n "$alt_urls" ]
237     then
238    
239     # split the urls list into $1..$N
240     set $alt_urls
241    
242     # process each url in turn
243     for i in $@
244     do
245    
246     # remove the (use)? strings from the url list
247     alt_url_tmp=`echo "$i" | sed -e '/\?$/d'`
248    
249     # remove the "mirror://gnome" urls
250     alt_url_tmp=`echo "$alt_url_tmp" | sed -e '/^mirror:\/\/gnome/d'`
251    
252     # remove the "mirror://kde" urls
253     alt_url_tmp=`echo "$alt_url_tmp" | sed -e '/^mirror:\/\/kde/d'`
254    
255     # remove the "mirror://gentoo" urls (already included)
256     alt_url_tmp=`echo "$alt_url_tmp" | sed -e '/^mirror:\/\/gentoo/d'`
257    
258     # translate the "mirror://sourceforge" urls into valid urls
259     alt_url_tmp=`echo "$alt_url_tmp" | sed -e "s/mirror:\/\/sourceforge/$sourceforge_mirror_complete/"`
260    
261     # translate the "mirror://gnu" urls into valid urls
262     alt_url_tmp=`echo "$alt_url_tmp" | sed -e "s/mirror:\/\/gnu/$gnu_url/"`
263     # ignore empty urls
264     if [ -n "$alt_url_tmp" ]
265     then
266    
267     # add the url to the list
268     alt_urls_arr[$num_alt_urls]=$alt_url_tmp
269    
270     # increment the alternate url counter
271     num_alt_urls=$(($num_alt_urls + 1))
272    
273     fi
274    
275     done
276    
277     fi
278    
279     # a progress bar :)
280     echo -n "." &gt;&amp;2
281    
282     done &lt; $temp_file_1
283    
284     # display ending message :)
285     echo " done." &gt;&amp;2
286    
287     # display default urls list
288     for i in ${def_urls_arr[@]}; do echo $i; done | sort
289    
290     # display alternate urls list
291     for i in ${alt_urls_arr[@]}; do echo $i; done | sort
292    
293     # display totals
294     echo "Totals:" $num_ebuilds "ebuilds," $num_files "files," $num_files "default urls," \n
295     $num_alt_urls "alternate urls," "${total_size}Kb." &lt;&amp;2
296    
297     # remove temporary files and exit
298     cleanup 0
299     </pre>
300    
301     <p>Follow all instructions of Gentoo Install Doc up to "chroot /mnt/gentoo" in Step 8. If you only have one CD-ROM remember to use the <c>cdcache</c> option while booting so you can unmount the LiveCD and mount your portage snapshot CD.</p>
302    
303     <p>Run "passwd" and get a new password for root. Open a new virtual console (Alt-F2) and login as root with your new password.</p>
304    
305     <p>On the new console (F2) continue with Install Doc up to running bootstrap.sh script.</p>
306    
307     <p>Go back to the first console (Alt-F1, without chroot) and mount a second CD on <c>/mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2</c>. Copy portage tarball from cdrom2 and unpack it to <c>/mnt/gentoo/usr/portage</c>. Further, grab the dl-list.sh script and place it in <c>/usr/sbin</c> and make it executable.</p>
308    
309     <pre caption="Mount the snapshot cd">
310     # <i>umount /mnt/cdrom</i>
311     # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2</i>
312     # <i>mount /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2</i>
313     # <i>cp /mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2/portage-$date.tar.bz2 /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage</i>
314     # <i>cp /mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2/dl-list.sh /mnt/gentoo/usr/sbin</i>
315     # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage</i>
316     # <i>tar xvjpf portage-$date.tar.bz2</i>
317     # <i>chmod +x /mnt/gentoo/usr/sbin/dl-list.sh</i>
318     </pre>
319    
320     <p>Switch back to F2 console. Now if you try to run bootstrap.sh it will fail because it won't be able to download any files. We will fetch these files somewhere else and put them in /usr/portage/distfiles (on F2 console). </p>
321    
322     <p>You need a list of Stage1 packages: glibc, baselayout, texinfo, gettext, zlib, binutils, gcc, ncurses plus their dependencies. </p>
323    
324     <note>Note that you need the versions of each package synced with your portage tree.</note>
325    
326     <p>Now us the dl-list.sh script to generate the package list that you need. Then copy the subsequent list to a floppy.</p>
327    
328     <pre caption="Using dl-list.sh">
329     # <i>dl-list.sh glibc baselayout texinfo gettext zlib binutils gcc ncurses > stage1.list</i>
330     # <i>mount -t vfat /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy</i>
331     # <i>cp /mnt/gentoo/stage1.list /mnt/floppy</i>
332     # <i>umount /mnt/floppy</i>
333     </pre>
334    
335     <p>Take the floppy to the machine that has fast access and feed this list to wget:</p>
336    
337     <pre caption="Use wget to grab your source packages">
338     # <i>wget -N -i stage1.list</i>
339     </pre>
340    
341    
342     <p>Once you have obtained all the files, take them to the computer and copy them to <c>/mnt/gentoo/usr/portage/distfiles</c>. You will then be able to run <c>bootstrap.sh</c>. Repeate this same wget fetch and place procedure for stage2 and 3.</p>
343    
344 drobbins 1.1
345    
346     </body>
347     </section>
348     </chapter>
349    
350     <chapter>
351     <title>Netboot install</title>
352     <section>
353     <title>Requirements</title>
354     <body>
355     <p>The requirements for a netboot install are a host computer than can
356     provide a tftp server and a computer
357     that can netboot itself via either bios or a floppy drive used to boot GRUB
358     or another network bootloader. A dhcp server might also be necessary. Of
359     course, you will also need the latest build ISO, which can be found at
360 swift 1.6 <uri>http://distro.ibiblio.org/pub/linux/distributions/gentoo/releases/</uri></p>
361 gerrynjr 1.9 <note>Due to changes in the LiveCD, this procedure will only work for the 1.2 LiveCD. </note>
362 drobbins 1.1 </body>
363     </section>
364    
365     <section>
366     <title>Overview</title>
367     <body>
368    
369     <p>In order to load images off the network, the first thing a netboot machine
370     must do is obtain an IP address. There are multiple ways of obtaining
371     an IP address, and any
372     one of them will do. Personally, I prefer to use GRUB for everything, but if
373     your computer supports booting from a network already then grub might not
374     be necessary, even if it might be easier to just use GRUB's <c>ifconfig</c> command
375     instead of setting up a bootp or dhcp server.</p>
376    
377     <p>Once your computer has obtained an IP address, the next logical step is to find
378     out what you are going to be booting and where it might be held. Once again,
379     it would be easiest to do this with GRUB commands as opposed to setting up
380     a bootp or dhcp server. You will also need to specify how to obtain an initrd
381     and tell the kernel that it will be using this as it's root filesystem.</p>
382    
383     <p>With your kernel loaded and root filesystem mounted, you may proceed
384     with installation as normal. The build image could be loaded from a cd, or it
385     can be downloaded from the network via tftp.</p>
386    
387     </body>
388     </section>
389     <section>
390     <title>Using GRUB</title>
391     <body>
392    
393     <p>To use GRUB for network booting purposes, you must first have GRUB
394     compiled with support for your network card. It doesn't matter if you install
395     to floppy, or to the hard drive of the computer you wish to install Gentoo
396     on. If your install target already has GRUB with network support installed,
397     then you are one step ahead. GRUB can be downloaded from
398     <uri>ftp://alpha.gnu.org/gnu/grub/</uri></p>
399    
400     <p>A configure example for enabling tulip support, the network card in my
401     box:</p>
402    
403     <pre caption="Manual GRUB installation">
404     # <i>./configure --enable-tulip --prefix=/usr</i>
405     # <i>make &amp;&amp; make install</i>
406     </pre>
407    
408     <p>If you are currently in Gentoo and wish to install GRUB using Gentoo
409     tools, then you need to install step by step in order to configure in support
410     for your network card. An example for using ebuild to install GRUB with
411     tulip support:</p>
412    
413     <pre caption="Installing and configuring GRUB on Gentoo Linux">
414     # <i>ebuild /usr/portage/sys-apps/grub/grub-0.91.ebuild clean fetch unpack</i>
415     # <i>cd /var/tmp/portage/grub-0.91/work/grub-0.91/</i>
416     # <i>./configure --prefix=/usr --sbindir=/sbin --mandir=/usr/share/man \ </i>
417     > <i>--infodir=/usr/share/info --enable-tulip</i>
418     # <i>make</i>
419     # <i>touch /var/tmp/portage/grub-0.91/.compiled</i>
420     # <i>cd /usr/portage/</i>
421     # <i>ebuild sys-apps/grub/grub-0.91.ebuild install merge</i>
422     </pre>
423    
424     <p>Now that we have the GRUB shell itself installed, we need to install to
425     a boot sector. Although you could install GRUB to the boot sector of your
426     install computer's hard drive, here we will assume that you are installing
427     GRUB on a boot floppy. There are two ways of doing this. You can use the GRUB
428     shell itself, or you can use a provided script called <c>grub-install</c>. It is
429     preferable to use <c>grub-install</c> when installing GRUB to a floppy.</p>
430    
431     <pre caption="grub-install example">
432     # <i>mkfs.ext2 /dev/fd0</i>
433     # <i>mount /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy/</i>
434     # <i>grub-install --root-directory=/mnt/floppy/ '(fd0)'</i>
435     # <i>umount /mnt/floppy/</i>
436     </pre>
437    
438     <p><c>grub-install</c> does not always work... and isn't always the best way to install
439     GRUB. And since the GRUB shell works exactly like GRUB would when booted
440     via the boot sector, it might be more desirable just to use the GRUB shell. Here
441     is an example of how to use the GRUB shell to install GRUB to a floppy:</p>
442    
443     <pre caption="Using the GRUB shell instead">
444     # <i>mkfs.ext2 /dev/fd0</i>
445     # <i>mount /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy/</i>
446     # <i>mkdir -p /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</i>
447     # <i>cp -v /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/* /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</i>
448     # <i>grub</i>
449     grub> <i>root (fd0)</i>
450     grub> <i>setup (fd0)</i>
451     grub> <i>quit</i>
452     # <i>umount /mnt/floppy/</i>
453     </pre>
454    
455     <p>Now that we have a bootable GRUB floppy, we need to set up the host tftp server
456     (I suggest netkit's tftp server)
457     for loading our kernel and initrd. If you use inetd then you will need
458     a line in your <path>/etc/inetd.conf</path> that looks
459     like this:</p>
460    
461     <pre caption="/etc/inetd.conf">
462     tftp dgram udp wait nobody /usr/sbin/tcpd in.tftpd
463     </pre>
464    
465     <p>To install the netkit tftp server under gentoo linux, emerge net-misc/netkit-tftp</p>
466    
467     <note>There is an ebuild for xinetd... if you prefer to use this than feel free to do
468     so. However I do not use xinetd, and do not know how to set up tftp with it. If you
469     use it and such, please send me info on how to get xinetd working and I will include
470     them in this howto.</note>
471    
472     <p>Now that we have our tftp server ready, we need a kernel and a root initrd to
473     put in it. You can compile a custom kernel yourself, but make sure it has all the
474     things necessary for running gentoo (like devfs) and for netbooting (like initrd
475     support). The root initrd will be the rescue.gz included in the gentoo ISO.</p>
476    
477     <impo>Mounting an ISO file without burning it to cd requires loopback filesystem
478     support.</impo>
479    
480     <pre>
481     # <i>mkdir /tftpboot</i>
482     # <i>mount -o loop /path/to/gentoo-ix86-1.1a.iso /mnt/cdrom/</i>
483     # <i>cp /mnt/cdrom/isolinux/kernel /mnt/cdrom/isolinux/rescue.gz /tftpboot</i>
484     # <i>chmod 644 /tftpboot/*</i>
485     # <i>umount /mnt/cdrom/</i>
486     </pre>
487    
488     <p>Boot the machine you want to install to with your incredibly usefull grub floppy.
489     Once booted you need to specify a way for the machine to get
490     its IP address, specify where
491     to get a kernel and it's options, and where to get it's initrd.</p>
492    
493     <pre>
494 gerrynjr 1.9 grub> <i>ifconfig --address=<c>ip.add.re.ss</c> --server=<c>ip.add.re.ss</c></i>
495 drobbins 1.1 grub> <i>root (nd)</i>
496     grub> <i>kernel /tftpboot/kernel devfs=nomount vga=normal load_ramdisk=1 </i>
497     <i>prompt_ramdisk=0 ramdisk_size=24000 root=/dev/ram0 rw</i> <comment>(all on one line)</comment>
498     grub> <i>initrd /tftpboot/rescue.gz</i>
499     grub> <i>boot</i>
500     </pre>
501    
502     <note>You can also use bootp and dhcp to configure your ip via grub. Use the bootp
503     and dhcp commands.</note>
504    
505     <p>Now that you have your machine booted, you can install as normal. Refer to the
506     from source cd install howto.</p>
507    
508     </body>
509     </section>
510     </chapter>
511    
512 gerrynjr 1.9 <chapter><title>Diskless install using PXE boot</title>
513    
514     <section><title>Requirements</title>
515     <body>
516     <p>You will need a network card on the diskless client that uses the PXE protocol to boot, like many 3com cards. You will also need a BIOS that supports booting from PXE.</p>
517     </body></section>
518    
519     <section><title>Server base setup</title>
520     <body>
521     <p>Create directories: The first thing to do is to create the directories where your diskless system will be stored. Create a directory called <c>/diskless</c> which houses a directory for each diskless client. For the rest of this howto we'll be working on the client 'eta'.</p>
522    
523     <pre caption="directory setup">
524     # <i>mkdir /diskless</i>
525     # <i>mkdir /diskless/eta</i>
526     # <i>mkdir /diskless/eta/boot</i>
527     </pre>
528    
529     <p>DHCP and TFTP setup: The client will get boot informations using DHCP and download all the required files using TFTP. Just emerge DHCP and configure it for your basic needs. Then, add the following on <c>/etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf</c>.</p>
530    
531     <note>This provide a static IP adress for the client and the path of a PXE boot image, here pxegrub. You have to replace the MAC address of the Ethernet card of the client and the directory where you will put the client files with the one you use.</note>
532    
533     <pre caption="dhcp.conf">
534     option option-150 code 150 = text ;
535     host eta {
536     hardware ethernet 00:00:00:00:00:00;
537     fixed-address <c>ip.add.re.ss</c>;
538     option option-150 "/eta/boot/grub.lst";
539     filename "/eta/boot/pxegrub";
540     }
541     </pre>
542    
543     <p>For TFTP, emerge <c>app-admin/tftp-hpa</c>. In <c>/etc/conf.d/in.tftpd</c>, put the following :</p>
544    
545     <pre caption="in.tftpd">
546     INTFTPD_PATH="/diskless"
547     INTFTPD_USER="nobody"
548     INTFTPD_OPTS="-u ${INTFTPD_USER} -l -vvvvvv -p -c -s ${INTFTPD_PATH}"
549     </pre>
550    
551     <p>Setup GRUB: To provide PXE booting I use GRUB. You have to compile it by yourself to enable the PXE image compilation ... but that's quite easy. First, get the latest version of the GRUB source code (<c>emerge -f grub</c> will place the tarball in <c>/usr/portage/distfiles</c>). Copy the tarball to <c>/diskless</c> and then build it to make the pxe capable binary. Once the binary is built, copy it to the diskless client's boot directory. Then edit it's grub.lst config file.</p>
552    
553     <pre caption="grub setup">
554     # <i>tar zxvf grub-0.92.tar.gz</i>
555     # <i>cd grub-0.92</i>
556     # <i>./configure --help</i>
557     <codenote>In the options you will see a list of supported network interface drivers. </codenote>
558     <codenote>Select the driver compatible with your card. Herein referenced a $nic</codenote>
559     # <i>./configure --enable-diskless --enable-$nic</i>
560     # <i>make</i>
561     # <i>cd stage2</i>
562     # <i>cp pxegrub /diskless/eta/boot/pxegrub</i>
563     # <i>nano -w /diskless/eta/boot/grub.lst</i>
564     </pre>
565    
566     <pre caption="grub.lst">
567     default 0
568     timeout 30
569    
570     title=Diskless Gentoo
571     root (nd)
572     kernel /eta/bzImage ip=dhcp root=/dev/nfs nfsroot=<c>ip.add.re.ss</c>:/diskless/eta
573 drobbins 1.1
574 gerrynjr 1.9 <codenote>For the nfsroot option, the IP address is the one of the server and </codenote>
575     <codenote>the directory is the one where your diskless client files are located (on the server).</codenote>
576     </pre>
577    
578     <p>Setup NFS: NFS is quite easy to configure. The only thing you have to do is to add a line on the <c>/etc/exports</c> config file :</p>
579    
580     <pre caption="/etc/exports">
581     # <i>nano -w /etc/exports</i>
582     NFS file systems being exported. See exports(5).
583     /diskless/eta eta(rw,sync,no_root_squash)
584     </pre>
585    
586     <p>Update your hosts: One important thing to do now is to modify your <c>/etc/hosts</c> file to fit your needs. </p>
587    
588     <pre caption="/etc/hosts">
589     127.0.0.1 localhost
590    
591     192.168.1.10 eta.example.com eta
592     192.168.1.20 sigma.example.com sigma
593     </pre>
594     </body>
595     </section>
596    
597     <section><title>Creating the system on the server</title>
598    
599     <body>
600    
601     <p>Reboot the server on a Gentoo LiveCD. Follow the standard install procedure as explained in the Gentoo Install Howto BUT with the following differences. When you mount the file system, do the following (where hdaX is the partition where you created the /diskless directory). You do not need to mount any other partitions as all of the files will reside in the <c>/diskless/eta</c> directory.</p>
602    
603     <pre caption="mounting the filesystem">
604     #<i> mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
605     </pre>
606    
607     <p>Stage tarballs and chroot: This example uses a stage3 tarball. Mount <c>/proc</c> to your diskless directory and chroot into it to continue with the install. Then follow the installation manual until kernel configuration.</p>
608    
609     <warn>Be very careful where you extract your stage tarball. You don't want to end up extracting over your existing installation.</warn>
610    
611     <pre caption="extracting the stage tarball">
612     # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/</i>
613     # <i>tar -xvjpf /mnt/cdrom/gentoo/stage3-*.tar.bz2</i>
614     # <i>mount -t proc /proc /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/proc</i>
615     # <i>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/etc/resolv.conf</i>
616     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/ /bin/bash</i>
617     # <i>env-update</i>
618     # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
619     </pre>
620    
621     <p>Kernel configuration: When you do the <c>make menuconfig</c> of your kernel configuration, don't forget to enable the following options with the others recommended into the install howto.</p>
622    
623     <pre caption="menuconfig options">
624     - Your network card device support
625    
626     - Under "Networking options" :
627    
628     [*] TCP/IP networking
629     [*] IP: kernel level autoconfiguration
630     [*] IP: DHCP support
631     [*] IP: BOOTP support
632    
633    
634     - Under "File systems --> Network File Systems" :
635    
636     &lt;*&gt; NFS file system support
637     [*] Provide NFSv3 client support
638     [*] Root file system on NFS
639     </pre>
640    
641     <p>Next configure your diskless client's <c>/etc/fstab</c>.</p>
642    
643     <pre caption="/etc/fstab">
644     # <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
645     /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro 0 0
646     proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
647     tmpfs /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0
648     </pre>
649    
650     <p>Bootloader. Dont install another bootloader because we already have one - pxegrub. Simply finish the install and restart the server. Start the services you'll need to boot the new client: DHCP, TFTPD, and NFS.</p>
651    
652     <pre caption="Starting services">
653     # <i>/etc/init.d/dhcp start</i>
654     # <i>/etc/init.d/tftpd start</i>
655     # <i>/etc/init.d/nfs start</i>
656     </pre>
657    
658     </body></section>
659    
660     <section><title>Booting the new client</title>
661     <body>
662     <p>For the new client to boot properly, you'll need to configure the bios and the network card to use PXE as the first boot method - before CD-ROM or floppy. For help with this consult your hardware manuals or maufacturers website. The network card should get an IP address using DHCP and download the GRUB PXE image using TFTP. Then, you should see a nice black and white GRUB bootmenu where you will select the kernel to boot and press Enter. If everything is ok the kernel should boot, mount the root filesystem using NFS and provide you with a login prompt. Enjoy.</p>
663     </body></section>
664    
665     </chapter>
666 drobbins 1.1
667    
668    
669     <chapter> <title>Installing Gentoo from an existing Linux distribution </title>
670     <section> <title> Requirements </title>
671     <body>
672     <p>In order to install Gentoo from your existing Linux distribution you need to
673     have chroot command installed, and have a copy of the Gentoo installation
674     tarball or ISO you want to install. A network connection would be preferable if
675     you want more than what's supplied in your tarball. (by the way, a tarball is
676     just a file ending in .tbz or .tar.gz). The author used RedHat Linux 7.3 as the
677     "host" operating system, but it is not very important. Let's get started! </p>
678     </body>
679     </section>
680    
681     <section> <title> Overview </title>
682     <body>
683     <p>We will first allocate a partition to Gentoo by resizing our existing Linux partition, mount the partition, untar the tarball that is mounted, chroot inside the proto-system and start building. Once the bootstrap process is done, we will do some final configuration on the system so as to make sure it boots, then we are ready to reboot and use Gentoo. </p>
684     </body>
685     </section>
686    
687     <section> <title> How should we make space for gentoo? </title>
688     <body>
689    
690     <p>
691     The root partition is the filesystem mounted under "/". A quick run of mount on my system shows what I am talking about. We well also use df (disk free) to see how much space I have left and how I will be resizing. Note that it is not mandatory to resize your root partition! You could be resizing anything else supported by our resizer, but let's talk about that later.</p>
692    
693    
694     <pre caption="Filesystem information">
695     # <i>mount</i>
696     /dev/hdb2 on / type ext3 (rw)
697     none on /proc type proc (rw)
698     none on /dev/pts type devpts (rw,gid=5,mode=620)
699     none on /dev/shm type tmpfs (rw)
700     # <i>df -h </i>
701     Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
702     /dev/hdb2 4.0G 1.9G 2.4G 82% /
703     none 38M 0 38M 0% /dev/shm
704     </pre>
705    
706     <p>As we can see, the partition mounted as "/" named /dev/hdb2 has 2.4 gigabytes free. In my case, I think I will resize it as to leave 400Megs free of space, therefore allocating 2 gigabytes for Gentoo. Not bad, I could have quite some stuff installed. However, think that even one gigabyte is enough for most users. So let's partition this thing! </p>
707    
708     </body> </section>
709    
710     <section> <title> Building parted to resize partition </title>
711     <body>
712     <p>Parted is an utility supplied by the GNU foundation, an old and respectable huge project whose software you are using in this very moment. There is one tool, however, that is extremely useful for us at the moment. It's called parted, partition editor and we can get it from <uri>
713 klieber 1.5 http://www.gnu.org/software/parted/</uri>
714 drobbins 1.1 </p>
715     <note> There are other tools for doing resize of partitions as well, but author
716     is unsure/uninterested whether PartitionMagic(tm) or other software of the kind
717     do the job. It's the reader's job to check them out </note>
718    
719     <p>
720     Look up on that page the type of filesystem you want to resize and see if parted
721     can do it. If not, you're out of luck, you will have to destroy some partition
722     to make space for gentoo, and reinstall back. Go ahead by downloading the
723     software, install it. Here we have a problem. We want to resize our Linux root
724     partition, therefore we must boot from a floppy disk a minimal linux system and
725     use previously-compiled parted copied to a diskette in order to resize "/".
726     However, if you can unmount the partition while still in Linux you are lucky,
727     you don't need to do what follows. Just compile parted and run it on an
728     unmounted partition you chose to resize. Here's how I did it for my system.
729     </p>
730    
731     <impo> Make sure that the operations you want to do on your partition are
732     supported by parted! </impo>
733    
734     <p> Get tomsrtbt boot/root disk (free of charge) from <uri>
735     http://freshmeat.net/tomsrtbt" </uri>, create a floppy as suggested in the
736     Documentation that accompanies the software package and insert a new floppy in
737     the drive for the next step. </p>
738    
739     <note> Note again that Linux is synonym of "There's one more way to do it". Your
740     objective is to run parted on an unmounted partition so it can do its work. You
741     might use some other boot/root diskset other than tomsrtbt. You might not even
742     need to do this step at all, that is only umount the filesystem you want to
743     repartition in your Linux session and run parted on it. </note>
744    
745     <pre caption="Utility disk creation">
746     # <i>mkfs.minix /dev/fd0</i>
747     480 inodes
748     1440 blocks
749     Firstdatazone=19 (19)
750     Zonesize=1024
751     Maxsize=268966912
752     </pre>
753    
754     We will now proceed with the build of parted. If it's not already downloaded and untarred, do so now and cd into the corresponding directory. Now run the following set of commands to build the utility and copy it to your floppy disk.
755    
756     <pre caption="Building the utility floppy">
757     # <i> mkdir /floppy; mount -t minix /dev/fd0 /floppy &amp;&amp;
758     export CFLAGS="-O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer -static" &amp;&amp; ./configure
759     &amp;&amp; make &amp;&amp; cp parted/parted /floppy &amp;&amp; umount /floppy </i>
760     </pre>
761    
762     <p>
763     Congratulations, you are ready to reboot and resize your partition. Do this only
764     after taking a quick look at the parted documentation on the GNU website. The
765     resize should take under 30 minutes for the largest hard-drives, be patient.
766     Reboot your system with the tomsrtbt boot disk (just pop it inside), and once
767     you are logged in, switch the disk in the drive with your utility disk we have
768     created above and type mount /dev/fd0 /floppy to have parted under /floppy.
769     There you go. Run parted and you will be able to resize your partition. Once
770     this lenghty process done, we are ready to have the real fun, by installing
771 swift 1.8 gentoo. Reboot back into your old Linux system for now. Drive you wish to
772     operate on is the drive containing the partition we want to resize. For
773     example, if we want to resize /dev/hda3, the drive is /dev/hda
774     </p>
775 drobbins 1.1
776     <pre caption="Commands to run once logged into tomsrtbt system">
777     # <i>mount /dev/fd0 /floppy </i>
778     # <i>cd /floppy; ./parted [drive you wish to operate on]</i>
779     (parted) <i> print </i>
780     Disk geometry for /dev/hdb: 0.000-9787.148 megabytes
781     Disk label type: msdos
782     Minor Start End Type Filesystem Flags
783     1 0.031 2953.125 primary ntfs
784     3 2953.125 3133.265 primary linux-swap
785     2 3133.266 5633.085 primary ext3
786     4 5633.086 9787.148 extended
787     5 5633.117 6633.210 logical
788     6 6633.242 9787.148 logical ext3
789     (parted) <i> help resize </i>
790     resize MINOR START END resize filesystem on partition MINOR
791    
792     MINOR is the partition number used by Linux. On msdos disk labels, the
793     primary partitions number from 1-4, and logical partitions are 5
794     onwards.
795     START and END are in megabytes
796     (parted) <i> resize 2 3133.266 4000.000 </i>
797     </pre>
798    
799     <impo> Be patient! The computer is working! Just look at the hardware LED on
800     your case to see that it is really working. This should take between 2 and 30
801     minutes. </impo>
802    
803     <p>Once you have resized, boot back into your old linux as described. Then go to
804 swift 1.7 <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml">http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml</uri> and follow steps 6 through 17. Don't forget to create the <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> directory before proceeding with step 7. In step 8 you have to download the requested stage-tarball as we're not working from a LiveCD.
805 drobbins 1.1
806    
807     Enjoy!
808     </p>
809     </body>
810     </section>
811     </chapter>
812     </guide>

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