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1 zhen 1.3 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 antifa 1.12 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3    
4 drobbins 1.1
5 zhen 1.2 <guide link="/doc/en/altinstall.xml">
6 drobbins 1.1 <title>The Gentoo Linux alternative installation method HOWTO</title>
7 gerrynjr 1.9 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="gerrynjr@gentoo.org">Gerald Normandin Jr.</mail></author>
8     <author title="Contributor"><mail link="lordviram@rebelpacket.net">Travis Tilley</mail></author>
9     <author title="Contributor"><mail link="volontir@yahoo.com">Oleg Raisky</mail></author>
10     <author title="Contributor"><mail link="luminousit@hotmail.com">Alex Garbutt</mail></author>
11     <author title="Contributor"><mail link="alex@openvs.com">Alexandre Georges</mail></author>
12 klieber 1.13 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="davoid@gentoo.org">Faust A. Tanasescu</mail></author>
13 swift 1.7 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="aliz@gentoo.org">Daniel Ahlberg</mail></author>
14     <author title="Editor"><mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail></author>
15 gerrynjr 1.9 <author title="Editor"><mail link="antifa@gentoo.org">Ken Nowack</mail></author>
16 drobbins 1.1 <abstract>
17     This HOWTO is meant to be a repository of alternative Gentoo installation
18     methods, for those with special installation needs such as lack of a cdrom
19     or a computer that cant boot cds.
20     </abstract>
21    
22 gerrynjr 1.9 <version>0.31</version>
23     <date>17 July 2003</date>
24    
25     <license/>
26 drobbins 1.1
27     <chapter>
28     <title>About this document</title>
29     <section>
30     <body>
31    
32     <p>If the standard boot-from-CD install method doesn't work for you
33     (or you just don't like it),
34     help is now here. This document serves to
35     provide a repository of alternative Gentoo Linux installation techniques
36     to those who need them.
37     Or, if you prefer, it serves as
38     a place to put your wacky installation methods. If you have an
39     installation method that you yourself find useful, or you have devised an
40     amusing way of installing gentoo, please dont hesitate to write something
41 gerrynjr 1.9 up and <mail link="antifa@gentoo.org">send it to me.</mail></p>
42    
43    
44     </body>
45     </section>
46     </chapter>
47    
48     <chapter>
49     <title>Booting the LiveCD with Smart BootManager</title>
50     <section>
51    
52     <body>
53     <p>Download Smart BootManager <uri link="http://btmgr.sourceforge.net/index.php3?body=download.html">http://btmgr.sourceforge.net/index.php3?body=download.html</uri>. Linux source or binary format and windows .exe versions are available as well as many language packs. However, at this time, the prefered method would be to use the binary format, as the source will not compile with newer versions of nasm.</p>
54    
55     <p>Either compile the package from source or just grab the binary. There are several options that can be utilized while creating your boot floppy, as seen below.</p>
56    
57     <pre caption="Smart BootManager Options">
58     <i>sbminst [-t theme] [-d drv] [-b backup_file] [-u backup_file]
59    
60     -t theme select the theme to be used, in which the theme could be:
61     us = English theme de = German theme
62     hu = Hungarian theme zh = Chinese theme
63     ru = Russian theme cz = Czech theme
64     es = Spanish theme fr = French theme
65     pt = Portuguese theme
66    
67    
68     -d drv set the drive that you want to install Smart BootManager on;
69     for Linux:
70     /dev/fd0 is the first floppy driver,
71     /dev/hda is the first IDE harddisk driver.
72     /dev/sda is the first SCSI harddisk driver.
73     for DOS:
74     0 is the first floppy drive
75     128 is the first hard drive;
76    
77     -c disable CD-ROM booting feature;
78    
79     -b backup_file backup the data that will be overwrited for
80     future uninstallation;
81    
82     -u backup_file uninstall Smart BootManager, should be used alone;
83    
84     -y do not ask any question or warning.</i>
85     </pre>
86    
87     <pre caption="Using sbminst to build the boot floppy">
88     # <i>sbminst -t us -d /dev/fd0</i>
89     </pre>
90     <note> Replace fd0 with your repective floppy device name if yours is different. </note>
91     <p>Now simply place the floppy in the floppy drive of the computer you'd like to boot the LiveCD on, as well as placing the LiveCD in the CD-ROM and boot the computer.</p>
92    
93     <p>You'll be greeted with the Smart BootManager dialog. Select your CD-ROM and press ENTER to boot the LiveCD. Once booted proceed with the standard installation instructions.</p>
94    
95     <p>Further information on Smart BootManager may be found at <uri>http://btmgr.sourceforge.net/</uri></p>
96     </body>
97     </section>
98     </chapter>
99    
100    
101     <chapter>
102     <title>Knoppix Installation</title>
103     <section>
104    
105     <body>
106     <p>Booting from the <uri link="http://www.knoppix.org/">Knoppix</uri> LiveCD is a way to have a fully functional linux system while you're compiling Gentoo. Tux Racer will help you pass the time while you wait for bootstrap.</p>
107    
108     <p>Boot from the Knoppix CD. It generally does a really good job of hardware detection. Although, you may have to add some boot options. </p>
109    
110     <p>By default Knoppix boots into a KDE 3.0 desktop. The first thing I did was open a konsole and typed <c>sudo passwd root</c>. This lets you set the root password for Knoppix.</p>
111    
112     <p> Next, I su to root and typed <c>usermod -d /root -m root</c>. This sets user roots home directory to /root (the Gentoo way) from /home/root (the Knoppix way). If you do not do this, then you will receive errors when emerging about "/home/root: not found" or something to that effect.</p>
113    
114     <p>I then typed <c>exit</c> and then <c>su</c> back into root. This loads the change that was made with the usermod command. At this point, you can pick up with the standard install documentation at step 6. </p>
115     </body>
116     </section>
117     </chapter>
118    
119     <chapter>
120     <title>Installing from Stage 1 without network access</title>
121     <section>
122     <body>
123    
124    
125     <p>Burn a LiveCD iso.</p>
126    
127     <p>Get the latest portage snapshot from <uri>http://distro.ibiblio.org/pub/linux/distributions/gentoo/snapshots/</uri> (or your favorite <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror</uri>). Either place this tarball on an existing partition on the box your are installing to, or burn it to a CD.</p>
128    
129     <p>You'll also need a package list for the stage packages. Place the following dl-list.sh script on the same medium as the portage snapshot, you'll need it later.</p>
130    
131     <pre caption="dl-list.sh">
132     #!/bin/bash
133    
134     # set your defaults here:
135     user_defs() {
136    
137     # portage directory (without a trailing "/"):
138     portage_dir="/usr/portage"
139    
140     # default download mirror (without a trailing "/"):
141     gentoo_mirror="http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/Linux/distributions/gentoo"
142    
143     # default sourceforge mirror (unc, telia, belnet):
144     sourceforge_mirror="unc"
145    
146     # fix gnu mirror entries
147     gnu_url="ftp:\/\/ftp.gnu.org\/pub\/gnu"
148    
149     }
150    
151    
152     #------------------------------------------------------------
153    
154     # function to remove temporary files
155     cleanup() {
156    
157     rm -f $temp_file_1 $temp_file_2
158     exit $1
159    
160     }
161    
162     # set user defaults
163     user_defs
164    
165     # set the complete url for the sourceforge mirror
166     # (the \'s are needed because this goes in a sed command)
167     sourceforge_mirror_complete="http:\/\/$sourceforge_mirror.dl.sourceforge.net\/sourceforge"
168    
169     # initialize counters
170     num_files=0
171     num_alt_urls=0
172     total_size=0
173    
174     # initialize lists (arrays)
175     declare -a def_urls_arr
176     declare -a alt_urls_arr
177    
178     # create 2 temporary files
179     temp_file_1=`mktemp -t dl-list.XXXXXX` || cleanup 1
180     temp_file_2=`mktemp -t dl-list.XXXXXX` || cleanup 1
181    
182     # run "emerge -p &lt;args&gt;" (too easy to forget the "-p" in the command line...)
183     emerge -p $@ &gt; $temp_file_1 || cleanup 1
184    
185     # remove the lines that do not contain the word "ebuild"
186     sed -n -e '/ebuild/p' $temp_file_1 &gt; $temp_file_2
187    
188     # count how many lines were left
189     num_ebuilds=`wc -l $temp_file_2 | sed -e 's/\(.*\) \(.*\)/\1/'`
190    
191     # extract the useful information from those lines: category, package and version
192     #sed -e 's:\(.*\) \(.*\)/\(.*\)-\([0-9].*\) \(.*\) \(.*\):\2 \3 \4:' $temp_file_2 &gt; $temp_file_1
193     sed -e 's:\(.*\) \(.*\)/\(.*\)-\([0-9].*\):\2 \3 \4:' $temp_file_2 &gt; $temp_file_1
194    
195     # display starting message :)
196     echo -n "Generating list " &gt;&amp;2
197    
198     # process each package in turn
199     while read category package version rest
200     do
201    
202     # form the name of the digest file
203    
204     digest_file="$portage_dir/$category/$package/files/digest-$package-$version"
205    
206     # process the contents of the digest file
207     while read md5_flag md5_sum file_name file_size
208     do
209    
210     # form the default url to download the file
211     def_urls_arr[$num_files]="$gentoo_mirror/distfiles/$file_name"
212    
213     # increment the file counter
214     num_files=$(($num_files + 1))
215    
216     # update the size accumulator (in kilobytes)
217     total_size=$(($total_size + $file_size / 1024))
218    
219     done &lt; $digest_file
220    
221     # form the "ebuild depend" command line
222     ebuild_depend_cmd="ebuild $portage_dir/$category/$package/$package-${version}.ebuild depend"
223    
224     # execute the "ebuild depend" command
225     $ebuild_depend_cmd || cleanup 1
226    
227     # form the name of the dependency file
228     dependency_file="/var/cache/edb/dep/$category/$package-$version"
229    
230     # read in the 4th line from the dependency file,
231     # which contains the official download urls
232     alt_urls=`head -n 4 $dependency_file | tail -n 1`
233    
234     # ignore empty url list
235     if [ -n "$alt_urls" ]
236     then
237    
238     # split the urls list into $1..$N
239     set $alt_urls
240    
241     # process each url in turn
242     for i in $@
243     do
244    
245     # remove the (use)? strings from the url list
246     alt_url_tmp=`echo "$i" | sed -e '/\?$/d'`
247    
248     # remove the "mirror://gnome" urls
249     alt_url_tmp=`echo "$alt_url_tmp" | sed -e '/^mirror:\/\/gnome/d'`
250    
251     # remove the "mirror://kde" urls
252     alt_url_tmp=`echo "$alt_url_tmp" | sed -e '/^mirror:\/\/kde/d'`
253    
254     # remove the "mirror://gentoo" urls (already included)
255     alt_url_tmp=`echo "$alt_url_tmp" | sed -e '/^mirror:\/\/gentoo/d'`
256    
257     # translate the "mirror://sourceforge" urls into valid urls
258     alt_url_tmp=`echo "$alt_url_tmp" | sed -e "s/mirror:\/\/sourceforge/$sourceforge_mirror_complete/"`
259    
260     # translate the "mirror://gnu" urls into valid urls
261     alt_url_tmp=`echo "$alt_url_tmp" | sed -e "s/mirror:\/\/gnu/$gnu_url/"`
262     # ignore empty urls
263     if [ -n "$alt_url_tmp" ]
264     then
265    
266     # add the url to the list
267     alt_urls_arr[$num_alt_urls]=$alt_url_tmp
268    
269     # increment the alternate url counter
270     num_alt_urls=$(($num_alt_urls + 1))
271    
272     fi
273    
274     done
275    
276     fi
277    
278     # a progress bar :)
279     echo -n "." &gt;&amp;2
280    
281     done &lt; $temp_file_1
282    
283     # display ending message :)
284     echo " done." &gt;&amp;2
285    
286     # display default urls list
287     for i in ${def_urls_arr[@]}; do echo $i; done | sort
288    
289     # display alternate urls list
290     for i in ${alt_urls_arr[@]}; do echo $i; done | sort
291    
292     # display totals
293     echo "Totals:" $num_ebuilds "ebuilds," $num_files "files," $num_files "default urls," \n
294     $num_alt_urls "alternate urls," "${total_size}Kb." &lt;&amp;2
295    
296     # remove temporary files and exit
297     cleanup 0
298     </pre>
299    
300     <p>Follow all instructions of Gentoo Install Doc up to "chroot /mnt/gentoo" in Step 8. If you only have one CD-ROM remember to use the <c>cdcache</c> option while booting so you can unmount the LiveCD and mount your portage snapshot CD.</p>
301    
302     <p>Run "passwd" and get a new password for root. Open a new virtual console (Alt-F2) and login as root with your new password.</p>
303    
304     <p>On the new console (F2) continue with Install Doc up to running bootstrap.sh script.</p>
305    
306     <p>Go back to the first console (Alt-F1, without chroot) and mount a second CD on <c>/mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2</c>. Copy portage tarball from cdrom2 and unpack it to <c>/mnt/gentoo/usr/portage</c>. Further, grab the dl-list.sh script and place it in <c>/usr/sbin</c> and make it executable.</p>
307    
308     <pre caption="Mount the snapshot cd">
309     # <i>umount /mnt/cdrom</i>
310     # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2</i>
311     # <i>mount /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2</i>
312     # <i>cp /mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2/portage-$date.tar.bz2 /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage</i>
313     # <i>cp /mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2/dl-list.sh /mnt/gentoo/usr/sbin</i>
314     # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage</i>
315     # <i>tar xvjpf portage-$date.tar.bz2</i>
316     # <i>chmod +x /mnt/gentoo/usr/sbin/dl-list.sh</i>
317     </pre>
318    
319     <p>Switch back to F2 console. Now if you try to run bootstrap.sh it will fail because it won't be able to download any files. We will fetch these files somewhere else and put them in /usr/portage/distfiles (on F2 console). </p>
320    
321     <p>You need a list of Stage1 packages: glibc, baselayout, texinfo, gettext, zlib, binutils, gcc, ncurses plus their dependencies. </p>
322    
323     <note>Note that you need the versions of each package synced with your portage tree.</note>
324    
325     <p>Now us the dl-list.sh script to generate the package list that you need. Then copy the subsequent list to a floppy.</p>
326    
327     <pre caption="Using dl-list.sh">
328     # <i>dl-list.sh glibc baselayout texinfo gettext zlib binutils gcc ncurses > stage1.list</i>
329     # <i>mount -t vfat /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy</i>
330     # <i>cp /mnt/gentoo/stage1.list /mnt/floppy</i>
331     # <i>umount /mnt/floppy</i>
332     </pre>
333    
334     <p>Take the floppy to the machine that has fast access and feed this list to wget:</p>
335    
336     <pre caption="Use wget to grab your source packages">
337     # <i>wget -N -i stage1.list</i>
338     </pre>
339    
340    
341     <p>Once you have obtained all the files, take them to the computer and copy them to <c>/mnt/gentoo/usr/portage/distfiles</c>. You will then be able to run <c>bootstrap.sh</c>. Repeate this same wget fetch and place procedure for stage2 and 3.</p>
342    
343 drobbins 1.1
344    
345     </body>
346     </section>
347     </chapter>
348    
349     <chapter>
350     <title>Netboot install</title>
351     <section>
352     <title>Requirements</title>
353     <body>
354     <p>The requirements for a netboot install are a host computer than can
355     provide a tftp server and a computer
356     that can netboot itself via either bios or a floppy drive used to boot GRUB
357     or another network bootloader. A dhcp server might also be necessary. Of
358     course, you will also need the latest build ISO, which can be found at
359 swift 1.6 <uri>http://distro.ibiblio.org/pub/linux/distributions/gentoo/releases/</uri></p>
360 gerrynjr 1.9 <note>Due to changes in the LiveCD, this procedure will only work for the 1.2 LiveCD. </note>
361 drobbins 1.1 </body>
362     </section>
363    
364     <section>
365     <title>Overview</title>
366     <body>
367    
368     <p>In order to load images off the network, the first thing a netboot machine
369     must do is obtain an IP address. There are multiple ways of obtaining
370     an IP address, and any
371     one of them will do. Personally, I prefer to use GRUB for everything, but if
372     your computer supports booting from a network already then grub might not
373     be necessary, even if it might be easier to just use GRUB's <c>ifconfig</c> command
374     instead of setting up a bootp or dhcp server.</p>
375    
376     <p>Once your computer has obtained an IP address, the next logical step is to find
377     out what you are going to be booting and where it might be held. Once again,
378     it would be easiest to do this with GRUB commands as opposed to setting up
379     a bootp or dhcp server. You will also need to specify how to obtain an initrd
380     and tell the kernel that it will be using this as it's root filesystem.</p>
381    
382     <p>With your kernel loaded and root filesystem mounted, you may proceed
383     with installation as normal. The build image could be loaded from a cd, or it
384     can be downloaded from the network via tftp.</p>
385    
386     </body>
387     </section>
388     <section>
389     <title>Using GRUB</title>
390     <body>
391    
392     <p>To use GRUB for network booting purposes, you must first have GRUB
393     compiled with support for your network card. It doesn't matter if you install
394     to floppy, or to the hard drive of the computer you wish to install Gentoo
395     on. If your install target already has GRUB with network support installed,
396     then you are one step ahead. GRUB can be downloaded from
397     <uri>ftp://alpha.gnu.org/gnu/grub/</uri></p>
398    
399     <p>A configure example for enabling tulip support, the network card in my
400     box:</p>
401    
402     <pre caption="Manual GRUB installation">
403     # <i>./configure --enable-tulip --prefix=/usr</i>
404     # <i>make &amp;&amp; make install</i>
405     </pre>
406    
407     <p>If you are currently in Gentoo and wish to install GRUB using Gentoo
408     tools, then you need to install step by step in order to configure in support
409     for your network card. An example for using ebuild to install GRUB with
410     tulip support:</p>
411    
412     <pre caption="Installing and configuring GRUB on Gentoo Linux">
413     # <i>ebuild /usr/portage/sys-apps/grub/grub-0.91.ebuild clean fetch unpack</i>
414     # <i>cd /var/tmp/portage/grub-0.91/work/grub-0.91/</i>
415     # <i>./configure --prefix=/usr --sbindir=/sbin --mandir=/usr/share/man \ </i>
416     > <i>--infodir=/usr/share/info --enable-tulip</i>
417     # <i>make</i>
418     # <i>touch /var/tmp/portage/grub-0.91/.compiled</i>
419     # <i>cd /usr/portage/</i>
420     # <i>ebuild sys-apps/grub/grub-0.91.ebuild install merge</i>
421     </pre>
422    
423     <p>Now that we have the GRUB shell itself installed, we need to install to
424     a boot sector. Although you could install GRUB to the boot sector of your
425     install computer's hard drive, here we will assume that you are installing
426     GRUB on a boot floppy. There are two ways of doing this. You can use the GRUB
427     shell itself, or you can use a provided script called <c>grub-install</c>. It is
428     preferable to use <c>grub-install</c> when installing GRUB to a floppy.</p>
429    
430     <pre caption="grub-install example">
431     # <i>mkfs.ext2 /dev/fd0</i>
432     # <i>mount /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy/</i>
433     # <i>grub-install --root-directory=/mnt/floppy/ '(fd0)'</i>
434     # <i>umount /mnt/floppy/</i>
435     </pre>
436    
437     <p><c>grub-install</c> does not always work... and isn't always the best way to install
438     GRUB. And since the GRUB shell works exactly like GRUB would when booted
439     via the boot sector, it might be more desirable just to use the GRUB shell. Here
440     is an example of how to use the GRUB shell to install GRUB to a floppy:</p>
441    
442     <pre caption="Using the GRUB shell instead">
443     # <i>mkfs.ext2 /dev/fd0</i>
444     # <i>mount /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy/</i>
445     # <i>mkdir -p /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</i>
446     # <i>cp -v /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/* /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</i>
447     # <i>grub</i>
448     grub> <i>root (fd0)</i>
449     grub> <i>setup (fd0)</i>
450     grub> <i>quit</i>
451     # <i>umount /mnt/floppy/</i>
452     </pre>
453    
454     <p>Now that we have a bootable GRUB floppy, we need to set up the host tftp server
455     (I suggest netkit's tftp server)
456     for loading our kernel and initrd. If you use inetd then you will need
457     a line in your <path>/etc/inetd.conf</path> that looks
458     like this:</p>
459    
460     <pre caption="/etc/inetd.conf">
461     tftp dgram udp wait nobody /usr/sbin/tcpd in.tftpd
462     </pre>
463    
464     <p>To install the netkit tftp server under gentoo linux, emerge net-misc/netkit-tftp</p>
465    
466     <note>There is an ebuild for xinetd... if you prefer to use this than feel free to do
467     so. However I do not use xinetd, and do not know how to set up tftp with it. If you
468     use it and such, please send me info on how to get xinetd working and I will include
469     them in this howto.</note>
470    
471     <p>Now that we have our tftp server ready, we need a kernel and a root initrd to
472     put in it. You can compile a custom kernel yourself, but make sure it has all the
473     things necessary for running gentoo (like devfs) and for netbooting (like initrd
474     support). The root initrd will be the rescue.gz included in the gentoo ISO.</p>
475    
476     <impo>Mounting an ISO file without burning it to cd requires loopback filesystem
477     support.</impo>
478    
479     <pre>
480     # <i>mkdir /tftpboot</i>
481     # <i>mount -o loop /path/to/gentoo-ix86-1.1a.iso /mnt/cdrom/</i>
482     # <i>cp /mnt/cdrom/isolinux/kernel /mnt/cdrom/isolinux/rescue.gz /tftpboot</i>
483     # <i>chmod 644 /tftpboot/*</i>
484     # <i>umount /mnt/cdrom/</i>
485     </pre>
486    
487     <p>Boot the machine you want to install to with your incredibly usefull grub floppy.
488     Once booted you need to specify a way for the machine to get
489     its IP address, specify where
490     to get a kernel and it's options, and where to get it's initrd.</p>
491    
492     <pre>
493 gerrynjr 1.9 grub> <i>ifconfig --address=<c>ip.add.re.ss</c> --server=<c>ip.add.re.ss</c></i>
494 drobbins 1.1 grub> <i>root (nd)</i>
495     grub> <i>kernel /tftpboot/kernel devfs=nomount vga=normal load_ramdisk=1 </i>
496     <i>prompt_ramdisk=0 ramdisk_size=24000 root=/dev/ram0 rw</i> <comment>(all on one line)</comment>
497     grub> <i>initrd /tftpboot/rescue.gz</i>
498     grub> <i>boot</i>
499     </pre>
500    
501     <note>You can also use bootp and dhcp to configure your ip via grub. Use the bootp
502     and dhcp commands.</note>
503    
504     <p>Now that you have your machine booted, you can install as normal. Refer to the
505     from source cd install howto.</p>
506    
507     </body>
508     </section>
509     </chapter>
510    
511 gerrynjr 1.9 <chapter><title>Diskless install using PXE boot</title>
512    
513     <section><title>Requirements</title>
514     <body>
515     <p>You will need a network card on the diskless client that uses the PXE protocol to boot, like many 3com cards. You will also need a BIOS that supports booting from PXE.</p>
516     </body></section>
517    
518     <section><title>Server base setup</title>
519     <body>
520     <p>Create directories: The first thing to do is to create the directories where your diskless system will be stored. Create a directory called <c>/diskless</c> which houses a directory for each diskless client. For the rest of this howto we'll be working on the client 'eta'.</p>
521    
522     <pre caption="directory setup">
523     # <i>mkdir /diskless</i>
524     # <i>mkdir /diskless/eta</i>
525     # <i>mkdir /diskless/eta/boot</i>
526     </pre>
527    
528     <p>DHCP and TFTP setup: The client will get boot informations using DHCP and download all the required files using TFTP. Just emerge DHCP and configure it for your basic needs. Then, add the following on <c>/etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf</c>.</p>
529    
530     <note>This provide a static IP adress for the client and the path of a PXE boot image, here pxegrub. You have to replace the MAC address of the Ethernet card of the client and the directory where you will put the client files with the one you use.</note>
531    
532     <pre caption="dhcp.conf">
533     option option-150 code 150 = text ;
534     host eta {
535     hardware ethernet 00:00:00:00:00:00;
536     fixed-address <c>ip.add.re.ss</c>;
537     option option-150 "/eta/boot/grub.lst";
538     filename "/eta/boot/pxegrub";
539     }
540     </pre>
541    
542     <p>For TFTP, emerge <c>app-admin/tftp-hpa</c>. In <c>/etc/conf.d/in.tftpd</c>, put the following :</p>
543    
544     <pre caption="in.tftpd">
545     INTFTPD_PATH="/diskless"
546     INTFTPD_USER="nobody"
547     INTFTPD_OPTS="-u ${INTFTPD_USER} -l -vvvvvv -p -c -s ${INTFTPD_PATH}"
548     </pre>
549    
550     <p>Setup GRUB: To provide PXE booting I use GRUB. You have to compile it by yourself to enable the PXE image compilation ... but that's quite easy. First, get the latest version of the GRUB source code (<c>emerge -f grub</c> will place the tarball in <c>/usr/portage/distfiles</c>). Copy the tarball to <c>/diskless</c> and then build it to make the pxe capable binary. Once the binary is built, copy it to the diskless client's boot directory. Then edit it's grub.lst config file.</p>
551    
552     <pre caption="grub setup">
553     # <i>tar zxvf grub-0.92.tar.gz</i>
554     # <i>cd grub-0.92</i>
555     # <i>./configure --help</i>
556     <codenote>In the options you will see a list of supported network interface drivers. </codenote>
557     <codenote>Select the driver compatible with your card. Herein referenced a $nic</codenote>
558     # <i>./configure --enable-diskless --enable-$nic</i>
559     # <i>make</i>
560     # <i>cd stage2</i>
561     # <i>cp pxegrub /diskless/eta/boot/pxegrub</i>
562     # <i>nano -w /diskless/eta/boot/grub.lst</i>
563     </pre>
564    
565     <pre caption="grub.lst">
566     default 0
567     timeout 30
568    
569     title=Diskless Gentoo
570     root (nd)
571     kernel /eta/bzImage ip=dhcp root=/dev/nfs nfsroot=<c>ip.add.re.ss</c>:/diskless/eta
572 drobbins 1.1
573 gerrynjr 1.9 <codenote>For the nfsroot option, the IP address is the one of the server and </codenote>
574     <codenote>the directory is the one where your diskless client files are located (on the server).</codenote>
575     </pre>
576    
577     <p>Setup NFS: NFS is quite easy to configure. The only thing you have to do is to add a line on the <c>/etc/exports</c> config file :</p>
578    
579     <pre caption="/etc/exports">
580     # <i>nano -w /etc/exports</i>
581     NFS file systems being exported. See exports(5).
582     /diskless/eta eta(rw,sync,no_root_squash)
583     </pre>
584    
585     <p>Update your hosts: One important thing to do now is to modify your <c>/etc/hosts</c> file to fit your needs. </p>
586    
587     <pre caption="/etc/hosts">
588     127.0.0.1 localhost
589    
590     192.168.1.10 eta.example.com eta
591     192.168.1.20 sigma.example.com sigma
592     </pre>
593     </body>
594     </section>
595    
596     <section><title>Creating the system on the server</title>
597    
598     <body>
599    
600     <p>Reboot the server on a Gentoo LiveCD. Follow the standard install procedure as explained in the Gentoo Install Howto BUT with the following differences. When you mount the file system, do the following (where hdaX is the partition where you created the /diskless directory). You do not need to mount any other partitions as all of the files will reside in the <c>/diskless/eta</c> directory.</p>
601    
602     <pre caption="mounting the filesystem">
603     #<i> mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
604     </pre>
605    
606     <p>Stage tarballs and chroot: This example uses a stage3 tarball. Mount <c>/proc</c> to your diskless directory and chroot into it to continue with the install. Then follow the installation manual until kernel configuration.</p>
607    
608     <warn>Be very careful where you extract your stage tarball. You don't want to end up extracting over your existing installation.</warn>
609    
610     <pre caption="extracting the stage tarball">
611     # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/</i>
612     # <i>tar -xvjpf /mnt/cdrom/gentoo/stage3-*.tar.bz2</i>
613     # <i>mount -t proc /proc /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/proc</i>
614     # <i>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/etc/resolv.conf</i>
615     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/ /bin/bash</i>
616     # <i>env-update</i>
617     # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
618     </pre>
619    
620     <p>Kernel configuration: When you do the <c>make menuconfig</c> of your kernel configuration, don't forget to enable the following options with the others recommended into the install howto.</p>
621    
622     <pre caption="menuconfig options">
623     - Your network card device support
624    
625     - Under "Networking options" :
626    
627     [*] TCP/IP networking
628     [*] IP: kernel level autoconfiguration
629     [*] IP: DHCP support
630     [*] IP: BOOTP support
631    
632    
633     - Under "File systems --> Network File Systems" :
634    
635     &lt;*&gt; NFS file system support
636     [*] Provide NFSv3 client support
637     [*] Root file system on NFS
638     </pre>
639    
640     <p>Next configure your diskless client's <c>/etc/fstab</c>.</p>
641    
642     <pre caption="/etc/fstab">
643     # <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
644     /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro 0 0
645     proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
646     tmpfs /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0
647     </pre>
648    
649     <p>Bootloader. Dont install another bootloader because we already have one - pxegrub. Simply finish the install and restart the server. Start the services you'll need to boot the new client: DHCP, TFTPD, and NFS.</p>
650    
651     <pre caption="Starting services">
652     # <i>/etc/init.d/dhcp start</i>
653     # <i>/etc/init.d/tftpd start</i>
654     # <i>/etc/init.d/nfs start</i>
655     </pre>
656    
657     </body></section>
658    
659     <section><title>Booting the new client</title>
660     <body>
661     <p>For the new client to boot properly, you'll need to configure the bios and the network card to use PXE as the first boot method - before CD-ROM or floppy. For help with this consult your hardware manuals or maufacturers website. The network card should get an IP address using DHCP and download the GRUB PXE image using TFTP. Then, you should see a nice black and white GRUB bootmenu where you will select the kernel to boot and press Enter. If everything is ok the kernel should boot, mount the root filesystem using NFS and provide you with a login prompt. Enjoy.</p>
662     </body></section>
663    
664     </chapter>
665 drobbins 1.1
666    
667    
668     <chapter> <title>Installing Gentoo from an existing Linux distribution </title>
669     <section> <title> Requirements </title>
670     <body>
671     <p>In order to install Gentoo from your existing Linux distribution you need to
672     have chroot command installed, and have a copy of the Gentoo installation
673     tarball or ISO you want to install. A network connection would be preferable if
674     you want more than what's supplied in your tarball. (by the way, a tarball is
675     just a file ending in .tbz or .tar.gz). The author used RedHat Linux 7.3 as the
676     "host" operating system, but it is not very important. Let's get started! </p>
677     </body>
678     </section>
679    
680     <section> <title> Overview </title>
681     <body>
682     <p>We will first allocate a partition to Gentoo by resizing our existing Linux partition, mount the partition, untar the tarball that is mounted, chroot inside the proto-system and start building. Once the bootstrap process is done, we will do some final configuration on the system so as to make sure it boots, then we are ready to reboot and use Gentoo. </p>
683     </body>
684     </section>
685    
686     <section> <title> How should we make space for gentoo? </title>
687     <body>
688    
689     <p>
690     The root partition is the filesystem mounted under "/". A quick run of mount on my system shows what I am talking about. We well also use df (disk free) to see how much space I have left and how I will be resizing. Note that it is not mandatory to resize your root partition! You could be resizing anything else supported by our resizer, but let's talk about that later.</p>
691    
692    
693     <pre caption="Filesystem information">
694     # <i>mount</i>
695     /dev/hdb2 on / type ext3 (rw)
696     none on /proc type proc (rw)
697     none on /dev/pts type devpts (rw,gid=5,mode=620)
698     none on /dev/shm type tmpfs (rw)
699     # <i>df -h </i>
700     Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
701     /dev/hdb2 4.0G 1.9G 2.4G 82% /
702     none 38M 0 38M 0% /dev/shm
703     </pre>
704    
705     <p>As we can see, the partition mounted as "/" named /dev/hdb2 has 2.4 gigabytes free. In my case, I think I will resize it as to leave 400Megs free of space, therefore allocating 2 gigabytes for Gentoo. Not bad, I could have quite some stuff installed. However, think that even one gigabyte is enough for most users. So let's partition this thing! </p>
706    
707     </body> </section>
708    
709     <section> <title> Building parted to resize partition </title>
710     <body>
711     <p>Parted is an utility supplied by the GNU foundation, an old and respectable huge project whose software you are using in this very moment. There is one tool, however, that is extremely useful for us at the moment. It's called parted, partition editor and we can get it from <uri>
712 klieber 1.5 http://www.gnu.org/software/parted/</uri>
713 drobbins 1.1 </p>
714     <note> There are other tools for doing resize of partitions as well, but author
715     is unsure/uninterested whether PartitionMagic(tm) or other software of the kind
716     do the job. It's the reader's job to check them out </note>
717    
718     <p>
719     Look up on that page the type of filesystem you want to resize and see if parted
720     can do it. If not, you're out of luck, you will have to destroy some partition
721     to make space for gentoo, and reinstall back. Go ahead by downloading the
722     software, install it. Here we have a problem. We want to resize our Linux root
723     partition, therefore we must boot from a floppy disk a minimal linux system and
724     use previously-compiled parted copied to a diskette in order to resize "/".
725     However, if you can unmount the partition while still in Linux you are lucky,
726     you don't need to do what follows. Just compile parted and run it on an
727     unmounted partition you chose to resize. Here's how I did it for my system.
728     </p>
729    
730     <impo> Make sure that the operations you want to do on your partition are
731     supported by parted! </impo>
732    
733     <p> Get tomsrtbt boot/root disk (free of charge) from <uri>
734     http://freshmeat.net/tomsrtbt" </uri>, create a floppy as suggested in the
735     Documentation that accompanies the software package and insert a new floppy in
736     the drive for the next step. </p>
737    
738     <note> Note again that Linux is synonym of "There's one more way to do it". Your
739     objective is to run parted on an unmounted partition so it can do its work. You
740     might use some other boot/root diskset other than tomsrtbt. You might not even
741     need to do this step at all, that is only umount the filesystem you want to
742     repartition in your Linux session and run parted on it. </note>
743    
744     <pre caption="Utility disk creation">
745     # <i>mkfs.minix /dev/fd0</i>
746     480 inodes
747     1440 blocks
748     Firstdatazone=19 (19)
749     Zonesize=1024
750     Maxsize=268966912
751     </pre>
752    
753     We will now proceed with the build of parted. If it's not already downloaded and untarred, do so now and cd into the corresponding directory. Now run the following set of commands to build the utility and copy it to your floppy disk.
754    
755     <pre caption="Building the utility floppy">
756     # <i> mkdir /floppy; mount -t minix /dev/fd0 /floppy &amp;&amp;
757     export CFLAGS="-O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer -static" &amp;&amp; ./configure
758     &amp;&amp; make &amp;&amp; cp parted/parted /floppy &amp;&amp; umount /floppy </i>
759     </pre>
760    
761     <p>
762     Congratulations, you are ready to reboot and resize your partition. Do this only
763     after taking a quick look at the parted documentation on the GNU website. The
764     resize should take under 30 minutes for the largest hard-drives, be patient.
765     Reboot your system with the tomsrtbt boot disk (just pop it inside), and once
766     you are logged in, switch the disk in the drive with your utility disk we have
767     created above and type mount /dev/fd0 /floppy to have parted under /floppy.
768     There you go. Run parted and you will be able to resize your partition. Once
769     this lenghty process done, we are ready to have the real fun, by installing
770 swift 1.8 gentoo. Reboot back into your old Linux system for now. Drive you wish to
771     operate on is the drive containing the partition we want to resize. For
772     example, if we want to resize /dev/hda3, the drive is /dev/hda
773     </p>
774 drobbins 1.1
775     <pre caption="Commands to run once logged into tomsrtbt system">
776     # <i>mount /dev/fd0 /floppy </i>
777     # <i>cd /floppy; ./parted [drive you wish to operate on]</i>
778     (parted) <i> print </i>
779     Disk geometry for /dev/hdb: 0.000-9787.148 megabytes
780     Disk label type: msdos
781     Minor Start End Type Filesystem Flags
782     1 0.031 2953.125 primary ntfs
783     3 2953.125 3133.265 primary linux-swap
784     2 3133.266 5633.085 primary ext3
785     4 5633.086 9787.148 extended
786     5 5633.117 6633.210 logical
787     6 6633.242 9787.148 logical ext3
788     (parted) <i> help resize </i>
789     resize MINOR START END resize filesystem on partition MINOR
790    
791     MINOR is the partition number used by Linux. On msdos disk labels, the
792     primary partitions number from 1-4, and logical partitions are 5
793     onwards.
794     START and END are in megabytes
795     (parted) <i> resize 2 3133.266 4000.000 </i>
796     </pre>
797    
798     <impo> Be patient! The computer is working! Just look at the hardware LED on
799     your case to see that it is really working. This should take between 2 and 30
800     minutes. </impo>
801    
802     <p>Once you have resized, boot back into your old linux as described. Then go to
803 swift 1.7 <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml">http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml</uri> and follow steps 6 through 17. Don't forget to create the <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> directory before proceeding with step 7. In step 8 you have to download the requested stage-tarball as we're not working from a LiveCD.
804 drobbins 1.1
805    
806     Enjoy!
807     </p>
808     </body>
809     </section>
810     </chapter>
811     </guide>

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