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1 zhen 1.3 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 antifa 1.12 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3    
4 drobbins 1.1
5 zhen 1.2 <guide link="/doc/en/altinstall.xml">
6 drobbins 1.1 <title>The Gentoo Linux alternative installation method HOWTO</title>
7 gerrynjr 1.9 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="gerrynjr@gentoo.org">Gerald Normandin Jr.</mail></author>
8     <author title="Contributor"><mail link="lordviram@rebelpacket.net">Travis Tilley</mail></author>
9     <author title="Contributor"><mail link="volontir@yahoo.com">Oleg Raisky</mail></author>
10     <author title="Contributor"><mail link="luminousit@hotmail.com">Alex Garbutt</mail></author>
11     <author title="Contributor"><mail link="alex@openvs.com">Alexandre Georges</mail></author>
12 antifa 1.15 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="vargen@b0d.org">Magnus Backanda</mail></author>
13 klieber 1.13 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="davoid@gentoo.org">Faust A. Tanasescu</mail></author>
14 swift 1.7 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="aliz@gentoo.org">Daniel Ahlberg</mail></author>
15     <author title="Editor"><mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail></author>
16 antifa 1.15 <author title="Reviewer"><mail link="antifa@gentoo.org">Ken Nowack</mail></author>
17 drobbins 1.1 <abstract>
18     This HOWTO is meant to be a repository of alternative Gentoo installation
19     methods, for those with special installation needs such as lack of a cdrom
20 gerrynjr 1.14 or a computer that can't boot cds.
21 drobbins 1.1 </abstract>
22    
23 swift 1.16 <version>0.32</version>
24     <date>September 7, 2003</date>
25 gerrynjr 1.9
26     <license/>
27 drobbins 1.1
28     <chapter>
29     <title>About this document</title>
30     <section>
31     <body>
32    
33     <p>If the standard boot-from-CD install method doesn't work for you
34     (or you just don't like it),
35     help is now here. This document serves to
36     provide a repository of alternative Gentoo Linux installation techniques
37     to those who need them.
38     Or, if you prefer, it serves as
39     a place to put your wacky installation methods. If you have an
40     installation method that you yourself find useful, or you have devised an
41 gerrynjr 1.14 amusing way of installing Gentoo, please don't hesitate to write something
42 gerrynjr 1.9 up and <mail link="antifa@gentoo.org">send it to me.</mail></p>
43    
44    
45     </body>
46     </section>
47     </chapter>
48    
49     <chapter>
50     <title>Booting the LiveCD with Smart BootManager</title>
51     <section>
52    
53     <body>
54 gerrynjr 1.14 <p>Download Smart BootManager <uri link="http://btmgr.sourceforge.net/index.php3?body=download.html">http://btmgr.sourceforge.net/index.php3?body=download.html</uri>. Linux source or binary format and windows .exe versions are available as well as many language packs. However, at this time, the preferred method would be to use the binary format, as the source will not compile with newer versions of NASM.</p>
55 gerrynjr 1.9
56     <p>Either compile the package from source or just grab the binary. There are several options that can be utilized while creating your boot floppy, as seen below.</p>
57    
58     <pre caption="Smart BootManager Options">
59     <i>sbminst [-t theme] [-d drv] [-b backup_file] [-u backup_file]
60    
61     -t theme select the theme to be used, in which the theme could be:
62     us = English theme de = German theme
63     hu = Hungarian theme zh = Chinese theme
64     ru = Russian theme cz = Czech theme
65     es = Spanish theme fr = French theme
66     pt = Portuguese theme
67    
68    
69     -d drv set the drive that you want to install Smart BootManager on;
70     for Linux:
71     /dev/fd0 is the first floppy driver,
72     /dev/hda is the first IDE harddisk driver.
73     /dev/sda is the first SCSI harddisk driver.
74     for DOS:
75     0 is the first floppy drive
76     128 is the first hard drive;
77    
78     -c disable CD-ROM booting feature;
79    
80 gerrynjr 1.14 -b backup_file backup the data that will be overwritten for
81 gerrynjr 1.9 future uninstallation;
82    
83     -u backup_file uninstall Smart BootManager, should be used alone;
84    
85     -y do not ask any question or warning.</i>
86     </pre>
87    
88     <pre caption="Using sbminst to build the boot floppy">
89     # <i>sbminst -t us -d /dev/fd0</i>
90     </pre>
91     <note> Replace fd0 with your repective floppy device name if yours is different. </note>
92     <p>Now simply place the floppy in the floppy drive of the computer you'd like to boot the LiveCD on, as well as placing the LiveCD in the CD-ROM and boot the computer.</p>
93    
94     <p>You'll be greeted with the Smart BootManager dialog. Select your CD-ROM and press ENTER to boot the LiveCD. Once booted proceed with the standard installation instructions.</p>
95    
96     <p>Further information on Smart BootManager may be found at <uri>http://btmgr.sourceforge.net/</uri></p>
97     </body>
98     </section>
99     </chapter>
100    
101    
102     <chapter>
103     <title>Knoppix Installation</title>
104     <section>
105    
106     <body>
107     <p>Booting from the <uri link="http://www.knoppix.org/">Knoppix</uri> LiveCD is a way to have a fully functional linux system while you're compiling Gentoo. Tux Racer will help you pass the time while you wait for bootstrap.</p>
108    
109     <p>Boot from the Knoppix CD. It generally does a really good job of hardware detection. Although, you may have to add some boot options. </p>
110    
111     <p>By default Knoppix boots into a KDE 3.0 desktop. The first thing I did was open a konsole and typed <c>sudo passwd root</c>. This lets you set the root password for Knoppix.</p>
112    
113     <p> Next, I su to root and typed <c>usermod -d /root -m root</c>. This sets user roots home directory to /root (the Gentoo way) from /home/root (the Knoppix way). If you do not do this, then you will receive errors when emerging about "/home/root: not found" or something to that effect.</p>
114    
115 swift 1.16 <p>I then typed <c>exit</c> and then <c>su</c> back into root. This loads the change that was made with the usermod command. At this point, you can pick up with the standard install documentation at step 6. However, when you're asked to mount the proc system, issue the following commands instead: </p>
116    
117     <pre caption = "Bind-mounting two important filesystems">
118     # <i>mount -o bind /proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
119     # <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
120     </pre>
121    
122 gerrynjr 1.9 </body>
123     </section>
124     </chapter>
125    
126     <chapter>
127     <title>Installing from Stage 1 without network access</title>
128     <section>
129     <body>
130    
131    
132     <p>Burn a LiveCD iso.</p>
133    
134 gerrynjr 1.14 <p>Get the latest portage snapshot from <uri>http://distro.ibiblio.org/pub/linux/distributions/gentoo/snapshots/</uri> (or your favorite <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror</uri>). Either place this tarball on an existing partition on the computer your are installing to, or burn it to a CD.</p>
135 gerrynjr 1.9
136     <p>You'll also need a package list for the stage packages. Place the following dl-list.sh script on the same medium as the portage snapshot, you'll need it later.</p>
137    
138     <pre caption="dl-list.sh">
139     #!/bin/bash
140    
141     # set your defaults here:
142     user_defs() {
143    
144     # portage directory (without a trailing "/"):
145     portage_dir="/usr/portage"
146    
147     # default download mirror (without a trailing "/"):
148     gentoo_mirror="http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/Linux/distributions/gentoo"
149    
150     # default sourceforge mirror (unc, telia, belnet):
151     sourceforge_mirror="unc"
152    
153     # fix gnu mirror entries
154     gnu_url="ftp:\/\/ftp.gnu.org\/pub\/gnu"
155    
156     }
157    
158    
159     #------------------------------------------------------------
160    
161     # function to remove temporary files
162     cleanup() {
163    
164     rm -f $temp_file_1 $temp_file_2
165     exit $1
166    
167     }
168    
169     # set user defaults
170     user_defs
171    
172     # set the complete url for the sourceforge mirror
173     # (the \'s are needed because this goes in a sed command)
174     sourceforge_mirror_complete="http:\/\/$sourceforge_mirror.dl.sourceforge.net\/sourceforge"
175    
176     # initialize counters
177     num_files=0
178     num_alt_urls=0
179     total_size=0
180    
181     # initialize lists (arrays)
182     declare -a def_urls_arr
183     declare -a alt_urls_arr
184    
185     # create 2 temporary files
186     temp_file_1=`mktemp -t dl-list.XXXXXX` || cleanup 1
187     temp_file_2=`mktemp -t dl-list.XXXXXX` || cleanup 1
188    
189     # run "emerge -p &lt;args&gt;" (too easy to forget the "-p" in the command line...)
190     emerge -p $@ &gt; $temp_file_1 || cleanup 1
191    
192     # remove the lines that do not contain the word "ebuild"
193     sed -n -e '/ebuild/p' $temp_file_1 &gt; $temp_file_2
194    
195     # count how many lines were left
196     num_ebuilds=`wc -l $temp_file_2 | sed -e 's/\(.*\) \(.*\)/\1/'`
197    
198     # extract the useful information from those lines: category, package and version
199     #sed -e 's:\(.*\) \(.*\)/\(.*\)-\([0-9].*\) \(.*\) \(.*\):\2 \3 \4:' $temp_file_2 &gt; $temp_file_1
200     sed -e 's:\(.*\) \(.*\)/\(.*\)-\([0-9].*\):\2 \3 \4:' $temp_file_2 &gt; $temp_file_1
201    
202     # display starting message :)
203     echo -n "Generating list " &gt;&amp;2
204    
205     # process each package in turn
206     while read category package version rest
207     do
208    
209     # form the name of the digest file
210    
211     digest_file="$portage_dir/$category/$package/files/digest-$package-$version"
212    
213     # process the contents of the digest file
214     while read md5_flag md5_sum file_name file_size
215     do
216    
217     # form the default url to download the file
218     def_urls_arr[$num_files]="$gentoo_mirror/distfiles/$file_name"
219    
220     # increment the file counter
221     num_files=$(($num_files + 1))
222    
223     # update the size accumulator (in kilobytes)
224     total_size=$(($total_size + $file_size / 1024))
225    
226     done &lt; $digest_file
227    
228     # form the "ebuild depend" command line
229     ebuild_depend_cmd="ebuild $portage_dir/$category/$package/$package-${version}.ebuild depend"
230    
231     # execute the "ebuild depend" command
232     $ebuild_depend_cmd || cleanup 1
233    
234     # form the name of the dependency file
235     dependency_file="/var/cache/edb/dep/$category/$package-$version"
236    
237     # read in the 4th line from the dependency file,
238     # which contains the official download urls
239     alt_urls=`head -n 4 $dependency_file | tail -n 1`
240    
241     # ignore empty url list
242     if [ -n "$alt_urls" ]
243     then
244    
245     # split the urls list into $1..$N
246     set $alt_urls
247    
248     # process each url in turn
249     for i in $@
250     do
251    
252     # remove the (use)? strings from the url list
253     alt_url_tmp=`echo "$i" | sed -e '/\?$/d'`
254    
255     # remove the "mirror://gnome" urls
256     alt_url_tmp=`echo "$alt_url_tmp" | sed -e '/^mirror:\/\/gnome/d'`
257    
258     # remove the "mirror://kde" urls
259     alt_url_tmp=`echo "$alt_url_tmp" | sed -e '/^mirror:\/\/kde/d'`
260    
261     # remove the "mirror://gentoo" urls (already included)
262     alt_url_tmp=`echo "$alt_url_tmp" | sed -e '/^mirror:\/\/gentoo/d'`
263    
264     # translate the "mirror://sourceforge" urls into valid urls
265     alt_url_tmp=`echo "$alt_url_tmp" | sed -e "s/mirror:\/\/sourceforge/$sourceforge_mirror_complete/"`
266    
267     # translate the "mirror://gnu" urls into valid urls
268     alt_url_tmp=`echo "$alt_url_tmp" | sed -e "s/mirror:\/\/gnu/$gnu_url/"`
269     # ignore empty urls
270     if [ -n "$alt_url_tmp" ]
271     then
272    
273     # add the url to the list
274     alt_urls_arr[$num_alt_urls]=$alt_url_tmp
275    
276     # increment the alternate url counter
277     num_alt_urls=$(($num_alt_urls + 1))
278    
279     fi
280    
281     done
282    
283     fi
284    
285     # a progress bar :)
286     echo -n "." &gt;&amp;2
287    
288     done &lt; $temp_file_1
289    
290     # display ending message :)
291     echo " done." &gt;&amp;2
292    
293     # display default urls list
294     for i in ${def_urls_arr[@]}; do echo $i; done | sort
295    
296     # display alternate urls list
297     for i in ${alt_urls_arr[@]}; do echo $i; done | sort
298    
299     # display totals
300     echo "Totals:" $num_ebuilds "ebuilds," $num_files "files," $num_files "default urls," \n
301     $num_alt_urls "alternate urls," "${total_size}Kb." &lt;&amp;2
302    
303     # remove temporary files and exit
304     cleanup 0
305     </pre>
306    
307 gerrynjr 1.14 <p>Follow all instructions of Gentoo Install Doc up to <c>chroot /mnt/gentoo</c> in Step 8. If you only have one CD-ROM remember to use the <c>cdcache</c> option while booting so you can unmount the LiveCD and mount your portage snapshot CD.</p>
308 gerrynjr 1.9
309 gerrynjr 1.14 <p>Run <c>passwd</c> and set a new password for root. Open a new virtual console (Alt-F2) and login as root with your new password.</p>
310 gerrynjr 1.9
311 gerrynjr 1.14 <p>On the new console (F2) continue with the Install Doc up to running the bootstrap.sh script.</p>
312 gerrynjr 1.9
313 gerrynjr 1.14 <p>Go back to the first console (Alt-F1, without chroot) and mount a second CD on <path>/mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2</path>. Copy the portage tarball from cdrom2 and unpack it to <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr/portage</path>. Further, grab the dl-list.sh script and place it in <path>/usr/sbin</path> and make it executable.</p>
314 gerrynjr 1.9
315     <pre caption="Mount the snapshot cd">
316     # <i>umount /mnt/cdrom</i>
317     # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2</i>
318     # <i>mount /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2</i>
319     # <i>cp /mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2/portage-$date.tar.bz2 /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage</i>
320     # <i>cp /mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2/dl-list.sh /mnt/gentoo/usr/sbin</i>
321     # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage</i>
322     # <i>tar xvjpf portage-$date.tar.bz2</i>
323     # <i>chmod +x /mnt/gentoo/usr/sbin/dl-list.sh</i>
324     </pre>
325    
326 gerrynjr 1.14 <p>Switch back to the F2 console. Now if you try to run bootstrap.sh it will fail because it won't be able to download any files. We will fetch these files somewhere else and put them in /usr/portage/distfiles (on F2 console). </p>
327 gerrynjr 1.9
328     <p>You need a list of Stage1 packages: glibc, baselayout, texinfo, gettext, zlib, binutils, gcc, ncurses plus their dependencies. </p>
329    
330     <note>Note that you need the versions of each package synced with your portage tree.</note>
331    
332 gerrynjr 1.14 <p>Now use the dl-list.sh script to generate the package list that you need. Then copy the subsequent list to a floppy.</p>
333 gerrynjr 1.9
334     <pre caption="Using dl-list.sh">
335     # <i>dl-list.sh glibc baselayout texinfo gettext zlib binutils gcc ncurses > stage1.list</i>
336     # <i>mount -t vfat /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy</i>
337     # <i>cp /mnt/gentoo/stage1.list /mnt/floppy</i>
338     # <i>umount /mnt/floppy</i>
339     </pre>
340    
341 gerrynjr 1.14 <p>Take the floppy to the computer that has fast access and feed this list to wget:</p>
342 gerrynjr 1.9
343     <pre caption="Use wget to grab your source packages">
344     # <i>wget -N -i stage1.list</i>
345     </pre>
346    
347    
348 gerrynjr 1.14 <p>Once you have obtained all the files, take them to the computer and copy them to <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr/portage/distfiles</path>. You will then be able to run <c>bootstrap.sh</c>. Repeat this same wget fetch and place procedure for stage2 and 3.</p>
349 gerrynjr 1.9
350 drobbins 1.1
351    
352     </body>
353     </section>
354     </chapter>
355    
356     <chapter>
357     <title>Netboot install</title>
358     <section>
359     <title>Requirements</title>
360     <body>
361     <p>The requirements for a netboot install are a host computer than can
362     provide a tftp server and a computer
363     that can netboot itself via either bios or a floppy drive used to boot GRUB
364     or another network bootloader. A dhcp server might also be necessary. Of
365     course, you will also need the latest build ISO, which can be found at
366 swift 1.6 <uri>http://distro.ibiblio.org/pub/linux/distributions/gentoo/releases/</uri></p>
367 gerrynjr 1.9 <note>Due to changes in the LiveCD, this procedure will only work for the 1.2 LiveCD. </note>
368 drobbins 1.1 </body>
369     </section>
370    
371     <section>
372     <title>Overview</title>
373     <body>
374    
375     <p>In order to load images off the network, the first thing a netboot machine
376     must do is obtain an IP address. There are multiple ways of obtaining
377     an IP address, and any
378     one of them will do. Personally, I prefer to use GRUB for everything, but if
379     your computer supports booting from a network already then grub might not
380     be necessary, even if it might be easier to just use GRUB's <c>ifconfig</c> command
381     instead of setting up a bootp or dhcp server.</p>
382    
383     <p>Once your computer has obtained an IP address, the next logical step is to find
384     out what you are going to be booting and where it might be held. Once again,
385     it would be easiest to do this with GRUB commands as opposed to setting up
386     a bootp or dhcp server. You will also need to specify how to obtain an initrd
387     and tell the kernel that it will be using this as it's root filesystem.</p>
388    
389     <p>With your kernel loaded and root filesystem mounted, you may proceed
390     with installation as normal. The build image could be loaded from a cd, or it
391     can be downloaded from the network via tftp.</p>
392    
393     </body>
394     </section>
395     <section>
396     <title>Using GRUB</title>
397     <body>
398    
399     <p>To use GRUB for network booting purposes, you must first have GRUB
400     compiled with support for your network card. It doesn't matter if you install
401     to floppy, or to the hard drive of the computer you wish to install Gentoo
402     on. If your install target already has GRUB with network support installed,
403     then you are one step ahead. GRUB can be downloaded from
404     <uri>ftp://alpha.gnu.org/gnu/grub/</uri></p>
405    
406     <p>A configure example for enabling tulip support, the network card in my
407     box:</p>
408    
409     <pre caption="Manual GRUB installation">
410     # <i>./configure --enable-tulip --prefix=/usr</i>
411     # <i>make &amp;&amp; make install</i>
412     </pre>
413    
414     <p>If you are currently in Gentoo and wish to install GRUB using Gentoo
415     tools, then you need to install step by step in order to configure in support
416     for your network card. An example for using ebuild to install GRUB with
417     tulip support:</p>
418    
419     <pre caption="Installing and configuring GRUB on Gentoo Linux">
420     # <i>ebuild /usr/portage/sys-apps/grub/grub-0.91.ebuild clean fetch unpack</i>
421     # <i>cd /var/tmp/portage/grub-0.91/work/grub-0.91/</i>
422     # <i>./configure --prefix=/usr --sbindir=/sbin --mandir=/usr/share/man \ </i>
423     > <i>--infodir=/usr/share/info --enable-tulip</i>
424     # <i>make</i>
425     # <i>touch /var/tmp/portage/grub-0.91/.compiled</i>
426     # <i>cd /usr/portage/</i>
427     # <i>ebuild sys-apps/grub/grub-0.91.ebuild install merge</i>
428     </pre>
429    
430     <p>Now that we have the GRUB shell itself installed, we need to install to
431     a boot sector. Although you could install GRUB to the boot sector of your
432     install computer's hard drive, here we will assume that you are installing
433     GRUB on a boot floppy. There are two ways of doing this. You can use the GRUB
434     shell itself, or you can use a provided script called <c>grub-install</c>. It is
435     preferable to use <c>grub-install</c> when installing GRUB to a floppy.</p>
436    
437     <pre caption="grub-install example">
438     # <i>mkfs.ext2 /dev/fd0</i>
439     # <i>mount /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy/</i>
440     # <i>grub-install --root-directory=/mnt/floppy/ '(fd0)'</i>
441     # <i>umount /mnt/floppy/</i>
442     </pre>
443    
444     <p><c>grub-install</c> does not always work... and isn't always the best way to install
445     GRUB. And since the GRUB shell works exactly like GRUB would when booted
446     via the boot sector, it might be more desirable just to use the GRUB shell. Here
447     is an example of how to use the GRUB shell to install GRUB to a floppy:</p>
448    
449     <pre caption="Using the GRUB shell instead">
450     # <i>mkfs.ext2 /dev/fd0</i>
451     # <i>mount /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy/</i>
452     # <i>mkdir -p /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</i>
453     # <i>cp -v /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/* /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</i>
454     # <i>grub</i>
455     grub> <i>root (fd0)</i>
456     grub> <i>setup (fd0)</i>
457     grub> <i>quit</i>
458     # <i>umount /mnt/floppy/</i>
459     </pre>
460    
461     <p>Now that we have a bootable GRUB floppy, we need to set up the host tftp server
462     (I suggest netkit's tftp server)
463     for loading our kernel and initrd. If you use inetd then you will need
464     a line in your <path>/etc/inetd.conf</path> that looks
465     like this:</p>
466    
467     <pre caption="/etc/inetd.conf">
468     tftp dgram udp wait nobody /usr/sbin/tcpd in.tftpd
469     </pre>
470    
471 gerrynjr 1.14 <p>To install the netkit tftp server under Gentoo Linux, emerge net-misc/netkit-tftp</p>
472 drobbins 1.1
473     <note>There is an ebuild for xinetd... if you prefer to use this than feel free to do
474     so. However I do not use xinetd, and do not know how to set up tftp with it. If you
475     use it and such, please send me info on how to get xinetd working and I will include
476     them in this howto.</note>
477    
478     <p>Now that we have our tftp server ready, we need a kernel and a root initrd to
479     put in it. You can compile a custom kernel yourself, but make sure it has all the
480 gerrynjr 1.14 things necessary for running Gentoo (like devfs) and for netbooting (like initrd
481     support). The root initrd will be the rescue.gz included in the Gentoo ISO.</p>
482 drobbins 1.1
483     <impo>Mounting an ISO file without burning it to cd requires loopback filesystem
484     support.</impo>
485    
486     <pre>
487     # <i>mkdir /tftpboot</i>
488     # <i>mount -o loop /path/to/gentoo-ix86-1.1a.iso /mnt/cdrom/</i>
489     # <i>cp /mnt/cdrom/isolinux/kernel /mnt/cdrom/isolinux/rescue.gz /tftpboot</i>
490     # <i>chmod 644 /tftpboot/*</i>
491     # <i>umount /mnt/cdrom/</i>
492     </pre>
493    
494 gerrynjr 1.14 <p>Boot the machine you want to install to with your incredibly useful grub floppy.
495 drobbins 1.1 Once booted you need to specify a way for the machine to get
496     its IP address, specify where
497     to get a kernel and it's options, and where to get it's initrd.</p>
498    
499     <pre>
500 gerrynjr 1.9 grub> <i>ifconfig --address=<c>ip.add.re.ss</c> --server=<c>ip.add.re.ss</c></i>
501 drobbins 1.1 grub> <i>root (nd)</i>
502     grub> <i>kernel /tftpboot/kernel devfs=nomount vga=normal load_ramdisk=1 </i>
503     <i>prompt_ramdisk=0 ramdisk_size=24000 root=/dev/ram0 rw</i> <comment>(all on one line)</comment>
504     grub> <i>initrd /tftpboot/rescue.gz</i>
505     grub> <i>boot</i>
506     </pre>
507    
508     <note>You can also use bootp and dhcp to configure your ip via grub. Use the bootp
509     and dhcp commands.</note>
510    
511     <p>Now that you have your machine booted, you can install as normal. Refer to the
512     from source cd install howto.</p>
513    
514     </body>
515     </section>
516     </chapter>
517    
518 gerrynjr 1.9 <chapter><title>Diskless install using PXE boot</title>
519    
520     <section><title>Requirements</title>
521     <body>
522     <p>You will need a network card on the diskless client that uses the PXE protocol to boot, like many 3com cards. You will also need a BIOS that supports booting from PXE.</p>
523     </body></section>
524    
525     <section><title>Server base setup</title>
526     <body>
527 gerrynjr 1.14 <p>Create directories: The first thing to do is to create the directories where your diskless system will be stored. Create a directory called <path>/diskless</path> which houses a directory for each diskless client. For the rest of this howto we'll be working on the client 'eta'.</p>
528 gerrynjr 1.9
529     <pre caption="directory setup">
530     # <i>mkdir /diskless</i>
531     # <i>mkdir /diskless/eta</i>
532     # <i>mkdir /diskless/eta/boot</i>
533     </pre>
534    
535 gerrynjr 1.14 <p>DHCP and TFTP setup: The client will get boot informations using DHCP and download all the required files using TFTP. Just emerge DHCP and configure it for your basic needs. Then, add the following on <path>/etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf</path>.</p>
536 gerrynjr 1.9
537 gerrynjr 1.14 <note>This provide a static IP address for the client and the path of a PXE boot image, here pxegrub. You have to replace the MAC address of the Ethernet card of the client and the directory where you will put the client files with the one you use.</note>
538 gerrynjr 1.9
539     <pre caption="dhcp.conf">
540     option option-150 code 150 = text ;
541     host eta {
542     hardware ethernet 00:00:00:00:00:00;
543     fixed-address <c>ip.add.re.ss</c>;
544     option option-150 "/eta/boot/grub.lst";
545     filename "/eta/boot/pxegrub";
546     }
547     </pre>
548    
549 gerrynjr 1.14 <p>For TFTP, emerge <c>app-admin/tftp-hpa</c>. In <path>/etc/conf.d/in.tftpd</path>, put the following :</p>
550 gerrynjr 1.9
551     <pre caption="in.tftpd">
552     INTFTPD_PATH="/diskless"
553     INTFTPD_USER="nobody"
554     INTFTPD_OPTS="-u ${INTFTPD_USER} -l -vvvvvv -p -c -s ${INTFTPD_PATH}"
555     </pre>
556    
557 gerrynjr 1.14 <p>Setup GRUB: To provide PXE booting I use GRUB. You have to compile it by yourself to enable the PXE image compilation ... but that's quite easy. First, get the latest version of the GRUB source code (<c>emerge -f grub</c> will place the tarball in <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path>). Copy the tarball to <path>/diskless</path> and then build it to make the pxe capable binary. Once the binary is built, copy it to the diskless client's boot directory. Then edit it's grub.lst config file.</p>
558 gerrynjr 1.9
559     <pre caption="grub setup">
560     # <i>tar zxvf grub-0.92.tar.gz</i>
561     # <i>cd grub-0.92</i>
562     # <i>./configure --help</i>
563     <codenote>In the options you will see a list of supported network interface drivers. </codenote>
564     <codenote>Select the driver compatible with your card. Herein referenced a $nic</codenote>
565     # <i>./configure --enable-diskless --enable-$nic</i>
566     # <i>make</i>
567     # <i>cd stage2</i>
568     # <i>cp pxegrub /diskless/eta/boot/pxegrub</i>
569     # <i>nano -w /diskless/eta/boot/grub.lst</i>
570     </pre>
571    
572     <pre caption="grub.lst">
573     default 0
574     timeout 30
575    
576     title=Diskless Gentoo
577     root (nd)
578     kernel /eta/bzImage ip=dhcp root=/dev/nfs nfsroot=<c>ip.add.re.ss</c>:/diskless/eta
579 drobbins 1.1
580 gerrynjr 1.9 <codenote>For the nfsroot option, the IP address is the one of the server and </codenote>
581     <codenote>the directory is the one where your diskless client files are located (on the server).</codenote>
582     </pre>
583    
584 gerrynjr 1.14 <p>Setup NFS: NFS is quite easy to configure. The only thing you have to do is to add a line on the <path>/etc/exports</path> config file :</p>
585 gerrynjr 1.9
586     <pre caption="/etc/exports">
587     # <i>nano -w /etc/exports</i>
588     NFS file systems being exported. See exports(5).
589     /diskless/eta eta(rw,sync,no_root_squash)
590     </pre>
591    
592 gerrynjr 1.14 <p>Update your hosts: One important thing to do now is to modify your <path>/etc/hosts</path> file to fit your needs. </p>
593 gerrynjr 1.9
594     <pre caption="/etc/hosts">
595     127.0.0.1 localhost
596    
597     192.168.1.10 eta.example.com eta
598     192.168.1.20 sigma.example.com sigma
599     </pre>
600     </body>
601     </section>
602    
603     <section><title>Creating the system on the server</title>
604    
605     <body>
606    
607 gerrynjr 1.14 <p>Reboot the server on a Gentoo LiveCD. Follow the standard install procedure as explained in the Gentoo Install Howto BUT with the following differences. When you mount the file system, do the following (where hdaX is the partition where you created the /diskless directory). You do not need to mount any other partitions as all of the files will reside in the <path>/diskless/eta</path> directory.</p>
608 gerrynjr 1.9
609     <pre caption="mounting the filesystem">
610     #<i> mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
611     </pre>
612    
613 gerrynjr 1.14 <p>Stage tarballs and chroot: This example uses a stage3 tarball. Mount <path>/proc</path> to your diskless directory and chroot into it to continue with the install. Then follow the installation manual until kernel configuration.</p>
614 gerrynjr 1.9
615     <warn>Be very careful where you extract your stage tarball. You don't want to end up extracting over your existing installation.</warn>
616    
617     <pre caption="extracting the stage tarball">
618     # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/</i>
619     # <i>tar -xvjpf /mnt/cdrom/gentoo/stage3-*.tar.bz2</i>
620     # <i>mount -t proc /proc /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/proc</i>
621     # <i>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/etc/resolv.conf</i>
622     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/ /bin/bash</i>
623     # <i>env-update</i>
624     # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
625     </pre>
626    
627     <p>Kernel configuration: When you do the <c>make menuconfig</c> of your kernel configuration, don't forget to enable the following options with the others recommended into the install howto.</p>
628    
629     <pre caption="menuconfig options">
630     - Your network card device support
631    
632     - Under "Networking options" :
633    
634     [*] TCP/IP networking
635     [*] IP: kernel level autoconfiguration
636     [*] IP: DHCP support
637     [*] IP: BOOTP support
638    
639    
640     - Under "File systems --> Network File Systems" :
641    
642     &lt;*&gt; NFS file system support
643     [*] Provide NFSv3 client support
644     [*] Root file system on NFS
645     </pre>
646    
647 gerrynjr 1.14 <p>Next configure your diskless client's <path>/etc/fstab</path>.</p>
648 gerrynjr 1.9
649     <pre caption="/etc/fstab">
650     # <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
651     /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro 0 0
652     proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
653     tmpfs /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0
654     </pre>
655    
656 gerrynjr 1.14 <p>Bootloader. Don't install another bootloader because we already have one - pxegrub. Simply finish the install and restart the server. Start the services you'll need to boot the new client: DHCP, TFTPD, and NFS.</p>
657 gerrynjr 1.9
658     <pre caption="Starting services">
659     # <i>/etc/init.d/dhcp start</i>
660     # <i>/etc/init.d/tftpd start</i>
661     # <i>/etc/init.d/nfs start</i>
662     </pre>
663    
664     </body></section>
665    
666     <section><title>Booting the new client</title>
667     <body>
668 gerrynjr 1.14 <p>For the new client to boot properly, you'll need to configure the bios and the network card to use PXE as the first boot method - before CD-ROM or floppy. For help with this consult your hardware manuals or manufacturers website. The network card should get an IP address using DHCP and download the GRUB PXE image using TFTP. Then, you should see a nice black and white GRUB bootmenu where you will select the kernel to boot and press Enter. If everything is ok the kernel should boot, mount the root filesystem using NFS and provide you with a login prompt. Enjoy.</p>
669 gerrynjr 1.9 </body></section>
670    
671     </chapter>
672 drobbins 1.1
673    
674    
675     <chapter> <title>Installing Gentoo from an existing Linux distribution </title>
676     <section> <title> Requirements </title>
677     <body>
678     <p>In order to install Gentoo from your existing Linux distribution you need to
679     have chroot command installed, and have a copy of the Gentoo installation
680     tarball or ISO you want to install. A network connection would be preferable if
681     you want more than what's supplied in your tarball. (by the way, a tarball is
682     just a file ending in .tbz or .tar.gz). The author used RedHat Linux 7.3 as the
683     "host" operating system, but it is not very important. Let's get started! </p>
684     </body>
685     </section>
686    
687     <section> <title> Overview </title>
688     <body>
689 gerrynjr 1.14 <p>We will first allocate a partition to Gentoo by resizing our existing Linux partition, mount the partition, untar the tarball that is mounted, chroot inside the psuedo-system and start building. Once the bootstrap process is done, we will do some final configuration on the system so as to make sure it boots, then we are ready to reboot and use Gentoo. </p>
690 drobbins 1.1 </body>
691     </section>
692    
693 gerrynjr 1.14 <section> <title> How should we make space for Gentoo? </title>
694 drobbins 1.1 <body>
695    
696     <p>
697 gerrynjr 1.14 The root partition is the filesystem mounted under <path>/</path>. A quick run of mount on my system shows what I am talking about. We well also use df (disk free) to see how much space I have left and how I will be resizing. Note that it is not mandatory to resize your root partition! You could be resizing anything else supported by our resizer, but let's talk about that later.</p>
698 drobbins 1.1
699    
700     <pre caption="Filesystem information">
701     # <i>mount</i>
702     /dev/hdb2 on / type ext3 (rw)
703     none on /proc type proc (rw)
704     none on /dev/pts type devpts (rw,gid=5,mode=620)
705     none on /dev/shm type tmpfs (rw)
706     # <i>df -h </i>
707     Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
708     /dev/hdb2 4.0G 1.9G 2.4G 82% /
709     none 38M 0 38M 0% /dev/shm
710     </pre>
711    
712 gerrynjr 1.14 <p>As we can see, the partition mounted as <path>/</path> named <path>/dev/hdb2</path> has 2.4 gigabytes free. In my case, I think I will resize it as to leave 400Megs free of space, therefore allocating 2 gigabytes for Gentoo. Not bad, I could have quite some stuff installed. However, think that even one gigabyte is enough for most users. So let's partition this thing! </p>
713 drobbins 1.1
714     </body> </section>
715    
716     <section> <title> Building parted to resize partition </title>
717     <body>
718     <p>Parted is an utility supplied by the GNU foundation, an old and respectable huge project whose software you are using in this very moment. There is one tool, however, that is extremely useful for us at the moment. It's called parted, partition editor and we can get it from <uri>
719 klieber 1.5 http://www.gnu.org/software/parted/</uri>
720 drobbins 1.1 </p>
721     <note> There are other tools for doing resize of partitions as well, but author
722     is unsure/uninterested whether PartitionMagic(tm) or other software of the kind
723     do the job. It's the reader's job to check them out </note>
724    
725     <p>
726     Look up on that page the type of filesystem you want to resize and see if parted
727     can do it. If not, you're out of luck, you will have to destroy some partition
728 gerrynjr 1.14 to make space for Gentoo, and reinstall back. Go ahead by downloading the
729 drobbins 1.1 software, install it. Here we have a problem. We want to resize our Linux root
730     partition, therefore we must boot from a floppy disk a minimal linux system and
731 gerrynjr 1.14 use previously-compiled parted copied to a diskette in order to resize <path>/</path>.
732 drobbins 1.1 However, if you can unmount the partition while still in Linux you are lucky,
733     you don't need to do what follows. Just compile parted and run it on an
734     unmounted partition you chose to resize. Here's how I did it for my system.
735     </p>
736    
737     <impo> Make sure that the operations you want to do on your partition are
738     supported by parted! </impo>
739    
740     <p> Get tomsrtbt boot/root disk (free of charge) from <uri>
741 gerrynjr 1.14 http://freshmeat.net/tomsrtbt </uri>, create a floppy as suggested in the
742 drobbins 1.1 Documentation that accompanies the software package and insert a new floppy in
743     the drive for the next step. </p>
744    
745     <note> Note again that Linux is synonym of "There's one more way to do it". Your
746     objective is to run parted on an unmounted partition so it can do its work. You
747     might use some other boot/root diskset other than tomsrtbt. You might not even
748     need to do this step at all, that is only umount the filesystem you want to
749     repartition in your Linux session and run parted on it. </note>
750    
751     <pre caption="Utility disk creation">
752     # <i>mkfs.minix /dev/fd0</i>
753     480 inodes
754     1440 blocks
755     Firstdatazone=19 (19)
756     Zonesize=1024
757     Maxsize=268966912
758     </pre>
759    
760     We will now proceed with the build of parted. If it's not already downloaded and untarred, do so now and cd into the corresponding directory. Now run the following set of commands to build the utility and copy it to your floppy disk.
761    
762     <pre caption="Building the utility floppy">
763     # <i> mkdir /floppy; mount -t minix /dev/fd0 /floppy &amp;&amp;
764     export CFLAGS="-O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer -static" &amp;&amp; ./configure
765     &amp;&amp; make &amp;&amp; cp parted/parted /floppy &amp;&amp; umount /floppy </i>
766     </pre>
767    
768     <p>
769     Congratulations, you are ready to reboot and resize your partition. Do this only
770     after taking a quick look at the parted documentation on the GNU website. The
771     resize should take under 30 minutes for the largest hard-drives, be patient.
772     Reboot your system with the tomsrtbt boot disk (just pop it inside), and once
773     you are logged in, switch the disk in the drive with your utility disk we have
774     created above and type mount /dev/fd0 /floppy to have parted under /floppy.
775     There you go. Run parted and you will be able to resize your partition. Once
776     this lenghty process done, we are ready to have the real fun, by installing
777 gerrynjr 1.14 Gentoo. Reboot back into your old Linux system for now. Drive you wish to
778 swift 1.8 operate on is the drive containing the partition we want to resize. For
779     example, if we want to resize /dev/hda3, the drive is /dev/hda
780     </p>
781 drobbins 1.1
782     <pre caption="Commands to run once logged into tomsrtbt system">
783     # <i>mount /dev/fd0 /floppy </i>
784     # <i>cd /floppy; ./parted [drive you wish to operate on]</i>
785     (parted) <i> print </i>
786     Disk geometry for /dev/hdb: 0.000-9787.148 megabytes
787     Disk label type: msdos
788     Minor Start End Type Filesystem Flags
789     1 0.031 2953.125 primary ntfs
790     3 2953.125 3133.265 primary linux-swap
791     2 3133.266 5633.085 primary ext3
792     4 5633.086 9787.148 extended
793     5 5633.117 6633.210 logical
794     6 6633.242 9787.148 logical ext3
795     (parted) <i> help resize </i>
796     resize MINOR START END resize filesystem on partition MINOR
797    
798     MINOR is the partition number used by Linux. On msdos disk labels, the
799     primary partitions number from 1-4, and logical partitions are 5
800     onwards.
801     START and END are in megabytes
802     (parted) <i> resize 2 3133.266 4000.000 </i>
803     </pre>
804    
805     <impo> Be patient! The computer is working! Just look at the hardware LED on
806     your case to see that it is really working. This should take between 2 and 30
807     minutes. </impo>
808    
809     <p>Once you have resized, boot back into your old linux as described. Then go to
810 swift 1.7 <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml">http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml</uri> and follow steps 6 through 17. Don't forget to create the <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> directory before proceeding with step 7. In step 8 you have to download the requested stage-tarball as we're not working from a LiveCD.
811 drobbins 1.1
812    
813     Enjoy!
814     </p>
815     </body>
816     </section>
817     </chapter>
818     </guide>

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