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1 zhen 1.3 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 antifa 1.12 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3    
4 drobbins 1.1
5 zhen 1.2 <guide link="/doc/en/altinstall.xml">
6 drobbins 1.1 <title>The Gentoo Linux alternative installation method HOWTO</title>
7 gerrynjr 1.9 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="gerrynjr@gentoo.org">Gerald Normandin Jr.</mail></author>
8     <author title="Contributor"><mail link="lordviram@rebelpacket.net">Travis Tilley</mail></author>
9     <author title="Contributor"><mail link="volontir@yahoo.com">Oleg Raisky</mail></author>
10     <author title="Contributor"><mail link="luminousit@hotmail.com">Alex Garbutt</mail></author>
11     <author title="Contributor"><mail link="alex@openvs.com">Alexandre Georges</mail></author>
12 antifa 1.15 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="vargen@b0d.org">Magnus Backanda</mail></author>
13 klieber 1.13 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="davoid@gentoo.org">Faust A. Tanasescu</mail></author>
14 swift 1.7 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="aliz@gentoo.org">Daniel Ahlberg</mail></author>
15     <author title="Editor"><mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail></author>
16 antifa 1.15 <author title="Reviewer"><mail link="antifa@gentoo.org">Ken Nowack</mail></author>
17 blubber 1.18 <author title="Editor"><mail link="blubber@gentoo.org">Tiemo Kieft</mail></author>
18 drobbins 1.1 <abstract>
19     This HOWTO is meant to be a repository of alternative Gentoo installation
20     methods, for those with special installation needs such as lack of a cdrom
21 gerrynjr 1.14 or a computer that can't boot cds.
22 drobbins 1.1 </abstract>
23    
24 blubber 1.18 <version>0.34</version>
25     <date>September 25, 2003</date>
26 gerrynjr 1.9
27     <license/>
28 drobbins 1.1
29     <chapter>
30     <title>About this document</title>
31     <section>
32     <body>
33    
34     <p>If the standard boot-from-CD install method doesn't work for you
35     (or you just don't like it),
36     help is now here. This document serves to
37     provide a repository of alternative Gentoo Linux installation techniques
38     to those who need them.
39     Or, if you prefer, it serves as
40     a place to put your wacky installation methods. If you have an
41     installation method that you yourself find useful, or you have devised an
42 gerrynjr 1.14 amusing way of installing Gentoo, please don't hesitate to write something
43 gerrynjr 1.9 up and <mail link="antifa@gentoo.org">send it to me.</mail></p>
44    
45    
46     </body>
47     </section>
48     </chapter>
49    
50     <chapter>
51     <title>Booting the LiveCD with Smart BootManager</title>
52     <section>
53    
54     <body>
55 gerrynjr 1.14 <p>Download Smart BootManager <uri link="http://btmgr.sourceforge.net/index.php3?body=download.html">http://btmgr.sourceforge.net/index.php3?body=download.html</uri>. Linux source or binary format and windows .exe versions are available as well as many language packs. However, at this time, the preferred method would be to use the binary format, as the source will not compile with newer versions of NASM.</p>
56 gerrynjr 1.9
57     <p>Either compile the package from source or just grab the binary. There are several options that can be utilized while creating your boot floppy, as seen below.</p>
58    
59     <pre caption="Smart BootManager Options">
60     <i>sbminst [-t theme] [-d drv] [-b backup_file] [-u backup_file]
61    
62     -t theme select the theme to be used, in which the theme could be:
63     us = English theme de = German theme
64     hu = Hungarian theme zh = Chinese theme
65     ru = Russian theme cz = Czech theme
66     es = Spanish theme fr = French theme
67     pt = Portuguese theme
68    
69    
70     -d drv set the drive that you want to install Smart BootManager on;
71     for Linux:
72     /dev/fd0 is the first floppy driver,
73     /dev/hda is the first IDE harddisk driver.
74     /dev/sda is the first SCSI harddisk driver.
75     for DOS:
76     0 is the first floppy drive
77     128 is the first hard drive;
78    
79     -c disable CD-ROM booting feature;
80    
81 gerrynjr 1.14 -b backup_file backup the data that will be overwritten for
82 gerrynjr 1.9 future uninstallation;
83    
84     -u backup_file uninstall Smart BootManager, should be used alone;
85    
86     -y do not ask any question or warning.</i>
87     </pre>
88    
89     <pre caption="Using sbminst to build the boot floppy">
90     # <i>sbminst -t us -d /dev/fd0</i>
91     </pre>
92     <note> Replace fd0 with your repective floppy device name if yours is different. </note>
93     <p>Now simply place the floppy in the floppy drive of the computer you'd like to boot the LiveCD on, as well as placing the LiveCD in the CD-ROM and boot the computer.</p>
94    
95     <p>You'll be greeted with the Smart BootManager dialog. Select your CD-ROM and press ENTER to boot the LiveCD. Once booted proceed with the standard installation instructions.</p>
96    
97     <p>Further information on Smart BootManager may be found at <uri>http://btmgr.sourceforge.net/</uri></p>
98     </body>
99     </section>
100     </chapter>
101    
102    
103     <chapter>
104     <title>Knoppix Installation</title>
105     <section>
106    
107     <body>
108     <p>Booting from the <uri link="http://www.knoppix.org/">Knoppix</uri> LiveCD is a way to have a fully functional linux system while you're compiling Gentoo. Tux Racer will help you pass the time while you wait for bootstrap.</p>
109    
110     <p>Boot from the Knoppix CD. It generally does a really good job of hardware detection. Although, you may have to add some boot options. </p>
111    
112     <p>By default Knoppix boots into a KDE 3.0 desktop. The first thing I did was open a konsole and typed <c>sudo passwd root</c>. This lets you set the root password for Knoppix.</p>
113    
114     <p> Next, I su to root and typed <c>usermod -d /root -m root</c>. This sets user roots home directory to /root (the Gentoo way) from /home/root (the Knoppix way). If you do not do this, then you will receive errors when emerging about "/home/root: not found" or something to that effect.</p>
115    
116 swift 1.16 <p>I then typed <c>exit</c> and then <c>su</c> back into root. This loads the change that was made with the usermod command. At this point, you can pick up with the standard install documentation at step 6. However, when you're asked to mount the proc system, issue the following commands instead: </p>
117    
118     <pre caption = "Bind-mounting two important filesystems">
119     # <i>mount -o bind /proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
120     # <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
121     </pre>
122    
123 gerrynjr 1.9 </body>
124     </section>
125     </chapter>
126    
127     <chapter>
128     <title>Installing from Stage 1 without network access</title>
129     <section>
130     <body>
131    
132    
133     <p>Burn a LiveCD iso.</p>
134    
135 gerrynjr 1.14 <p>Get the latest portage snapshot from <uri>http://distro.ibiblio.org/pub/linux/distributions/gentoo/snapshots/</uri> (or your favorite <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror</uri>). Either place this tarball on an existing partition on the computer your are installing to, or burn it to a CD.</p>
136 gerrynjr 1.9
137     <p>You'll also need a package list for the stage packages. Place the following dl-list.sh script on the same medium as the portage snapshot, you'll need it later.</p>
138    
139     <pre caption="dl-list.sh">
140     #!/bin/bash
141    
142     # set your defaults here:
143     user_defs() {
144    
145     # portage directory (without a trailing "/"):
146     portage_dir="/usr/portage"
147    
148     # default download mirror (without a trailing "/"):
149     gentoo_mirror="http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/Linux/distributions/gentoo"
150    
151     # default sourceforge mirror (unc, telia, belnet):
152     sourceforge_mirror="unc"
153    
154     # fix gnu mirror entries
155     gnu_url="ftp:\/\/ftp.gnu.org\/pub\/gnu"
156    
157     }
158    
159    
160     #------------------------------------------------------------
161    
162     # function to remove temporary files
163     cleanup() {
164    
165     rm -f $temp_file_1 $temp_file_2
166     exit $1
167    
168     }
169    
170     # set user defaults
171     user_defs
172    
173     # set the complete url for the sourceforge mirror
174     # (the \'s are needed because this goes in a sed command)
175     sourceforge_mirror_complete="http:\/\/$sourceforge_mirror.dl.sourceforge.net\/sourceforge"
176    
177     # initialize counters
178     num_files=0
179     num_alt_urls=0
180     total_size=0
181    
182     # initialize lists (arrays)
183     declare -a def_urls_arr
184     declare -a alt_urls_arr
185    
186     # create 2 temporary files
187     temp_file_1=`mktemp -t dl-list.XXXXXX` || cleanup 1
188     temp_file_2=`mktemp -t dl-list.XXXXXX` || cleanup 1
189    
190     # run "emerge -p &lt;args&gt;" (too easy to forget the "-p" in the command line...)
191     emerge -p $@ &gt; $temp_file_1 || cleanup 1
192    
193     # remove the lines that do not contain the word "ebuild"
194     sed -n -e '/ebuild/p' $temp_file_1 &gt; $temp_file_2
195    
196     # count how many lines were left
197     num_ebuilds=`wc -l $temp_file_2 | sed -e 's/\(.*\) \(.*\)/\1/'`
198    
199     # extract the useful information from those lines: category, package and version
200     #sed -e 's:\(.*\) \(.*\)/\(.*\)-\([0-9].*\) \(.*\) \(.*\):\2 \3 \4:' $temp_file_2 &gt; $temp_file_1
201     sed -e 's:\(.*\) \(.*\)/\(.*\)-\([0-9].*\):\2 \3 \4:' $temp_file_2 &gt; $temp_file_1
202    
203     # display starting message :)
204     echo -n "Generating list " &gt;&amp;2
205    
206     # process each package in turn
207     while read category package version rest
208     do
209    
210     # form the name of the digest file
211    
212     digest_file="$portage_dir/$category/$package/files/digest-$package-$version"
213    
214     # process the contents of the digest file
215     while read md5_flag md5_sum file_name file_size
216     do
217    
218     # form the default url to download the file
219     def_urls_arr[$num_files]="$gentoo_mirror/distfiles/$file_name"
220    
221     # increment the file counter
222     num_files=$(($num_files + 1))
223    
224     # update the size accumulator (in kilobytes)
225     total_size=$(($total_size + $file_size / 1024))
226    
227     done &lt; $digest_file
228    
229     # form the "ebuild depend" command line
230     ebuild_depend_cmd="ebuild $portage_dir/$category/$package/$package-${version}.ebuild depend"
231    
232     # execute the "ebuild depend" command
233     $ebuild_depend_cmd || cleanup 1
234    
235     # form the name of the dependency file
236     dependency_file="/var/cache/edb/dep/$category/$package-$version"
237    
238     # read in the 4th line from the dependency file,
239     # which contains the official download urls
240     alt_urls=`head -n 4 $dependency_file | tail -n 1`
241    
242     # ignore empty url list
243     if [ -n "$alt_urls" ]
244     then
245    
246     # split the urls list into $1..$N
247     set $alt_urls
248    
249     # process each url in turn
250     for i in $@
251     do
252    
253     # remove the (use)? strings from the url list
254     alt_url_tmp=`echo "$i" | sed -e '/\?$/d'`
255    
256     # remove the "mirror://gnome" urls
257     alt_url_tmp=`echo "$alt_url_tmp" | sed -e '/^mirror:\/\/gnome/d'`
258    
259     # remove the "mirror://kde" urls
260     alt_url_tmp=`echo "$alt_url_tmp" | sed -e '/^mirror:\/\/kde/d'`
261    
262     # remove the "mirror://gentoo" urls (already included)
263     alt_url_tmp=`echo "$alt_url_tmp" | sed -e '/^mirror:\/\/gentoo/d'`
264    
265     # translate the "mirror://sourceforge" urls into valid urls
266     alt_url_tmp=`echo "$alt_url_tmp" | sed -e "s/mirror:\/\/sourceforge/$sourceforge_mirror_complete/"`
267    
268     # translate the "mirror://gnu" urls into valid urls
269     alt_url_tmp=`echo "$alt_url_tmp" | sed -e "s/mirror:\/\/gnu/$gnu_url/"`
270     # ignore empty urls
271     if [ -n "$alt_url_tmp" ]
272     then
273    
274     # add the url to the list
275     alt_urls_arr[$num_alt_urls]=$alt_url_tmp
276    
277     # increment the alternate url counter
278     num_alt_urls=$(($num_alt_urls + 1))
279    
280     fi
281    
282     done
283    
284     fi
285    
286     # a progress bar :)
287     echo -n "." &gt;&amp;2
288    
289     done &lt; $temp_file_1
290    
291     # display ending message :)
292     echo " done." &gt;&amp;2
293    
294     # display default urls list
295     for i in ${def_urls_arr[@]}; do echo $i; done | sort
296    
297     # display alternate urls list
298     for i in ${alt_urls_arr[@]}; do echo $i; done | sort
299    
300     # display totals
301     echo "Totals:" $num_ebuilds "ebuilds," $num_files "files," $num_files "default urls," \n
302     $num_alt_urls "alternate urls," "${total_size}Kb." &lt;&amp;2
303    
304     # remove temporary files and exit
305     cleanup 0
306     </pre>
307    
308 gerrynjr 1.14 <p>Follow all instructions of Gentoo Install Doc up to <c>chroot /mnt/gentoo</c> in Step 8. If you only have one CD-ROM remember to use the <c>cdcache</c> option while booting so you can unmount the LiveCD and mount your portage snapshot CD.</p>
309 gerrynjr 1.9
310 blubber 1.18 <p>Open a new console (Alt-F2), we will continue with the Install Doc up to running the bootstrap.sh script.</p>
311 gerrynjr 1.9
312 blubber 1.18 <warn>Older realeases of the livecd required you to change the password using the <c>passwd</c> command, before logging in manually.</warn>
313    
314 gerrynjr 1.9
315 gerrynjr 1.14 <p>Go back to the first console (Alt-F1, without chroot) and mount a second CD on <path>/mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2</path>. Copy the portage tarball from cdrom2 and unpack it to <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr/portage</path>. Further, grab the dl-list.sh script and place it in <path>/usr/sbin</path> and make it executable.</p>
316 gerrynjr 1.9
317     <pre caption="Mount the snapshot cd">
318     # <i>umount /mnt/cdrom</i>
319     # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2</i>
320     # <i>mount /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2</i>
321     # <i>cp /mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2/portage-$date.tar.bz2 /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage</i>
322     # <i>cp /mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2/dl-list.sh /mnt/gentoo/usr/sbin</i>
323     # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage</i>
324     # <i>tar xvjpf portage-$date.tar.bz2</i>
325     # <i>chmod +x /mnt/gentoo/usr/sbin/dl-list.sh</i>
326     </pre>
327    
328 gerrynjr 1.14 <p>Switch back to the F2 console. Now if you try to run bootstrap.sh it will fail because it won't be able to download any files. We will fetch these files somewhere else and put them in /usr/portage/distfiles (on F2 console). </p>
329 gerrynjr 1.9
330     <p>You need a list of Stage1 packages: glibc, baselayout, texinfo, gettext, zlib, binutils, gcc, ncurses plus their dependencies. </p>
331    
332     <note>Note that you need the versions of each package synced with your portage tree.</note>
333    
334 gerrynjr 1.14 <p>Now use the dl-list.sh script to generate the package list that you need. Then copy the subsequent list to a floppy.</p>
335 gerrynjr 1.9
336     <pre caption="Using dl-list.sh">
337     # <i>dl-list.sh glibc baselayout texinfo gettext zlib binutils gcc ncurses > stage1.list</i>
338     # <i>mount -t vfat /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy</i>
339     # <i>cp /mnt/gentoo/stage1.list /mnt/floppy</i>
340     # <i>umount /mnt/floppy</i>
341     </pre>
342    
343 gerrynjr 1.14 <p>Take the floppy to the computer that has fast access and feed this list to wget:</p>
344 gerrynjr 1.9
345     <pre caption="Use wget to grab your source packages">
346     # <i>wget -N -i stage1.list</i>
347     </pre>
348    
349    
350 gerrynjr 1.14 <p>Once you have obtained all the files, take them to the computer and copy them to <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr/portage/distfiles</path>. You will then be able to run <c>bootstrap.sh</c>. Repeat this same wget fetch and place procedure for stage2 and 3.</p>
351 gerrynjr 1.9
352 drobbins 1.1
353    
354     </body>
355     </section>
356     </chapter>
357    
358     <chapter>
359     <title>Netboot install</title>
360     <section>
361     <title>Requirements</title>
362     <body>
363     <p>The requirements for a netboot install are a host computer than can
364     provide a tftp server and a computer
365     that can netboot itself via either bios or a floppy drive used to boot GRUB
366     or another network bootloader. A dhcp server might also be necessary. Of
367     course, you will also need the latest build ISO, which can be found at
368 swift 1.6 <uri>http://distro.ibiblio.org/pub/linux/distributions/gentoo/releases/</uri></p>
369 gerrynjr 1.9 <note>Due to changes in the LiveCD, this procedure will only work for the 1.2 LiveCD. </note>
370 drobbins 1.1 </body>
371     </section>
372    
373     <section>
374     <title>Overview</title>
375     <body>
376    
377     <p>In order to load images off the network, the first thing a netboot machine
378     must do is obtain an IP address. There are multiple ways of obtaining
379     an IP address, and any
380     one of them will do. Personally, I prefer to use GRUB for everything, but if
381     your computer supports booting from a network already then grub might not
382     be necessary, even if it might be easier to just use GRUB's <c>ifconfig</c> command
383     instead of setting up a bootp or dhcp server.</p>
384    
385     <p>Once your computer has obtained an IP address, the next logical step is to find
386     out what you are going to be booting and where it might be held. Once again,
387     it would be easiest to do this with GRUB commands as opposed to setting up
388     a bootp or dhcp server. You will also need to specify how to obtain an initrd
389     and tell the kernel that it will be using this as it's root filesystem.</p>
390    
391     <p>With your kernel loaded and root filesystem mounted, you may proceed
392     with installation as normal. The build image could be loaded from a cd, or it
393     can be downloaded from the network via tftp.</p>
394    
395     </body>
396     </section>
397     <section>
398     <title>Using GRUB</title>
399     <body>
400    
401     <p>To use GRUB for network booting purposes, you must first have GRUB
402     compiled with support for your network card. It doesn't matter if you install
403     to floppy, or to the hard drive of the computer you wish to install Gentoo
404     on. If your install target already has GRUB with network support installed,
405     then you are one step ahead. GRUB can be downloaded from
406     <uri>ftp://alpha.gnu.org/gnu/grub/</uri></p>
407    
408     <p>A configure example for enabling tulip support, the network card in my
409     box:</p>
410    
411     <pre caption="Manual GRUB installation">
412     # <i>./configure --enable-tulip --prefix=/usr</i>
413     # <i>make &amp;&amp; make install</i>
414     </pre>
415    
416     <p>If you are currently in Gentoo and wish to install GRUB using Gentoo
417     tools, then you need to install step by step in order to configure in support
418     for your network card. An example for using ebuild to install GRUB with
419     tulip support:</p>
420    
421     <pre caption="Installing and configuring GRUB on Gentoo Linux">
422     # <i>ebuild /usr/portage/sys-apps/grub/grub-0.91.ebuild clean fetch unpack</i>
423     # <i>cd /var/tmp/portage/grub-0.91/work/grub-0.91/</i>
424     # <i>./configure --prefix=/usr --sbindir=/sbin --mandir=/usr/share/man \ </i>
425     > <i>--infodir=/usr/share/info --enable-tulip</i>
426     # <i>make</i>
427     # <i>touch /var/tmp/portage/grub-0.91/.compiled</i>
428     # <i>cd /usr/portage/</i>
429     # <i>ebuild sys-apps/grub/grub-0.91.ebuild install merge</i>
430     </pre>
431    
432     <p>Now that we have the GRUB shell itself installed, we need to install to
433     a boot sector. Although you could install GRUB to the boot sector of your
434     install computer's hard drive, here we will assume that you are installing
435     GRUB on a boot floppy. There are two ways of doing this. You can use the GRUB
436     shell itself, or you can use a provided script called <c>grub-install</c>. It is
437     preferable to use <c>grub-install</c> when installing GRUB to a floppy.</p>
438    
439     <pre caption="grub-install example">
440     # <i>mkfs.ext2 /dev/fd0</i>
441     # <i>mount /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy/</i>
442     # <i>grub-install --root-directory=/mnt/floppy/ '(fd0)'</i>
443     # <i>umount /mnt/floppy/</i>
444     </pre>
445    
446     <p><c>grub-install</c> does not always work... and isn't always the best way to install
447     GRUB. And since the GRUB shell works exactly like GRUB would when booted
448     via the boot sector, it might be more desirable just to use the GRUB shell. Here
449     is an example of how to use the GRUB shell to install GRUB to a floppy:</p>
450    
451     <pre caption="Using the GRUB shell instead">
452     # <i>mkfs.ext2 /dev/fd0</i>
453     # <i>mount /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy/</i>
454     # <i>mkdir -p /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</i>
455     # <i>cp -v /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/* /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</i>
456     # <i>grub</i>
457     grub> <i>root (fd0)</i>
458     grub> <i>setup (fd0)</i>
459     grub> <i>quit</i>
460     # <i>umount /mnt/floppy/</i>
461     </pre>
462    
463     <p>Now that we have a bootable GRUB floppy, we need to set up the host tftp server
464     (I suggest netkit's tftp server)
465     for loading our kernel and initrd. If you use inetd then you will need
466     a line in your <path>/etc/inetd.conf</path> that looks
467     like this:</p>
468    
469     <pre caption="/etc/inetd.conf">
470     tftp dgram udp wait nobody /usr/sbin/tcpd in.tftpd
471     </pre>
472    
473 gerrynjr 1.14 <p>To install the netkit tftp server under Gentoo Linux, emerge net-misc/netkit-tftp</p>
474 drobbins 1.1
475     <note>There is an ebuild for xinetd... if you prefer to use this than feel free to do
476     so. However I do not use xinetd, and do not know how to set up tftp with it. If you
477     use it and such, please send me info on how to get xinetd working and I will include
478     them in this howto.</note>
479    
480     <p>Now that we have our tftp server ready, we need a kernel and a root initrd to
481     put in it. You can compile a custom kernel yourself, but make sure it has all the
482 gerrynjr 1.14 things necessary for running Gentoo (like devfs) and for netbooting (like initrd
483     support). The root initrd will be the rescue.gz included in the Gentoo ISO.</p>
484 drobbins 1.1
485     <impo>Mounting an ISO file without burning it to cd requires loopback filesystem
486     support.</impo>
487    
488     <pre>
489     # <i>mkdir /tftpboot</i>
490     # <i>mount -o loop /path/to/gentoo-ix86-1.1a.iso /mnt/cdrom/</i>
491     # <i>cp /mnt/cdrom/isolinux/kernel /mnt/cdrom/isolinux/rescue.gz /tftpboot</i>
492     # <i>chmod 644 /tftpboot/*</i>
493     # <i>umount /mnt/cdrom/</i>
494     </pre>
495    
496 gerrynjr 1.14 <p>Boot the machine you want to install to with your incredibly useful grub floppy.
497 drobbins 1.1 Once booted you need to specify a way for the machine to get
498     its IP address, specify where
499     to get a kernel and it's options, and where to get it's initrd.</p>
500    
501     <pre>
502 gerrynjr 1.9 grub> <i>ifconfig --address=<c>ip.add.re.ss</c> --server=<c>ip.add.re.ss</c></i>
503 drobbins 1.1 grub> <i>root (nd)</i>
504     grub> <i>kernel /tftpboot/kernel devfs=nomount vga=normal load_ramdisk=1 </i>
505     <i>prompt_ramdisk=0 ramdisk_size=24000 root=/dev/ram0 rw</i> <comment>(all on one line)</comment>
506     grub> <i>initrd /tftpboot/rescue.gz</i>
507     grub> <i>boot</i>
508     </pre>
509    
510     <note>You can also use bootp and dhcp to configure your ip via grub. Use the bootp
511     and dhcp commands.</note>
512    
513     <p>Now that you have your machine booted, you can install as normal. Refer to the
514     from source cd install howto.</p>
515    
516     </body>
517     </section>
518     </chapter>
519    
520 gerrynjr 1.9 <chapter><title>Diskless install using PXE boot</title>
521    
522     <section><title>Requirements</title>
523     <body>
524     <p>You will need a network card on the diskless client that uses the PXE protocol to boot, like many 3com cards. You will also need a BIOS that supports booting from PXE.</p>
525     </body></section>
526    
527     <section><title>Server base setup</title>
528     <body>
529 gerrynjr 1.14 <p>Create directories: The first thing to do is to create the directories where your diskless system will be stored. Create a directory called <path>/diskless</path> which houses a directory for each diskless client. For the rest of this howto we'll be working on the client 'eta'.</p>
530 gerrynjr 1.9
531     <pre caption="directory setup">
532     # <i>mkdir /diskless</i>
533     # <i>mkdir /diskless/eta</i>
534     # <i>mkdir /diskless/eta/boot</i>
535     </pre>
536    
537 gerrynjr 1.14 <p>DHCP and TFTP setup: The client will get boot informations using DHCP and download all the required files using TFTP. Just emerge DHCP and configure it for your basic needs. Then, add the following on <path>/etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf</path>.</p>
538 gerrynjr 1.9
539 gerrynjr 1.14 <note>This provide a static IP address for the client and the path of a PXE boot image, here pxegrub. You have to replace the MAC address of the Ethernet card of the client and the directory where you will put the client files with the one you use.</note>
540 gerrynjr 1.9
541     <pre caption="dhcp.conf">
542     option option-150 code 150 = text ;
543     host eta {
544     hardware ethernet 00:00:00:00:00:00;
545     fixed-address <c>ip.add.re.ss</c>;
546     option option-150 "/eta/boot/grub.lst";
547     filename "/eta/boot/pxegrub";
548     }
549     </pre>
550    
551 gerrynjr 1.14 <p>For TFTP, emerge <c>app-admin/tftp-hpa</c>. In <path>/etc/conf.d/in.tftpd</path>, put the following :</p>
552 gerrynjr 1.9
553     <pre caption="in.tftpd">
554     INTFTPD_PATH="/diskless"
555     INTFTPD_USER="nobody"
556     INTFTPD_OPTS="-u ${INTFTPD_USER} -l -vvvvvv -p -c -s ${INTFTPD_PATH}"
557     </pre>
558    
559 gerrynjr 1.14 <p>Setup GRUB: To provide PXE booting I use GRUB. You have to compile it by yourself to enable the PXE image compilation ... but that's quite easy. First, get the latest version of the GRUB source code (<c>emerge -f grub</c> will place the tarball in <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path>). Copy the tarball to <path>/diskless</path> and then build it to make the pxe capable binary. Once the binary is built, copy it to the diskless client's boot directory. Then edit it's grub.lst config file.</p>
560 gerrynjr 1.9
561     <pre caption="grub setup">
562     # <i>tar zxvf grub-0.92.tar.gz</i>
563     # <i>cd grub-0.92</i>
564     # <i>./configure --help</i>
565     <codenote>In the options you will see a list of supported network interface drivers. </codenote>
566     <codenote>Select the driver compatible with your card. Herein referenced a $nic</codenote>
567     # <i>./configure --enable-diskless --enable-$nic</i>
568     # <i>make</i>
569     # <i>cd stage2</i>
570     # <i>cp pxegrub /diskless/eta/boot/pxegrub</i>
571     # <i>nano -w /diskless/eta/boot/grub.lst</i>
572     </pre>
573    
574     <pre caption="grub.lst">
575     default 0
576     timeout 30
577    
578     title=Diskless Gentoo
579     root (nd)
580     kernel /eta/bzImage ip=dhcp root=/dev/nfs nfsroot=<c>ip.add.re.ss</c>:/diskless/eta
581 drobbins 1.1
582 gerrynjr 1.9 <codenote>For the nfsroot option, the IP address is the one of the server and </codenote>
583     <codenote>the directory is the one where your diskless client files are located (on the server).</codenote>
584     </pre>
585    
586 gerrynjr 1.14 <p>Setup NFS: NFS is quite easy to configure. The only thing you have to do is to add a line on the <path>/etc/exports</path> config file :</p>
587 gerrynjr 1.9
588     <pre caption="/etc/exports">
589     # <i>nano -w /etc/exports</i>
590     NFS file systems being exported. See exports(5).
591     /diskless/eta eta(rw,sync,no_root_squash)
592     </pre>
593    
594 gerrynjr 1.14 <p>Update your hosts: One important thing to do now is to modify your <path>/etc/hosts</path> file to fit your needs. </p>
595 gerrynjr 1.9
596     <pre caption="/etc/hosts">
597     127.0.0.1 localhost
598    
599     192.168.1.10 eta.example.com eta
600     192.168.1.20 sigma.example.com sigma
601     </pre>
602     </body>
603     </section>
604    
605     <section><title>Creating the system on the server</title>
606    
607     <body>
608    
609 gerrynjr 1.14 <p>Reboot the server on a Gentoo LiveCD. Follow the standard install procedure as explained in the Gentoo Install Howto BUT with the following differences. When you mount the file system, do the following (where hdaX is the partition where you created the /diskless directory). You do not need to mount any other partitions as all of the files will reside in the <path>/diskless/eta</path> directory.</p>
610 gerrynjr 1.9
611     <pre caption="mounting the filesystem">
612     #<i> mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
613     </pre>
614    
615 gerrynjr 1.14 <p>Stage tarballs and chroot: This example uses a stage3 tarball. Mount <path>/proc</path> to your diskless directory and chroot into it to continue with the install. Then follow the installation manual until kernel configuration.</p>
616 gerrynjr 1.9
617     <warn>Be very careful where you extract your stage tarball. You don't want to end up extracting over your existing installation.</warn>
618    
619     <pre caption="extracting the stage tarball">
620     # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/</i>
621     # <i>tar -xvjpf /mnt/cdrom/gentoo/stage3-*.tar.bz2</i>
622     # <i>mount -t proc /proc /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/proc</i>
623     # <i>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/etc/resolv.conf</i>
624     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/ /bin/bash</i>
625     # <i>env-update</i>
626     # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
627     </pre>
628    
629     <p>Kernel configuration: When you do the <c>make menuconfig</c> of your kernel configuration, don't forget to enable the following options with the others recommended into the install howto.</p>
630    
631     <pre caption="menuconfig options">
632     - Your network card device support
633    
634     - Under "Networking options" :
635    
636     [*] TCP/IP networking
637     [*] IP: kernel level autoconfiguration
638     [*] IP: DHCP support
639     [*] IP: BOOTP support
640    
641    
642     - Under "File systems --> Network File Systems" :
643    
644     &lt;*&gt; NFS file system support
645     [*] Provide NFSv3 client support
646     [*] Root file system on NFS
647     </pre>
648    
649 gerrynjr 1.14 <p>Next configure your diskless client's <path>/etc/fstab</path>.</p>
650 gerrynjr 1.9
651     <pre caption="/etc/fstab">
652     # <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
653     /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro 0 0
654     proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
655     tmpfs /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0
656     </pre>
657    
658 gerrynjr 1.14 <p>Bootloader. Don't install another bootloader because we already have one - pxegrub. Simply finish the install and restart the server. Start the services you'll need to boot the new client: DHCP, TFTPD, and NFS.</p>
659 gerrynjr 1.9
660     <pre caption="Starting services">
661     # <i>/etc/init.d/dhcp start</i>
662     # <i>/etc/init.d/tftpd start</i>
663     # <i>/etc/init.d/nfs start</i>
664     </pre>
665    
666     </body></section>
667    
668     <section><title>Booting the new client</title>
669     <body>
670 gerrynjr 1.14 <p>For the new client to boot properly, you'll need to configure the bios and the network card to use PXE as the first boot method - before CD-ROM or floppy. For help with this consult your hardware manuals or manufacturers website. The network card should get an IP address using DHCP and download the GRUB PXE image using TFTP. Then, you should see a nice black and white GRUB bootmenu where you will select the kernel to boot and press Enter. If everything is ok the kernel should boot, mount the root filesystem using NFS and provide you with a login prompt. Enjoy.</p>
671 gerrynjr 1.9 </body></section>
672    
673     </chapter>
674 drobbins 1.1
675    
676    
677     <chapter> <title>Installing Gentoo from an existing Linux distribution </title>
678     <section> <title> Requirements </title>
679     <body>
680     <p>In order to install Gentoo from your existing Linux distribution you need to
681     have chroot command installed, and have a copy of the Gentoo installation
682     tarball or ISO you want to install. A network connection would be preferable if
683     you want more than what's supplied in your tarball. (by the way, a tarball is
684     just a file ending in .tbz or .tar.gz). The author used RedHat Linux 7.3 as the
685     "host" operating system, but it is not very important. Let's get started! </p>
686     </body>
687     </section>
688    
689     <section> <title> Overview </title>
690     <body>
691 gerrynjr 1.14 <p>We will first allocate a partition to Gentoo by resizing our existing Linux partition, mount the partition, untar the tarball that is mounted, chroot inside the psuedo-system and start building. Once the bootstrap process is done, we will do some final configuration on the system so as to make sure it boots, then we are ready to reboot and use Gentoo. </p>
692 drobbins 1.1 </body>
693     </section>
694    
695 gerrynjr 1.14 <section> <title> How should we make space for Gentoo? </title>
696 drobbins 1.1 <body>
697    
698     <p>
699 gerrynjr 1.14 The root partition is the filesystem mounted under <path>/</path>. A quick run of mount on my system shows what I am talking about. We well also use df (disk free) to see how much space I have left and how I will be resizing. Note that it is not mandatory to resize your root partition! You could be resizing anything else supported by our resizer, but let's talk about that later.</p>
700 drobbins 1.1
701    
702     <pre caption="Filesystem information">
703     # <i>mount</i>
704     /dev/hdb2 on / type ext3 (rw)
705     none on /proc type proc (rw)
706     none on /dev/pts type devpts (rw,gid=5,mode=620)
707     none on /dev/shm type tmpfs (rw)
708     # <i>df -h </i>
709     Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
710     /dev/hdb2 4.0G 1.9G 2.4G 82% /
711     none 38M 0 38M 0% /dev/shm
712     </pre>
713    
714 gerrynjr 1.14 <p>As we can see, the partition mounted as <path>/</path> named <path>/dev/hdb2</path> has 2.4 gigabytes free. In my case, I think I will resize it as to leave 400Megs free of space, therefore allocating 2 gigabytes for Gentoo. Not bad, I could have quite some stuff installed. However, think that even one gigabyte is enough for most users. So let's partition this thing! </p>
715 drobbins 1.1
716     </body> </section>
717    
718     <section> <title> Building parted to resize partition </title>
719     <body>
720     <p>Parted is an utility supplied by the GNU foundation, an old and respectable huge project whose software you are using in this very moment. There is one tool, however, that is extremely useful for us at the moment. It's called parted, partition editor and we can get it from <uri>
721 klieber 1.5 http://www.gnu.org/software/parted/</uri>
722 drobbins 1.1 </p>
723     <note> There are other tools for doing resize of partitions as well, but author
724     is unsure/uninterested whether PartitionMagic(tm) or other software of the kind
725     do the job. It's the reader's job to check them out </note>
726    
727     <p>
728     Look up on that page the type of filesystem you want to resize and see if parted
729     can do it. If not, you're out of luck, you will have to destroy some partition
730 gerrynjr 1.14 to make space for Gentoo, and reinstall back. Go ahead by downloading the
731 drobbins 1.1 software, install it. Here we have a problem. We want to resize our Linux root
732     partition, therefore we must boot from a floppy disk a minimal linux system and
733 gerrynjr 1.14 use previously-compiled parted copied to a diskette in order to resize <path>/</path>.
734 drobbins 1.1 However, if you can unmount the partition while still in Linux you are lucky,
735     you don't need to do what follows. Just compile parted and run it on an
736     unmounted partition you chose to resize. Here's how I did it for my system.
737     </p>
738    
739     <impo> Make sure that the operations you want to do on your partition are
740     supported by parted! </impo>
741    
742     <p> Get tomsrtbt boot/root disk (free of charge) from <uri>
743 gerrynjr 1.14 http://freshmeat.net/tomsrtbt </uri>, create a floppy as suggested in the
744 drobbins 1.1 Documentation that accompanies the software package and insert a new floppy in
745     the drive for the next step. </p>
746    
747     <note> Note again that Linux is synonym of "There's one more way to do it". Your
748     objective is to run parted on an unmounted partition so it can do its work. You
749     might use some other boot/root diskset other than tomsrtbt. You might not even
750     need to do this step at all, that is only umount the filesystem you want to
751     repartition in your Linux session and run parted on it. </note>
752    
753     <pre caption="Utility disk creation">
754     # <i>mkfs.minix /dev/fd0</i>
755     480 inodes
756     1440 blocks
757     Firstdatazone=19 (19)
758     Zonesize=1024
759     Maxsize=268966912
760     </pre>
761    
762     We will now proceed with the build of parted. If it's not already downloaded and untarred, do so now and cd into the corresponding directory. Now run the following set of commands to build the utility and copy it to your floppy disk.
763    
764     <pre caption="Building the utility floppy">
765     # <i> mkdir /floppy; mount -t minix /dev/fd0 /floppy &amp;&amp;
766     export CFLAGS="-O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer -static" &amp;&amp; ./configure
767     &amp;&amp; make &amp;&amp; cp parted/parted /floppy &amp;&amp; umount /floppy </i>
768     </pre>
769    
770     <p>
771     Congratulations, you are ready to reboot and resize your partition. Do this only
772     after taking a quick look at the parted documentation on the GNU website. The
773     resize should take under 30 minutes for the largest hard-drives, be patient.
774     Reboot your system with the tomsrtbt boot disk (just pop it inside), and once
775     you are logged in, switch the disk in the drive with your utility disk we have
776     created above and type mount /dev/fd0 /floppy to have parted under /floppy.
777     There you go. Run parted and you will be able to resize your partition. Once
778     this lenghty process done, we are ready to have the real fun, by installing
779 gerrynjr 1.14 Gentoo. Reboot back into your old Linux system for now. Drive you wish to
780 swift 1.8 operate on is the drive containing the partition we want to resize. For
781     example, if we want to resize /dev/hda3, the drive is /dev/hda
782     </p>
783 drobbins 1.1
784     <pre caption="Commands to run once logged into tomsrtbt system">
785     # <i>mount /dev/fd0 /floppy </i>
786     # <i>cd /floppy; ./parted [drive you wish to operate on]</i>
787     (parted) <i> print </i>
788     Disk geometry for /dev/hdb: 0.000-9787.148 megabytes
789     Disk label type: msdos
790     Minor Start End Type Filesystem Flags
791     1 0.031 2953.125 primary ntfs
792     3 2953.125 3133.265 primary linux-swap
793     2 3133.266 5633.085 primary ext3
794     4 5633.086 9787.148 extended
795     5 5633.117 6633.210 logical
796     6 6633.242 9787.148 logical ext3
797     (parted) <i> help resize </i>
798     resize MINOR START END resize filesystem on partition MINOR
799    
800     MINOR is the partition number used by Linux. On msdos disk labels, the
801     primary partitions number from 1-4, and logical partitions are 5
802     onwards.
803     START and END are in megabytes
804     (parted) <i> resize 2 3133.266 4000.000 </i>
805     </pre>
806    
807     <impo> Be patient! The computer is working! Just look at the hardware LED on
808     your case to see that it is really working. This should take between 2 and 30
809     minutes. </impo>
810    
811     <p>Once you have resized, boot back into your old linux as described. Then go to
812 swift 1.17 <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml">http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml</uri> and follow steps 6 through 17. Don't forget to create the <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> directory before proceeding with step 7. In step 8 you have to download the requested stage-tarball as we're not working from a LiveCD. When chrooting, use the following command to flush your environment:
813     </p>
814 drobbins 1.1
815 swift 1.17 <pre caption = "Flushing the environment during chroot">
816     # <i>env -i chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
817     </pre>
818 drobbins 1.1
819 swift 1.17 <p>
820 drobbins 1.1 Enjoy!
821     </p>
822     </body>
823     </section>
824     </chapter>
825     </guide>

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