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Merging handbook information on knoppix and existing distribution into altinstall.xml -- dont you just hate duplicate information and the maintenance it requires?

1 zhen 1.3 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 swift 1.22 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/altinstall.xml,v 1.21 2004/02/19 14:30:59 swift Exp $ -->
3 antifa 1.12 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4    
5 drobbins 1.1
6 zhen 1.2 <guide link="/doc/en/altinstall.xml">
7 drobbins 1.1 <title>The Gentoo Linux alternative installation method HOWTO</title>
8 gerrynjr 1.9 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="gerrynjr@gentoo.org">Gerald Normandin Jr.</mail></author>
9     <author title="Contributor"><mail link="lordviram@rebelpacket.net">Travis Tilley</mail></author>
10     <author title="Contributor"><mail link="volontir@yahoo.com">Oleg Raisky</mail></author>
11     <author title="Contributor"><mail link="luminousit@hotmail.com">Alex Garbutt</mail></author>
12     <author title="Contributor"><mail link="alex@openvs.com">Alexandre Georges</mail></author>
13 antifa 1.15 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="vargen@b0d.org">Magnus Backanda</mail></author>
14 klieber 1.13 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="davoid@gentoo.org">Faust A. Tanasescu</mail></author>
15 swift 1.7 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="aliz@gentoo.org">Daniel Ahlberg</mail></author>
16     <author title="Editor"><mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail></author>
17 antifa 1.15 <author title="Reviewer"><mail link="antifa@gentoo.org">Ken Nowack</mail></author>
18 blubber 1.18 <author title="Editor"><mail link="blubber@gentoo.org">Tiemo Kieft</mail></author>
19 drobbins 1.1 <abstract>
20     This HOWTO is meant to be a repository of alternative Gentoo installation
21     methods, for those with special installation needs such as lack of a cdrom
22 gerrynjr 1.14 or a computer that can't boot cds.
23 drobbins 1.1 </abstract>
24    
25 swift 1.21 <license/>
26    
27 swift 1.22 <version>0.36</version>
28     <date>March 11, 2004</date>
29 gerrynjr 1.9
30 drobbins 1.1 <chapter>
31     <title>About this document</title>
32     <section>
33     <body>
34    
35     <p>If the standard boot-from-CD install method doesn't work for you
36     (or you just don't like it),
37     help is now here. This document serves to
38     provide a repository of alternative Gentoo Linux installation techniques
39     to those who need them.
40     Or, if you prefer, it serves as
41     a place to put your wacky installation methods. If you have an
42     installation method that you yourself find useful, or you have devised an
43 gerrynjr 1.14 amusing way of installing Gentoo, please don't hesitate to write something
44 gerrynjr 1.9 up and <mail link="antifa@gentoo.org">send it to me.</mail></p>
45    
46    
47     </body>
48     </section>
49     </chapter>
50    
51     <chapter>
52     <title>Booting the LiveCD with Smart BootManager</title>
53     <section>
54    
55     <body>
56 gerrynjr 1.14 <p>Download Smart BootManager <uri link="http://btmgr.sourceforge.net/index.php3?body=download.html">http://btmgr.sourceforge.net/index.php3?body=download.html</uri>. Linux source or binary format and windows .exe versions are available as well as many language packs. However, at this time, the preferred method would be to use the binary format, as the source will not compile with newer versions of NASM.</p>
57 gerrynjr 1.9
58     <p>Either compile the package from source or just grab the binary. There are several options that can be utilized while creating your boot floppy, as seen below.</p>
59    
60     <pre caption="Smart BootManager Options">
61     <i>sbminst [-t theme] [-d drv] [-b backup_file] [-u backup_file]
62    
63     -t theme select the theme to be used, in which the theme could be:
64     us = English theme de = German theme
65     hu = Hungarian theme zh = Chinese theme
66     ru = Russian theme cz = Czech theme
67     es = Spanish theme fr = French theme
68     pt = Portuguese theme
69    
70    
71     -d drv set the drive that you want to install Smart BootManager on;
72     for Linux:
73     /dev/fd0 is the first floppy driver,
74     /dev/hda is the first IDE harddisk driver.
75     /dev/sda is the first SCSI harddisk driver.
76     for DOS:
77     0 is the first floppy drive
78     128 is the first hard drive;
79    
80     -c disable CD-ROM booting feature;
81    
82 gerrynjr 1.14 -b backup_file backup the data that will be overwritten for
83 gerrynjr 1.9 future uninstallation;
84    
85     -u backup_file uninstall Smart BootManager, should be used alone;
86    
87     -y do not ask any question or warning.</i>
88     </pre>
89    
90     <pre caption="Using sbminst to build the boot floppy">
91     # <i>sbminst -t us -d /dev/fd0</i>
92     </pre>
93     <note> Replace fd0 with your repective floppy device name if yours is different. </note>
94     <p>Now simply place the floppy in the floppy drive of the computer you'd like to boot the LiveCD on, as well as placing the LiveCD in the CD-ROM and boot the computer.</p>
95    
96     <p>You'll be greeted with the Smart BootManager dialog. Select your CD-ROM and press ENTER to boot the LiveCD. Once booted proceed with the standard installation instructions.</p>
97    
98     <p>Further information on Smart BootManager may be found at <uri>http://btmgr.sourceforge.net/</uri></p>
99     </body>
100     </section>
101     </chapter>
102    
103    
104     <chapter>
105     <title>Knoppix Installation</title>
106     <section>
107    
108     <body>
109     <p>Booting from the <uri link="http://www.knoppix.org/">Knoppix</uri> LiveCD is a way to have a fully functional linux system while you're compiling Gentoo. Tux Racer will help you pass the time while you wait for bootstrap.</p>
110    
111     <p>Boot from the Knoppix CD. It generally does a really good job of hardware detection. Although, you may have to add some boot options. </p>
112    
113     <p>By default Knoppix boots into a KDE 3.0 desktop. The first thing I did was open a konsole and typed <c>sudo passwd root</c>. This lets you set the root password for Knoppix.</p>
114    
115     <p> Next, I su to root and typed <c>usermod -d /root -m root</c>. This sets user roots home directory to /root (the Gentoo way) from /home/root (the Knoppix way). If you do not do this, then you will receive errors when emerging about "/home/root: not found" or something to that effect.</p>
116    
117 swift 1.22 <p>I then typed <c>exit</c> and then <c>su</c> back into root. This loads the change that was made with the usermod command. Now create the <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> mountpoint using <c>mkdir</c>:</p>
118 swift 1.16
119 swift 1.22 <pre caption="Creating the /mnt/gentoo mountpoint">
120     # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</i>
121     </pre>
122    
123     <p>At this point, you can pick up with the standard install documentation at step 6. However, when you're asked to mount the proc system, issue the following command instead: </p>
124    
125     <pre caption = "Bind-mounting the proc pseudo filesystem">
126 swift 1.16 # <i>mount -o bind /proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
127     </pre>
128    
129 gerrynjr 1.9 </body>
130     </section>
131     </chapter>
132    
133     <chapter>
134     <title>Installing from Stage 1 without network access</title>
135     <section>
136     <body>
137    
138    
139     <p>Burn a LiveCD iso.</p>
140    
141 gerrynjr 1.14 <p>Get the latest portage snapshot from <uri>http://distro.ibiblio.org/pub/linux/distributions/gentoo/snapshots/</uri> (or your favorite <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror</uri>). Either place this tarball on an existing partition on the computer your are installing to, or burn it to a CD.</p>
142 gerrynjr 1.9
143     <p>You'll also need a package list for the stage packages. Place the following dl-list.sh script on the same medium as the portage snapshot, you'll need it later.</p>
144    
145     <pre caption="dl-list.sh">
146     #!/bin/bash
147    
148     # set your defaults here:
149     user_defs() {
150    
151     # portage directory (without a trailing "/"):
152     portage_dir="/usr/portage"
153    
154     # default download mirror (without a trailing "/"):
155     gentoo_mirror="http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/Linux/distributions/gentoo"
156    
157     # default sourceforge mirror (unc, telia, belnet):
158     sourceforge_mirror="unc"
159    
160     # fix gnu mirror entries
161     gnu_url="ftp:\/\/ftp.gnu.org\/pub\/gnu"
162    
163     }
164    
165    
166     #------------------------------------------------------------
167    
168     # function to remove temporary files
169     cleanup() {
170    
171     rm -f $temp_file_1 $temp_file_2
172     exit $1
173    
174     }
175    
176     # set user defaults
177     user_defs
178    
179     # set the complete url for the sourceforge mirror
180     # (the \'s are needed because this goes in a sed command)
181     sourceforge_mirror_complete="http:\/\/$sourceforge_mirror.dl.sourceforge.net\/sourceforge"
182    
183     # initialize counters
184     num_files=0
185     num_alt_urls=0
186     total_size=0
187    
188     # initialize lists (arrays)
189     declare -a def_urls_arr
190     declare -a alt_urls_arr
191    
192     # create 2 temporary files
193     temp_file_1=`mktemp -t dl-list.XXXXXX` || cleanup 1
194     temp_file_2=`mktemp -t dl-list.XXXXXX` || cleanup 1
195    
196     # run "emerge -p &lt;args&gt;" (too easy to forget the "-p" in the command line...)
197     emerge -p $@ &gt; $temp_file_1 || cleanup 1
198    
199     # remove the lines that do not contain the word "ebuild"
200     sed -n -e '/ebuild/p' $temp_file_1 &gt; $temp_file_2
201    
202     # count how many lines were left
203     num_ebuilds=`wc -l $temp_file_2 | sed -e 's/\(.*\) \(.*\)/\1/'`
204    
205     # extract the useful information from those lines: category, package and version
206     #sed -e 's:\(.*\) \(.*\)/\(.*\)-\([0-9].*\) \(.*\) \(.*\):\2 \3 \4:' $temp_file_2 &gt; $temp_file_1
207     sed -e 's:\(.*\) \(.*\)/\(.*\)-\([0-9].*\):\2 \3 \4:' $temp_file_2 &gt; $temp_file_1
208    
209     # display starting message :)
210     echo -n "Generating list " &gt;&amp;2
211    
212     # process each package in turn
213     while read category package version rest
214     do
215    
216     # form the name of the digest file
217    
218     digest_file="$portage_dir/$category/$package/files/digest-$package-$version"
219    
220     # process the contents of the digest file
221     while read md5_flag md5_sum file_name file_size
222     do
223    
224     # form the default url to download the file
225     def_urls_arr[$num_files]="$gentoo_mirror/distfiles/$file_name"
226    
227     # increment the file counter
228     num_files=$(($num_files + 1))
229    
230     # update the size accumulator (in kilobytes)
231     total_size=$(($total_size + $file_size / 1024))
232    
233     done &lt; $digest_file
234    
235     # form the "ebuild depend" command line
236     ebuild_depend_cmd="ebuild $portage_dir/$category/$package/$package-${version}.ebuild depend"
237    
238     # execute the "ebuild depend" command
239     $ebuild_depend_cmd || cleanup 1
240    
241     # form the name of the dependency file
242     dependency_file="/var/cache/edb/dep/$category/$package-$version"
243    
244     # read in the 4th line from the dependency file,
245     # which contains the official download urls
246     alt_urls=`head -n 4 $dependency_file | tail -n 1`
247    
248     # ignore empty url list
249     if [ -n "$alt_urls" ]
250     then
251    
252     # split the urls list into $1..$N
253     set $alt_urls
254    
255     # process each url in turn
256     for i in $@
257     do
258    
259     # remove the (use)? strings from the url list
260     alt_url_tmp=`echo "$i" | sed -e '/\?$/d'`
261    
262     # remove the "mirror://gnome" urls
263     alt_url_tmp=`echo "$alt_url_tmp" | sed -e '/^mirror:\/\/gnome/d'`
264    
265     # remove the "mirror://kde" urls
266     alt_url_tmp=`echo "$alt_url_tmp" | sed -e '/^mirror:\/\/kde/d'`
267    
268     # remove the "mirror://gentoo" urls (already included)
269     alt_url_tmp=`echo "$alt_url_tmp" | sed -e '/^mirror:\/\/gentoo/d'`
270    
271     # translate the "mirror://sourceforge" urls into valid urls
272     alt_url_tmp=`echo "$alt_url_tmp" | sed -e "s/mirror:\/\/sourceforge/$sourceforge_mirror_complete/"`
273    
274     # translate the "mirror://gnu" urls into valid urls
275     alt_url_tmp=`echo "$alt_url_tmp" | sed -e "s/mirror:\/\/gnu/$gnu_url/"`
276     # ignore empty urls
277     if [ -n "$alt_url_tmp" ]
278     then
279    
280     # add the url to the list
281     alt_urls_arr[$num_alt_urls]=$alt_url_tmp
282    
283     # increment the alternate url counter
284     num_alt_urls=$(($num_alt_urls + 1))
285    
286     fi
287    
288     done
289    
290     fi
291    
292     # a progress bar :)
293     echo -n "." &gt;&amp;2
294    
295     done &lt; $temp_file_1
296    
297     # display ending message :)
298     echo " done." &gt;&amp;2
299    
300     # display default urls list
301     for i in ${def_urls_arr[@]}; do echo $i; done | sort
302    
303     # display alternate urls list
304     for i in ${alt_urls_arr[@]}; do echo $i; done | sort
305    
306     # display totals
307     echo "Totals:" $num_ebuilds "ebuilds," $num_files "files," $num_files "default urls," \n
308     $num_alt_urls "alternate urls," "${total_size}Kb." &lt;&amp;2
309    
310     # remove temporary files and exit
311     cleanup 0
312     </pre>
313    
314 gerrynjr 1.14 <p>Follow all instructions of Gentoo Install Doc up to <c>chroot /mnt/gentoo</c> in Step 8. If you only have one CD-ROM remember to use the <c>cdcache</c> option while booting so you can unmount the LiveCD and mount your portage snapshot CD.</p>
315 gerrynjr 1.9
316 blubber 1.18 <p>Open a new console (Alt-F2), we will continue with the Install Doc up to running the bootstrap.sh script.</p>
317 gerrynjr 1.9
318 blubber 1.18 <warn>Older realeases of the livecd required you to change the password using the <c>passwd</c> command, before logging in manually.</warn>
319    
320 gerrynjr 1.9
321 gerrynjr 1.14 <p>Go back to the first console (Alt-F1, without chroot) and mount a second CD on <path>/mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2</path>. Copy the portage tarball from cdrom2 and unpack it to <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr/portage</path>. Further, grab the dl-list.sh script and place it in <path>/usr/sbin</path> and make it executable.</p>
322 gerrynjr 1.9
323     <pre caption="Mount the snapshot cd">
324     # <i>umount /mnt/cdrom</i>
325     # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2</i>
326     # <i>mount /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2</i>
327     # <i>cp /mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2/portage-$date.tar.bz2 /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage</i>
328     # <i>cp /mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2/dl-list.sh /mnt/gentoo/usr/sbin</i>
329     # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage</i>
330     # <i>tar xvjpf portage-$date.tar.bz2</i>
331     # <i>chmod +x /mnt/gentoo/usr/sbin/dl-list.sh</i>
332     </pre>
333    
334 gerrynjr 1.14 <p>Switch back to the F2 console. Now if you try to run bootstrap.sh it will fail because it won't be able to download any files. We will fetch these files somewhere else and put them in /usr/portage/distfiles (on F2 console). </p>
335 gerrynjr 1.9
336     <p>You need a list of Stage1 packages: glibc, baselayout, texinfo, gettext, zlib, binutils, gcc, ncurses plus their dependencies. </p>
337    
338     <note>Note that you need the versions of each package synced with your portage tree.</note>
339    
340 gerrynjr 1.14 <p>Now use the dl-list.sh script to generate the package list that you need. Then copy the subsequent list to a floppy.</p>
341 gerrynjr 1.9
342     <pre caption="Using dl-list.sh">
343     # <i>dl-list.sh glibc baselayout texinfo gettext zlib binutils gcc ncurses > stage1.list</i>
344     # <i>mount -t vfat /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy</i>
345     # <i>cp /mnt/gentoo/stage1.list /mnt/floppy</i>
346     # <i>umount /mnt/floppy</i>
347     </pre>
348    
349 gerrynjr 1.14 <p>Take the floppy to the computer that has fast access and feed this list to wget:</p>
350 gerrynjr 1.9
351     <pre caption="Use wget to grab your source packages">
352     # <i>wget -N -i stage1.list</i>
353     </pre>
354    
355    
356 gerrynjr 1.14 <p>Once you have obtained all the files, take them to the computer and copy them to <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr/portage/distfiles</path>. You will then be able to run <c>bootstrap.sh</c>. Repeat this same wget fetch and place procedure for stage2 and 3.</p>
357 gerrynjr 1.9
358 drobbins 1.1
359    
360     </body>
361     </section>
362     </chapter>
363    
364 gerrynjr 1.9 <chapter><title>Diskless install using PXE boot</title>
365    
366     <section><title>Requirements</title>
367     <body>
368     <p>You will need a network card on the diskless client that uses the PXE protocol to boot, like many 3com cards. You will also need a BIOS that supports booting from PXE.</p>
369     </body></section>
370    
371     <section><title>Server base setup</title>
372     <body>
373 gerrynjr 1.14 <p>Create directories: The first thing to do is to create the directories where your diskless system will be stored. Create a directory called <path>/diskless</path> which houses a directory for each diskless client. For the rest of this howto we'll be working on the client 'eta'.</p>
374 gerrynjr 1.9
375     <pre caption="directory setup">
376     # <i>mkdir /diskless</i>
377     # <i>mkdir /diskless/eta</i>
378     # <i>mkdir /diskless/eta/boot</i>
379     </pre>
380    
381 gerrynjr 1.14 <p>DHCP and TFTP setup: The client will get boot informations using DHCP and download all the required files using TFTP. Just emerge DHCP and configure it for your basic needs. Then, add the following on <path>/etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf</path>.</p>
382 gerrynjr 1.9
383 gerrynjr 1.14 <note>This provide a static IP address for the client and the path of a PXE boot image, here pxegrub. You have to replace the MAC address of the Ethernet card of the client and the directory where you will put the client files with the one you use.</note>
384 gerrynjr 1.9
385     <pre caption="dhcp.conf">
386     option option-150 code 150 = text ;
387     host eta {
388     hardware ethernet 00:00:00:00:00:00;
389     fixed-address <c>ip.add.re.ss</c>;
390     option option-150 "/eta/boot/grub.lst";
391     filename "/eta/boot/pxegrub";
392     }
393     </pre>
394    
395 gerrynjr 1.14 <p>For TFTP, emerge <c>app-admin/tftp-hpa</c>. In <path>/etc/conf.d/in.tftpd</path>, put the following :</p>
396 gerrynjr 1.9
397     <pre caption="in.tftpd">
398     INTFTPD_PATH="/diskless"
399     INTFTPD_USER="nobody"
400     INTFTPD_OPTS="-u ${INTFTPD_USER} -l -vvvvvv -p -c -s ${INTFTPD_PATH}"
401     </pre>
402    
403 gerrynjr 1.14 <p>Setup GRUB: To provide PXE booting I use GRUB. You have to compile it by yourself to enable the PXE image compilation ... but that's quite easy. First, get the latest version of the GRUB source code (<c>emerge -f grub</c> will place the tarball in <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path>). Copy the tarball to <path>/diskless</path> and then build it to make the pxe capable binary. Once the binary is built, copy it to the diskless client's boot directory. Then edit it's grub.lst config file.</p>
404 gerrynjr 1.9
405     <pre caption="grub setup">
406     # <i>tar zxvf grub-0.92.tar.gz</i>
407     # <i>cd grub-0.92</i>
408     # <i>./configure --help</i>
409     <codenote>In the options you will see a list of supported network interface drivers. </codenote>
410     <codenote>Select the driver compatible with your card. Herein referenced a $nic</codenote>
411     # <i>./configure --enable-diskless --enable-$nic</i>
412     # <i>make</i>
413     # <i>cd stage2</i>
414     # <i>cp pxegrub /diskless/eta/boot/pxegrub</i>
415     # <i>nano -w /diskless/eta/boot/grub.lst</i>
416     </pre>
417    
418     <pre caption="grub.lst">
419     default 0
420     timeout 30
421    
422     title=Diskless Gentoo
423     root (nd)
424     kernel /eta/bzImage ip=dhcp root=/dev/nfs nfsroot=<c>ip.add.re.ss</c>:/diskless/eta
425 drobbins 1.1
426 gerrynjr 1.9 <codenote>For the nfsroot option, the IP address is the one of the server and </codenote>
427     <codenote>the directory is the one where your diskless client files are located (on the server).</codenote>
428     </pre>
429    
430 gerrynjr 1.14 <p>Setup NFS: NFS is quite easy to configure. The only thing you have to do is to add a line on the <path>/etc/exports</path> config file :</p>
431 gerrynjr 1.9
432     <pre caption="/etc/exports">
433     # <i>nano -w /etc/exports</i>
434     NFS file systems being exported. See exports(5).
435     /diskless/eta eta(rw,sync,no_root_squash)
436     </pre>
437    
438 gerrynjr 1.14 <p>Update your hosts: One important thing to do now is to modify your <path>/etc/hosts</path> file to fit your needs. </p>
439 gerrynjr 1.9
440     <pre caption="/etc/hosts">
441     127.0.0.1 localhost
442    
443     192.168.1.10 eta.example.com eta
444     192.168.1.20 sigma.example.com sigma
445     </pre>
446     </body>
447     </section>
448    
449     <section><title>Creating the system on the server</title>
450    
451     <body>
452    
453 gerrynjr 1.14 <p>Reboot the server on a Gentoo LiveCD. Follow the standard install procedure as explained in the Gentoo Install Howto BUT with the following differences. When you mount the file system, do the following (where hdaX is the partition where you created the /diskless directory). You do not need to mount any other partitions as all of the files will reside in the <path>/diskless/eta</path> directory.</p>
454 gerrynjr 1.9
455     <pre caption="mounting the filesystem">
456     #<i> mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
457     </pre>
458    
459 gerrynjr 1.14 <p>Stage tarballs and chroot: This example uses a stage3 tarball. Mount <path>/proc</path> to your diskless directory and chroot into it to continue with the install. Then follow the installation manual until kernel configuration.</p>
460 gerrynjr 1.9
461     <warn>Be very careful where you extract your stage tarball. You don't want to end up extracting over your existing installation.</warn>
462    
463     <pre caption="extracting the stage tarball">
464     # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/</i>
465     # <i>tar -xvjpf /mnt/cdrom/gentoo/stage3-*.tar.bz2</i>
466     # <i>mount -t proc /proc /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/proc</i>
467     # <i>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/etc/resolv.conf</i>
468     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/ /bin/bash</i>
469     # <i>env-update</i>
470     # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
471     </pre>
472    
473     <p>Kernel configuration: When you do the <c>make menuconfig</c> of your kernel configuration, don't forget to enable the following options with the others recommended into the install howto.</p>
474    
475     <pre caption="menuconfig options">
476     - Your network card device support
477    
478     - Under "Networking options" :
479    
480     [*] TCP/IP networking
481     [*] IP: kernel level autoconfiguration
482     [*] IP: DHCP support
483     [*] IP: BOOTP support
484    
485    
486     - Under "File systems --> Network File Systems" :
487    
488     &lt;*&gt; NFS file system support
489     [*] Provide NFSv3 client support
490     [*] Root file system on NFS
491     </pre>
492    
493 gerrynjr 1.14 <p>Next configure your diskless client's <path>/etc/fstab</path>.</p>
494 gerrynjr 1.9
495     <pre caption="/etc/fstab">
496     # <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
497     /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro 0 0
498     proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
499     tmpfs /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0
500     </pre>
501    
502 gerrynjr 1.14 <p>Bootloader. Don't install another bootloader because we already have one - pxegrub. Simply finish the install and restart the server. Start the services you'll need to boot the new client: DHCP, TFTPD, and NFS.</p>
503 gerrynjr 1.9
504     <pre caption="Starting services">
505     # <i>/etc/init.d/dhcp start</i>
506     # <i>/etc/init.d/tftpd start</i>
507     # <i>/etc/init.d/nfs start</i>
508     </pre>
509    
510     </body></section>
511    
512     <section><title>Booting the new client</title>
513     <body>
514 gerrynjr 1.14 <p>For the new client to boot properly, you'll need to configure the bios and the network card to use PXE as the first boot method - before CD-ROM or floppy. For help with this consult your hardware manuals or manufacturers website. The network card should get an IP address using DHCP and download the GRUB PXE image using TFTP. Then, you should see a nice black and white GRUB bootmenu where you will select the kernel to boot and press Enter. If everything is ok the kernel should boot, mount the root filesystem using NFS and provide you with a login prompt. Enjoy.</p>
515 gerrynjr 1.9 </body></section>
516    
517     </chapter>
518 drobbins 1.1
519    
520    
521     <chapter> <title>Installing Gentoo from an existing Linux distribution </title>
522     <section> <title> Requirements </title>
523     <body>
524     <p>In order to install Gentoo from your existing Linux distribution you need to
525     have chroot command installed, and have a copy of the Gentoo installation
526     tarball or ISO you want to install. A network connection would be preferable if
527     you want more than what's supplied in your tarball. (by the way, a tarball is
528     just a file ending in .tbz or .tar.gz). The author used RedHat Linux 7.3 as the
529     "host" operating system, but it is not very important. Let's get started! </p>
530     </body>
531     </section>
532    
533     <section> <title> Overview </title>
534     <body>
535 gerrynjr 1.14 <p>We will first allocate a partition to Gentoo by resizing our existing Linux partition, mount the partition, untar the tarball that is mounted, chroot inside the psuedo-system and start building. Once the bootstrap process is done, we will do some final configuration on the system so as to make sure it boots, then we are ready to reboot and use Gentoo. </p>
536 drobbins 1.1 </body>
537     </section>
538    
539 gerrynjr 1.14 <section> <title> How should we make space for Gentoo? </title>
540 drobbins 1.1 <body>
541    
542     <p>
543 gerrynjr 1.14 The root partition is the filesystem mounted under <path>/</path>. A quick run of mount on my system shows what I am talking about. We well also use df (disk free) to see how much space I have left and how I will be resizing. Note that it is not mandatory to resize your root partition! You could be resizing anything else supported by our resizer, but let's talk about that later.</p>
544 drobbins 1.1
545    
546     <pre caption="Filesystem information">
547     # <i>mount</i>
548     /dev/hdb2 on / type ext3 (rw)
549     none on /proc type proc (rw)
550     none on /dev/pts type devpts (rw,gid=5,mode=620)
551     none on /dev/shm type tmpfs (rw)
552     # <i>df -h </i>
553     Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
554     /dev/hdb2 4.0G 1.9G 2.4G 82% /
555     none 38M 0 38M 0% /dev/shm
556     </pre>
557    
558 gerrynjr 1.14 <p>As we can see, the partition mounted as <path>/</path> named <path>/dev/hdb2</path> has 2.4 gigabytes free. In my case, I think I will resize it as to leave 400Megs free of space, therefore allocating 2 gigabytes for Gentoo. Not bad, I could have quite some stuff installed. However, think that even one gigabyte is enough for most users. So let's partition this thing! </p>
559 drobbins 1.1
560 swift 1.21 </body>
561     </section>
562 drobbins 1.1
563 swift 1.21 <section>
564     <title>Building parted to resize partition</title>
565 drobbins 1.1 <body>
566 swift 1.21
567     <p>
568     Parted is an utility supplied by the GNU foundation, an old and respectable huge project whose software you are using in this very moment. There is one tool, however, that is extremely useful for us at the moment. It's called parted, partition editor and we can get it from <uri>http://www.gnu.org/software/parted/</uri>
569 drobbins 1.1 </p>
570 swift 1.21
571     <note>
572     There are other tools for doing resize of partitions as well, but author
573 drobbins 1.1 is unsure/uninterested whether PartitionMagic(tm) or other software of the kind
574 swift 1.21 do the job. It's the reader's job to check them out
575     </note>
576 drobbins 1.1
577     <p>
578     Look up on that page the type of filesystem you want to resize and see if parted
579     can do it. If not, you're out of luck, you will have to destroy some partition
580 gerrynjr 1.14 to make space for Gentoo, and reinstall back. Go ahead by downloading the
581 drobbins 1.1 software, install it. Here we have a problem. We want to resize our Linux root
582     partition, therefore we must boot from a floppy disk a minimal linux system and
583 gerrynjr 1.14 use previously-compiled parted copied to a diskette in order to resize <path>/</path>.
584 drobbins 1.1 However, if you can unmount the partition while still in Linux you are lucky,
585     you don't need to do what follows. Just compile parted and run it on an
586     unmounted partition you chose to resize. Here's how I did it for my system.
587     </p>
588    
589 swift 1.21 <impo>
590     Make sure that the operations you want to do on your partition are
591     supported by parted!
592     </impo>
593 drobbins 1.1
594 swift 1.21 <p>
595     Get tomsrtbt boot/root disk (free of charge) from <uri>http://freshmeat.net/tomsrtbt </uri>, create a floppy as suggested in the Documentation that accompanies the software package and insert a new floppy in the drive for the next step.
596     </p>
597 drobbins 1.1
598 swift 1.21 <note>
599     Note again that Linux is synonym of "There's one more way to do it". Your
600 drobbins 1.1 objective is to run parted on an unmounted partition so it can do its work. You
601     might use some other boot/root diskset other than tomsrtbt. You might not even
602     need to do this step at all, that is only umount the filesystem you want to
603 swift 1.21 repartition in your Linux session and run parted on it.
604     </note>
605 drobbins 1.1
606     <pre caption="Utility disk creation">
607     # <i>mkfs.minix /dev/fd0</i>
608     480 inodes
609     1440 blocks
610     Firstdatazone=19 (19)
611     Zonesize=1024
612     Maxsize=268966912
613     </pre>
614    
615 swift 1.21 <p>
616 drobbins 1.1 We will now proceed with the build of parted. If it's not already downloaded and untarred, do so now and cd into the corresponding directory. Now run the following set of commands to build the utility and copy it to your floppy disk.
617 swift 1.21 </p>
618 drobbins 1.1
619     <pre caption="Building the utility floppy">
620     # <i> mkdir /floppy; mount -t minix /dev/fd0 /floppy &amp;&amp;
621     export CFLAGS="-O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer -static" &amp;&amp; ./configure
622     &amp;&amp; make &amp;&amp; cp parted/parted /floppy &amp;&amp; umount /floppy </i>
623     </pre>
624    
625     <p>
626     Congratulations, you are ready to reboot and resize your partition. Do this only
627     after taking a quick look at the parted documentation on the GNU website. The
628     resize should take under 30 minutes for the largest hard-drives, be patient.
629     Reboot your system with the tomsrtbt boot disk (just pop it inside), and once
630     you are logged in, switch the disk in the drive with your utility disk we have
631     created above and type mount /dev/fd0 /floppy to have parted under /floppy.
632     There you go. Run parted and you will be able to resize your partition. Once
633     this lenghty process done, we are ready to have the real fun, by installing
634 gerrynjr 1.14 Gentoo. Reboot back into your old Linux system for now. Drive you wish to
635 swift 1.8 operate on is the drive containing the partition we want to resize. For
636     example, if we want to resize /dev/hda3, the drive is /dev/hda
637     </p>
638 drobbins 1.1
639     <pre caption="Commands to run once logged into tomsrtbt system">
640     # <i>mount /dev/fd0 /floppy </i>
641     # <i>cd /floppy; ./parted [drive you wish to operate on]</i>
642     (parted) <i> print </i>
643     Disk geometry for /dev/hdb: 0.000-9787.148 megabytes
644     Disk label type: msdos
645     Minor Start End Type Filesystem Flags
646     1 0.031 2953.125 primary ntfs
647     3 2953.125 3133.265 primary linux-swap
648     2 3133.266 5633.085 primary ext3
649     4 5633.086 9787.148 extended
650     5 5633.117 6633.210 logical
651     6 6633.242 9787.148 logical ext3
652     (parted) <i> help resize </i>
653     resize MINOR START END resize filesystem on partition MINOR
654    
655     MINOR is the partition number used by Linux. On msdos disk labels, the
656     primary partitions number from 1-4, and logical partitions are 5
657     onwards.
658     START and END are in megabytes
659     (parted) <i> resize 2 3133.266 4000.000 </i>
660     </pre>
661    
662     <impo> Be patient! The computer is working! Just look at the hardware LED on
663     your case to see that it is really working. This should take between 2 and 30
664     minutes. </impo>
665    
666     <p>Once you have resized, boot back into your old linux as described. Then go to
667 swift 1.22 <uri link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook.xml?part=1&amp;chap=5">The Gentoo Handbook: Installing the Gentoo Installation Files</uri> and follow the instructions. When chrooting, use the following command to flush your environment:
668 swift 1.17 </p>
669 drobbins 1.1
670 swift 1.17 <pre caption = "Flushing the environment during chroot">
671     # <i>env -i chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
672     </pre>
673 drobbins 1.1
674 swift 1.17 <p>
675 drobbins 1.1 Enjoy!
676     </p>
677     </body>
678     </section>
679     </chapter>
680     </guide>

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