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1 zhen 1.3 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 drobbins 1.1 <?xml-stylesheet href="/xsl/guide.xsl" type="text/xsl"?>
3    
4     <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
5    
6 zhen 1.2 <guide link="/doc/en/altinstall.xml">
7 drobbins 1.1 <title>The Gentoo Linux alternative installation method HOWTO</title>
8     <author title="Author"><mail link="lordviram@rebelpacket.net">Travis Tilley</mail></author>
9     <author title="Contributor"><mail link="davoid@gentoo.org">Faust A.
10     Tanasescu</mail></author>
11 swift 1.7 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="aliz@gentoo.org">Daniel Ahlberg</mail></author>
12     <author title="Editor"><mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail></author>
13 drobbins 1.1 <abstract>
14     This HOWTO is meant to be a repository of alternative Gentoo installation
15     methods, for those with special installation needs such as lack of a cdrom
16     or a computer that cant boot cds.
17     </abstract>
18    
19     <version>0.3</version>
20 swift 1.8 <date>1 June 2003</date>
21 drobbins 1.1
22     <chapter>
23     <title>About this document</title>
24     <section>
25     <body>
26    
27     <p>If the standard boot-from-CD install method doesn't work for you
28     (or you just don't like it),
29     help is now here. This document serves to
30     provide a repository of alternative Gentoo Linux installation techniques
31     to those who need them.
32     Or, if you prefer, it serves as
33     a place to put your wacky installation methods. If you have an
34     installation method that you yourself find useful, or you have devised an
35     amusing way of installing gentoo, please dont hesitate to write something
36     up and <mail link="lordviram@rebelpacket.net">send it to me.</mail></p>
37    
38    
39     </body>
40     </section>
41     </chapter>
42    
43     <chapter>
44     <title>Netboot install</title>
45     <section>
46     <title>Requirements</title>
47     <body>
48     <p>The requirements for a netboot install are a host computer than can
49     provide a tftp server and a computer
50     that can netboot itself via either bios or a floppy drive used to boot GRUB
51     or another network bootloader. A dhcp server might also be necessary. Of
52     course, you will also need the latest build ISO, which can be found at
53 swift 1.6 <uri>http://distro.ibiblio.org/pub/linux/distributions/gentoo/releases/</uri></p>
54 drobbins 1.1 </body>
55     </section>
56    
57     <section>
58     <title>Overview</title>
59     <body>
60    
61     <p>In order to load images off the network, the first thing a netboot machine
62     must do is obtain an IP address. There are multiple ways of obtaining
63     an IP address, and any
64     one of them will do. Personally, I prefer to use GRUB for everything, but if
65     your computer supports booting from a network already then grub might not
66     be necessary, even if it might be easier to just use GRUB's <c>ifconfig</c> command
67     instead of setting up a bootp or dhcp server.</p>
68    
69     <p>Once your computer has obtained an IP address, the next logical step is to find
70     out what you are going to be booting and where it might be held. Once again,
71     it would be easiest to do this with GRUB commands as opposed to setting up
72     a bootp or dhcp server. You will also need to specify how to obtain an initrd
73     and tell the kernel that it will be using this as it's root filesystem.</p>
74    
75     <p>With your kernel loaded and root filesystem mounted, you may proceed
76     with installation as normal. The build image could be loaded from a cd, or it
77     can be downloaded from the network via tftp.</p>
78    
79     </body>
80     </section>
81     <section>
82     <title>Using GRUB</title>
83     <body>
84    
85     <p>To use GRUB for network booting purposes, you must first have GRUB
86     compiled with support for your network card. It doesn't matter if you install
87     to floppy, or to the hard drive of the computer you wish to install Gentoo
88     on. If your install target already has GRUB with network support installed,
89     then you are one step ahead. GRUB can be downloaded from
90     <uri>ftp://alpha.gnu.org/gnu/grub/</uri></p>
91    
92     <p>A configure example for enabling tulip support, the network card in my
93     box:</p>
94    
95     <pre caption="Manual GRUB installation">
96     # <i>./configure --enable-tulip --prefix=/usr</i>
97     # <i>make &amp;&amp; make install</i>
98     </pre>
99    
100     <p>If you are currently in Gentoo and wish to install GRUB using Gentoo
101     tools, then you need to install step by step in order to configure in support
102     for your network card. An example for using ebuild to install GRUB with
103     tulip support:</p>
104    
105     <pre caption="Installing and configuring GRUB on Gentoo Linux">
106     # <i>ebuild /usr/portage/sys-apps/grub/grub-0.91.ebuild clean fetch unpack</i>
107     # <i>cd /var/tmp/portage/grub-0.91/work/grub-0.91/</i>
108     # <i>./configure --prefix=/usr --sbindir=/sbin --mandir=/usr/share/man \ </i>
109     > <i>--infodir=/usr/share/info --enable-tulip</i>
110     # <i>make</i>
111     # <i>touch /var/tmp/portage/grub-0.91/.compiled</i>
112     # <i>cd /usr/portage/</i>
113     # <i>ebuild sys-apps/grub/grub-0.91.ebuild install merge</i>
114     </pre>
115    
116     <p>Now that we have the GRUB shell itself installed, we need to install to
117     a boot sector. Although you could install GRUB to the boot sector of your
118     install computer's hard drive, here we will assume that you are installing
119     GRUB on a boot floppy. There are two ways of doing this. You can use the GRUB
120     shell itself, or you can use a provided script called <c>grub-install</c>. It is
121     preferable to use <c>grub-install</c> when installing GRUB to a floppy.</p>
122    
123     <pre caption="grub-install example">
124     # <i>mkfs.ext2 /dev/fd0</i>
125     # <i>mount /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy/</i>
126     # <i>grub-install --root-directory=/mnt/floppy/ '(fd0)'</i>
127     # <i>umount /mnt/floppy/</i>
128     </pre>
129    
130     <p><c>grub-install</c> does not always work... and isn't always the best way to install
131     GRUB. And since the GRUB shell works exactly like GRUB would when booted
132     via the boot sector, it might be more desirable just to use the GRUB shell. Here
133     is an example of how to use the GRUB shell to install GRUB to a floppy:</p>
134    
135     <pre caption="Using the GRUB shell instead">
136     # <i>mkfs.ext2 /dev/fd0</i>
137     # <i>mount /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy/</i>
138     # <i>mkdir -p /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</i>
139     # <i>cp -v /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/* /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</i>
140     # <i>grub</i>
141     grub> <i>root (fd0)</i>
142     grub> <i>setup (fd0)</i>
143     grub> <i>quit</i>
144     # <i>umount /mnt/floppy/</i>
145     </pre>
146    
147     <p>Now that we have a bootable GRUB floppy, we need to set up the host tftp server
148     (I suggest netkit's tftp server)
149     for loading our kernel and initrd. If you use inetd then you will need
150     a line in your <path>/etc/inetd.conf</path> that looks
151     like this:</p>
152    
153     <pre caption="/etc/inetd.conf">
154     tftp dgram udp wait nobody /usr/sbin/tcpd in.tftpd
155     </pre>
156    
157     <p>To install the netkit tftp server under gentoo linux, emerge net-misc/netkit-tftp</p>
158    
159     <note>There is an ebuild for xinetd... if you prefer to use this than feel free to do
160     so. However I do not use xinetd, and do not know how to set up tftp with it. If you
161     use it and such, please send me info on how to get xinetd working and I will include
162     them in this howto.</note>
163    
164     <p>Now that we have our tftp server ready, we need a kernel and a root initrd to
165     put in it. You can compile a custom kernel yourself, but make sure it has all the
166     things necessary for running gentoo (like devfs) and for netbooting (like initrd
167     support). The root initrd will be the rescue.gz included in the gentoo ISO.</p>
168    
169     <impo>Mounting an ISO file without burning it to cd requires loopback filesystem
170     support.</impo>
171    
172     <pre>
173     # <i>mkdir /tftpboot</i>
174     # <i>mount -o loop /path/to/gentoo-ix86-1.1a.iso /mnt/cdrom/</i>
175     # <i>cp /mnt/cdrom/isolinux/kernel /mnt/cdrom/isolinux/rescue.gz /tftpboot</i>
176     # <i>chmod 644 /tftpboot/*</i>
177     # <i>umount /mnt/cdrom/</i>
178     </pre>
179    
180     <p>Boot the machine you want to install to with your incredibly usefull grub floppy.
181     Once booted you need to specify a way for the machine to get
182     its IP address, specify where
183     to get a kernel and it's options, and where to get it's initrd.</p>
184    
185     <pre>
186     grub> <i>ifconfig --address=192.168.0.10 --server=192.168.0.2</i>
187     grub> <i>root (nd)</i>
188     grub> <i>kernel /tftpboot/kernel devfs=nomount vga=normal load_ramdisk=1 </i>
189     <i>prompt_ramdisk=0 ramdisk_size=24000 root=/dev/ram0 rw</i> <comment>(all on one line)</comment>
190     grub> <i>initrd /tftpboot/rescue.gz</i>
191     grub> <i>boot</i>
192     </pre>
193    
194     <note>You can also use bootp and dhcp to configure your ip via grub. Use the bootp
195     and dhcp commands.</note>
196    
197     <p>Now that you have your machine booted, you can install as normal. Refer to the
198     from source cd install howto.</p>
199    
200     </body>
201     </section>
202     </chapter>
203    
204    
205    
206    
207    
208     <chapter> <title>Installing Gentoo from an existing Linux distribution </title>
209     <section> <title> Requirements </title>
210     <body>
211     <p>In order to install Gentoo from your existing Linux distribution you need to
212     have chroot command installed, and have a copy of the Gentoo installation
213     tarball or ISO you want to install. A network connection would be preferable if
214     you want more than what's supplied in your tarball. (by the way, a tarball is
215     just a file ending in .tbz or .tar.gz). The author used RedHat Linux 7.3 as the
216     "host" operating system, but it is not very important. Let's get started! </p>
217     </body>
218     </section>
219    
220     <section> <title> Overview </title>
221     <body>
222     <p>We will first allocate a partition to Gentoo by resizing our existing Linux partition, mount the partition, untar the tarball that is mounted, chroot inside the proto-system and start building. Once the bootstrap process is done, we will do some final configuration on the system so as to make sure it boots, then we are ready to reboot and use Gentoo. </p>
223     </body>
224     </section>
225    
226     <section> <title> How should we make space for gentoo? </title>
227     <body>
228    
229     <p>
230     The root partition is the filesystem mounted under "/". A quick run of mount on my system shows what I am talking about. We well also use df (disk free) to see how much space I have left and how I will be resizing. Note that it is not mandatory to resize your root partition! You could be resizing anything else supported by our resizer, but let's talk about that later.</p>
231    
232    
233     <pre caption="Filesystem information">
234     # <i>mount</i>
235     /dev/hdb2 on / type ext3 (rw)
236     none on /proc type proc (rw)
237     none on /dev/pts type devpts (rw,gid=5,mode=620)
238     none on /dev/shm type tmpfs (rw)
239     # <i>df -h </i>
240     Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
241     /dev/hdb2 4.0G 1.9G 2.4G 82% /
242     none 38M 0 38M 0% /dev/shm
243     </pre>
244    
245     <p>As we can see, the partition mounted as "/" named /dev/hdb2 has 2.4 gigabytes free. In my case, I think I will resize it as to leave 400Megs free of space, therefore allocating 2 gigabytes for Gentoo. Not bad, I could have quite some stuff installed. However, think that even one gigabyte is enough for most users. So let's partition this thing! </p>
246    
247     </body> </section>
248    
249     <section> <title> Building parted to resize partition </title>
250     <body>
251     <p>Parted is an utility supplied by the GNU foundation, an old and respectable huge project whose software you are using in this very moment. There is one tool, however, that is extremely useful for us at the moment. It's called parted, partition editor and we can get it from <uri>
252 klieber 1.5 http://www.gnu.org/software/parted/</uri>
253 drobbins 1.1 </p>
254     <note> There are other tools for doing resize of partitions as well, but author
255     is unsure/uninterested whether PartitionMagic(tm) or other software of the kind
256     do the job. It's the reader's job to check them out </note>
257    
258     <p>
259     Look up on that page the type of filesystem you want to resize and see if parted
260     can do it. If not, you're out of luck, you will have to destroy some partition
261     to make space for gentoo, and reinstall back. Go ahead by downloading the
262     software, install it. Here we have a problem. We want to resize our Linux root
263     partition, therefore we must boot from a floppy disk a minimal linux system and
264     use previously-compiled parted copied to a diskette in order to resize "/".
265     However, if you can unmount the partition while still in Linux you are lucky,
266     you don't need to do what follows. Just compile parted and run it on an
267     unmounted partition you chose to resize. Here's how I did it for my system.
268     </p>
269    
270     <impo> Make sure that the operations you want to do on your partition are
271     supported by parted! </impo>
272    
273     <p> Get tomsrtbt boot/root disk (free of charge) from <uri>
274     http://freshmeat.net/tomsrtbt" </uri>, create a floppy as suggested in the
275     Documentation that accompanies the software package and insert a new floppy in
276     the drive for the next step. </p>
277    
278     <note> Note again that Linux is synonym of "There's one more way to do it". Your
279     objective is to run parted on an unmounted partition so it can do its work. You
280     might use some other boot/root diskset other than tomsrtbt. You might not even
281     need to do this step at all, that is only umount the filesystem you want to
282     repartition in your Linux session and run parted on it. </note>
283    
284     <pre caption="Utility disk creation">
285     # <i>mkfs.minix /dev/fd0</i>
286     480 inodes
287     1440 blocks
288     Firstdatazone=19 (19)
289     Zonesize=1024
290     Maxsize=268966912
291     </pre>
292    
293     We will now proceed with the build of parted. If it's not already downloaded and untarred, do so now and cd into the corresponding directory. Now run the following set of commands to build the utility and copy it to your floppy disk.
294    
295     <pre caption="Building the utility floppy">
296     # <i> mkdir /floppy; mount -t minix /dev/fd0 /floppy &amp;&amp;
297     export CFLAGS="-O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer -static" &amp;&amp; ./configure
298     &amp;&amp; make &amp;&amp; cp parted/parted /floppy &amp;&amp; umount /floppy </i>
299     </pre>
300    
301     <p>
302     Congratulations, you are ready to reboot and resize your partition. Do this only
303     after taking a quick look at the parted documentation on the GNU website. The
304     resize should take under 30 minutes for the largest hard-drives, be patient.
305     Reboot your system with the tomsrtbt boot disk (just pop it inside), and once
306     you are logged in, switch the disk in the drive with your utility disk we have
307     created above and type mount /dev/fd0 /floppy to have parted under /floppy.
308     There you go. Run parted and you will be able to resize your partition. Once
309     this lenghty process done, we are ready to have the real fun, by installing
310 swift 1.8 gentoo. Reboot back into your old Linux system for now. Drive you wish to
311     operate on is the drive containing the partition we want to resize. For
312     example, if we want to resize /dev/hda3, the drive is /dev/hda
313     </p>
314 drobbins 1.1
315     <pre caption="Commands to run once logged into tomsrtbt system">
316     # <i>mount /dev/fd0 /floppy </i>
317     # <i>cd /floppy; ./parted [drive you wish to operate on]</i>
318     (parted) <i> print </i>
319     Disk geometry for /dev/hdb: 0.000-9787.148 megabytes
320     Disk label type: msdos
321     Minor Start End Type Filesystem Flags
322     1 0.031 2953.125 primary ntfs
323     3 2953.125 3133.265 primary linux-swap
324     2 3133.266 5633.085 primary ext3
325     4 5633.086 9787.148 extended
326     5 5633.117 6633.210 logical
327     6 6633.242 9787.148 logical ext3
328     (parted) <i> help resize </i>
329     resize MINOR START END resize filesystem on partition MINOR
330    
331     MINOR is the partition number used by Linux. On msdos disk labels, the
332     primary partitions number from 1-4, and logical partitions are 5
333     onwards.
334     START and END are in megabytes
335     (parted) <i> resize 2 3133.266 4000.000 </i>
336     </pre>
337    
338     <impo> Be patient! The computer is working! Just look at the hardware LED on
339     your case to see that it is really working. This should take between 2 and 30
340     minutes. </impo>
341    
342     <p>Once you have resized, boot back into your old linux as described. Then go to
343 swift 1.7 <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml">http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml</uri> and follow steps 6 through 17. Don't forget to create the <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> directory before proceeding with step 7. In step 8 you have to download the requested stage-tarball as we're not working from a LiveCD.
344 drobbins 1.1
345    
346     Enjoy!
347     </p>
348     </body>
349     </section>
350     </chapter>
351     </guide>

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