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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/altinstall.xml,v 1.20 2003/11/15 00:35:18 neysx Exp $ -->
3 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4
5
6 <guide link="/doc/en/altinstall.xml">
7 <title>The Gentoo Linux alternative installation method HOWTO</title>
8 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="gerrynjr@gentoo.org">Gerald Normandin Jr.</mail></author>
9 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="lordviram@rebelpacket.net">Travis Tilley</mail></author>
10 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="volontir@yahoo.com">Oleg Raisky</mail></author>
11 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="luminousit@hotmail.com">Alex Garbutt</mail></author>
12 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="alex@openvs.com">Alexandre Georges</mail></author>
13 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="vargen@b0d.org">Magnus Backanda</mail></author>
14 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="davoid@gentoo.org">Faust A. Tanasescu</mail></author>
15 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="aliz@gentoo.org">Daniel Ahlberg</mail></author>
16 <author title="Editor"><mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail></author>
17 <author title="Reviewer"><mail link="antifa@gentoo.org">Ken Nowack</mail></author>
18 <author title="Editor"><mail link="blubber@gentoo.org">Tiemo Kieft</mail></author>
19 <abstract>
20 This HOWTO is meant to be a repository of alternative Gentoo installation
21 methods, for those with special installation needs such as lack of a cdrom
22 or a computer that can't boot cds.
23 </abstract>
24
25 <license/>
26
27 <version>0.35</version>
28 <date>October 31, 2003</date>
29
30 <chapter>
31 <title>About this document</title>
32 <section>
33 <body>
34
35 <p>If the standard boot-from-CD install method doesn't work for you
36 (or you just don't like it),
37 help is now here. This document serves to
38 provide a repository of alternative Gentoo Linux installation techniques
39 to those who need them.
40 Or, if you prefer, it serves as
41 a place to put your wacky installation methods. If you have an
42 installation method that you yourself find useful, or you have devised an
43 amusing way of installing Gentoo, please don't hesitate to write something
44 up and <mail link="antifa@gentoo.org">send it to me.</mail></p>
45
46
47 </body>
48 </section>
49 </chapter>
50
51 <chapter>
52 <title>Booting the LiveCD with Smart BootManager</title>
53 <section>
54
55 <body>
56 <p>Download Smart BootManager <uri link="http://btmgr.sourceforge.net/index.php3?body=download.html">http://btmgr.sourceforge.net/index.php3?body=download.html</uri>. Linux source or binary format and windows .exe versions are available as well as many language packs. However, at this time, the preferred method would be to use the binary format, as the source will not compile with newer versions of NASM.</p>
57
58 <p>Either compile the package from source or just grab the binary. There are several options that can be utilized while creating your boot floppy, as seen below.</p>
59
60 <pre caption="Smart BootManager Options">
61 <i>sbminst [-t theme] [-d drv] [-b backup_file] [-u backup_file]
62
63 -t theme select the theme to be used, in which the theme could be:
64 us = English theme de = German theme
65 hu = Hungarian theme zh = Chinese theme
66 ru = Russian theme cz = Czech theme
67 es = Spanish theme fr = French theme
68 pt = Portuguese theme
69
70
71 -d drv set the drive that you want to install Smart BootManager on;
72 for Linux:
73 /dev/fd0 is the first floppy driver,
74 /dev/hda is the first IDE harddisk driver.
75 /dev/sda is the first SCSI harddisk driver.
76 for DOS:
77 0 is the first floppy drive
78 128 is the first hard drive;
79
80 -c disable CD-ROM booting feature;
81
82 -b backup_file backup the data that will be overwritten for
83 future uninstallation;
84
85 -u backup_file uninstall Smart BootManager, should be used alone;
86
87 -y do not ask any question or warning.</i>
88 </pre>
89
90 <pre caption="Using sbminst to build the boot floppy">
91 # <i>sbminst -t us -d /dev/fd0</i>
92 </pre>
93 <note> Replace fd0 with your repective floppy device name if yours is different. </note>
94 <p>Now simply place the floppy in the floppy drive of the computer you'd like to boot the LiveCD on, as well as placing the LiveCD in the CD-ROM and boot the computer.</p>
95
96 <p>You'll be greeted with the Smart BootManager dialog. Select your CD-ROM and press ENTER to boot the LiveCD. Once booted proceed with the standard installation instructions.</p>
97
98 <p>Further information on Smart BootManager may be found at <uri>http://btmgr.sourceforge.net/</uri></p>
99 </body>
100 </section>
101 </chapter>
102
103
104 <chapter>
105 <title>Knoppix Installation</title>
106 <section>
107
108 <body>
109 <p>Booting from the <uri link="http://www.knoppix.org/">Knoppix</uri> LiveCD is a way to have a fully functional linux system while you're compiling Gentoo. Tux Racer will help you pass the time while you wait for bootstrap.</p>
110
111 <p>Boot from the Knoppix CD. It generally does a really good job of hardware detection. Although, you may have to add some boot options. </p>
112
113 <p>By default Knoppix boots into a KDE 3.0 desktop. The first thing I did was open a konsole and typed <c>sudo passwd root</c>. This lets you set the root password for Knoppix.</p>
114
115 <p> Next, I su to root and typed <c>usermod -d /root -m root</c>. This sets user roots home directory to /root (the Gentoo way) from /home/root (the Knoppix way). If you do not do this, then you will receive errors when emerging about "/home/root: not found" or something to that effect.</p>
116
117 <p>I then typed <c>exit</c> and then <c>su</c> back into root. This loads the change that was made with the usermod command. At this point, you can pick up with the standard install documentation at step 6. However, when you're asked to mount the proc system, issue the following commands instead: </p>
118
119 <pre caption = "Bind-mounting two important filesystems">
120 # <i>mount -o bind /proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
121 # <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
122 </pre>
123
124 </body>
125 </section>
126 </chapter>
127
128 <chapter>
129 <title>Installing from Stage 1 without network access</title>
130 <section>
131 <body>
132
133
134 <p>Burn a LiveCD iso.</p>
135
136 <p>Get the latest portage snapshot from <uri>http://distro.ibiblio.org/pub/linux/distributions/gentoo/snapshots/</uri> (or your favorite <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror</uri>). Either place this tarball on an existing partition on the computer your are installing to, or burn it to a CD.</p>
137
138 <p>You'll also need a package list for the stage packages. Place the following dl-list.sh script on the same medium as the portage snapshot, you'll need it later.</p>
139
140 <pre caption="dl-list.sh">
141 #!/bin/bash
142
143 # set your defaults here:
144 user_defs() {
145
146 # portage directory (without a trailing "/"):
147 portage_dir="/usr/portage"
148
149 # default download mirror (without a trailing "/"):
150 gentoo_mirror="http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/Linux/distributions/gentoo"
151
152 # default sourceforge mirror (unc, telia, belnet):
153 sourceforge_mirror="unc"
154
155 # fix gnu mirror entries
156 gnu_url="ftp:\/\/ftp.gnu.org\/pub\/gnu"
157
158 }
159
160
161 #------------------------------------------------------------
162
163 # function to remove temporary files
164 cleanup() {
165
166 rm -f $temp_file_1 $temp_file_2
167 exit $1
168
169 }
170
171 # set user defaults
172 user_defs
173
174 # set the complete url for the sourceforge mirror
175 # (the \'s are needed because this goes in a sed command)
176 sourceforge_mirror_complete="http:\/\/$sourceforge_mirror.dl.sourceforge.net\/sourceforge"
177
178 # initialize counters
179 num_files=0
180 num_alt_urls=0
181 total_size=0
182
183 # initialize lists (arrays)
184 declare -a def_urls_arr
185 declare -a alt_urls_arr
186
187 # create 2 temporary files
188 temp_file_1=`mktemp -t dl-list.XXXXXX` || cleanup 1
189 temp_file_2=`mktemp -t dl-list.XXXXXX` || cleanup 1
190
191 # run "emerge -p &lt;args&gt;" (too easy to forget the "-p" in the command line...)
192 emerge -p $@ &gt; $temp_file_1 || cleanup 1
193
194 # remove the lines that do not contain the word "ebuild"
195 sed -n -e '/ebuild/p' $temp_file_1 &gt; $temp_file_2
196
197 # count how many lines were left
198 num_ebuilds=`wc -l $temp_file_2 | sed -e 's/\(.*\) \(.*\)/\1/'`
199
200 # extract the useful information from those lines: category, package and version
201 #sed -e 's:\(.*\) \(.*\)/\(.*\)-\([0-9].*\) \(.*\) \(.*\):\2 \3 \4:' $temp_file_2 &gt; $temp_file_1
202 sed -e 's:\(.*\) \(.*\)/\(.*\)-\([0-9].*\):\2 \3 \4:' $temp_file_2 &gt; $temp_file_1
203
204 # display starting message :)
205 echo -n "Generating list " &gt;&amp;2
206
207 # process each package in turn
208 while read category package version rest
209 do
210
211 # form the name of the digest file
212
213 digest_file="$portage_dir/$category/$package/files/digest-$package-$version"
214
215 # process the contents of the digest file
216 while read md5_flag md5_sum file_name file_size
217 do
218
219 # form the default url to download the file
220 def_urls_arr[$num_files]="$gentoo_mirror/distfiles/$file_name"
221
222 # increment the file counter
223 num_files=$(($num_files + 1))
224
225 # update the size accumulator (in kilobytes)
226 total_size=$(($total_size + $file_size / 1024))
227
228 done &lt; $digest_file
229
230 # form the "ebuild depend" command line
231 ebuild_depend_cmd="ebuild $portage_dir/$category/$package/$package-${version}.ebuild depend"
232
233 # execute the "ebuild depend" command
234 $ebuild_depend_cmd || cleanup 1
235
236 # form the name of the dependency file
237 dependency_file="/var/cache/edb/dep/$category/$package-$version"
238
239 # read in the 4th line from the dependency file,
240 # which contains the official download urls
241 alt_urls=`head -n 4 $dependency_file | tail -n 1`
242
243 # ignore empty url list
244 if [ -n "$alt_urls" ]
245 then
246
247 # split the urls list into $1..$N
248 set $alt_urls
249
250 # process each url in turn
251 for i in $@
252 do
253
254 # remove the (use)? strings from the url list
255 alt_url_tmp=`echo "$i" | sed -e '/\?$/d'`
256
257 # remove the "mirror://gnome" urls
258 alt_url_tmp=`echo "$alt_url_tmp" | sed -e '/^mirror:\/\/gnome/d'`
259
260 # remove the "mirror://kde" urls
261 alt_url_tmp=`echo "$alt_url_tmp" | sed -e '/^mirror:\/\/kde/d'`
262
263 # remove the "mirror://gentoo" urls (already included)
264 alt_url_tmp=`echo "$alt_url_tmp" | sed -e '/^mirror:\/\/gentoo/d'`
265
266 # translate the "mirror://sourceforge" urls into valid urls
267 alt_url_tmp=`echo "$alt_url_tmp" | sed -e "s/mirror:\/\/sourceforge/$sourceforge_mirror_complete/"`
268
269 # translate the "mirror://gnu" urls into valid urls
270 alt_url_tmp=`echo "$alt_url_tmp" | sed -e "s/mirror:\/\/gnu/$gnu_url/"`
271 # ignore empty urls
272 if [ -n "$alt_url_tmp" ]
273 then
274
275 # add the url to the list
276 alt_urls_arr[$num_alt_urls]=$alt_url_tmp
277
278 # increment the alternate url counter
279 num_alt_urls=$(($num_alt_urls + 1))
280
281 fi
282
283 done
284
285 fi
286
287 # a progress bar :)
288 echo -n "." &gt;&amp;2
289
290 done &lt; $temp_file_1
291
292 # display ending message :)
293 echo " done." &gt;&amp;2
294
295 # display default urls list
296 for i in ${def_urls_arr[@]}; do echo $i; done | sort
297
298 # display alternate urls list
299 for i in ${alt_urls_arr[@]}; do echo $i; done | sort
300
301 # display totals
302 echo "Totals:" $num_ebuilds "ebuilds," $num_files "files," $num_files "default urls," \n
303 $num_alt_urls "alternate urls," "${total_size}Kb." &lt;&amp;2
304
305 # remove temporary files and exit
306 cleanup 0
307 </pre>
308
309 <p>Follow all instructions of Gentoo Install Doc up to <c>chroot /mnt/gentoo</c> in Step 8. If you only have one CD-ROM remember to use the <c>cdcache</c> option while booting so you can unmount the LiveCD and mount your portage snapshot CD.</p>
310
311 <p>Open a new console (Alt-F2), we will continue with the Install Doc up to running the bootstrap.sh script.</p>
312
313 <warn>Older realeases of the livecd required you to change the password using the <c>passwd</c> command, before logging in manually.</warn>
314
315
316 <p>Go back to the first console (Alt-F1, without chroot) and mount a second CD on <path>/mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2</path>. Copy the portage tarball from cdrom2 and unpack it to <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr/portage</path>. Further, grab the dl-list.sh script and place it in <path>/usr/sbin</path> and make it executable.</p>
317
318 <pre caption="Mount the snapshot cd">
319 # <i>umount /mnt/cdrom</i>
320 # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2</i>
321 # <i>mount /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2</i>
322 # <i>cp /mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2/portage-$date.tar.bz2 /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage</i>
323 # <i>cp /mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2/dl-list.sh /mnt/gentoo/usr/sbin</i>
324 # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage</i>
325 # <i>tar xvjpf portage-$date.tar.bz2</i>
326 # <i>chmod +x /mnt/gentoo/usr/sbin/dl-list.sh</i>
327 </pre>
328
329 <p>Switch back to the F2 console. Now if you try to run bootstrap.sh it will fail because it won't be able to download any files. We will fetch these files somewhere else and put them in /usr/portage/distfiles (on F2 console). </p>
330
331 <p>You need a list of Stage1 packages: glibc, baselayout, texinfo, gettext, zlib, binutils, gcc, ncurses plus their dependencies. </p>
332
333 <note>Note that you need the versions of each package synced with your portage tree.</note>
334
335 <p>Now use the dl-list.sh script to generate the package list that you need. Then copy the subsequent list to a floppy.</p>
336
337 <pre caption="Using dl-list.sh">
338 # <i>dl-list.sh glibc baselayout texinfo gettext zlib binutils gcc ncurses > stage1.list</i>
339 # <i>mount -t vfat /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy</i>
340 # <i>cp /mnt/gentoo/stage1.list /mnt/floppy</i>
341 # <i>umount /mnt/floppy</i>
342 </pre>
343
344 <p>Take the floppy to the computer that has fast access and feed this list to wget:</p>
345
346 <pre caption="Use wget to grab your source packages">
347 # <i>wget -N -i stage1.list</i>
348 </pre>
349
350
351 <p>Once you have obtained all the files, take them to the computer and copy them to <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr/portage/distfiles</path>. You will then be able to run <c>bootstrap.sh</c>. Repeat this same wget fetch and place procedure for stage2 and 3.</p>
352
353
354
355 </body>
356 </section>
357 </chapter>
358
359 <chapter><title>Diskless install using PXE boot</title>
360
361 <section><title>Requirements</title>
362 <body>
363 <p>You will need a network card on the diskless client that uses the PXE protocol to boot, like many 3com cards. You will also need a BIOS that supports booting from PXE.</p>
364 </body></section>
365
366 <section><title>Server base setup</title>
367 <body>
368 <p>Create directories: The first thing to do is to create the directories where your diskless system will be stored. Create a directory called <path>/diskless</path> which houses a directory for each diskless client. For the rest of this howto we'll be working on the client 'eta'.</p>
369
370 <pre caption="directory setup">
371 # <i>mkdir /diskless</i>
372 # <i>mkdir /diskless/eta</i>
373 # <i>mkdir /diskless/eta/boot</i>
374 </pre>
375
376 <p>DHCP and TFTP setup: The client will get boot informations using DHCP and download all the required files using TFTP. Just emerge DHCP and configure it for your basic needs. Then, add the following on <path>/etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf</path>.</p>
377
378 <note>This provide a static IP address for the client and the path of a PXE boot image, here pxegrub. You have to replace the MAC address of the Ethernet card of the client and the directory where you will put the client files with the one you use.</note>
379
380 <pre caption="dhcp.conf">
381 option option-150 code 150 = text ;
382 host eta {
383 hardware ethernet 00:00:00:00:00:00;
384 fixed-address <c>ip.add.re.ss</c>;
385 option option-150 "/eta/boot/grub.lst";
386 filename "/eta/boot/pxegrub";
387 }
388 </pre>
389
390 <p>For TFTP, emerge <c>app-admin/tftp-hpa</c>. In <path>/etc/conf.d/in.tftpd</path>, put the following :</p>
391
392 <pre caption="in.tftpd">
393 INTFTPD_PATH="/diskless"
394 INTFTPD_USER="nobody"
395 INTFTPD_OPTS="-u ${INTFTPD_USER} -l -vvvvvv -p -c -s ${INTFTPD_PATH}"
396 </pre>
397
398 <p>Setup GRUB: To provide PXE booting I use GRUB. You have to compile it by yourself to enable the PXE image compilation ... but that's quite easy. First, get the latest version of the GRUB source code (<c>emerge -f grub</c> will place the tarball in <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path>). Copy the tarball to <path>/diskless</path> and then build it to make the pxe capable binary. Once the binary is built, copy it to the diskless client's boot directory. Then edit it's grub.lst config file.</p>
399
400 <pre caption="grub setup">
401 # <i>tar zxvf grub-0.92.tar.gz</i>
402 # <i>cd grub-0.92</i>
403 # <i>./configure --help</i>
404 <codenote>In the options you will see a list of supported network interface drivers. </codenote>
405 <codenote>Select the driver compatible with your card. Herein referenced a $nic</codenote>
406 # <i>./configure --enable-diskless --enable-$nic</i>
407 # <i>make</i>
408 # <i>cd stage2</i>
409 # <i>cp pxegrub /diskless/eta/boot/pxegrub</i>
410 # <i>nano -w /diskless/eta/boot/grub.lst</i>
411 </pre>
412
413 <pre caption="grub.lst">
414 default 0
415 timeout 30
416
417 title=Diskless Gentoo
418 root (nd)
419 kernel /eta/bzImage ip=dhcp root=/dev/nfs nfsroot=<c>ip.add.re.ss</c>:/diskless/eta
420
421 <codenote>For the nfsroot option, the IP address is the one of the server and </codenote>
422 <codenote>the directory is the one where your diskless client files are located (on the server).</codenote>
423 </pre>
424
425 <p>Setup NFS: NFS is quite easy to configure. The only thing you have to do is to add a line on the <path>/etc/exports</path> config file :</p>
426
427 <pre caption="/etc/exports">
428 # <i>nano -w /etc/exports</i>
429 NFS file systems being exported. See exports(5).
430 /diskless/eta eta(rw,sync,no_root_squash)
431 </pre>
432
433 <p>Update your hosts: One important thing to do now is to modify your <path>/etc/hosts</path> file to fit your needs. </p>
434
435 <pre caption="/etc/hosts">
436 127.0.0.1 localhost
437
438 192.168.1.10 eta.example.com eta
439 192.168.1.20 sigma.example.com sigma
440 </pre>
441 </body>
442 </section>
443
444 <section><title>Creating the system on the server</title>
445
446 <body>
447
448 <p>Reboot the server on a Gentoo LiveCD. Follow the standard install procedure as explained in the Gentoo Install Howto BUT with the following differences. When you mount the file system, do the following (where hdaX is the partition where you created the /diskless directory). You do not need to mount any other partitions as all of the files will reside in the <path>/diskless/eta</path> directory.</p>
449
450 <pre caption="mounting the filesystem">
451 #<i> mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
452 </pre>
453
454 <p>Stage tarballs and chroot: This example uses a stage3 tarball. Mount <path>/proc</path> to your diskless directory and chroot into it to continue with the install. Then follow the installation manual until kernel configuration.</p>
455
456 <warn>Be very careful where you extract your stage tarball. You don't want to end up extracting over your existing installation.</warn>
457
458 <pre caption="extracting the stage tarball">
459 # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/</i>
460 # <i>tar -xvjpf /mnt/cdrom/gentoo/stage3-*.tar.bz2</i>
461 # <i>mount -t proc /proc /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/proc</i>
462 # <i>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/etc/resolv.conf</i>
463 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/ /bin/bash</i>
464 # <i>env-update</i>
465 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
466 </pre>
467
468 <p>Kernel configuration: When you do the <c>make menuconfig</c> of your kernel configuration, don't forget to enable the following options with the others recommended into the install howto.</p>
469
470 <pre caption="menuconfig options">
471 - Your network card device support
472
473 - Under "Networking options" :
474
475 [*] TCP/IP networking
476 [*] IP: kernel level autoconfiguration
477 [*] IP: DHCP support
478 [*] IP: BOOTP support
479
480
481 - Under "File systems --> Network File Systems" :
482
483 &lt;*&gt; NFS file system support
484 [*] Provide NFSv3 client support
485 [*] Root file system on NFS
486 </pre>
487
488 <p>Next configure your diskless client's <path>/etc/fstab</path>.</p>
489
490 <pre caption="/etc/fstab">
491 # <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
492 /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro 0 0
493 proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
494 tmpfs /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0
495 </pre>
496
497 <p>Bootloader. Don't install another bootloader because we already have one - pxegrub. Simply finish the install and restart the server. Start the services you'll need to boot the new client: DHCP, TFTPD, and NFS.</p>
498
499 <pre caption="Starting services">
500 # <i>/etc/init.d/dhcp start</i>
501 # <i>/etc/init.d/tftpd start</i>
502 # <i>/etc/init.d/nfs start</i>
503 </pre>
504
505 </body></section>
506
507 <section><title>Booting the new client</title>
508 <body>
509 <p>For the new client to boot properly, you'll need to configure the bios and the network card to use PXE as the first boot method - before CD-ROM or floppy. For help with this consult your hardware manuals or manufacturers website. The network card should get an IP address using DHCP and download the GRUB PXE image using TFTP. Then, you should see a nice black and white GRUB bootmenu where you will select the kernel to boot and press Enter. If everything is ok the kernel should boot, mount the root filesystem using NFS and provide you with a login prompt. Enjoy.</p>
510 </body></section>
511
512 </chapter>
513
514
515
516 <chapter> <title>Installing Gentoo from an existing Linux distribution </title>
517 <section> <title> Requirements </title>
518 <body>
519 <p>In order to install Gentoo from your existing Linux distribution you need to
520 have chroot command installed, and have a copy of the Gentoo installation
521 tarball or ISO you want to install. A network connection would be preferable if
522 you want more than what's supplied in your tarball. (by the way, a tarball is
523 just a file ending in .tbz or .tar.gz). The author used RedHat Linux 7.3 as the
524 "host" operating system, but it is not very important. Let's get started! </p>
525 </body>
526 </section>
527
528 <section> <title> Overview </title>
529 <body>
530 <p>We will first allocate a partition to Gentoo by resizing our existing Linux partition, mount the partition, untar the tarball that is mounted, chroot inside the psuedo-system and start building. Once the bootstrap process is done, we will do some final configuration on the system so as to make sure it boots, then we are ready to reboot and use Gentoo. </p>
531 </body>
532 </section>
533
534 <section> <title> How should we make space for Gentoo? </title>
535 <body>
536
537 <p>
538 The root partition is the filesystem mounted under <path>/</path>. A quick run of mount on my system shows what I am talking about. We well also use df (disk free) to see how much space I have left and how I will be resizing. Note that it is not mandatory to resize your root partition! You could be resizing anything else supported by our resizer, but let's talk about that later.</p>
539
540
541 <pre caption="Filesystem information">
542 # <i>mount</i>
543 /dev/hdb2 on / type ext3 (rw)
544 none on /proc type proc (rw)
545 none on /dev/pts type devpts (rw,gid=5,mode=620)
546 none on /dev/shm type tmpfs (rw)
547 # <i>df -h </i>
548 Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
549 /dev/hdb2 4.0G 1.9G 2.4G 82% /
550 none 38M 0 38M 0% /dev/shm
551 </pre>
552
553 <p>As we can see, the partition mounted as <path>/</path> named <path>/dev/hdb2</path> has 2.4 gigabytes free. In my case, I think I will resize it as to leave 400Megs free of space, therefore allocating 2 gigabytes for Gentoo. Not bad, I could have quite some stuff installed. However, think that even one gigabyte is enough for most users. So let's partition this thing! </p>
554
555 </body>
556 </section>
557
558 <section>
559 <title>Building parted to resize partition</title>
560 <body>
561
562 <p>
563 Parted is an utility supplied by the GNU foundation, an old and respectable huge project whose software you are using in this very moment. There is one tool, however, that is extremely useful for us at the moment. It's called parted, partition editor and we can get it from <uri>http://www.gnu.org/software/parted/</uri>
564 </p>
565
566 <note>
567 There are other tools for doing resize of partitions as well, but author
568 is unsure/uninterested whether PartitionMagic(tm) or other software of the kind
569 do the job. It's the reader's job to check them out
570 </note>
571
572 <p>
573 Look up on that page the type of filesystem you want to resize and see if parted
574 can do it. If not, you're out of luck, you will have to destroy some partition
575 to make space for Gentoo, and reinstall back. Go ahead by downloading the
576 software, install it. Here we have a problem. We want to resize our Linux root
577 partition, therefore we must boot from a floppy disk a minimal linux system and
578 use previously-compiled parted copied to a diskette in order to resize <path>/</path>.
579 However, if you can unmount the partition while still in Linux you are lucky,
580 you don't need to do what follows. Just compile parted and run it on an
581 unmounted partition you chose to resize. Here's how I did it for my system.
582 </p>
583
584 <impo>
585 Make sure that the operations you want to do on your partition are
586 supported by parted!
587 </impo>
588
589 <p>
590 Get tomsrtbt boot/root disk (free of charge) from <uri>http://freshmeat.net/tomsrtbt </uri>, create a floppy as suggested in the Documentation that accompanies the software package and insert a new floppy in the drive for the next step.
591 </p>
592
593 <note>
594 Note again that Linux is synonym of "There's one more way to do it". Your
595 objective is to run parted on an unmounted partition so it can do its work. You
596 might use some other boot/root diskset other than tomsrtbt. You might not even
597 need to do this step at all, that is only umount the filesystem you want to
598 repartition in your Linux session and run parted on it.
599 </note>
600
601 <pre caption="Utility disk creation">
602 # <i>mkfs.minix /dev/fd0</i>
603 480 inodes
604 1440 blocks
605 Firstdatazone=19 (19)
606 Zonesize=1024
607 Maxsize=268966912
608 </pre>
609
610 <p>
611 We will now proceed with the build of parted. If it's not already downloaded and untarred, do so now and cd into the corresponding directory. Now run the following set of commands to build the utility and copy it to your floppy disk.
612 </p>
613
614 <pre caption="Building the utility floppy">
615 # <i> mkdir /floppy; mount -t minix /dev/fd0 /floppy &amp;&amp;
616 export CFLAGS="-O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer -static" &amp;&amp; ./configure
617 &amp;&amp; make &amp;&amp; cp parted/parted /floppy &amp;&amp; umount /floppy </i>
618 </pre>
619
620 <p>
621 Congratulations, you are ready to reboot and resize your partition. Do this only
622 after taking a quick look at the parted documentation on the GNU website. The
623 resize should take under 30 minutes for the largest hard-drives, be patient.
624 Reboot your system with the tomsrtbt boot disk (just pop it inside), and once
625 you are logged in, switch the disk in the drive with your utility disk we have
626 created above and type mount /dev/fd0 /floppy to have parted under /floppy.
627 There you go. Run parted and you will be able to resize your partition. Once
628 this lenghty process done, we are ready to have the real fun, by installing
629 Gentoo. Reboot back into your old Linux system for now. Drive you wish to
630 operate on is the drive containing the partition we want to resize. For
631 example, if we want to resize /dev/hda3, the drive is /dev/hda
632 </p>
633
634 <pre caption="Commands to run once logged into tomsrtbt system">
635 # <i>mount /dev/fd0 /floppy </i>
636 # <i>cd /floppy; ./parted [drive you wish to operate on]</i>
637 (parted) <i> print </i>
638 Disk geometry for /dev/hdb: 0.000-9787.148 megabytes
639 Disk label type: msdos
640 Minor Start End Type Filesystem Flags
641 1 0.031 2953.125 primary ntfs
642 3 2953.125 3133.265 primary linux-swap
643 2 3133.266 5633.085 primary ext3
644 4 5633.086 9787.148 extended
645 5 5633.117 6633.210 logical
646 6 6633.242 9787.148 logical ext3
647 (parted) <i> help resize </i>
648 resize MINOR START END resize filesystem on partition MINOR
649
650 MINOR is the partition number used by Linux. On msdos disk labels, the
651 primary partitions number from 1-4, and logical partitions are 5
652 onwards.
653 START and END are in megabytes
654 (parted) <i> resize 2 3133.266 4000.000 </i>
655 </pre>
656
657 <impo> Be patient! The computer is working! Just look at the hardware LED on
658 your case to see that it is really working. This should take between 2 and 30
659 minutes. </impo>
660
661 <p>Once you have resized, boot back into your old linux as described. Then go to
662 <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml">http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml</uri> and follow steps 6 through 17. Don't forget to create the <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> directory before proceeding with step 7. In step 8 you have to download the requested stage-tarball as we're not working from a LiveCD. When chrooting, use the following command to flush your environment:
663 </p>
664
665 <pre caption = "Flushing the environment during chroot">
666 # <i>env -i chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
667 </pre>
668
669 <p>
670 Enjoy!
671 </p>
672 </body>
673 </section>
674 </chapter>
675 </guide>

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