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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/altinstall.xml,v 1.23 2004/04/04 15:07:01 neysx Exp $ -->
3 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4
5
6 <guide link="/doc/en/altinstall.xml">
7 <title>The Gentoo Linux alternative installation method HOWTO</title>
8 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="gerrynjr@gentoo.org">Gerald Normandin Jr.</mail></author>
9 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="lordviram@rebelpacket.net">Travis Tilley</mail></author>
10 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="volontir@yahoo.com">Oleg Raisky</mail></author>
11 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="luminousit@hotmail.com">Alex Garbutt</mail></author>
12 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="alex@openvs.com">Alexandre Georges</mail></author>
13 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="vargen@b0d.org">Magnus Backanda</mail></author>
14 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="davoid@gentoo.org">Faust A. Tanasescu</mail></author>
15 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="aliz@gentoo.org">Daniel Ahlberg</mail></author>
16 <author title="Editor"><mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail></author>
17 <author title="Reviewer"><mail link="antifa@gentoo.org">Ken Nowack</mail></author>
18 <author title="Editor"><mail link="blubber@gentoo.org">Tiemo Kieft</mail></author>
19 <abstract>
20 This HOWTO is meant to be a repository of alternative Gentoo installation
21 methods, for those with special installation needs such as lack of a cdrom
22 or a computer that can't boot cds.
23 </abstract>
24
25 <license/>
26
27 <version>0.36</version>
28 <date>March 11, 2004</date>
29
30 <chapter>
31 <title>About this document</title>
32 <section>
33 <body>
34
35 <p>If the standard boot-from-CD install method doesn't work for you
36 (or you just don't like it),
37 help is now here. This document serves to
38 provide a repository of alternative Gentoo Linux installation techniques
39 to those who need them.
40 Or, if you prefer, it serves as
41 a place to put your wacky installation methods. If you have an
42 installation method that you yourself find useful, or you have devised an
43 amusing way of installing Gentoo, please don't hesitate to write something
44 up and <mail link="antifa@gentoo.org">send it to me.</mail></p>
45
46
47 </body>
48 </section>
49 </chapter>
50
51 <chapter>
52 <title>Booting the LiveCD with Smart BootManager</title>
53 <section>
54
55 <body>
56 <p>Download Smart BootManager <uri link="http://btmgr.sourceforge.net/index.php3?body=download.html">http://btmgr.sourceforge.net/index.php3?body=download.html</uri>. Linux source or binary format and windows .exe versions are available as well as many language packs. However, at this time, the preferred method would be to use the binary format, as the source will not compile with newer versions of NASM.</p>
57
58 <p>Either compile the package from source or just grab the binary. There are several options that can be utilized while creating your boot floppy, as seen below.</p>
59
60 <pre caption="Smart BootManager Options">
61 <i>sbminst [-t theme] [-d drv] [-b backup_file] [-u backup_file]
62
63 -t theme select the theme to be used, in which the theme could be:
64 us = English theme de = German theme
65 hu = Hungarian theme zh = Chinese theme
66 ru = Russian theme cz = Czech theme
67 es = Spanish theme fr = French theme
68 pt = Portuguese theme
69
70
71 -d drv set the drive that you want to install Smart BootManager on;
72 for Linux:
73 /dev/fd0 is the first floppy driver,
74 /dev/hda is the first IDE harddisk driver.
75 /dev/sda is the first SCSI harddisk driver.
76 for DOS:
77 0 is the first floppy drive
78 128 is the first hard drive;
79
80 -c disable CD-ROM booting feature;
81
82 -b backup_file backup the data that will be overwritten for
83 future uninstallation;
84
85 -u backup_file uninstall Smart BootManager, should be used alone;
86
87 -y do not ask any question or warning.</i>
88 </pre>
89
90 <pre caption="Using sbminst to build the boot floppy">
91 # <i>sbminst -t us -d /dev/fd0</i>
92 </pre>
93 <note> Replace fd0 with your repective floppy device name if yours is different. </note>
94 <p>Now simply place the floppy in the floppy drive of the computer you'd like to boot the LiveCD on, as well as placing the LiveCD in the CD-ROM and boot the computer.</p>
95
96 <p>You'll be greeted with the Smart BootManager dialog. Select your CD-ROM and press ENTER to boot the LiveCD. Once booted proceed with the standard installation instructions.</p>
97
98 <p>Further information on Smart BootManager may be found at <uri>http://btmgr.sourceforge.net/</uri></p>
99 </body>
100 </section>
101 </chapter>
102
103
104 <chapter>
105 <title>Knoppix Installation</title>
106 <section>
107
108 <body>
109 <p>Booting from the <uri link="http://www.knoppix.org/">Knoppix</uri> LiveCD is a way to have a fully functional linux system while you're compiling Gentoo. Tux Racer will help you pass the time while you wait for bootstrap.</p>
110
111 <p>Boot from the Knoppix CD. It generally does a really good job of hardware detection. Although, you may have to add some boot options. </p>
112
113 <p>By default Knoppix boots into a KDE 3.0 desktop. The first thing I did was open a konsole and typed <c>sudo passwd root</c>. This lets you set the root password for Knoppix.</p>
114
115 <p> Next, I su to root and typed <c>usermod -d /root -m root</c>. This sets user roots home directory to /root (the Gentoo way) from /home/root (the Knoppix way). If you do not do this, then you will receive errors when emerging about "/home/root: not found" or something to that effect.</p>
116
117 <p>I then typed <c>exit</c> and then <c>su</c> back into root. This loads the change that was made with the usermod command. Now create the <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> mountpoint using <c>mkdir</c>:</p>
118
119 <pre caption="Creating the /mnt/gentoo mountpoint">
120 # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</i>
121 </pre>
122
123 <p>At this point, you can pick up with the standard install documentation at step 6. However, when you're asked to mount the proc system, issue the following command instead: </p>
124
125 <pre caption = "Bind-mounting the proc pseudo filesystem">
126 # <i>mount -o bind /proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
127 </pre>
128
129 </body>
130 </section>
131 </chapter>
132
133 <chapter>
134 <title>Installing from Stage 1 without network access</title>
135 <section>
136 <body>
137
138
139 <p>Burn a LiveCD iso.</p>
140
141 <p>Get the latest portage snapshot from <uri>http://distro.ibiblio.org/pub/linux/distributions/gentoo/snapshots/</uri> (or your favorite <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror</uri>). Either place this tarball on an existing partition on the computer your are installing to, or burn it to a CD.</p>
142
143 <p>You'll also need a package list for the stage packages. Place the following dl-list.sh script on the same medium as the portage snapshot, you'll need it later.</p>
144
145 <pre caption="dl-list.sh">
146 #!/bin/bash
147
148 # set your defaults here:
149 user_defs() {
150
151 # portage directory (without a trailing "/"):
152 portage_dir="/usr/portage"
153
154 # default download mirror (without a trailing "/"):
155 gentoo_mirror="http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/Linux/distributions/gentoo"
156
157 # default sourceforge mirror (unc, telia, belnet):
158 sourceforge_mirror="unc"
159
160 # fix gnu mirror entries
161 gnu_url="ftp:\/\/ftp.gnu.org\/pub\/gnu"
162
163 }
164
165
166 #------------------------------------------------------------
167
168 # function to remove temporary files
169 cleanup() {
170
171 rm -f $temp_file_1 $temp_file_2
172 exit $1
173
174 }
175
176 # set user defaults
177 user_defs
178
179 # set the complete url for the sourceforge mirror
180 # (the \'s are needed because this goes in a sed command)
181 sourceforge_mirror_complete="http:\/\/$sourceforge_mirror.dl.sourceforge.net\/sourceforge"
182
183 # initialize counters
184 num_files=0
185 num_alt_urls=0
186 total_size=0
187
188 # initialize lists (arrays)
189 declare -a def_urls_arr
190 declare -a alt_urls_arr
191
192 # create 2 temporary files
193 temp_file_1=`mktemp -t dl-list.XXXXXX` || cleanup 1
194 temp_file_2=`mktemp -t dl-list.XXXXXX` || cleanup 1
195
196 # run "emerge -p &lt;args&gt;" (too easy to forget the "-p" in the command line...)
197 emerge -p $@ &gt; $temp_file_1 || cleanup 1
198
199 # remove the lines that do not contain the word "ebuild"
200 sed -n -e '/ebuild/p' $temp_file_1 &gt; $temp_file_2
201
202 # count how many lines were left
203 num_ebuilds=`wc -l $temp_file_2 | sed -e 's/\(.*\) \(.*\)/\1/'`
204
205 # extract the useful information from those lines: category, package and version
206 #sed -e 's:\(.*\) \(.*\)/\(.*\)-\([0-9].*\) \(.*\) \(.*\):\2 \3 \4:' $temp_file_2 &gt; $temp_file_1
207 sed -e 's:\(.*\) \(.*\)/\(.*\)-\([0-9].*\):\2 \3 \4:' $temp_file_2 &gt; $temp_file_1
208
209 # display starting message :)
210 echo -n "Generating list " &gt;&amp;2
211
212 # process each package in turn
213 while read category package version rest
214 do
215
216 # form the name of the digest file
217
218 digest_file="$portage_dir/$category/$package/files/digest-$package-$version"
219
220 # process the contents of the digest file
221 while read md5_flag md5_sum file_name file_size
222 do
223
224 # form the default url to download the file
225 def_urls_arr[$num_files]="$gentoo_mirror/distfiles/$file_name"
226
227 # increment the file counter
228 num_files=$(($num_files + 1))
229
230 # update the size accumulator (in kilobytes)
231 total_size=$(($total_size + $file_size / 1024))
232
233 done &lt; $digest_file
234
235 # form the "ebuild depend" command line
236 ebuild_depend_cmd="ebuild $portage_dir/$category/$package/$package-${version}.ebuild depend"
237
238 # execute the "ebuild depend" command
239 $ebuild_depend_cmd || cleanup 1
240
241 # form the name of the dependency file
242 dependency_file="/var/cache/edb/dep/$category/$package-$version"
243
244 # read in the 4th line from the dependency file,
245 # which contains the official download urls
246 alt_urls=`head -n 4 $dependency_file | tail -n 1`
247
248 # ignore empty url list
249 if [ -n "$alt_urls" ]
250 then
251
252 # split the urls list into $1..$N
253 set $alt_urls
254
255 # process each url in turn
256 for i in $@
257 do
258
259 # remove the (use)? strings from the url list
260 alt_url_tmp=`echo "$i" | sed -e '/\?$/d'`
261
262 # remove the "mirror://gnome" urls
263 alt_url_tmp=`echo "$alt_url_tmp" | sed -e '/^mirror:\/\/gnome/d'`
264
265 # remove the "mirror://kde" urls
266 alt_url_tmp=`echo "$alt_url_tmp" | sed -e '/^mirror:\/\/kde/d'`
267
268 # remove the "mirror://gentoo" urls (already included)
269 alt_url_tmp=`echo "$alt_url_tmp" | sed -e '/^mirror:\/\/gentoo/d'`
270
271 # translate the "mirror://sourceforge" urls into valid urls
272 alt_url_tmp=`echo "$alt_url_tmp" | sed -e "s/mirror:\/\/sourceforge/$sourceforge_mirror_complete/"`
273
274 # translate the "mirror://gnu" urls into valid urls
275 alt_url_tmp=`echo "$alt_url_tmp" | sed -e "s/mirror:\/\/gnu/$gnu_url/"`
276 # ignore empty urls
277 if [ -n "$alt_url_tmp" ]
278 then
279
280 # add the url to the list
281 alt_urls_arr[$num_alt_urls]=$alt_url_tmp
282
283 # increment the alternate url counter
284 num_alt_urls=$(($num_alt_urls + 1))
285
286 fi
287
288 done
289
290 fi
291
292 # a progress bar :)
293 echo -n "." &gt;&amp;2
294
295 done &lt; $temp_file_1
296
297 # display ending message :)
298 echo " done." &gt;&amp;2
299
300 # display default urls list
301 for i in ${def_urls_arr[@]}; do echo $i; done | sort
302
303 # display alternate urls list
304 for i in ${alt_urls_arr[@]}; do echo $i; done | sort
305
306 # display totals
307 echo "Totals:" $num_ebuilds "ebuilds," $num_files "files," $num_files "default urls," \n
308 $num_alt_urls "alternate urls," "${total_size}Kb." &lt;&amp;2
309
310 # remove temporary files and exit
311 cleanup 0
312 </pre>
313
314 <p>Follow all instructions of Gentoo Install Doc up to <c>chroot /mnt/gentoo</c> in Step 8. If you only have one CD-ROM remember to use the <c>cdcache</c> option while booting so you can unmount the LiveCD and mount your portage snapshot CD.</p>
315
316 <p>Open a new console (Alt-F2), we will continue with the Install Doc up to running the bootstrap.sh script.</p>
317
318 <warn>Older realeases of the livecd required you to change the password using the <c>passwd</c> command, before logging in manually.</warn>
319
320
321 <p>Go back to the first console (Alt-F1, without chroot) and mount a second CD on <path>/mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2</path>. Copy the portage tarball from cdrom2 and unpack it to <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr/portage</path>. Further, grab the dl-list.sh script and place it in <path>/usr/sbin</path> and make it executable.</p>
322
323 <pre caption="Mount the snapshot cd">
324 # <i>umount /mnt/cdrom</i>
325 # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2</i>
326 # <i>mount /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2</i>
327 # <i>cp /mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2/portage-$date.tar.bz2 /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage</i>
328 # <i>cp /mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2/dl-list.sh /mnt/gentoo/usr/sbin</i>
329 # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage</i>
330 # <i>tar xvjpf portage-$date.tar.bz2</i>
331 # <i>chmod +x /mnt/gentoo/usr/sbin/dl-list.sh</i>
332 </pre>
333
334 <p>Switch back to the F2 console. Now if you try to run bootstrap.sh it will fail because it won't be able to download any files. We will fetch these files somewhere else and put them in /usr/portage/distfiles (on F2 console). </p>
335
336 <p>You need a list of Stage1 packages: glibc, baselayout, texinfo, gettext, zlib, binutils, gcc, ncurses plus their dependencies. </p>
337
338 <note>Note that you need the versions of each package synced with your portage tree.</note>
339
340 <p>Now use the dl-list.sh script to generate the package list that you need. Then copy the subsequent list to a floppy.</p>
341
342 <pre caption="Using dl-list.sh">
343 # <i>dl-list.sh glibc baselayout texinfo gettext zlib binutils gcc ncurses > stage1.list</i>
344 # <i>mount -t vfat /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy</i>
345 # <i>cp /mnt/gentoo/stage1.list /mnt/floppy</i>
346 # <i>umount /mnt/floppy</i>
347 </pre>
348
349 <p>Take the floppy to the computer that has fast access and feed this list to wget:</p>
350
351 <pre caption="Use wget to grab your source packages">
352 # <i>wget -N -i stage1.list</i>
353 </pre>
354
355
356 <p>Once you have obtained all the files, take them to the computer and copy them to <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr/portage/distfiles</path>. You will then be able to run <c>bootstrap.sh</c>. Repeat this same wget fetch and place procedure for stage2 and 3.</p>
357
358
359
360 </body>
361 </section>
362 </chapter>
363
364 <chapter><title>Diskless install using PXE boot</title>
365
366 <section><title>Requirements</title>
367 <body>
368 <p>You will need a network card on the diskless client that uses the PXE protocol to boot, like many 3com cards. You will also need a BIOS that supports booting from PXE.</p>
369 </body></section>
370
371 <section><title>Server base setup</title>
372 <body>
373 <p>Create directories: The first thing to do is to create the directories where your diskless system will be stored. Create a directory called <path>/diskless</path> which houses a directory for each diskless client. For the rest of this howto we'll be working on the client 'eta'.</p>
374
375 <pre caption="directory setup">
376 # <i>mkdir /diskless</i>
377 # <i>mkdir /diskless/eta</i>
378 # <i>mkdir /diskless/eta/boot</i>
379 </pre>
380
381 <p>DHCP and TFTP setup: The client will get boot informations using DHCP and download all the required files using TFTP. Just emerge DHCP and configure it for your basic needs. Then, add the following on <path>/etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf</path>.</p>
382
383 <note>This provide a static IP address for the client and the path of a PXE boot image, here pxegrub. You have to replace the MAC address of the Ethernet card of the client and the directory where you will put the client files with the one you use.</note>
384
385 <pre caption="dhcp.conf">
386 option option-150 code 150 = text ;
387 host eta {
388 hardware ethernet 00:00:00:00:00:00;
389 fixed-address <i>ip.add.re.ss</i>;
390 option option-150 "/eta/boot/grub.lst";
391 filename "/eta/boot/pxegrub";
392 }
393 </pre>
394
395 <p>For TFTP, emerge <c>app-admin/tftp-hpa</c>. In <path>/etc/conf.d/in.tftpd</path>, put the following :</p>
396
397 <pre caption="in.tftpd">
398 INTFTPD_PATH="/diskless"
399 INTFTPD_USER="nobody"
400 INTFTPD_OPTS="-u ${INTFTPD_USER} -l -vvvvvv -p -c -s ${INTFTPD_PATH}"
401 </pre>
402
403 <p>Setup GRUB: To provide PXE booting I use GRUB. You have to compile it by yourself to enable the PXE image compilation ... but that's quite easy. First, get the latest version of the GRUB source code (<c>emerge -f grub</c> will place the tarball in <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path>). Copy the tarball to <path>/diskless</path> and then build it to make the pxe capable binary. Once the binary is built, copy it to the diskless client's boot directory. Then edit it's grub.lst config file.</p>
404
405 <pre caption="grub setup">
406 # <i>tar zxvf grub-0.92.tar.gz</i>
407 # <i>cd grub-0.92</i>
408 # <i>./configure --help</i>
409 <codenote>In the options you will see a list of supported network interface drivers. </codenote>
410 <codenote>Select the driver compatible with your card. Herein referenced a $nic</codenote>
411 # <i>./configure --enable-diskless --enable-$nic</i>
412 # <i>make</i>
413 # <i>cd stage2</i>
414 # <i>cp pxegrub /diskless/eta/boot/pxegrub</i>
415 # <i>nano -w /diskless/eta/boot/grub.lst</i>
416 </pre>
417
418 <pre caption="grub.lst">
419 default 0
420 timeout 30
421
422 title=Diskless Gentoo
423 root (nd)
424 kernel /eta/bzImage ip=dhcp root=/dev/nfs nfsroot=<i>ip.add.re.ss</i>:/diskless/eta
425
426 <codenote>For the nfsroot option, the IP address is the one of the server and </codenote>
427 <codenote>the directory is the one where your diskless client files are located (on the server).</codenote>
428 </pre>
429
430 <p>Setup NFS: NFS is quite easy to configure. The only thing you have to do is to add a line on the <path>/etc/exports</path> config file :</p>
431
432 <pre caption="/etc/exports">
433 # <i>nano -w /etc/exports</i>
434 NFS file systems being exported. See exports(5).
435 /diskless/eta eta(rw,sync,no_root_squash)
436 </pre>
437
438 <p>Update your hosts: One important thing to do now is to modify your <path>/etc/hosts</path> file to fit your needs. </p>
439
440 <pre caption="/etc/hosts">
441 127.0.0.1 localhost
442
443 192.168.1.10 eta.example.com eta
444 192.168.1.20 sigma.example.com sigma
445 </pre>
446 </body>
447 </section>
448
449 <section><title>Creating the system on the server</title>
450
451 <body>
452
453 <p>Reboot the server on a Gentoo LiveCD. Follow the standard install procedure as explained in the Gentoo Install Howto BUT with the following differences. When you mount the file system, do the following (where hdaX is the partition where you created the /diskless directory). You do not need to mount any other partitions as all of the files will reside in the <path>/diskless/eta</path> directory.</p>
454
455 <pre caption="mounting the filesystem">
456 #<i> mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
457 </pre>
458
459 <p>Stage tarballs and chroot: This example uses a stage3 tarball. Mount <path>/proc</path> to your diskless directory and chroot into it to continue with the install. Then follow the installation manual until kernel configuration.</p>
460
461 <warn>Be very careful where you extract your stage tarball. You don't want to end up extracting over your existing installation.</warn>
462
463 <pre caption="extracting the stage tarball">
464 # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/</i>
465 # <i>tar -xvjpf /mnt/cdrom/gentoo/stage3-*.tar.bz2</i>
466 # <i>mount -t proc /proc /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/proc</i>
467 # <i>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/etc/resolv.conf</i>
468 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/ /bin/bash</i>
469 # <i>env-update</i>
470 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
471 </pre>
472
473 <p>Kernel configuration: When you do the <c>make menuconfig</c> of your kernel configuration, don't forget to enable the following options with the others recommended into the install howto.</p>
474
475 <pre caption="menuconfig options">
476 - Your network card device support
477
478 - Under "Networking options" :
479
480 [*] TCP/IP networking
481 [*] IP: kernel level autoconfiguration
482 [*] IP: DHCP support
483 [*] IP: BOOTP support
484
485
486 - Under "File systems --> Network File Systems" :
487
488 &lt;*&gt; NFS file system support
489 [*] Provide NFSv3 client support
490 [*] Root file system on NFS
491 </pre>
492
493 <p>Next configure your diskless client's <path>/etc/fstab</path>.</p>
494
495 <pre caption="/etc/fstab">
496 # <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
497 /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro 0 0
498 proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
499 tmpfs /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0
500 </pre>
501
502 <p>Bootloader. Don't install another bootloader because we already have one - pxegrub. Simply finish the install and restart the server. Start the services you'll need to boot the new client: DHCP, TFTPD, and NFS.</p>
503
504 <pre caption="Starting services">
505 # <i>/etc/init.d/dhcp start</i>
506 # <i>/etc/init.d/tftpd start</i>
507 # <i>/etc/init.d/nfs start</i>
508 </pre>
509
510 </body></section>
511
512 <section><title>Booting the new client</title>
513 <body>
514 <p>For the new client to boot properly, you'll need to configure the bios and the network card to use PXE as the first boot method - before CD-ROM or floppy. For help with this consult your hardware manuals or manufacturers website. The network card should get an IP address using DHCP and download the GRUB PXE image using TFTP. Then, you should see a nice black and white GRUB bootmenu where you will select the kernel to boot and press Enter. If everything is ok the kernel should boot, mount the root filesystem using NFS and provide you with a login prompt. Enjoy.</p>
515 </body></section>
516
517 </chapter>
518
519
520
521 <chapter> <title>Installing Gentoo from an existing Linux distribution </title>
522 <section> <title> Requirements </title>
523 <body>
524 <p>In order to install Gentoo from your existing Linux distribution you need to
525 have chroot command installed, and have a copy of the Gentoo installation
526 tarball or ISO you want to install. A network connection would be preferable if
527 you want more than what's supplied in your tarball. (by the way, a tarball is
528 just a file ending in .tbz or .tar.gz). The author used RedHat Linux 7.3 as the
529 "host" operating system, but it is not very important. Let's get started! </p>
530 </body>
531 </section>
532
533 <section> <title> Overview </title>
534 <body>
535 <p>We will first allocate a partition to Gentoo by resizing our existing Linux partition, mount the partition, untar the tarball that is mounted, chroot inside the psuedo-system and start building. Once the bootstrap process is done, we will do some final configuration on the system so as to make sure it boots, then we are ready to reboot and use Gentoo. </p>
536 </body>
537 </section>
538
539 <section> <title> How should we make space for Gentoo? </title>
540 <body>
541
542 <p>
543 The root partition is the filesystem mounted under <path>/</path>. A quick run of mount on my system shows what I am talking about. We well also use df (disk free) to see how much space I have left and how I will be resizing. Note that it is not mandatory to resize your root partition! You could be resizing anything else supported by our resizer, but let's talk about that later.</p>
544
545
546 <pre caption="Filesystem information">
547 # <i>mount</i>
548 /dev/hdb2 on / type ext3 (rw)
549 none on /proc type proc (rw)
550 none on /dev/pts type devpts (rw,gid=5,mode=620)
551 none on /dev/shm type tmpfs (rw)
552 # <i>df -h </i>
553 Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
554 /dev/hdb2 4.0G 1.9G 2.4G 82% /
555 none 38M 0 38M 0% /dev/shm
556 </pre>
557
558 <p>As we can see, the partition mounted as <path>/</path> named <path>/dev/hdb2</path> has 2.4 gigabytes free. In my case, I think I will resize it as to leave 400Megs free of space, therefore allocating 2 gigabytes for Gentoo. Not bad, I could have quite some stuff installed. However, think that even one gigabyte is enough for most users. So let's partition this thing! </p>
559
560 </body>
561 </section>
562
563 <section>
564 <title>Building parted to resize partition</title>
565 <body>
566
567 <p>
568 Parted is an utility supplied by the GNU foundation, an old and respectable huge project whose software you are using in this very moment. There is one tool, however, that is extremely useful for us at the moment. It's called parted, partition editor and we can get it from <uri>http://www.gnu.org/software/parted/</uri>
569 </p>
570
571 <note>
572 There are other tools for doing resize of partitions as well, but author
573 is unsure/uninterested whether PartitionMagic(tm) or other software of the kind
574 do the job. It's the reader's job to check them out
575 </note>
576
577 <p>
578 Look up on that page the type of filesystem you want to resize and see if parted
579 can do it. If not, you're out of luck, you will have to destroy some partition
580 to make space for Gentoo, and reinstall back. Go ahead by downloading the
581 software, install it. Here we have a problem. We want to resize our Linux root
582 partition, therefore we must boot from a floppy disk a minimal linux system and
583 use previously-compiled parted copied to a diskette in order to resize <path>/</path>.
584 However, if you can unmount the partition while still in Linux you are lucky,
585 you don't need to do what follows. Just compile parted and run it on an
586 unmounted partition you chose to resize. Here's how I did it for my system.
587 </p>
588
589 <impo>
590 Make sure that the operations you want to do on your partition are
591 supported by parted!
592 </impo>
593
594 <p>
595 Get tomsrtbt boot/root disk (free of charge) from <uri>http://freshmeat.net/tomsrtbt </uri>, create a floppy as suggested in the Documentation that accompanies the software package and insert a new floppy in the drive for the next step.
596 </p>
597
598 <note>
599 Note again that Linux is synonym of "There's one more way to do it". Your
600 objective is to run parted on an unmounted partition so it can do its work. You
601 might use some other boot/root diskset other than tomsrtbt. You might not even
602 need to do this step at all, that is only umount the filesystem you want to
603 repartition in your Linux session and run parted on it.
604 </note>
605
606 <pre caption="Utility disk creation">
607 # <i>mkfs.minix /dev/fd0</i>
608 480 inodes
609 1440 blocks
610 Firstdatazone=19 (19)
611 Zonesize=1024
612 Maxsize=268966912
613 </pre>
614
615 <p>
616 We will now proceed with the build of parted. If it's not already downloaded and untarred, do so now and cd into the corresponding directory. Now run the following set of commands to build the utility and copy it to your floppy disk.
617 </p>
618
619 <pre caption="Building the utility floppy">
620 # <i> mkdir /floppy; mount -t minix /dev/fd0 /floppy &amp;&amp;
621 export CFLAGS="-O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer -static" &amp;&amp; ./configure
622 &amp;&amp; make &amp;&amp; cp parted/parted /floppy &amp;&amp; umount /floppy </i>
623 </pre>
624
625 <p>
626 Congratulations, you are ready to reboot and resize your partition. Do this only
627 after taking a quick look at the parted documentation on the GNU website. The
628 resize should take under 30 minutes for the largest hard-drives, be patient.
629 Reboot your system with the tomsrtbt boot disk (just pop it inside), and once
630 you are logged in, switch the disk in the drive with your utility disk we have
631 created above and type mount /dev/fd0 /floppy to have parted under /floppy.
632 There you go. Run parted and you will be able to resize your partition. Once
633 this lenghty process done, we are ready to have the real fun, by installing
634 Gentoo. Reboot back into your old Linux system for now. Drive you wish to
635 operate on is the drive containing the partition we want to resize. For
636 example, if we want to resize /dev/hda3, the drive is /dev/hda
637 </p>
638
639 <pre caption="Commands to run once logged into tomsrtbt system">
640 # <i>mount /dev/fd0 /floppy </i>
641 # <i>cd /floppy; ./parted [drive you wish to operate on]</i>
642 (parted) <i> print </i>
643 Disk geometry for /dev/hdb: 0.000-9787.148 megabytes
644 Disk label type: msdos
645 Minor Start End Type Filesystem Flags
646 1 0.031 2953.125 primary ntfs
647 3 2953.125 3133.265 primary linux-swap
648 2 3133.266 5633.085 primary ext3
649 4 5633.086 9787.148 extended
650 5 5633.117 6633.210 logical
651 6 6633.242 9787.148 logical ext3
652 (parted) <i> help resize </i>
653 resize MINOR START END resize filesystem on partition MINOR
654
655 MINOR is the partition number used by Linux. On msdos disk labels, the
656 primary partitions number from 1-4, and logical partitions are 5
657 onwards.
658 START and END are in megabytes
659 (parted) <i> resize 2 3133.266 4000.000 </i>
660 </pre>
661
662 <impo> Be patient! The computer is working! Just look at the hardware LED on
663 your case to see that it is really working. This should take between 2 and 30
664 minutes. </impo>
665
666 <p>Once you have resized, boot back into your old linux as described. Then go to
667 <uri link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=1&amp;chap=5">The Gentoo Handbook: Installing the Gentoo Installation Files</uri> and follow the instructions. When chrooting, use the following command to flush your environment:
668 </p>
669
670 <pre caption = "Flushing the environment during chroot">
671 # <i>env -i chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
672 </pre>
673
674 <p>
675 Enjoy!
676 </p>
677 </body>
678 </section>
679 </chapter>
680 </guide>

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