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#78716 - Lets try this one - no bind-mounting needed for Knoppix anymore

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/altinstall.xml,v 1.49 2005/01/26 14:34:55 neysx Exp $ -->
3 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4
5 <guide link="/doc/en/altinstall.xml">
6
7 <title>The Gentoo Linux alternative installation method HOWTO</title>
8
9 <author title="Contributor">
10 <mail link="gerrynjr@gentoo.org">Gerald Normandin Jr.</mail>
11 </author>
12 <author title="Contributor">
13 <mail link="lordviram@rebelpacket.net">Travis Tilley</mail>
14 </author>
15 <author title="Contributor">
16 <mail link="volontir@yahoo.com">Oleg Raisky</mail>
17 </author>
18 <author title="Contributor">
19 <mail link="luminousit@hotmail.com">Alex Garbutt</mail>
20 </author>
21 <author title="Contributor">
22 <mail link="alex@openvs.com">Alexandre Georges</mail>
23 </author>
24 <author title="Contributor">
25 <mail link="vargen@b0d.org">Magnus Backanda</mail>
26 </author>
27 <author title="Contributor">
28 <mail link="davoid@gentoo.org">Faust A. Tanasescu</mail>
29 </author>
30 <author title="Contributor">
31 <mail link="aliz@gentoo.org">Daniel Ahlberg</mail>
32 </author>
33 <author title="Editor">
34 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
35 </author>
36 <author title="Reviewer">
37 Ken Nowack <!-- antifa@gentoo.org seems out -->
38 </author>
39 <author title="Editor">
40 <mail link="blubber@gentoo.org">Tiemo Kieft</mail>
41 </author>
42 <author title="Editor">
43 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
44 </author>
45
46 <abstract>
47 This HOWTO is meant to be a repository of alternative Gentoo installation
48 methods, for those with special installation needs such as lack of a cdrom
49 or a computer that can't boot cds.
50 </abstract>
51
52 <license/>
53
54 <version>0.58</version>
55 <date>2005-02-07</date>
56
57 <chapter>
58 <title>About this document</title>
59 <section>
60 <body>
61
62 <p>
63 If the standard boot-from-CD install method doesn't work for you (or you just
64 don't like it), help is now here. This document serves to provide a repository
65 of alternative Gentoo Linux installation techniques to those who need them.
66 Or, if you prefer, it serves as a place to put your wacky installation methods.
67 If you have an installation method that you yourself find useful, or you have
68 devised an amusing way of installing Gentoo, please don't hesitate to write
69 something up and <mail link="antifa@gentoo.org">send it to me.</mail>
70 </p>
71
72 </body>
73 </section>
74 </chapter>
75
76 <chapter>
77 <title>Booting the LiveCD with Smart BootManager</title>
78 <section>
79 <body>
80
81 <p>
82 Download Smart BootManager available from
83 <uri>http://btmgr.sourceforge.net/download.html</uri>.
84 Linux source or binary format and windows .exe versions are available as well
85 as many language packs. However, at this time, the preferred method would be to
86 use the binary format, as the source will not compile with newer versions of
87 NASM.
88 </p>
89
90 <p>
91 Either compile the package from source or just grab the binary. There are
92 several options that can be utilized while creating your boot floppy, as seen
93 below.
94 </p>
95
96 <pre caption="Smart BootManager Options">
97 sbminst [-t theme] [-d drv] [-b backup_file] [-u backup_file]
98
99 -t theme select the theme to be used, in which the theme could be:
100 us = English theme de = German theme
101 hu = Hungarian theme zh = Chinese theme
102 ru = Russian theme cz = Czech theme
103 es = Spanish theme fr = French theme
104 pt = Portuguese theme
105
106
107 -d drv set the drive that you want to install Smart BootManager on;
108 for Linux:
109 /dev/fd0 is the first floppy driver,
110 /dev/hda is the first IDE harddisk driver.
111 /dev/sda is the first SCSI harddisk driver.
112 for DOS:
113 0 is the first floppy drive
114 128 is the first hard drive;
115
116 -c disable CD-ROM booting feature;
117
118 -b backup_file backup the data that will be overwritten for
119 future uninstallation;
120
121 -u backup_file uninstall Smart BootManager, should be used alone;
122
123 -y do not ask any question or warning.
124 </pre>
125
126 <pre caption="Using sbminst to build the boot floppy">
127 # <i>sbminst -t us -d /dev/fd0</i>
128 </pre>
129
130 <note>
131 Replace fd0 with your respective floppy device name if yours is different.
132 </note>
133
134 <p>
135 Now simply place the floppy in the floppy drive of the computer you'd like to
136 boot the LiveCD on, as well as placing the LiveCD in the CD-ROM and boot the
137 computer.
138 </p>
139
140 <p>
141 You'll be greeted with the Smart BootManager dialog. Select your CD-ROM and
142 press ENTER to boot the LiveCD. Once booted proceed with the standard
143 installation instructions.
144 </p>
145
146 <p>
147 Further information on Smart BootManager may be found at
148 <uri>http://btmgr.sourceforge.net/</uri>
149 </p>
150
151 </body>
152 </section>
153 </chapter>
154
155 <chapter>
156 <title>Knoppix Installation</title>
157 <section>
158 <body>
159
160 <p>
161 Booting from the <uri link="http://www.knoppix.org/">Knoppix</uri> LiveCD is a
162 way to have a fully functional linux system while you're compiling Gentoo. Tux
163 Racer will help you pass the time while you wait for bootstrap.
164 </p>
165
166 <p>
167 Boot from the Knoppix CD. It generally does a really good job of hardware
168 detection. Although, you may have to add some boot options.
169 </p>
170
171 <p>
172 By default Knoppix boots into a KDE 3.0 desktop. The first thing I did was open
173 a konsole and typed <c>sudo passwd root</c>. This lets you set the root
174 password for Knoppix.
175 </p>
176
177 <p>
178 Next, I <c>su</c> to root and typed <c>usermod -d /root -m root</c>. This sets
179 user roots home directory to /root (the Gentoo way) from /home/root (the Knoppix
180 way). If you do not do this, then you will receive errors when emerging about
181 "/home/root: not found" or something to that effect.
182 </p>
183
184 <p>
185 I then typed <c>exit</c> and then <c>su</c> back into root. This loads the
186 change that was made with the usermod command. Now create the
187 <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> mountpoint using <c>mkdir</c>:
188 </p>
189
190 <pre caption="Creating the /mnt/gentoo mountpoint">
191 # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</i>
192 </pre>
193
194 <p>
195 At this point, you can pick up with the standard install documentation at <uri
196 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=1&amp;chap=4">part 4</uri>.
197 However, when you're asked to mount the proc system, issue the following
198 command instead:
199 </p>
200
201 <pre caption="Bind-mounting the proc pseudo filesystem">
202 # <i>mount -o bind /proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
203 </pre>
204
205 <!--
206 Commenting out due to #78716. If it needs to be restated again, note
207 that some will require to bind-mount it, others don't, and that you have
208 a 50-50 chance of winning the gold strike.
209
210
211 <p>
212 You will also need to bind-mount the device tree to resolve permission issues
213 with various device files.
214 </p>
215
216 < ! - -
217 If this doesn't seem to work, #71901 mentions the following command:
218 mount -o remount,rw,nosuid /dev/hd* /mnt/hd*
219 before all. Looks weird to me, but if this doesn't work, we might want to try
220 that.
221 - - >
222
223 <pre caption="Bind-mounting the device tree">
224 # <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
225 </pre>
226 -->
227
228 </body>
229 </section>
230 </chapter>
231
232 <chapter>
233 <title>Installing from Stage 1 without network access</title>
234 <section>
235 <body>
236
237 <p>
238 Burn a LiveCD iso.
239 </p>
240
241 <p>
242 Get the latest portage snapshot from
243 <uri>http://distro.ibiblio.org/pub/linux/distributions/gentoo/snapshots/</uri>
244 (or your favorite <uri
245 link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror</uri>). Either place
246 this tarball on an existing partition on the computer your are installing to,
247 or burn it to a CD.
248 </p>
249
250 <p>
251 Follow all instructions of the Gentoo Installation Handbook up to <c>chroot
252 /mnt/gentoo</c> in Chapter 6. If you only have one CD-ROM remember to use the
253 <c>docache</c> option while booting so you can unmount the LiveCD and mount
254 your portage snapshot CD.
255 </p>
256
257 <p>
258 Open a new console (Alt-F2), we will continue with the Install Doc up to
259 running the bootstrap.sh script.
260 </p>
261
262 <warn>
263 Older realeases of the livecd required you to change the password using the
264 <c>passwd</c> command, before logging in manually.
265 </warn>
266
267 <p>
268 Go back to the first console (Alt-F1, without chroot) and mount a second CD on
269 <path>/mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2</path>. Copy the portage tarball from cdrom2 and
270 unpack it to <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr</path>.
271 </p>
272
273 <pre caption="Mount the snapshot cd">
274 # <i>umount /mnt/cdrom</i>
275 # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2</i>
276 # <i>mount /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2</i>
277 # <i>cp /mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2/portage-$date.tar.bz2 /mnt/gentoo/usr</i>
278 # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo/usr</i>
279 # <i>tar -xvjpf portage-$date.tar.bz2</i>
280 </pre>
281
282 <p>
283 Switch back to the F2 console. Now if you try to run bootstrap.sh it will fail
284 because it won't be able to download any files. We will fetch these files
285 somewhere else and put them in /usr/portage/distfiles (on F2 console).
286 </p>
287
288 <p>
289 You need a list of Stage1 packages: glibc, baselayout, texinfo, gettext, zlib,
290 binutils, gcc, ncurses plus their dependencies.
291 </p>
292
293 <note>
294 Note that you need the versions of each package synced with your portage tree.
295 </note>
296
297 <pre caption="Getting the download listing">
298 <comment>(Don't forget the 2 in front of the &gt;)</comment>
299 # <i>emerge -fp glibc baselayout texinfo gettext zlib binutils gcc ncurses 2&gt; stage1.list</i>
300 # <i>mount -t vfat /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy</i>
301 # <i>cp /mnt/gentoo/stage1.list /mnt/floppy</i>
302 # <i>umount /mnt/floppy</i>
303 </pre>
304
305 <p>
306 Take the floppy to the computer that has fast access. If you take a look at the
307 <path>stage1.list</path> file, you'll see that it provides you with several
308 URLs to download. Sadly, it lists several possible URLs for each package as
309 well, which isn't what you want. Strip all but one of the URLs first:
310 </p>
311
312 <pre caption="Stripping URLs">
313 <comment>(This script is depending on the output format given by emerge which
314 might change in the future without further notice - use with caution!)</comment>
315 # <i>cut -f 1 -d ' ' stage1.list > stage1.download</i>
316 </pre>
317
318 <p>
319 Now use <c>wget</c> to fetch all the listed sources:
320 </p>
321
322 <pre caption="Use wget to grab your source packages">
323 # <i>wget -N -i stage1.download</i>
324 </pre>
325
326 <p>
327 Once you have obtained all the files, take them to the computer and copy them
328 to <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr/portage/distfiles</path>. You will then be able to run
329 <c>bootstrap.sh</c>. Repeat this same wget fetch and place procedure for stage2
330 and 3.
331 </p>
332
333 </body>
334 </section>
335 </chapter>
336
337 <chapter>
338 <title>Diskless install using PXE boot</title>
339 <section>
340 <title>Requirements</title>
341 <body>
342
343 <p>
344 You will need a network card on the diskless client that uses the PXE protocol
345 to boot, like many 3com cards. You will also need a BIOS that supports booting
346 from PXE.
347 </p>
348
349 </body>
350 </section>
351 <section>
352 <title>Server base setup</title>
353 <body>
354
355 <p>
356 Create directories: The first thing to do is to create the directories where
357 your diskless system will be stored. Create a directory called
358 <path>/diskless</path> which houses a directory for each diskless client. For
359 the rest of this howto we'll be working on the client 'eta'.
360 </p>
361
362 <pre caption="directory setup">
363 # <i>mkdir /diskless</i>
364 # <i>mkdir /diskless/eta</i>
365 # <i>mkdir /diskless/eta/boot</i>
366 </pre>
367
368 <p>
369 DHCP and TFTP setup: The client will get boot informations using DHCP and
370 download all the required files using TFTP. Just emerge DHCP and configure it
371 for your basic needs. Then, add the following on
372 <path>/etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf</path>.
373 </p>
374
375 <note>
376 This provide a static IP address for the client and the path of a PXE boot
377 image, here pxegrub. You have to replace the MAC address of the Ethernet card
378 of the client and the directory where you will put the client files with the
379 one you use.
380 </note>
381
382 <p>
383 For DHCPd, run <c>emerge dhcp</c> (or any other DHCP server of your choice).
384 Make sure that the correct interface is selected in
385 <path>/etc/conf.d/dhcp</path>.
386 </p>
387
388 <pre caption="dhcp.conf">
389 option option-150 code 150 = text ;
390 ddns-update-style none ;
391 host eta {
392 hardware ethernet 00:00:00:00:00:00;
393 fixed-address <i>ip.add.re.ss</i>;
394 option option-150 "/eta/boot/grub.lst";
395 filename "/eta/boot/pxegrub";
396 }
397 </pre>
398
399 <p>
400 For TFTP, emerge <c>app-admin/tftp-hpa</c>. In
401 <path>/etc/conf.d/in.tftpd</path>, put the following :
402 </p>
403
404 <pre caption="in.tftpd">
405 INTFTPD_PATH="/diskless"
406 INTFTPD_USER="nobody"
407 INTFTPD_OPTS="-u ${INTFTPD_USER} -l -vvvvvv -p -c -s ${INTFTPD_PATH}"
408 </pre>
409
410 <p>
411 Setup GRUB: To provide PXE booting I use GRUB. You have to compile it by
412 yourself to enable the PXE image compilation ... but that's quite easy. First,
413 get the latest version of the GRUB source code (<c>emerge -f grub</c> will
414 place the tarball in <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path>). Copy the tarball to
415 <path>/diskless</path> and then build it to make the pxe capable binary. Once
416 the binary is built, copy it to the diskless client's boot directory. Then edit
417 it's grub.lst config file.
418 </p>
419
420 <pre caption="grub setup">
421 # <i>tar zxvf grub-0.92.tar.gz</i>
422 # <i>cd grub-0.92</i>
423 # <i>./configure --help</i>
424 <comment>(In the options you will see a list of supported network interface drivers.
425 Select the driver compatible with your client's network card. Herein referenced
426 as $nic)</comment>
427 # <i>./configure --enable-diskless --enable-$nic</i>
428 # <i>make</i>
429 # <i>cd stage2</i>
430 # <i>cp pxegrub /diskless/eta/boot/pxegrub</i>
431 # <i>nano -w /diskless/eta/boot/grub.lst</i>
432 </pre>
433
434 <pre caption="grub.lst">
435 default 0
436 timeout 30
437
438 title=Diskless Gentoo
439 root (nd)
440 kernel /eta/bzImage ip=dhcp root=/dev/nfs nfsroot=<i>ip.add.re.ss</i>:/diskless/eta
441
442 <codenote>For the nfsroot option, the IP address is the one of the server and </codenote>
443 <codenote>the directory is the one where your diskless client files are located (on the server).</codenote>
444 </pre>
445
446 <p>
447 Setup NFS: NFS is quite easy to configure. The only thing you have to do is to
448 add a line on the <path>/etc/exports</path> config file :
449 </p>
450
451 <pre caption="/etc/exports">
452 # <i>nano -w /etc/exports</i>
453 # /etc/exports: NFS file systems being exported. See exports(5).
454 /diskless/eta eta(rw,sync,no_root_squash)
455 </pre>
456
457 <p>
458 Update your hosts: One important thing to do now is to modify your
459 <path>/etc/hosts</path> file to fit your needs.
460 </p>
461
462 <pre caption="/etc/hosts">
463 127.0.0.1 localhost
464
465 192.168.1.10 eta.example.com eta
466 192.168.1.20 sigma.example.com sigma
467 </pre>
468
469 </body>
470 </section>
471 <section>
472 <title>Creating the system on the server</title>
473 <body>
474
475 <p>
476 You might want to reboot the server with a Gentoo LiveCD, although you can
477 very well continue immediately if you know how to proceed with the Gentoo
478 Installation Instructions from an existing installation. Follow the standard
479 install procedure as explained in the Gentoo Install Howto BUT with the
480 following differences:
481 When you mount the file system, do the following (where hdaX is the partition
482 where you created the /diskless directory). You do not need to mount any other
483 partitions as all of the files will reside in the <path>/diskless/eta</path>
484 directory.
485 </p>
486
487 <pre caption="mounting the filesystem">
488 #<i> mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
489 </pre>
490
491 <p>
492 Stage tarballs and chroot: This example uses a stage3 tarball. Mount
493 <path>/proc</path> to your diskless directory and chroot into it to continue
494 with the install. Then follow the installation manual until kernel
495 configuration.
496 </p>
497
498 <warn>
499 Be very careful where you extract your stage tarball. You don't want to end up
500 extracting over your existing installation.
501 </warn>
502
503 <pre caption="extracting the stage tarball">
504 # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/</i>
505 # <i>tar -xvjpf /mnt/cdrom/gentoo/stage3-*.tar.bz2</i>
506 # <i>mount -t proc /proc /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/proc</i>
507 # <i>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/etc/resolv.conf</i>
508 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/ /bin/bash</i>
509 # <i>env-update</i>
510 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
511 </pre>
512
513 <p>
514 Kernel configuration: When you do the <c>make menuconfig</c> of your kernel
515 configuration, don't forget to enable the following options with the others
516 recommended into the install howto.
517 </p>
518
519 <pre caption="menuconfig options">
520 - Your network card device support
521 <comment>(In the kernel, *not* as a module!)</comment>
522
523 - Under "Networking options" :
524
525 [*] TCP/IP networking
526 [*] IP: kernel level autoconfiguration
527 [*] IP: DHCP support
528 [*] IP: BOOTP support
529
530
531 - Under "File systems --> Network File Systems" :
532
533 &lt;*&gt; NFS file system support
534 [*] Provide NFSv3 client support
535 [*] Root file system on NFS
536 </pre>
537
538 <p>
539 Save the kernel in your chrooted <path>/</path> (not in <path>/boot</path>)
540 according to the pxegrub setting defined earlier. Next configure your
541 diskless client's <path>/etc/fstab</path>.
542 </p>
543
544 <pre caption="/etc/fstab">
545 # <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
546 /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro 0 0
547 proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
548 tmpfs /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
549 </pre>
550
551 <p>
552 You also need to prevent the client to run a filesystem check:
553 </p>
554
555 <pre caption="Preventing the client to run a filesystem check">
556 # <i>touch /fastboot</i>
557 # <i>echo "touch /fastboot" &gt;&gt; /etc/conf.d/local.start</i>
558 </pre>
559
560 <p>
561 Install <c>nfs-utils</c> since your client will heavily depend on it:
562 </p>
563
564 <pre caption="Installing nfs-utils">
565 # <i>emerge nfs-utils</i>
566 </pre>
567
568 <p>
569 Bootloader. Don't install another bootloader because we already have one -
570 pxegrub. Simply finish the install and restart the server. Start the services
571 you'll need to boot the new client: DHCP, TFTPD, and NFS.
572 </p>
573
574 <pre caption="Starting services">
575 # <i>/etc/init.d/dhcp start</i>
576 # <i>/etc/init.d/in.tftpd start</i>
577 # <i>/etc/init.d/nfs start</i>
578 </pre>
579
580 </body>
581 </section>
582 <section>
583 <title>Booting the new client</title>
584 <body>
585
586 <p>
587 For the new client to boot properly, you'll need to configure the bios and the
588 network card to use PXE as the first boot method - before CD-ROM or floppy. For
589 help with this consult your hardware manuals or manufacturers website. The
590 network card should get an IP address using DHCP and download the GRUB PXE
591 image using TFTP. Then, you should see a nice black and white GRUB bootmenu
592 where you will select the kernel to boot and press Enter. If everything is ok
593 the kernel should boot, mount the root filesystem using NFS and provide you
594 with a login prompt. Enjoy.
595 </p>
596
597 </body>
598 </section>
599 </chapter>
600
601 <chapter>
602 <title>Installing Gentoo from an existing Linux distribution</title>
603 <section>
604 <title>Requirements</title>
605 <body>
606
607 <p>
608 In order to install Gentoo from your existing Linux distribution you need to
609 have chroot command installed, and have a copy of the Gentoo installation
610 tarball or ISO you want to install. A network connection would be preferable if
611 you want more than what's supplied in your tarball. (by the way, a tarball is
612 just a file ending in .tbz or .tar.gz). The author used RedHat Linux 7.3 as the
613 "host" operating system, but it is not very important. Let's get started!
614 </p>
615
616 </body>
617 </section>
618 <section>
619 <title>Overview</title>
620 <body>
621
622 <p>
623 We will first allocate a partition to Gentoo by resizing our existing Linux
624 partition, mount the partition, untar the tarball that is mounted, chroot
625 inside the psuedo-system and start building. Once the bootstrap process is
626 done, we will do some final configuration on the system so as to make sure it
627 boots, then we are ready to reboot and use Gentoo.
628 </p>
629
630 </body>
631 </section>
632 <section>
633 <title>How should we make space for Gentoo?</title>
634 <body>
635
636 <p>
637 The root partition is the filesystem mounted under <path>/</path>. A quick run
638 of mount on my system shows what I am talking about. We well also use df (disk
639 free) to see how much space I have left and how I will be resizing. Note that
640 it is not mandatory to resize your root partition! You could be resizing
641 anything else supported by our resizer, but let's talk about that later.
642 </p>
643
644 <pre caption="Filesystem information">
645 # <i>mount</i>
646 /dev/hdb2 on / type ext3 (rw)
647 none on /proc type proc (rw)
648 none on /dev/pts type devpts (rw,gid=5,mode=620)
649 none on /dev/shm type tmpfs (rw,nodev,nosuid,noexec)
650 # <i>df -h </i>
651 Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
652 /dev/hdb2 4.0G 1.9G 2.4G 82% /
653 none 38M 0 38M 0% /dev/shm
654 </pre>
655
656 <p>
657 As we can see, the partition mounted as <path>/</path> named
658 <path>/dev/hdb2</path> has 2.4 gigabytes free. In my case, I think I will
659 resize it as to leave 400Megs free of space, therefore allocating 2 gigabytes
660 for Gentoo. Not bad, I could have quite some stuff installed. However, think
661 that even one gigabyte is enough for most users. So let's partition this thing!
662 </p>
663
664 </body>
665 </section>
666 <section>
667 <title>Building parted to resize partition</title>
668 <body>
669
670 <p>
671 Parted is an utility supplied by the GNU foundation, an old and respectable
672 huge project whose software you are using in this very moment. There is one
673 tool, however, that is extremely useful for us at the moment. It's called
674 parted, partition editor and we can get it from
675 <uri>http://www.gnu.org/software/parted/</uri>
676 </p>
677
678 <note>
679 There are other tools for doing resize of partitions as well, but author is
680 unsure/uninterested whether PartitionMagic(tm) or other software of the kind do
681 the job. It's the reader's job to check them out
682 </note>
683
684 <p>
685 Look up on that page the type of filesystem you want to resize and see if
686 parted can do it. If not, you're out of luck, you will have to destroy some
687 partition to make space for Gentoo, and reinstall back. Go ahead by downloading
688 the software, install it. Here we have a problem. We want to resize our Linux
689 root partition, therefore we must boot from a floppy disk a minimal linux
690 system and use previously-compiled parted copied to a diskette in order to
691 resize <path>/</path>. However, if you can unmount the partition while still
692 in Linux you are lucky, you don't need to do what follows. Just compile parted
693 and run it on an unmounted partition you chose to resize. Here's how I did it
694 for my system.
695 </p>
696
697 <impo>
698 Make sure that the operations you want to do on your partition are supported by
699 parted!
700 </impo>
701
702 <p>
703 Get the mininux boot/root disk (a 2.4-powered mini Linux distribution on a
704 floppy - free of charge) from <uri>http://mininux.free.fr/uk/</uri>, create a
705 floppy as suggested in the Documentation that accompanies the software package
706 and insert a new floppy in the drive for the next step.
707 </p>
708
709 <note>
710 Note again that Linux is synonym of "There's one more way to do it". Your
711 objective is to run parted on an unmounted partition so it can do its work. You
712 might use some other boot/root diskset other than mininux. You might not even
713 need to do this step at all, that is only umount the filesystem you want to
714 repartition in your Linux session and run parted on it.
715 </note>
716
717 <pre caption="Utility disk creation">
718 # <i>mkfs.minix /dev/fd0</i>
719 480 inodes
720 1440 blocks
721 Firstdatazone=19 (19)
722 Zonesize=1024
723 Maxsize=268966912
724 </pre>
725
726 <p>
727 We will now proceed with the build of parted. If it's not already downloaded
728 and untarred, do so now and cd into the corresponding directory. Now run the
729 following set of commands to build the utility and copy it to your floppy disk.
730 </p>
731
732 <pre caption="Building the utility floppy">
733 # <i> mkdir /floppy; mount -t minix /dev/fd0 /floppy &amp;&amp;
734 export CFLAGS="-O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer -static" &amp;&amp; ./configure
735 &amp;&amp; make &amp;&amp; cp parted/parted /floppy &amp;&amp; umount /floppy </i>
736 </pre>
737
738 <p>
739 Congratulations, you are ready to reboot and resize your partition. Do this
740 only after taking a quick look at the parted documentation on the GNU website.
741 The resize should take under 30 minutes for the largest hard-drives, be
742 patient. Reboot your system with the mininux boot disk (just pop it inside),
743 and once you are logged in, switch the disk in the drive with your utility disk
744 we have created above and type mount /dev/fd0 /floppy to have parted under
745 /floppy. There you go. Run parted and you will be able to resize your
746 partition. Once this lenghty process done, we are ready to have the real fun,
747 by installing Gentoo. Reboot back into your old Linux system for now. Drive you
748 wish to operate on is the drive containing the partition we want to resize. For
749 example, if we want to resize /dev/hda3, the drive is /dev/hda
750 </p>
751
752 <pre caption="Commands to run once logged into mininux system">
753 # <i>mount /dev/fd0 /floppy </i>
754 # <i>cd /floppy; ./parted [drive you wish to operate on]</i>
755 (parted) <i> print </i>
756 Disk geometry for /dev/hdb: 0.000-9787.148 megabytes
757 Disk label type: msdos
758 Minor Start End Type Filesystem Flags
759 1 0.031 2953.125 primary ntfs
760 3 2953.125 3133.265 primary linux-swap
761 2 3133.266 5633.085 primary ext3
762 4 5633.086 9787.148 extended
763 5 5633.117 6633.210 logical
764 6 6633.242 9787.148 logical ext3
765 (parted) <i> help resize </i>
766 resize MINOR START END resize filesystem on partition MINOR
767
768 MINOR is the partition number used by Linux. On msdos disk labels, the
769 primary partitions number from 1-4, and logical partitions are 5
770 onwards.
771 START and END are in megabytes
772 (parted) <i> resize 2 3133.266 4000.000 </i>
773 </pre>
774
775 <impo>
776 Be patient! The computer is working! Just look at the hardware LED on your case
777 to see that it is really working. This should take between 2 and 30 minutes.
778 </impo>
779
780 <p>
781 Once you have resized, boot back into your old linux as described. Then go to
782 <uri link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=1&amp;chap=4">The Gentoo
783 Handbook: Preparing the Disks</uri> and follow the instructions. When
784 chrooting, use the following command to flush your environment:
785 </p>
786
787 <pre caption="Flushing the environment during chroot">
788 # <i>env -i HOME=$HOME TERM=$TERM chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
789 # <i>/usr/sbin/env-update</i>
790 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
791 </pre>
792
793 <p>
794 Enjoy!
795 </p>
796
797 </body>
798 </section>
799 </chapter>
800
801 </guide>

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