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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/altinstall.xml,v 1.56 2005/06/05 15:10:58 neysx Exp $ -->
3 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4
5 <guide link="/doc/en/altinstall.xml">
6
7 <title>The Gentoo Linux alternative installation method HOWTO</title>
8
9 <author title="Contributor">
10 <mail link="gerrynjr@gentoo.org">Gerald Normandin Jr.</mail>
11 </author>
12 <author title="Contributor">
13 <mail link="lordviram@rebelpacket.net">Travis Tilley</mail>
14 </author>
15 <author title="Contributor">
16 <mail link="volontir@yahoo.com">Oleg Raisky</mail>
17 </author>
18 <author title="Contributor">
19 <mail link="luminousit@hotmail.com">Alex Garbutt</mail>
20 </author>
21 <author title="Contributor">
22 <mail link="alex@openvs.com">Alexandre Georges</mail>
23 </author>
24 <author title="Contributor">
25 <mail link="vargen@b0d.org">Magnus Backanda</mail>
26 </author>
27 <author title="Contributor">
28 <mail link="davoid@gentoo.org">Faust A. Tanasescu</mail>
29 </author>
30 <author title="Contributor">
31 <mail link="aliz@gentoo.org">Daniel Ahlberg</mail>
32 </author>
33 <author title="Editor">
34 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
35 </author>
36 <author title="Reviewer">
37 Ken Nowack <!-- antifa@gentoo.org seems out -->
38 </author>
39 <author title="Editor">
40 <mail link="blubber@gentoo.org">Tiemo Kieft</mail>
41 </author>
42 <author title="Editor">
43 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
44 </author>
45 <author title="Editor">
46 <mail link="smithj@gentoo.org">Jonathan Smith</mail>
47 </author>
48
49
50 <abstract>
51 This HOWTO is meant to be a repository of alternative Gentoo installation
52 methods, for those with special installation needs such as lack of a cdrom
53 or a computer that can't boot cds.
54 </abstract>
55
56 <license/>
57
58 <version>0.63</version>
59 <date>2005-06-19</date>
60
61 <chapter>
62 <title>About this document</title>
63 <section>
64 <body>
65
66 <p>
67 If the standard boot-from-CD install method doesn't work for you (or you just
68 don't like it), help is now here. This document serves to provide a repository
69 of alternative Gentoo Linux installation techniques to those who need them.
70 Or, if you prefer, it serves as a place to put your wacky installation methods.
71 If you have an installation method that you yourself find useful, or you have
72 devised an amusing way of installing Gentoo, please don't hesitate to write
73 something up and post it on <uri link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">Bugzilla</uri>.
74 </p>
75
76 </body>
77 </section>
78 </chapter>
79
80 <chapter>
81 <title>Booting the LiveCD with Smart BootManager</title>
82 <section>
83 <body>
84
85 <p>
86 Download Smart BootManager available from
87 <uri>http://btmgr.sourceforge.net/download.html</uri>.
88 Linux source or binary format and windows .exe versions are available as well
89 as many language packs. However, at this time, the preferred method would be to
90 use the binary format, as the source will not compile with newer versions of
91 NASM.
92 </p>
93
94 <p>
95 Either compile the package from source or just grab the binary. There are
96 several options that can be utilized while creating your boot floppy, as seen
97 below.
98 </p>
99
100 <pre caption="Smart BootManager Options">
101 sbminst [-t theme] [-d drv] [-b backup_file] [-u backup_file]
102
103 -t theme select the theme to be used, in which the theme could be:
104 us = English theme de = German theme
105 hu = Hungarian theme zh = Chinese theme
106 ru = Russian theme cz = Czech theme
107 es = Spanish theme fr = French theme
108 pt = Portuguese theme
109
110
111 -d drv set the drive that you want to install Smart BootManager on;
112 for Linux:
113 /dev/fd0 is the first floppy driver,
114 /dev/hda is the first IDE harddisk driver.
115 /dev/sda is the first SCSI harddisk driver.
116 for DOS:
117 0 is the first floppy drive
118 128 is the first hard drive;
119
120 -c disable CD-ROM booting feature;
121
122 -b backup_file backup the data that will be overwritten for
123 future uninstallation;
124
125 -u backup_file uninstall Smart BootManager, should be used alone;
126
127 -y do not ask any question or warning.
128 </pre>
129
130 <pre caption="Using sbminst to build the boot floppy">
131 # <i>sbminst -t us -d /dev/fd0</i>
132 </pre>
133
134 <note>
135 Replace fd0 with your respective floppy device name if yours is different.
136 </note>
137
138 <p>
139 Now simply place the floppy in the floppy drive of the computer you'd like to
140 boot the LiveCD on, as well as placing the LiveCD in the CD-ROM and boot the
141 computer.
142 </p>
143
144 <p>
145 You'll be greeted with the Smart BootManager dialog. Select your CD-ROM and
146 press ENTER to boot the LiveCD. Once booted proceed with the standard
147 installation instructions.
148 </p>
149
150 <p>
151 Further information on Smart BootManager may be found at
152 <uri>http://btmgr.sourceforge.net/</uri>
153 </p>
154
155 </body>
156 </section>
157 </chapter>
158
159 <chapter>
160 <title>Knoppix Installation</title>
161 <section>
162 <body>
163
164 <note>
165 Knoppix is only available for x86 users.
166 </note>
167
168 <!-- this works with knoppix 3.6+ and gentoo 2004.3, 2005.0-->
169
170 <p>
171 Booting from the <uri link="http://www.knoppix.org/">Knoppix</uri> LiveCD is a
172 way to have a fully functional system while you're compiling Gentoo. Tux Racer
173 will help you pass the time while you wait, and you can use OpenOffice for
174 work.
175 </p>
176
177 <warn>
178 Be aware that if you save anything in Knoppix's home directory while waiting
179 for your Gentoo system to install, it will not be available when you reboot
180 into Gentoo. Be sure to save important files on the hard disk or on some other
181 computer!
182 </warn>
183
184 <p>
185 Boot from the Knoppix CD. If you have Knoppix 3.6-3.8.2, you will need to
186 specify <c>knoppix26</c> as a boot option to load a 2.6 kernel. If you miss
187 this step, when you <c>chroot</c>, you will recieve an error saying that your
188 kernel is too old. If, however, you have Knoppix 3.9+, this step is
189 unnecessary, since the 2.6 kernel is default.
190 </p>
191
192 <p>
193 By default Knoppix boots into a KDE desktop. Open a konsole and <c>su -</c>
194 so you can change your password. This lets you set the root password for
195 Knoppix. You can now configure <c>sshd</c> for remote login, at your
196 preference.
197 </p>
198
199 <pre caption="Creating the /mnt/gentoo mountpoint">
200 # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</i>
201 </pre>
202
203 <p>
204 At this point, you can pick up with the standard install documentation at <uri
205 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=1&amp;chap=4">part 4</uri>.
206 However, when you are asked to mount the proc system, issue the following
207 command instead:
208 </p>
209
210 <pre caption="Bind-mounting the proc pseudo filesystem">
211 # <i>mount -o bind /proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
212 </pre>
213
214 <!--
215 Commenting out due to #78716. If it needs to be restated again, note
216 that some will require to bind-mount it, others don't, and that you have
217 a 50-50 chance of winning the gold strike.
218
219
220 <p>
221 You will also need to bind-mount the device tree to resolve permission issues
222 with various device files.
223 </p>
224
225 < ! - -
226 If this doesn't seem to work, #71901 mentions the following command:
227 mount -o remount,rw,nosuid /dev/hd* /mnt/hd*
228 before all. Looks weird to me, but if this doesn't work, we might want to try
229 that.
230 - - >
231
232 <pre caption="Bind-mounting the device tree">
233 # <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
234 </pre>
235 -->
236
237 </body>
238 </section>
239 </chapter>
240
241 <chapter>
242 <title>Installing from Stage 1 without network access</title>
243 <section>
244 <body>
245
246 <p>
247 Burn a LiveCD iso.
248 </p>
249
250 <p>
251 Get the latest portage snapshot from
252 <uri>http://distro.ibiblio.org/pub/linux/distributions/gentoo/snapshots/</uri>
253 (or your favorite <uri
254 link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror</uri>). Either place
255 this tarball on an existing partition on the computer your are installing to,
256 or burn it to a CD.
257 </p>
258
259 <p>
260 Follow all instructions of the Gentoo Installation Handbook up to <c>chroot
261 /mnt/gentoo</c> in Chapter 6. If you only have one CD-ROM remember to use the
262 <c>docache</c> option while booting so you can unmount the LiveCD and mount
263 your portage snapshot CD.
264 </p>
265
266 <p>
267 Open a new console (Alt-F2), we will continue with the Install Doc up to
268 running the bootstrap.sh script.
269 </p>
270
271 <warn>
272 Older realeases of the livecd required you to change the password using the
273 <c>passwd</c> command, before logging in manually.
274 </warn>
275
276 <p>
277 Go back to the first console (Alt-F1, without chroot) and mount a second CD on
278 <path>/mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2</path>. Copy the portage tarball from cdrom2 and
279 unpack it to <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr</path>.
280 </p>
281
282 <pre caption="Mount the snapshot cd">
283 # <i>umount /mnt/cdrom</i>
284 # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2</i>
285 # <i>mount /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2</i>
286 # <i>cp /mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2/portage-$date.tar.bz2 /mnt/gentoo/usr</i>
287 # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo/usr</i>
288 # <i>tar -xvjpf portage-$date.tar.bz2</i>
289 </pre>
290
291 <p>
292 Switch back to the F2 console. Now if you try to run bootstrap.sh it will fail
293 because it won't be able to download any files. We will fetch these files
294 somewhere else and put them in /usr/portage/distfiles (on F2 console).
295 </p>
296
297 <p>
298 You need a list of Stage1 packages: glibc, baselayout, texinfo, gettext, zlib,
299 binutils, gcc, ncurses plus their dependencies.
300 </p>
301
302 <note>
303 Note that you need the versions of each package synced with your portage tree.
304 </note>
305
306 <pre caption="Getting the download listing">
307 <comment>(Don't forget the 2 in front of the &gt;)</comment>
308 # <i>emerge -fp glibc baselayout texinfo gettext zlib binutils gcc ncurses 2&gt; stage1.list</i>
309 # <i>mount -t vfat /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy</i>
310 # <i>cp /mnt/gentoo/stage1.list /mnt/floppy</i>
311 # <i>umount /mnt/floppy</i>
312 </pre>
313
314 <p>
315 Take the floppy to the computer that has fast access. If you take a look at the
316 <path>stage1.list</path> file, you'll see that it provides you with several
317 URLs to download. Sadly, it lists several possible URLs for each package as
318 well, which isn't what you want. Strip all but one of the URLs first:
319 </p>
320
321 <pre caption="Stripping URLs">
322 <comment>(This script is depending on the output format given by emerge which
323 might change in the future without further notice - use with caution!)</comment>
324 # <i>cut -f 1 -d ' ' stage1.list > stage1.download</i>
325 </pre>
326
327 <p>
328 Now use <c>wget</c> to fetch all the listed sources:
329 </p>
330
331 <pre caption="Use wget to grab your source packages">
332 # <i>wget -N -i stage1.download</i>
333 </pre>
334
335 <p>
336 Once you have obtained all the files, take them to the computer and copy them
337 to <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr/portage/distfiles</path>. You will then be able to run
338 <c>bootstrap.sh</c>. Repeat this same wget fetch and place procedure for stage2
339 and 3.
340 </p>
341
342 </body>
343 </section>
344 </chapter>
345
346 <chapter>
347 <title>Diskless install using PXE boot</title>
348 <section>
349 <title>Requirements</title>
350 <body>
351
352 <p>
353 You will need a network card on the diskless client that uses the PXE protocol
354 to boot, like many 3com cards. You will also need a BIOS that supports booting
355 from PXE.
356 </p>
357
358 </body>
359 </section>
360 <section>
361 <title>Server base setup</title>
362 <body>
363
364 <p>
365 Create directories: The first thing to do is to create the directories where
366 your diskless system will be stored. Create a directory called
367 <path>/diskless</path> which houses a directory for each diskless client. For
368 the rest of this howto we'll be working on the client 'eta'.
369 </p>
370
371 <pre caption="directory setup">
372 # <i>mkdir /diskless</i>
373 # <i>mkdir /diskless/eta</i>
374 # <i>mkdir /diskless/eta/boot</i>
375 </pre>
376
377 <p>
378 DHCP and TFTP setup: The client will get boot informations using DHCP and
379 download all the required files using TFTP. Just emerge DHCP and configure it
380 for your basic needs. Then, add the following on
381 <path>/etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf</path>.
382 </p>
383
384 <note>
385 This provide a static IP address for the client and the path of a PXE boot
386 image, here pxegrub. You have to replace the MAC address of the Ethernet card
387 of the client and the directory where you will put the client files with the
388 one you use.
389 </note>
390
391 <p>
392 For DHCPd, run <c>emerge dhcp</c> (or any other DHCP server of your choice).
393 Make sure that the correct interface is selected in
394 <path>/etc/conf.d/dhcp</path>.
395 </p>
396
397 <pre caption="dhcp.conf">
398 option option-150 code 150 = text ;
399 ddns-update-style none ;
400 host eta {
401 hardware ethernet 00:00:00:00:00:00;
402 fixed-address <i>ip.add.re.ss</i>;
403 option option-150 "/eta/boot/grub.lst";
404 filename "/eta/boot/pxegrub";
405 }
406 </pre>
407
408 <p>
409 For TFTP, emerge <c>app-admin/tftp-hpa</c>. In
410 <path>/etc/conf.d/in.tftpd</path>, put the following :
411 </p>
412
413 <pre caption="in.tftpd">
414 INTFTPD_PATH="/diskless"
415 INTFTPD_USER="nobody"
416 INTFTPD_OPTS="-u ${INTFTPD_USER} -l -vvvvvv -p -c -s ${INTFTPD_PATH}"
417 </pre>
418
419 <p>
420 Setup GRUB: To provide PXE booting I use GRUB. You have to compile it by
421 yourself to enable the PXE image compilation ... but that's quite easy. First,
422 get the latest version of the GRUB source code (<c>emerge -f grub</c> will
423 place the tarball in <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path>). Copy the tarball to
424 <path>/diskless</path> and then build it to make the pxe capable binary. Once
425 the binary is built, copy it to the diskless client's boot directory. Then edit
426 it's grub.lst config file.
427 </p>
428
429 <pre caption="grub setup">
430 # <i>tar zxvf grub-0.92.tar.gz</i>
431 # <i>cd grub-0.92</i>
432 # <i>./configure --help</i>
433 <comment>(In the options you will see a list of supported network interface drivers.
434 Select the driver compatible with your client's network card. Herein referenced
435 as $nic)</comment>
436 # <i>./configure --enable-diskless --enable-$nic</i>
437 # <i>make</i>
438 # <i>cd stage2</i>
439 # <i>cp pxegrub /diskless/eta/boot/pxegrub</i>
440 # <i>nano -w /diskless/eta/boot/grub.lst</i>
441 </pre>
442
443 <pre caption="grub.lst">
444 default 0
445 timeout 30
446
447 title=Diskless Gentoo
448 root (nd)
449 kernel /eta/bzImage ip=dhcp root=/dev/nfs nfsroot=<i>ip.add.re.ss</i>:/diskless/eta
450
451 <comment># For the nfsroot option, the IP address is the one of the server and
452 the directory is the one where your diskless client files are located (on the server).</comment>
453 </pre>
454
455 <p>
456 Setup NFS: NFS is quite easy to configure. The only thing you have to do is to
457 add a line on the <path>/etc/exports</path> config file :
458 </p>
459
460 <pre caption="/etc/exports">
461 # <i>nano -w /etc/exports</i>
462 # /etc/exports: NFS file systems being exported. See exports(5).
463 /diskless/eta eta(rw,sync,no_root_squash)
464 </pre>
465
466 <p>
467 Update your hosts: One important thing to do now is to modify your
468 <path>/etc/hosts</path> file to fit your needs.
469 </p>
470
471 <pre caption="/etc/hosts">
472 127.0.0.1 localhost
473
474 192.168.1.10 eta.example.com eta
475 192.168.1.20 sigma.example.com sigma
476 </pre>
477
478 </body>
479 </section>
480 <section>
481 <title>Creating the system on the server</title>
482 <body>
483
484 <p>
485 You might want to reboot the server with a Gentoo LiveCD, although you can
486 very well continue immediately if you know how to proceed with the Gentoo
487 Installation Instructions from an existing installation. Follow the standard
488 install procedure as explained in the Gentoo Install Howto BUT with the
489 following differences:
490 When you mount the file system, do the following (where hdaX is the partition
491 where you created the /diskless directory). You do not need to mount any other
492 partitions as all of the files will reside in the <path>/diskless/eta</path>
493 directory.
494 </p>
495
496 <pre caption="mounting the filesystem">
497 #<i> mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
498 </pre>
499
500 <p>
501 Stage tarballs and chroot: This example uses a stage3 tarball. Mount
502 <path>/proc</path> to your diskless directory and chroot into it to continue
503 with the install. Then follow the installation manual until kernel
504 configuration.
505 </p>
506
507 <warn>
508 Be very careful where you extract your stage tarball. You don't want to end up
509 extracting over your existing installation.
510 </warn>
511
512 <pre caption="extracting the stage tarball">
513 # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/</i>
514 # <i>tar -xvjpf /mnt/cdrom/gentoo/stage3-*.tar.bz2</i>
515 # <i>mount -t proc /proc /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/proc</i>
516 # <i>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/etc/resolv.conf</i>
517 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/ /bin/bash</i>
518 # <i>env-update</i>
519 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
520 </pre>
521
522 <p>
523 Kernel configuration: When you do the <c>make menuconfig</c> of your kernel
524 configuration, don't forget to enable the following options with the others
525 recommended into the install howto.
526 </p>
527
528 <pre caption="menuconfig options">
529 - Your network card device support
530 <comment>(In the kernel, *not* as a module!)</comment>
531
532 - Under "Networking options" :
533
534 [*] TCP/IP networking
535 [*] IP: kernel level autoconfiguration
536 [*] IP: DHCP support
537 [*] IP: BOOTP support
538
539
540 - Under "File systems --> Network File Systems" :
541
542 &lt;*&gt; NFS file system support
543 [*] Provide NFSv3 client support
544 [*] Root file system on NFS
545 </pre>
546
547 <p>
548 Save the kernel in your chrooted <path>/</path> (not in <path>/boot</path>)
549 according to the pxegrub setting defined earlier. Next configure your
550 diskless client's <path>/etc/fstab</path>.
551 </p>
552
553 <pre caption="/etc/fstab">
554 # <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
555 /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro 0 0
556 proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
557 tmpfs /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
558 </pre>
559
560 <p>
561 You also need to prevent the client to run a filesystem check:
562 </p>
563
564 <pre caption="Preventing the client to run a filesystem check">
565 # <i>touch /fastboot</i>
566 # <i>echo "touch /fastboot" &gt;&gt; /etc/conf.d/local.start</i>
567 </pre>
568
569 <p>
570 Install <c>nfs-utils</c> since your client will heavily depend on it:
571 </p>
572
573 <pre caption="Installing nfs-utils">
574 # <i>emerge nfs-utils</i>
575 </pre>
576
577 <p>
578 Bootloader. Don't install another bootloader because we already have one -
579 pxegrub. Simply finish the install and restart the server. Start the services
580 you'll need to boot the new client: DHCP, TFTPD, and NFS.
581 </p>
582
583 <pre caption="Starting services">
584 # <i>/etc/init.d/dhcp start</i>
585 # <i>/etc/init.d/in.tftpd start</i>
586 # <i>/etc/init.d/nfs start</i>
587 </pre>
588
589 </body>
590 </section>
591 <section>
592 <title>Booting the new client</title>
593 <body>
594
595 <p>
596 For the new client to boot properly, you'll need to configure the bios and the
597 network card to use PXE as the first boot method - before CD-ROM or floppy. For
598 help with this consult your hardware manuals or manufacturers website. The
599 network card should get an IP address using DHCP and download the GRUB PXE
600 image using TFTP. Then, you should see a nice black and white GRUB bootmenu
601 where you will select the kernel to boot and press Enter. If everything is ok
602 the kernel should boot, mount the root filesystem using NFS and provide you
603 with a login prompt. Enjoy.
604 </p>
605
606 </body>
607 </section>
608 </chapter>
609
610 <chapter>
611 <title>Installing Gentoo from an existing Linux distribution</title>
612 <section>
613 <title>Requirements</title>
614 <body>
615
616 <p>
617 In order to install Gentoo from your existing Linux distribution you need to
618 have chroot command installed, and have a copy of the Gentoo installation
619 tarball or ISO you want to install. A network connection would be preferable if
620 you want more than what's supplied in your tarball. (by the way, a tarball is
621 just a file ending in .tbz or .tar.gz). The author used RedHat Linux 7.3 as the
622 "host" operating system, but it is not very important. Let's get started!
623 </p>
624
625 </body>
626 </section>
627 <section>
628 <title>Overview</title>
629 <body>
630
631 <p>
632 We will first allocate a partition to Gentoo by resizing our existing Linux
633 partition, mount the partition, untar the tarball that is mounted, chroot
634 inside the pseudo-system and start building. Once the bootstrap process is
635 done, we will do some final configuration on the system so as to make sure it
636 boots, then we are ready to reboot and use Gentoo.
637 </p>
638
639 </body>
640 </section>
641 <section>
642 <title>How should we make space for Gentoo?</title>
643 <body>
644
645 <p>
646 The root partition is the filesystem mounted under <path>/</path>. A quick run
647 of mount on my system shows what I am talking about. We well also use df (disk
648 free) to see how much space I have left and how I will be resizing. Note that
649 it is not mandatory to resize your root partition! You could be resizing
650 anything else supported by our resizer, but let's talk about that later.
651 </p>
652
653 <pre caption="Filesystem information">
654 # <i>mount</i>
655 /dev/hdb2 on / type ext3 (rw)
656 none on /proc type proc (rw)
657 none on /dev/pts type devpts (rw,gid=5,mode=620)
658 none on /dev/shm type tmpfs (rw,nodev,nosuid,noexec)
659 # <i>df -h </i>
660 Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
661 /dev/hdb2 4.0G 1.9G 2.4G 82% /
662 none 38M 0 38M 0% /dev/shm
663 </pre>
664
665 <p>
666 As we can see, the partition mounted as <path>/</path> named
667 <path>/dev/hdb2</path> has 2.4 gigabytes free. In my case, I think I will
668 resize it as to leave 400Megs free of space, therefore allocating 2 gigabytes
669 for Gentoo. Not bad, I could have quite some stuff installed. However, think
670 that even one gigabyte is enough for most users. So let's partition this thing!
671 </p>
672
673 </body>
674 </section>
675 <section>
676 <title>Building parted to resize partition</title>
677 <body>
678
679 <p>
680 Parted is an utility supplied by the GNU foundation, an old and respectable
681 huge project whose software you are using in this very moment. There is one
682 tool, however, that is extremely useful for us at the moment. It's called
683 parted, partition editor and we can get it from
684 <uri>http://www.gnu.org/software/parted/</uri>
685 </p>
686
687 <note>
688 There are other tools for doing resize of partitions as well, but author is
689 unsure/uninterested whether PartitionMagic(tm) or other software of the kind do
690 the job. It's the reader's job to check them out
691 </note>
692
693 <p>
694 Look up on that page the type of filesystem you want to resize and see if
695 parted can do it. If not, you're out of luck, you will have to destroy some
696 partition to make space for Gentoo, and reinstall back. Go ahead by downloading
697 the software, install it. Here we have a problem. We want to resize our Linux
698 root partition, therefore we must boot from a floppy disk a minimal linux
699 system and use previously-compiled parted copied to a diskette in order to
700 resize <path>/</path>. However, if you can unmount the partition while still
701 in Linux you are lucky, you don't need to do what follows. Just compile parted
702 and run it on an unmounted partition you chose to resize. Here's how I did it
703 for my system.
704 </p>
705
706 <impo>
707 Make sure that the operations you want to do on your partition are supported by
708 parted!
709 </impo>
710
711 <p>
712 Get the mininux boot/root disk (a 2.4-powered mini Linux distribution on a
713 floppy - free of charge) from <uri>http://mininux.free.fr/uk/</uri>, create a
714 floppy as suggested in the Documentation that accompanies the software package
715 and insert a new floppy in the drive for the next step.
716 </p>
717
718 <note>
719 Note again that Linux is synonym of "There's one more way to do it". Your
720 objective is to run parted on an unmounted partition so it can do its work. You
721 might use some other boot/root diskset other than mininux. You might not even
722 need to do this step at all, that is only umount the filesystem you want to
723 repartition in your Linux session and run parted on it.
724 </note>
725
726 <pre caption="Utility disk creation">
727 # <i>mkfs.minix /dev/fd0</i>
728 480 inodes
729 1440 blocks
730 Firstdatazone=19 (19)
731 Zonesize=1024
732 Maxsize=268966912
733 </pre>
734
735 <p>
736 We will now proceed with the build of parted. If it's not already downloaded
737 and untarred, do so now and cd into the corresponding directory. Now run the
738 following set of commands to build the utility and copy it to your floppy disk.
739 </p>
740
741 <pre caption="Building the utility floppy">
742 # <i> mkdir /floppy; mount -t minix /dev/fd0 /floppy &amp;&amp;
743 export CFLAGS="-O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer -static" &amp;&amp; ./configure
744 &amp;&amp; make &amp;&amp; cp parted/parted /floppy &amp;&amp; umount /floppy </i>
745 </pre>
746
747 <p>
748 Congratulations, you are ready to reboot and resize your partition. Do this
749 only after taking a quick look at the parted documentation on the GNU website.
750 The resize should take under 30 minutes for the largest hard-drives, be
751 patient. Reboot your system with the mininux boot disk (just pop it inside),
752 and once you are logged in, switch the disk in the drive with your utility disk
753 we have created above and type mount /dev/fd0 /floppy to have parted under
754 /floppy. There you go. Run parted and you will be able to resize your
755 partition. Once this lenghty process done, we are ready to have the real fun,
756 by installing Gentoo. Reboot back into your old Linux system for now. Drive you
757 wish to operate on is the drive containing the partition we want to resize. For
758 example, if we want to resize /dev/hda3, the drive is /dev/hda
759 </p>
760
761 <pre caption="Commands to run once logged into mininux system">
762 # <i>mount /dev/fd0 /floppy </i>
763 # <i>cd /floppy; ./parted [drive you wish to operate on]</i>
764 (parted) <i> print </i>
765 Disk geometry for /dev/hdb: 0.000-9787.148 megabytes
766 Disk label type: msdos
767 Minor Start End Type Filesystem Flags
768 1 0.031 2953.125 primary ntfs
769 3 2953.125 3133.265 primary linux-swap
770 2 3133.266 5633.085 primary ext3
771 4 5633.086 9787.148 extended
772 5 5633.117 6633.210 logical
773 6 6633.242 9787.148 logical ext3
774 (parted) <i> help resize </i>
775 resize MINOR START END resize filesystem on partition MINOR
776
777 MINOR is the partition number used by Linux. On msdos disk labels, the
778 primary partitions number from 1-4, and logical partitions are 5
779 onwards.
780 START and END are in megabytes
781 (parted) <i> resize 2 3133.266 4000.000 </i>
782 </pre>
783
784 <impo>
785 Be patient! The computer is working! Just look at the hardware LED on your case
786 to see that it is really working. This should take between 2 and 30 minutes.
787 </impo>
788
789 <p>
790 Once you have resized, boot back into your old linux as described. Then go to
791 <uri link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=1&amp;chap=4">The Gentoo
792 Handbook: Preparing the Disks</uri> and follow the instructions. When
793 chrooting, use the following command to flush your environment:
794 </p>
795
796 <pre caption="Flushing the environment during chroot">
797 # <i>env -i HOME=$HOME TERM=$TERM chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
798 # <i>/usr/sbin/env-update</i>
799 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
800 </pre>
801
802 <p>
803 Enjoy!
804 </p>
805
806 </body>
807 </section>
808 </chapter>
809
810 </guide>

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