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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/altinstall.xml,v 1.63 2006/07/21 08:10:19 rane Exp $ -->
3 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4
5 <guide link="/doc/en/altinstall.xml">
6
7 <title>The Gentoo Linux alternative installation method HOWTO</title>
8
9 <author title="Contributor">
10 <mail link="gerrynjr@gentoo.org">Gerald Normandin Jr.</mail>
11 </author>
12 <author title="Contributor">
13 <mail link="lordviram@rebelpacket.net">Travis Tilley</mail>
14 </author>
15 <author title="Contributor">
16 <mail link="volontir@yahoo.com">Oleg Raisky</mail>
17 </author>
18 <author title="Contributor">
19 <mail link="luminousit@hotmail.com">Alex Garbutt</mail>
20 </author>
21 <author title="Contributor">
22 <mail link="alex@openvs.com">Alexandre Georges</mail>
23 </author>
24 <author title="Contributor">
25 <mail link="vargen@b0d.org">Magnus Backanda</mail>
26 </author>
27 <author title="Contributor">
28 <mail link="davoid@gentoo.org">Faust A. Tanasescu</mail>
29 </author>
30 <author title="Contributor">
31 <mail link="aliz@gentoo.org">Daniel Ahlberg</mail>
32 </author>
33 <author title="Editor">
34 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
35 </author>
36 <author title="Reviewer">
37 Ken Nowack <!-- antifa@gentoo.org seems out -->
38 </author>
39 <author title="Editor">
40 <mail link="blubber@gentoo.org">Tiemo Kieft</mail>
41 </author>
42 <author title="Editor">
43 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
44 </author>
45 <author title="Editor">
46 <mail link="smithj@gentoo.org">Jonathan Smith</mail>
47 </author>
48
49 <abstract>
50 This HOWTO is meant to be a repository of alternative Gentoo installation
51 methods, for those with special installation needs such as lack of a cdrom
52 or a computer that can't boot cds.
53 </abstract>
54
55 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
56 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
57 <license/>
58
59 <version>0.67</version>
60 <date>2006-07-20</date>
61
62 <chapter>
63 <title>About this document</title>
64 <section>
65 <body>
66
67 <p>
68 If the standard boot-from-CD install method doesn't work for you (or you just
69 don't like it), help is now here. This document serves to provide a repository
70 of alternative Gentoo Linux installation techniques to those who need them.
71 Or, if you prefer, it serves as a place to put your wacky installation methods.
72 If you have an installation method that you yourself find useful, or you have
73 devised an amusing way of installing Gentoo, please don't hesitate to write
74 something up and post it on <uri link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">Bugzilla</uri>.
75 </p>
76
77 </body>
78 </section>
79 </chapter>
80
81 <chapter>
82 <title>Booting the Install CD with Smart BootManager</title>
83 <section>
84 <body>
85
86 <p>
87 Download Smart BootManager available from
88 <uri>http://btmgr.sourceforge.net/download.html</uri>.
89 Linux source or binary format and windows .exe versions are available as well
90 as many language packs. However, at this time, the preferred method would be to
91 use the binary format, as the source will not compile with newer versions of
92 NASM.
93 </p>
94
95 <p>
96 Either compile the package from source or just grab the binary. There are
97 several options that can be utilized while creating your boot floppy, as seen
98 below.
99 </p>
100
101 <pre caption="Smart BootManager Options">
102 sbminst [-t theme] [-d drv] [-b backup_file] [-u backup_file]
103
104 -t theme select the theme to be used, in which the theme could be:
105 us = English theme de = German theme
106 hu = Hungarian theme zh = Chinese theme
107 ru = Russian theme cz = Czech theme
108 es = Spanish theme fr = French theme
109 pt = Portuguese theme
110
111
112 -d drv set the drive that you want to install Smart BootManager on;
113 for Linux:
114 /dev/fd0 is the first floppy driver,
115 /dev/hda is the first IDE harddisk driver.
116 /dev/sda is the first SCSI harddisk driver.
117 for DOS:
118 0 is the first floppy drive
119 128 is the first hard drive;
120
121 -c disable CD-ROM booting feature;
122
123 -b backup_file backup the data that will be overwritten for
124 future uninstallation;
125
126 -u backup_file uninstall Smart BootManager, should be used alone;
127
128 -y do not ask any question or warning.
129 </pre>
130
131 <pre caption="Using sbminst to build the boot floppy">
132 # <i>sbminst -t us -d /dev/fd0</i>
133 </pre>
134
135 <note>
136 Replace <path>fd0</path> with your respective floppy device name if yours is different.
137 </note>
138
139 <p>
140 Now simply place the floppy in the floppy drive of the computer you'd like to
141 boot the Install CD on, as well as placing the Install CD in the CD-ROM and boot
142 the computer.
143 </p>
144
145 <p>
146 You'll be greeted with the Smart BootManager dialog. Select your CD-ROM and
147 press ENTER to boot the Install CD. Once booted proceed with the standard
148 installation instructions.
149 </p>
150
151 <p>
152 Further information on Smart BootManager may be found at
153 <uri>http://btmgr.sourceforge.net/</uri>
154 </p>
155
156 </body>
157 </section>
158 </chapter>
159
160 <chapter>
161 <title>Knoppix Installation</title>
162 <section>
163 <body>
164
165 <note>
166 Knoppix is only available for x86 users.
167 </note>
168
169 <!-- this works with knoppix 3.6+ and gentoo 2004.3, 2005.0-->
170
171 <p>
172 Booting from the <uri link="http://www.knoppix.org/">Knoppix</uri> LiveCD is a
173 way to have a fully functional system while you're compiling Gentoo. Tux Racer
174 will help you pass the time while you wait, and you can use OpenOffice for
175 work.
176 </p>
177
178 <warn>
179 Be aware that if you save anything in Knoppix's home directory while waiting
180 for your Gentoo system to install, it will not be available when you reboot
181 into Gentoo. Be sure to save important files on the hard disk or on some other
182 computer!
183 </warn>
184
185 <p>
186 Boot from the Knoppix CD. If you have Knoppix 3.6-3.8.2, you will need to
187 specify <c>knoppix26</c> as a boot option to load a 2.6 kernel. If you miss
188 this step, when you <c>chroot</c>, you will recieve an error saying that your
189 kernel is too old. If, however, you have Knoppix 3.9+, this step is
190 unnecessary, since the 2.6 kernel is default.
191 </p>
192
193 <p>
194 By default Knoppix boots into a KDE desktop. Open a <c>konsole</c> and <c>su -</c>
195 so you can change your password. This lets you set the root password for
196 Knoppix. You can now configure <c>sshd</c> for remote login, at your
197 preference.
198 </p>
199
200 <pre caption="Creating the /mnt/gentoo mountpoint">
201 # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</i>
202 </pre>
203
204 <p>
205 At this point, you can pick up with the standard install documentation at <uri
206 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=1&amp;chap=4">part 4</uri>.
207 However, when you are asked to mount the proc system, issue the following
208 command instead:
209 </p>
210
211 <pre caption="Bind-mounting the proc pseudo filesystem">
212 # <i>mount -o bind /proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
213 </pre>
214
215 <p>
216 Also, know that some of Portage's FEATURES will not work in knoppix. Especially
217 watch out for <c>userpriv</c> and <c>usersandbox</c>. If you find yourself
218 getting errors, it might be wise to disable some or all of the optional
219 features.
220 </p>
221
222 <!--
223 Commenting out due to #78716. If it needs to be restated again, note
224 that some will require to bind-mount it, others don't, and that you have
225 a 50-50 chance of winning the gold strike.
226
227
228 <p>
229 You will also need to bind-mount the device tree to resolve permission issues
230 with various device files.
231 </p>
232
233 < ! - -
234 If this doesn't seem to work, #71901 mentions the following command:
235 mount -o remount,rw,nosuid /dev/hd* /mnt/hd*
236 before all. Looks weird to me, but if this doesn't work, we might want to try
237 that.
238 - - >
239
240 <pre caption="Bind-mounting the device tree">
241 # <i>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/gentoo/dev</i>
242 </pre>
243 -->
244
245 </body>
246 </section>
247 </chapter>
248
249 <chapter>
250 <title>Installing from Stage 1 without network access</title>
251 <section>
252 <body>
253
254 <p>
255 Burn an Install CD ISO.
256 </p>
257
258 <p>
259 Get the latest Portage snapshot from
260 <uri>http://distro.ibiblio.org/pub/linux/distributions/gentoo/snapshots/</uri>
261 (or your favorite <uri
262 link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror</uri>). Either place
263 this tarball on an existing partition on the computer your are installing to,
264 or burn it to a CD.
265 </p>
266
267 <p>
268 Follow all instructions of the Gentoo Installation Handbook up to <c>chroot
269 /mnt/gentoo</c> in Chapter 6. If you only have one CD-ROM remember to use the
270 <c>docache</c> option while booting so you can unmount the Install CD and mount
271 your Portage snapshot CD.
272 </p>
273
274 <p>
275 Open a new console (Alt-F2), we will continue with the Install Doc up to
276 running the <c>bootstrap.sh</c> script.
277 </p>
278
279 <warn>
280 Older releases of the Install CD required you to change the password using the
281 <c>passwd</c> command, before logging in manually.
282 </warn>
283
284 <p>
285 Go back to the first console (Alt-F1, without chroot) and mount a second CD on
286 <path>/mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2</path>. Copy the Portage tarball from cdrom2 and
287 unpack it to <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr</path>.
288 </p>
289
290 <pre caption="Mount the snapshot cd">
291 # <i>umount /mnt/cdrom</i>
292 # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2</i>
293 # <i>mount /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2</i>
294 # <i>cp /mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2/portage-$date.tar.bz2 /mnt/gentoo/usr</i>
295 # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo/usr</i>
296 # <i>tar -xvjpf portage-$date.tar.bz2</i>
297 </pre>
298
299 <p>
300 Switch back to the F2 console. Now if you try to run <c>bootstrap.sh</c> it will
301 fail because it won't be able to download any files. We will fetch these files
302 somewhere else and put them in <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> (on F2
303 console).
304 </p>
305
306 <p>
307 You need a list of Stage1 packages: glibc, baselayout, texinfo, gettext, zlib,
308 binutils, gcc, ncurses plus their dependencies.
309 </p>
310
311 <note>
312 Note that you need the versions of each package synced with your Portage tree.
313 </note>
314
315 <pre caption="Getting the download listing">
316 <comment>(Don't forget the 2 in front of the &gt;)</comment>
317 # <i>emerge -fp glibc baselayout texinfo gettext zlib binutils gcc ncurses 2&gt; stage1.list</i>
318 # <i>mount -t vfat /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy</i>
319 # <i>cp /mnt/gentoo/stage1.list /mnt/floppy</i>
320 # <i>umount /mnt/floppy</i>
321 </pre>
322
323 <p>
324 Take the floppy to the computer that has fast access. If you take a look at the
325 <path>stage1.list</path> file, you'll see that it provides you with several
326 URLs to download. Sadly, it lists several possible URLs for each package as
327 well, which isn't what you want. Strip all but one of the URLs first:
328 </p>
329
330 <pre caption="Stripping URLs">
331 <comment>(This script is depending on the output format given by emerge which
332 might change in the future without further notice - use with caution!)</comment>
333 # <i>cut -f 1 -d ' ' stage1.list > stage1.download</i>
334 </pre>
335
336 <p>
337 Now use <c>wget</c> to fetch all the listed sources:
338 </p>
339
340 <pre caption="Use wget to grab your source packages">
341 # <i>wget -N -i stage1.download</i>
342 </pre>
343
344 <p>
345 Once you have obtained all the files, take them to the computer and copy them
346 to <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr/portage/distfiles</path>. You will then be able to run
347 <c>bootstrap.sh</c>. Repeat this same wget fetch and place procedure for stage2
348 and 3.
349 </p>
350
351 </body>
352 </section>
353 </chapter>
354
355 <chapter>
356 <title>Diskless install using PXE boot</title>
357 <section>
358 <title>Requirements</title>
359 <body>
360
361 <p>
362 You will need a network card on the diskless client that uses the PXE protocol
363 to boot, like many 3com cards. You will also need a BIOS that supports booting
364 from PXE.
365 </p>
366
367 </body>
368 </section>
369 <section>
370 <title>Server base setup</title>
371 <body>
372
373 <p>
374 Create directories: The first thing to do is to create the directories where
375 your diskless system will be stored. Create a directory called
376 <path>/diskless</path> which houses a directory for each diskless client. For
377 the rest of this howto we'll be working on the client 'eta'.
378 </p>
379
380 <pre caption="Directory setup">
381 # <i>mkdir /diskless</i>
382 # <i>mkdir /diskless/eta</i>
383 # <i>mkdir /diskless/eta/boot</i>
384 </pre>
385
386 <p>
387 DHCP and TFTP setup: The client will get boot informations using DHCP and
388 download all the required files using TFTP. Just emerge DHCP and configure it
389 for your basic needs. Then, add the following on
390 <path>/etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf</path>.
391 </p>
392
393 <note>
394 This provide a static IP address for the client and the path of a PXE boot
395 image, here <path>pxegrub</path>. You have to replace the MAC address of the Ethernet card
396 of the client and the directory where you will put the client files with the
397 one you use.
398 </note>
399
400 <p>
401 For DHCPd, run <c>emerge dhcp</c> (or any other DHCP server of your choice).
402 Make sure that the correct interface is selected in
403 <path>/etc/conf.d/dhcp</path>.
404 </p>
405
406 <pre caption="dhcp.conf">
407 option option-150 code 150 = text ;
408 ddns-update-style none ;
409 host eta {
410 hardware ethernet 00:00:00:00:00:00;
411 fixed-address <i>ip.add.re.ss</i>;
412 option option-150 "/eta/boot/grub.lst";
413 filename "/eta/boot/pxegrub";
414 }
415 </pre>
416
417 <p>
418 For TFTP, emerge <c>app-admin/tftp-hpa</c>. In
419 <path>/etc/conf.d/in.tftpd</path>, put the following :
420 </p>
421
422 <pre caption="in.tftpd">
423 INTFTPD_PATH="/diskless"
424 INTFTPD_USER="nobody"
425 INTFTPD_OPTS="-u ${INTFTPD_USER} -l -vvvvvv -p -c -s ${INTFTPD_PATH}"
426 </pre>
427
428 <p>
429 Setup GRUB: To provide PXE booting I use GRUB. You have to compile it by
430 yourself to enable the PXE image compilation ... but that's quite easy. First,
431 get the latest version of the GRUB source code (<c>emerge -f grub</c> will
432 place the tarball in <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path>). Copy the tarball to
433 <path>/diskless</path> and then build it to make the pxe capable binary. Once
434 the binary is built, copy it to the diskless client's boot directory. Then edit
435 it's <path>grub.lst</path> config file.
436 </p>
437
438 <pre caption="Grub setup">
439 # <i>tar zxvf grub-0.92.tar.gz</i>
440 # <i>cd grub-0.92</i>
441 # <i>./configure --help</i>
442 <comment>(In the options you will see a list of supported network interface drivers.
443 Select the driver compatible with your client's network card. Herein referenced
444 as $nic)</comment>
445 # <i>./configure --enable-diskless --enable-$nic</i>
446 # <i>make</i>
447 # <i>cd stage2</i>
448 # <i>cp pxegrub /diskless/eta/boot/pxegrub</i>
449 # <i>nano -w /diskless/eta/boot/grub.lst</i>
450 </pre>
451
452 <pre caption="grub.lst">
453 default 0
454 timeout 30
455
456 title=Diskless Gentoo
457 root (nd)
458 kernel /eta/bzImage ip=dhcp root=/dev/nfs nfsroot=<i>ip.add.re.ss</i>:/diskless/eta
459
460 <comment># For the nfsroot option, the IP address is the one of the server and
461 the directory is the one where your diskless client files are located (on the server).</comment>
462 </pre>
463
464 <p>
465 Setup NFS: NFS is quite easy to configure. The only thing you have to do is to
466 add a line on the <path>/etc/exports</path> config file :
467 </p>
468
469 <pre caption="/etc/exports">
470 # <i>nano -w /etc/exports</i>
471 # /etc/exports: NFS file systems being exported. See exports(5).
472 /diskless/eta eta(rw,sync,no_root_squash)
473 </pre>
474
475 <p>
476 Update your hosts: One important thing to do now is to modify your
477 <path>/etc/hosts</path> file to fit your needs.
478 </p>
479
480 <pre caption="/etc/hosts">
481 127.0.0.1 localhost
482
483 192.168.1.10 eta.example.com eta
484 192.168.1.20 sigma.example.com sigma
485 </pre>
486
487 </body>
488 </section>
489 <section>
490 <title>Creating the system on the server</title>
491 <body>
492
493 <p>
494 You might want to reboot the server with a Gentoo Install CD, although you can
495 very well continue immediately if you know how to proceed with the Gentoo
496 Installation Instructions from an existing installation. Follow the standard
497 install procedure as explained in the Gentoo Install Howto BUT with the
498 following differences:
499 When you mount the file system, do the following (where <path>hdaX</path> is the partition
500 where you created the <path>/diskless</path> directory). You do not need to mount any other
501 partitions as all of the files will reside in the <path>/diskless/eta</path>
502 directory.
503 </p>
504
505 <pre caption="Mounting the filesystem">
506 #<i> mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
507 </pre>
508
509 <p>
510 Stage tarballs and chroot: This example uses a stage3 tarball. Mount
511 <path>/proc</path> to your diskless directory and chroot into it to continue
512 with the install. Then follow the installation manual until kernel
513 configuration.
514 </p>
515
516 <warn>
517 Be very careful where you extract your stage tarball. You don't want to end up
518 extracting over your existing installation.
519 </warn>
520
521 <pre caption="Extracting the stage tarball">
522 # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/</i>
523 # <i>tar -xvjpf /mnt/cdrom/gentoo/stage3-*.tar.bz2</i>
524 # <i>mount -t proc /proc /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/proc</i>
525 # <i>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/etc/resolv.conf</i>
526 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/ /bin/bash</i>
527 # <i>env-update</i>
528 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
529 </pre>
530
531 <p>
532 Kernel configuration: When you do the <c>make menuconfig</c> of your kernel
533 configuration, don't forget to enable the following options with the others
534 recommended into the install howto.
535 </p>
536
537 <pre caption="menuconfig options">
538 - Your network card device support
539 <comment>(In the kernel, *not* as a module!)</comment>
540
541 - Under "Networking options" :
542
543 [*] TCP/IP networking
544 [*] IP: kernel level autoconfiguration
545 [*] IP: DHCP support
546 [*] IP: BOOTP support
547
548
549 - Under "File systems --> Network File Systems" :
550
551 &lt;*&gt; NFS file system support
552 [*] Provide NFSv3 client support
553 [*] Root file system on NFS
554 </pre>
555
556 <p>
557 Save the kernel in your chrooted <path>/</path> (not in <path>/boot</path>)
558 according to the pxegrub setting defined earlier. Next configure your
559 diskless client's <path>/etc/fstab</path>.
560 </p>
561
562 <pre caption="/etc/fstab">
563 # <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
564 /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro 0 0
565 proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
566 tmpfs /dev/shm tmpfs nodev,nosuid,noexec 0 0
567 </pre>
568
569 <p>
570 You also need to prevent the client to run a filesystem check:
571 </p>
572
573 <pre caption="Preventing the client to run a filesystem check">
574 # <i>touch /fastboot</i>
575 # <i>echo "touch /fastboot" &gt;&gt; /etc/conf.d/local.start</i>
576 </pre>
577
578 <p>
579 Install <c>nfs-utils</c> since your client will heavily depend on it:
580 </p>
581
582 <pre caption="Installing nfs-utils">
583 # <i>emerge nfs-utils</i>
584 </pre>
585
586 <p>
587 Bootloader. Don't install another bootloader because we already have one -
588 pxegrub. Simply finish the install and restart the server. Start the services
589 you'll need to boot the new client: DHCP, TFTPD, and NFS.
590 </p>
591
592 <pre caption="Starting services">
593 # <i>/etc/init.d/dhcp start</i>
594 # <i>/etc/init.d/in.tftpd start</i>
595 # <i>/etc/init.d/nfs start</i>
596 </pre>
597
598 </body>
599 </section>
600 <section>
601 <title>Booting the new client</title>
602 <body>
603
604 <p>
605 For the new client to boot properly, you'll need to configure the bios and the
606 network card to use PXE as the first boot method - before CD-ROM or floppy. For
607 help with this consult your hardware manuals or manufacturers website. The
608 network card should get an IP address using DHCP and download the GRUB PXE
609 image using TFTP. Then, you should see a nice black and white GRUB bootmenu
610 where you will select the kernel to boot and press Enter. If everything is ok
611 the kernel should boot, mount the root filesystem using NFS and provide you
612 with a login prompt. Enjoy.
613 </p>
614
615 </body>
616 </section>
617 </chapter>
618
619 <chapter>
620 <title>Installing Gentoo from an existing Linux distribution</title>
621 <section>
622 <title>Requirements</title>
623 <body>
624
625 <p>
626 In order to install Gentoo from your existing Linux distribution you need to
627 have chroot command installed, and have a copy of the Gentoo installation
628 tarball or ISO you want to install. A network connection would be preferable if
629 you want more than what's supplied in your tarball. (by the way, a tarball is
630 just a file ending in .tbz or .tar.gz). The author used RedHat Linux 7.3 as the
631 "host" operating system, but it is not very important. Let's get started!
632 </p>
633
634 </body>
635 </section>
636 <section>
637 <title>Overview</title>
638 <body>
639
640 <p>
641 We will first allocate a partition to Gentoo by resizing our existing Linux
642 partition, mount the partition, untar the tarball to the partition that is mounted, chroot
643 inside the pseudo-system and start building. Once the bootstrap process is
644 done, we will do some final configuration on the system so as to make sure it
645 boots, then we are ready to reboot and use Gentoo.
646 </p>
647
648 </body>
649 </section>
650 <section>
651 <title>How should we make space for Gentoo?</title>
652 <body>
653
654 <p>
655 The root partition is the filesystem mounted under <path>/</path>. A quick run
656 of <c>mount</c> on my system shows what I am talking about. We well also use <c>df</c> (disk
657 free) to see how much space I have left and how I will be resizing. Note that
658 it is not mandatory to resize your root partition! You could be resizing
659 anything else supported by our resizer, but let's talk about that later.
660 </p>
661
662 <pre caption="Filesystem information">
663 # <i>mount</i>
664 /dev/hdb2 on / type ext3 (rw)
665 none on /proc type proc (rw)
666 none on /dev/pts type devpts (rw,gid=5,mode=620)
667 none on /dev/shm type tmpfs (rw,nodev,nosuid,noexec)
668 # <i>df -h </i>
669 Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
670 /dev/hdb2 4.0G 1.9G 2.4G 82% /
671 none 38M 0 38M 0% /dev/shm
672 </pre>
673
674 <p>
675 As we can see, the partition mounted as <path>/</path> named
676 <path>/dev/hdb2</path> has 2.4 gigabytes free. In my case, I think I will
677 resize it as to leave 400Megs free of space, therefore allocating 2 gigabytes
678 for Gentoo. Not bad, I could have quite some stuff installed. However, think
679 that even one gigabyte is enough for most users. So let's partition this thing!
680 </p>
681
682 </body>
683 </section>
684 <section>
685 <title>Building parted to resize partition</title>
686 <body>
687
688 <p>
689 Parted is an utility supplied by the GNU foundation, an old and respectable
690 huge project whose software you are using in this very moment. There is one
691 tool, however, that is extremely useful for us at the moment. It's called
692 parted, partition editor and we can get it from
693 <uri>http://www.gnu.org/software/parted/</uri>
694 </p>
695
696 <note>
697 There are other tools for doing resize of partitions as well, but author is
698 unsure/uninterested whether PartitionMagic(tm) or other software of the kind do
699 the job. It's the reader's job to check them out
700 </note>
701
702 <p>
703 Look up on that page the type of filesystem you want to resize and see if
704 parted can do it. If not, you're out of luck, you will have to destroy some
705 partition to make space for Gentoo, and reinstall back. Go ahead by downloading
706 the software, install it. Here we have a problem. We want to resize our Linux
707 root partition, therefore we must boot from a floppy disk a minimal linux
708 system and use previously-compiled parted copied to a diskette in order to
709 resize <path>/</path>. However, if you can unmount the partition while still
710 in Linux you are lucky, you don't need to do what follows. Just compile parted
711 and run it on an unmounted partition you chose to resize. Here's how I did it
712 for my system.
713 </p>
714
715 <impo>
716 Make sure that the operations you want to do on your partition are supported by
717 parted!
718 </impo>
719
720 <p>
721 Get the mininux boot/root disk (a 2.4-powered mini Linux distribution on a
722 floppy - free of charge) from <uri>http://mininux.free.fr/uk/</uri>, create a
723 floppy as suggested in the Documentation that accompanies the software package
724 and insert a new floppy in the drive for the next step.
725 </p>
726
727 <note>
728 Note again that Linux is synonym of "There's one more way to do it". Your
729 objective is to run parted on an unmounted partition so it can do its work. You
730 might use some other boot/root diskset other than mininux. You might not even
731 need to do this step at all, that is only umount the filesystem you want to
732 repartition in your Linux session and run parted on it.
733 </note>
734
735 <pre caption="Utility disk creation">
736 # <i>mkfs.minix /dev/fd0</i>
737 480 inodes
738 1440 blocks
739 Firstdatazone=19 (19)
740 Zonesize=1024
741 Maxsize=268966912
742 </pre>
743
744 <p>
745 We will now proceed with the build of parted. If it's not already downloaded
746 and untarred, do so now and <c>cd</c> into the corresponding directory. Now run the
747 following set of commands to build the utility and copy it to your floppy disk.
748 </p>
749
750 <pre caption="Building the utility floppy">
751 # <i> mkdir /floppy; mount -t minix /dev/fd0 /floppy &amp;&amp;
752 export CFLAGS="-O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer -static" &amp;&amp; ./configure
753 &amp;&amp; make &amp;&amp; cp parted/parted /floppy &amp;&amp; umount /floppy </i>
754 </pre>
755
756 <p>
757 Congratulations, you are ready to reboot and resize your partition. Do this
758 only after taking a quick look at the parted documentation on the GNU website.
759 The resize should take under 30 minutes for the largest hard-drives, be
760 patient. Reboot your system with the mininux boot disk (just pop it inside),
761 and once you are logged in, switch the disk in the drive with your utility disk
762 we have created above and type <c>mount /dev/fd0 /floppy</c> to have parted under
763 <path>/floppy</path>. There you go. Run parted and you will be able to resize your
764 partition. Once this lenghty process done, we are ready to have the real fun,
765 by installing Gentoo. Reboot back into your old Linux system for now. Drive you
766 wish to operate on is the drive containing the partition we want to resize. For
767 example, if we want to resize /dev/hda3, the drive is /dev/hda
768 </p>
769
770 <pre caption="Commands to run once logged into mininux system">
771 # <i>mount /dev/fd0 /floppy </i>
772 # <i>cd /floppy; ./parted [drive you wish to operate on]</i>
773 (parted) <i> print </i>
774 Disk geometry for /dev/hdb: 0.000-9787.148 megabytes
775 Disk label type: msdos
776 Minor Start End Type Filesystem Flags
777 1 0.031 2953.125 primary ntfs
778 3 2953.125 3133.265 primary linux-swap
779 2 3133.266 5633.085 primary ext3
780 4 5633.086 9787.148 extended
781 5 5633.117 6633.210 logical
782 6 6633.242 9787.148 logical ext3
783 (parted) <i> help resize </i>
784 resize MINOR START END resize filesystem on partition MINOR
785
786 MINOR is the partition number used by Linux. On msdos disk labels, the
787 primary partitions number from 1-4, and logical partitions are 5
788 onwards.
789 START and END are in megabytes
790 (parted) <i> resize 2 3133.266 4000.000 </i>
791 </pre>
792
793 <impo>
794 Be patient! The computer is working! Just look at the hardware LED on your case
795 to see that it is really working. This should take between 2 and 30 minutes.
796 </impo>
797
798 <p>
799 Once you have resized, boot back into your old linux as described. Then go to
800 <uri link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=1&amp;chap=4">The Gentoo
801 Handbook: Preparing the Disks</uri> and follow the instructions. When
802 chrooting, use the following command to flush your environment:
803 </p>
804
805 <pre caption="Flushing the environment during chroot">
806 # <i>env -i HOME=$HOME TERM=$TERM chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
807 # <i>/usr/sbin/env-update</i>
808 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
809 </pre>
810
811 <p>
812 Enjoy!
813 </p>
814
815 </body>
816 </section>
817 </chapter>
818 </guide>

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