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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <?xml-stylesheet href="/xsl/guide.xsl" type="text/xsl"?>
3 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4
5
6 <guide link="/doc/en/altinstall.xml">
7 <title>The Gentoo Linux alternative installation method HOWTO</title>
8 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="gerrynjr@gentoo.org">Gerald Normandin Jr.</mail></author>
9 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="lordviram@rebelpacket.net">Travis Tilley</mail></author>
10 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="volontir@yahoo.com">Oleg Raisky</mail></author>
11 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="luminousit@hotmail.com">Alex Garbutt</mail></author>
12 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="alex@openvs.com">Alexandre Georges</mail></author>
13 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="davoid@gentoo.org">Faust A.
14 Tanasescu</mail></author>
15 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="aliz@gentoo.org">Daniel Ahlberg</mail></author>
16 <author title="Editor"><mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail></author>
17 <author title="Editor"><mail link="antifa@gentoo.org">Ken Nowack</mail></author>
18 <abstract>
19 This HOWTO is meant to be a repository of alternative Gentoo installation
20 methods, for those with special installation needs such as lack of a cdrom
21 or a computer that cant boot cds.
22 </abstract>
23
24 <version>0.31</version>
25 <date>17 July 2003</date>
26
27 <license/>
28
29 <chapter>
30 <title>About this document</title>
31 <section>
32 <body>
33
34 <p>If the standard boot-from-CD install method doesn't work for you
35 (or you just don't like it),
36 help is now here. This document serves to
37 provide a repository of alternative Gentoo Linux installation techniques
38 to those who need them.
39 Or, if you prefer, it serves as
40 a place to put your wacky installation methods. If you have an
41 installation method that you yourself find useful, or you have devised an
42 amusing way of installing gentoo, please dont hesitate to write something
43 up and <mail link="antifa@gentoo.org">send it to me.</mail></p>
44
45
46 </body>
47 </section>
48 </chapter>
49
50 <chapter>
51 <title>Booting the LiveCD with Smart BootManager</title>
52 <section>
53
54 <body>
55 <p>Download Smart BootManager <uri link="http://btmgr.sourceforge.net/index.php3?body=download.html">http://btmgr.sourceforge.net/index.php3?body=download.html</uri>. Linux source or binary format and windows .exe versions are available as well as many language packs. However, at this time, the prefered method would be to use the binary format, as the source will not compile with newer versions of nasm.</p>
56
57 <p>Either compile the package from source or just grab the binary. There are several options that can be utilized while creating your boot floppy, as seen below.</p>
58
59 <pre caption="Smart BootManager Options">
60 <i>sbminst [-t theme] [-d drv] [-b backup_file] [-u backup_file]
61
62 -t theme select the theme to be used, in which the theme could be:
63 us = English theme de = German theme
64 hu = Hungarian theme zh = Chinese theme
65 ru = Russian theme cz = Czech theme
66 es = Spanish theme fr = French theme
67 pt = Portuguese theme
68
69
70 -d drv set the drive that you want to install Smart BootManager on;
71 for Linux:
72 /dev/fd0 is the first floppy driver,
73 /dev/hda is the first IDE harddisk driver.
74 /dev/sda is the first SCSI harddisk driver.
75 for DOS:
76 0 is the first floppy drive
77 128 is the first hard drive;
78
79 -c disable CD-ROM booting feature;
80
81 -b backup_file backup the data that will be overwrited for
82 future uninstallation;
83
84 -u backup_file uninstall Smart BootManager, should be used alone;
85
86 -y do not ask any question or warning.</i>
87 </pre>
88
89 <pre caption="Using sbminst to build the boot floppy">
90 # <i>sbminst -t us -d /dev/fd0</i>
91 </pre>
92 <note> Replace fd0 with your repective floppy device name if yours is different. </note>
93 <p>Now simply place the floppy in the floppy drive of the computer you'd like to boot the LiveCD on, as well as placing the LiveCD in the CD-ROM and boot the computer.</p>
94
95 <p>You'll be greeted with the Smart BootManager dialog. Select your CD-ROM and press ENTER to boot the LiveCD. Once booted proceed with the standard installation instructions.</p>
96
97 <p>Further information on Smart BootManager may be found at <uri>http://btmgr.sourceforge.net/</uri></p>
98 </body>
99 </section>
100 </chapter>
101
102
103 <chapter>
104 <title>Knoppix Installation</title>
105 <section>
106
107 <body>
108 <p>Booting from the <uri link="http://www.knoppix.org/">Knoppix</uri> LiveCD is a way to have a fully functional linux system while you're compiling Gentoo. Tux Racer will help you pass the time while you wait for bootstrap.</p>
109
110 <p>Boot from the Knoppix CD. It generally does a really good job of hardware detection. Although, you may have to add some boot options. </p>
111
112 <p>By default Knoppix boots into a KDE 3.0 desktop. The first thing I did was open a konsole and typed <c>sudo passwd root</c>. This lets you set the root password for Knoppix.</p>
113
114 <p> Next, I su to root and typed <c>usermod -d /root -m root</c>. This sets user roots home directory to /root (the Gentoo way) from /home/root (the Knoppix way). If you do not do this, then you will receive errors when emerging about "/home/root: not found" or something to that effect.</p>
115
116 <p>I then typed <c>exit</c> and then <c>su</c> back into root. This loads the change that was made with the usermod command. At this point, you can pick up with the standard install documentation at step 6. </p>
117 </body>
118 </section>
119 </chapter>
120
121 <chapter>
122 <title>Installing from Stage 1 without network access</title>
123 <section>
124 <body>
125
126
127 <p>Burn a LiveCD iso.</p>
128
129 <p>Get the latest portage snapshot from <uri>http://distro.ibiblio.org/pub/linux/distributions/gentoo/snapshots/</uri> (or your favorite <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror</uri>). Either place this tarball on an existing partition on the box your are installing to, or burn it to a CD.</p>
130
131 <p>You'll also need a package list for the stage packages. Place the following dl-list.sh script on the same medium as the portage snapshot, you'll need it later.</p>
132
133 <pre caption="dl-list.sh">
134 #!/bin/bash
135
136 # set your defaults here:
137 user_defs() {
138
139 # portage directory (without a trailing "/"):
140 portage_dir="/usr/portage"
141
142 # default download mirror (without a trailing "/"):
143 gentoo_mirror="http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/Linux/distributions/gentoo"
144
145 # default sourceforge mirror (unc, telia, belnet):
146 sourceforge_mirror="unc"
147
148 # fix gnu mirror entries
149 gnu_url="ftp:\/\/ftp.gnu.org\/pub\/gnu"
150
151 }
152
153
154 #------------------------------------------------------------
155
156 # function to remove temporary files
157 cleanup() {
158
159 rm -f $temp_file_1 $temp_file_2
160 exit $1
161
162 }
163
164 # set user defaults
165 user_defs
166
167 # set the complete url for the sourceforge mirror
168 # (the \'s are needed because this goes in a sed command)
169 sourceforge_mirror_complete="http:\/\/$sourceforge_mirror.dl.sourceforge.net\/sourceforge"
170
171 # initialize counters
172 num_files=0
173 num_alt_urls=0
174 total_size=0
175
176 # initialize lists (arrays)
177 declare -a def_urls_arr
178 declare -a alt_urls_arr
179
180 # create 2 temporary files
181 temp_file_1=`mktemp -t dl-list.XXXXXX` || cleanup 1
182 temp_file_2=`mktemp -t dl-list.XXXXXX` || cleanup 1
183
184 # run "emerge -p &lt;args&gt;" (too easy to forget the "-p" in the command line...)
185 emerge -p $@ &gt; $temp_file_1 || cleanup 1
186
187 # remove the lines that do not contain the word "ebuild"
188 sed -n -e '/ebuild/p' $temp_file_1 &gt; $temp_file_2
189
190 # count how many lines were left
191 num_ebuilds=`wc -l $temp_file_2 | sed -e 's/\(.*\) \(.*\)/\1/'`
192
193 # extract the useful information from those lines: category, package and version
194 #sed -e 's:\(.*\) \(.*\)/\(.*\)-\([0-9].*\) \(.*\) \(.*\):\2 \3 \4:' $temp_file_2 &gt; $temp_file_1
195 sed -e 's:\(.*\) \(.*\)/\(.*\)-\([0-9].*\):\2 \3 \4:' $temp_file_2 &gt; $temp_file_1
196
197 # display starting message :)
198 echo -n "Generating list " &gt;&amp;2
199
200 # process each package in turn
201 while read category package version rest
202 do
203
204 # form the name of the digest file
205
206 digest_file="$portage_dir/$category/$package/files/digest-$package-$version"
207
208 # process the contents of the digest file
209 while read md5_flag md5_sum file_name file_size
210 do
211
212 # form the default url to download the file
213 def_urls_arr[$num_files]="$gentoo_mirror/distfiles/$file_name"
214
215 # increment the file counter
216 num_files=$(($num_files + 1))
217
218 # update the size accumulator (in kilobytes)
219 total_size=$(($total_size + $file_size / 1024))
220
221 done &lt; $digest_file
222
223 # form the "ebuild depend" command line
224 ebuild_depend_cmd="ebuild $portage_dir/$category/$package/$package-${version}.ebuild depend"
225
226 # execute the "ebuild depend" command
227 $ebuild_depend_cmd || cleanup 1
228
229 # form the name of the dependency file
230 dependency_file="/var/cache/edb/dep/$category/$package-$version"
231
232 # read in the 4th line from the dependency file,
233 # which contains the official download urls
234 alt_urls=`head -n 4 $dependency_file | tail -n 1`
235
236 # ignore empty url list
237 if [ -n "$alt_urls" ]
238 then
239
240 # split the urls list into $1..$N
241 set $alt_urls
242
243 # process each url in turn
244 for i in $@
245 do
246
247 # remove the (use)? strings from the url list
248 alt_url_tmp=`echo "$i" | sed -e '/\?$/d'`
249
250 # remove the "mirror://gnome" urls
251 alt_url_tmp=`echo "$alt_url_tmp" | sed -e '/^mirror:\/\/gnome/d'`
252
253 # remove the "mirror://kde" urls
254 alt_url_tmp=`echo "$alt_url_tmp" | sed -e '/^mirror:\/\/kde/d'`
255
256 # remove the "mirror://gentoo" urls (already included)
257 alt_url_tmp=`echo "$alt_url_tmp" | sed -e '/^mirror:\/\/gentoo/d'`
258
259 # translate the "mirror://sourceforge" urls into valid urls
260 alt_url_tmp=`echo "$alt_url_tmp" | sed -e "s/mirror:\/\/sourceforge/$sourceforge_mirror_complete/"`
261
262 # translate the "mirror://gnu" urls into valid urls
263 alt_url_tmp=`echo "$alt_url_tmp" | sed -e "s/mirror:\/\/gnu/$gnu_url/"`
264 # ignore empty urls
265 if [ -n "$alt_url_tmp" ]
266 then
267
268 # add the url to the list
269 alt_urls_arr[$num_alt_urls]=$alt_url_tmp
270
271 # increment the alternate url counter
272 num_alt_urls=$(($num_alt_urls + 1))
273
274 fi
275
276 done
277
278 fi
279
280 # a progress bar :)
281 echo -n "." &gt;&amp;2
282
283 done &lt; $temp_file_1
284
285 # display ending message :)
286 echo " done." &gt;&amp;2
287
288 # display default urls list
289 for i in ${def_urls_arr[@]}; do echo $i; done | sort
290
291 # display alternate urls list
292 for i in ${alt_urls_arr[@]}; do echo $i; done | sort
293
294 # display totals
295 echo "Totals:" $num_ebuilds "ebuilds," $num_files "files," $num_files "default urls," \n
296 $num_alt_urls "alternate urls," "${total_size}Kb." &lt;&amp;2
297
298 # remove temporary files and exit
299 cleanup 0
300 </pre>
301
302 <p>Follow all instructions of Gentoo Install Doc up to "chroot /mnt/gentoo" in Step 8. If you only have one CD-ROM remember to use the <c>cdcache</c> option while booting so you can unmount the LiveCD and mount your portage snapshot CD.</p>
303
304 <p>Run "passwd" and get a new password for root. Open a new virtual console (Alt-F2) and login as root with your new password.</p>
305
306 <p>On the new console (F2) continue with Install Doc up to running bootstrap.sh script.</p>
307
308 <p>Go back to the first console (Alt-F1, without chroot) and mount a second CD on <c>/mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2</c>. Copy portage tarball from cdrom2 and unpack it to <c>/mnt/gentoo/usr/portage</c>. Further, grab the dl-list.sh script and place it in <c>/usr/sbin</c> and make it executable.</p>
309
310 <pre caption="Mount the snapshot cd">
311 # <i>umount /mnt/cdrom</i>
312 # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2</i>
313 # <i>mount /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2</i>
314 # <i>cp /mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2/portage-$date.tar.bz2 /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage</i>
315 # <i>cp /mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2/dl-list.sh /mnt/gentoo/usr/sbin</i>
316 # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage</i>
317 # <i>tar xvjpf portage-$date.tar.bz2</i>
318 # <i>chmod +x /mnt/gentoo/usr/sbin/dl-list.sh</i>
319 </pre>
320
321 <p>Switch back to F2 console. Now if you try to run bootstrap.sh it will fail because it won't be able to download any files. We will fetch these files somewhere else and put them in /usr/portage/distfiles (on F2 console). </p>
322
323 <p>You need a list of Stage1 packages: glibc, baselayout, texinfo, gettext, zlib, binutils, gcc, ncurses plus their dependencies. </p>
324
325 <note>Note that you need the versions of each package synced with your portage tree.</note>
326
327 <p>Now us the dl-list.sh script to generate the package list that you need. Then copy the subsequent list to a floppy.</p>
328
329 <pre caption="Using dl-list.sh">
330 # <i>dl-list.sh glibc baselayout texinfo gettext zlib binutils gcc ncurses > stage1.list</i>
331 # <i>mount -t vfat /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy</i>
332 # <i>cp /mnt/gentoo/stage1.list /mnt/floppy</i>
333 # <i>umount /mnt/floppy</i>
334 </pre>
335
336 <p>Take the floppy to the machine that has fast access and feed this list to wget:</p>
337
338 <pre caption="Use wget to grab your source packages">
339 # <i>wget -N -i stage1.list</i>
340 </pre>
341
342
343 <p>Once you have obtained all the files, take them to the computer and copy them to <c>/mnt/gentoo/usr/portage/distfiles</c>. You will then be able to run <c>bootstrap.sh</c>. Repeate this same wget fetch and place procedure for stage2 and 3.</p>
344
345
346
347 </body>
348 </section>
349 </chapter>
350
351 <chapter>
352 <title>Netboot install</title>
353 <section>
354 <title>Requirements</title>
355 <body>
356 <p>The requirements for a netboot install are a host computer than can
357 provide a tftp server and a computer
358 that can netboot itself via either bios or a floppy drive used to boot GRUB
359 or another network bootloader. A dhcp server might also be necessary. Of
360 course, you will also need the latest build ISO, which can be found at
361 <uri>http://distro.ibiblio.org/pub/linux/distributions/gentoo/releases/</uri></p>
362 <note>Due to changes in the LiveCD, this procedure will only work for the 1.2 LiveCD. </note>
363 </body>
364 </section>
365
366 <section>
367 <title>Overview</title>
368 <body>
369
370 <p>In order to load images off the network, the first thing a netboot machine
371 must do is obtain an IP address. There are multiple ways of obtaining
372 an IP address, and any
373 one of them will do. Personally, I prefer to use GRUB for everything, but if
374 your computer supports booting from a network already then grub might not
375 be necessary, even if it might be easier to just use GRUB's <c>ifconfig</c> command
376 instead of setting up a bootp or dhcp server.</p>
377
378 <p>Once your computer has obtained an IP address, the next logical step is to find
379 out what you are going to be booting and where it might be held. Once again,
380 it would be easiest to do this with GRUB commands as opposed to setting up
381 a bootp or dhcp server. You will also need to specify how to obtain an initrd
382 and tell the kernel that it will be using this as it's root filesystem.</p>
383
384 <p>With your kernel loaded and root filesystem mounted, you may proceed
385 with installation as normal. The build image could be loaded from a cd, or it
386 can be downloaded from the network via tftp.</p>
387
388 </body>
389 </section>
390 <section>
391 <title>Using GRUB</title>
392 <body>
393
394 <p>To use GRUB for network booting purposes, you must first have GRUB
395 compiled with support for your network card. It doesn't matter if you install
396 to floppy, or to the hard drive of the computer you wish to install Gentoo
397 on. If your install target already has GRUB with network support installed,
398 then you are one step ahead. GRUB can be downloaded from
399 <uri>ftp://alpha.gnu.org/gnu/grub/</uri></p>
400
401 <p>A configure example for enabling tulip support, the network card in my
402 box:</p>
403
404 <pre caption="Manual GRUB installation">
405 # <i>./configure --enable-tulip --prefix=/usr</i>
406 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make install</i>
407 </pre>
408
409 <p>If you are currently in Gentoo and wish to install GRUB using Gentoo
410 tools, then you need to install step by step in order to configure in support
411 for your network card. An example for using ebuild to install GRUB with
412 tulip support:</p>
413
414 <pre caption="Installing and configuring GRUB on Gentoo Linux">
415 # <i>ebuild /usr/portage/sys-apps/grub/grub-0.91.ebuild clean fetch unpack</i>
416 # <i>cd /var/tmp/portage/grub-0.91/work/grub-0.91/</i>
417 # <i>./configure --prefix=/usr --sbindir=/sbin --mandir=/usr/share/man \ </i>
418 > <i>--infodir=/usr/share/info --enable-tulip</i>
419 # <i>make</i>
420 # <i>touch /var/tmp/portage/grub-0.91/.compiled</i>
421 # <i>cd /usr/portage/</i>
422 # <i>ebuild sys-apps/grub/grub-0.91.ebuild install merge</i>
423 </pre>
424
425 <p>Now that we have the GRUB shell itself installed, we need to install to
426 a boot sector. Although you could install GRUB to the boot sector of your
427 install computer's hard drive, here we will assume that you are installing
428 GRUB on a boot floppy. There are two ways of doing this. You can use the GRUB
429 shell itself, or you can use a provided script called <c>grub-install</c>. It is
430 preferable to use <c>grub-install</c> when installing GRUB to a floppy.</p>
431
432 <pre caption="grub-install example">
433 # <i>mkfs.ext2 /dev/fd0</i>
434 # <i>mount /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy/</i>
435 # <i>grub-install --root-directory=/mnt/floppy/ '(fd0)'</i>
436 # <i>umount /mnt/floppy/</i>
437 </pre>
438
439 <p><c>grub-install</c> does not always work... and isn't always the best way to install
440 GRUB. And since the GRUB shell works exactly like GRUB would when booted
441 via the boot sector, it might be more desirable just to use the GRUB shell. Here
442 is an example of how to use the GRUB shell to install GRUB to a floppy:</p>
443
444 <pre caption="Using the GRUB shell instead">
445 # <i>mkfs.ext2 /dev/fd0</i>
446 # <i>mount /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy/</i>
447 # <i>mkdir -p /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</i>
448 # <i>cp -v /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/* /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</i>
449 # <i>grub</i>
450 grub> <i>root (fd0)</i>
451 grub> <i>setup (fd0)</i>
452 grub> <i>quit</i>
453 # <i>umount /mnt/floppy/</i>
454 </pre>
455
456 <p>Now that we have a bootable GRUB floppy, we need to set up the host tftp server
457 (I suggest netkit's tftp server)
458 for loading our kernel and initrd. If you use inetd then you will need
459 a line in your <path>/etc/inetd.conf</path> that looks
460 like this:</p>
461
462 <pre caption="/etc/inetd.conf">
463 tftp dgram udp wait nobody /usr/sbin/tcpd in.tftpd
464 </pre>
465
466 <p>To install the netkit tftp server under gentoo linux, emerge net-misc/netkit-tftp</p>
467
468 <note>There is an ebuild for xinetd... if you prefer to use this than feel free to do
469 so. However I do not use xinetd, and do not know how to set up tftp with it. If you
470 use it and such, please send me info on how to get xinetd working and I will include
471 them in this howto.</note>
472
473 <p>Now that we have our tftp server ready, we need a kernel and a root initrd to
474 put in it. You can compile a custom kernel yourself, but make sure it has all the
475 things necessary for running gentoo (like devfs) and for netbooting (like initrd
476 support). The root initrd will be the rescue.gz included in the gentoo ISO.</p>
477
478 <impo>Mounting an ISO file without burning it to cd requires loopback filesystem
479 support.</impo>
480
481 <pre>
482 # <i>mkdir /tftpboot</i>
483 # <i>mount -o loop /path/to/gentoo-ix86-1.1a.iso /mnt/cdrom/</i>
484 # <i>cp /mnt/cdrom/isolinux/kernel /mnt/cdrom/isolinux/rescue.gz /tftpboot</i>
485 # <i>chmod 644 /tftpboot/*</i>
486 # <i>umount /mnt/cdrom/</i>
487 </pre>
488
489 <p>Boot the machine you want to install to with your incredibly usefull grub floppy.
490 Once booted you need to specify a way for the machine to get
491 its IP address, specify where
492 to get a kernel and it's options, and where to get it's initrd.</p>
493
494 <pre>
495 grub> <i>ifconfig --address=<c>ip.add.re.ss</c> --server=<c>ip.add.re.ss</c></i>
496 grub> <i>root (nd)</i>
497 grub> <i>kernel /tftpboot/kernel devfs=nomount vga=normal load_ramdisk=1 </i>
498 <i>prompt_ramdisk=0 ramdisk_size=24000 root=/dev/ram0 rw</i> <comment>(all on one line)</comment>
499 grub> <i>initrd /tftpboot/rescue.gz</i>
500 grub> <i>boot</i>
501 </pre>
502
503 <note>You can also use bootp and dhcp to configure your ip via grub. Use the bootp
504 and dhcp commands.</note>
505
506 <p>Now that you have your machine booted, you can install as normal. Refer to the
507 from source cd install howto.</p>
508
509 </body>
510 </section>
511 </chapter>
512
513 <chapter><title>Diskless install using PXE boot</title>
514
515 <section><title>Requirements</title>
516 <body>
517 <p>You will need a network card on the diskless client that uses the PXE protocol to boot, like many 3com cards. You will also need a BIOS that supports booting from PXE.</p>
518 </body></section>
519
520 <section><title>Server base setup</title>
521 <body>
522 <p>Create directories: The first thing to do is to create the directories where your diskless system will be stored. Create a directory called <c>/diskless</c> which houses a directory for each diskless client. For the rest of this howto we'll be working on the client 'eta'.</p>
523
524 <pre caption="directory setup">
525 # <i>mkdir /diskless</i>
526 # <i>mkdir /diskless/eta</i>
527 # <i>mkdir /diskless/eta/boot</i>
528 </pre>
529
530 <p>DHCP and TFTP setup: The client will get boot informations using DHCP and download all the required files using TFTP. Just emerge DHCP and configure it for your basic needs. Then, add the following on <c>/etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf</c>.</p>
531
532 <note>This provide a static IP adress for the client and the path of a PXE boot image, here pxegrub. You have to replace the MAC address of the Ethernet card of the client and the directory where you will put the client files with the one you use.</note>
533
534 <pre caption="dhcp.conf">
535 option option-150 code 150 = text ;
536 host eta {
537 hardware ethernet 00:00:00:00:00:00;
538 fixed-address <c>ip.add.re.ss</c>;
539 option option-150 "/eta/boot/grub.lst";
540 filename "/eta/boot/pxegrub";
541 }
542 </pre>
543
544 <p>For TFTP, emerge <c>app-admin/tftp-hpa</c>. In <c>/etc/conf.d/in.tftpd</c>, put the following :</p>
545
546 <pre caption="in.tftpd">
547 INTFTPD_PATH="/diskless"
548 INTFTPD_USER="nobody"
549 INTFTPD_OPTS="-u ${INTFTPD_USER} -l -vvvvvv -p -c -s ${INTFTPD_PATH}"
550 </pre>
551
552 <p>Setup GRUB: To provide PXE booting I use GRUB. You have to compile it by yourself to enable the PXE image compilation ... but that's quite easy. First, get the latest version of the GRUB source code (<c>emerge -f grub</c> will place the tarball in <c>/usr/portage/distfiles</c>). Copy the tarball to <c>/diskless</c> and then build it to make the pxe capable binary. Once the binary is built, copy it to the diskless client's boot directory. Then edit it's grub.lst config file.</p>
553
554 <pre caption="grub setup">
555 # <i>tar zxvf grub-0.92.tar.gz</i>
556 # <i>cd grub-0.92</i>
557 # <i>./configure --help</i>
558 <codenote>In the options you will see a list of supported network interface drivers. </codenote>
559 <codenote>Select the driver compatible with your card. Herein referenced a $nic</codenote>
560 # <i>./configure --enable-diskless --enable-$nic</i>
561 # <i>make</i>
562 # <i>cd stage2</i>
563 # <i>cp pxegrub /diskless/eta/boot/pxegrub</i>
564 # <i>nano -w /diskless/eta/boot/grub.lst</i>
565 </pre>
566
567 <pre caption="grub.lst">
568 default 0
569 timeout 30
570
571 title=Diskless Gentoo
572 root (nd)
573 kernel /eta/bzImage ip=dhcp root=/dev/nfs nfsroot=<c>ip.add.re.ss</c>:/diskless/eta
574
575 <codenote>For the nfsroot option, the IP address is the one of the server and </codenote>
576 <codenote>the directory is the one where your diskless client files are located (on the server).</codenote>
577 </pre>
578
579 <p>Setup NFS: NFS is quite easy to configure. The only thing you have to do is to add a line on the <c>/etc/exports</c> config file :</p>
580
581 <pre caption="/etc/exports">
582 # <i>nano -w /etc/exports</i>
583 NFS file systems being exported. See exports(5).
584 /diskless/eta eta(rw,sync,no_root_squash)
585 </pre>
586
587 <p>Update your hosts: One important thing to do now is to modify your <c>/etc/hosts</c> file to fit your needs. </p>
588
589 <pre caption="/etc/hosts">
590 127.0.0.1 localhost
591
592 192.168.1.10 eta.example.com eta
593 192.168.1.20 sigma.example.com sigma
594 </pre>
595 </body>
596 </section>
597
598 <section><title>Creating the system on the server</title>
599
600 <body>
601
602 <p>Reboot the server on a Gentoo LiveCD. Follow the standard install procedure as explained in the Gentoo Install Howto BUT with the following differences. When you mount the file system, do the following (where hdaX is the partition where you created the /diskless directory). You do not need to mount any other partitions as all of the files will reside in the <c>/diskless/eta</c> directory.</p>
603
604 <pre caption="mounting the filesystem">
605 #<i> mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
606 </pre>
607
608 <p>Stage tarballs and chroot: This example uses a stage3 tarball. Mount <c>/proc</c> to your diskless directory and chroot into it to continue with the install. Then follow the installation manual until kernel configuration.</p>
609
610 <warn>Be very careful where you extract your stage tarball. You don't want to end up extracting over your existing installation.</warn>
611
612 <pre caption="extracting the stage tarball">
613 # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/</i>
614 # <i>tar -xvjpf /mnt/cdrom/gentoo/stage3-*.tar.bz2</i>
615 # <i>mount -t proc /proc /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/proc</i>
616 # <i>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/etc/resolv.conf</i>
617 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/ /bin/bash</i>
618 # <i>env-update</i>
619 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
620 </pre>
621
622 <p>Kernel configuration: When you do the <c>make menuconfig</c> of your kernel configuration, don't forget to enable the following options with the others recommended into the install howto.</p>
623
624 <pre caption="menuconfig options">
625 - Your network card device support
626
627 - Under "Networking options" :
628
629 [*] TCP/IP networking
630 [*] IP: kernel level autoconfiguration
631 [*] IP: DHCP support
632 [*] IP: BOOTP support
633
634
635 - Under "File systems --> Network File Systems" :
636
637 &lt;*&gt; NFS file system support
638 [*] Provide NFSv3 client support
639 [*] Root file system on NFS
640 </pre>
641
642 <p>Next configure your diskless client's <c>/etc/fstab</c>.</p>
643
644 <pre caption="/etc/fstab">
645 # <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
646 /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro 0 0
647 proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
648 tmpfs /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0
649 </pre>
650
651 <p>Bootloader. Dont install another bootloader because we already have one - pxegrub. Simply finish the install and restart the server. Start the services you'll need to boot the new client: DHCP, TFTPD, and NFS.</p>
652
653 <pre caption="Starting services">
654 # <i>/etc/init.d/dhcp start</i>
655 # <i>/etc/init.d/tftpd start</i>
656 # <i>/etc/init.d/nfs start</i>
657 </pre>
658
659 </body></section>
660
661 <section><title>Booting the new client</title>
662 <body>
663 <p>For the new client to boot properly, you'll need to configure the bios and the network card to use PXE as the first boot method - before CD-ROM or floppy. For help with this consult your hardware manuals or maufacturers website. The network card should get an IP address using DHCP and download the GRUB PXE image using TFTP. Then, you should see a nice black and white GRUB bootmenu where you will select the kernel to boot and press Enter. If everything is ok the kernel should boot, mount the root filesystem using NFS and provide you with a login prompt. Enjoy.</p>
664 </body></section>
665
666 </chapter>
667
668
669
670 <chapter> <title>Installing Gentoo from an existing Linux distribution </title>
671 <section> <title> Requirements </title>
672 <body>
673 <p>In order to install Gentoo from your existing Linux distribution you need to
674 have chroot command installed, and have a copy of the Gentoo installation
675 tarball or ISO you want to install. A network connection would be preferable if
676 you want more than what's supplied in your tarball. (by the way, a tarball is
677 just a file ending in .tbz or .tar.gz). The author used RedHat Linux 7.3 as the
678 "host" operating system, but it is not very important. Let's get started! </p>
679 </body>
680 </section>
681
682 <section> <title> Overview </title>
683 <body>
684 <p>We will first allocate a partition to Gentoo by resizing our existing Linux partition, mount the partition, untar the tarball that is mounted, chroot inside the proto-system and start building. Once the bootstrap process is done, we will do some final configuration on the system so as to make sure it boots, then we are ready to reboot and use Gentoo. </p>
685 </body>
686 </section>
687
688 <section> <title> How should we make space for gentoo? </title>
689 <body>
690
691 <p>
692 The root partition is the filesystem mounted under "/". A quick run of mount on my system shows what I am talking about. We well also use df (disk free) to see how much space I have left and how I will be resizing. Note that it is not mandatory to resize your root partition! You could be resizing anything else supported by our resizer, but let's talk about that later.</p>
693
694
695 <pre caption="Filesystem information">
696 # <i>mount</i>
697 /dev/hdb2 on / type ext3 (rw)
698 none on /proc type proc (rw)
699 none on /dev/pts type devpts (rw,gid=5,mode=620)
700 none on /dev/shm type tmpfs (rw)
701 # <i>df -h </i>
702 Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
703 /dev/hdb2 4.0G 1.9G 2.4G 82% /
704 none 38M 0 38M 0% /dev/shm
705 </pre>
706
707 <p>As we can see, the partition mounted as "/" named /dev/hdb2 has 2.4 gigabytes free. In my case, I think I will resize it as to leave 400Megs free of space, therefore allocating 2 gigabytes for Gentoo. Not bad, I could have quite some stuff installed. However, think that even one gigabyte is enough for most users. So let's partition this thing! </p>
708
709 </body> </section>
710
711 <section> <title> Building parted to resize partition </title>
712 <body>
713 <p>Parted is an utility supplied by the GNU foundation, an old and respectable huge project whose software you are using in this very moment. There is one tool, however, that is extremely useful for us at the moment. It's called parted, partition editor and we can get it from <uri>
714 http://www.gnu.org/software/parted/</uri>
715 </p>
716 <note> There are other tools for doing resize of partitions as well, but author
717 is unsure/uninterested whether PartitionMagic(tm) or other software of the kind
718 do the job. It's the reader's job to check them out </note>
719
720 <p>
721 Look up on that page the type of filesystem you want to resize and see if parted
722 can do it. If not, you're out of luck, you will have to destroy some partition
723 to make space for gentoo, and reinstall back. Go ahead by downloading the
724 software, install it. Here we have a problem. We want to resize our Linux root
725 partition, therefore we must boot from a floppy disk a minimal linux system and
726 use previously-compiled parted copied to a diskette in order to resize "/".
727 However, if you can unmount the partition while still in Linux you are lucky,
728 you don't need to do what follows. Just compile parted and run it on an
729 unmounted partition you chose to resize. Here's how I did it for my system.
730 </p>
731
732 <impo> Make sure that the operations you want to do on your partition are
733 supported by parted! </impo>
734
735 <p> Get tomsrtbt boot/root disk (free of charge) from <uri>
736 http://freshmeat.net/tomsrtbt" </uri>, create a floppy as suggested in the
737 Documentation that accompanies the software package and insert a new floppy in
738 the drive for the next step. </p>
739
740 <note> Note again that Linux is synonym of "There's one more way to do it". Your
741 objective is to run parted on an unmounted partition so it can do its work. You
742 might use some other boot/root diskset other than tomsrtbt. You might not even
743 need to do this step at all, that is only umount the filesystem you want to
744 repartition in your Linux session and run parted on it. </note>
745
746 <pre caption="Utility disk creation">
747 # <i>mkfs.minix /dev/fd0</i>
748 480 inodes
749 1440 blocks
750 Firstdatazone=19 (19)
751 Zonesize=1024
752 Maxsize=268966912
753 </pre>
754
755 We will now proceed with the build of parted. If it's not already downloaded and untarred, do so now and cd into the corresponding directory. Now run the following set of commands to build the utility and copy it to your floppy disk.
756
757 <pre caption="Building the utility floppy">
758 # <i> mkdir /floppy; mount -t minix /dev/fd0 /floppy &amp;&amp;
759 export CFLAGS="-O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer -static" &amp;&amp; ./configure
760 &amp;&amp; make &amp;&amp; cp parted/parted /floppy &amp;&amp; umount /floppy </i>
761 </pre>
762
763 <p>
764 Congratulations, you are ready to reboot and resize your partition. Do this only
765 after taking a quick look at the parted documentation on the GNU website. The
766 resize should take under 30 minutes for the largest hard-drives, be patient.
767 Reboot your system with the tomsrtbt boot disk (just pop it inside), and once
768 you are logged in, switch the disk in the drive with your utility disk we have
769 created above and type mount /dev/fd0 /floppy to have parted under /floppy.
770 There you go. Run parted and you will be able to resize your partition. Once
771 this lenghty process done, we are ready to have the real fun, by installing
772 gentoo. Reboot back into your old Linux system for now. Drive you wish to
773 operate on is the drive containing the partition we want to resize. For
774 example, if we want to resize /dev/hda3, the drive is /dev/hda
775 </p>
776
777 <pre caption="Commands to run once logged into tomsrtbt system">
778 # <i>mount /dev/fd0 /floppy </i>
779 # <i>cd /floppy; ./parted [drive you wish to operate on]</i>
780 (parted) <i> print </i>
781 Disk geometry for /dev/hdb: 0.000-9787.148 megabytes
782 Disk label type: msdos
783 Minor Start End Type Filesystem Flags
784 1 0.031 2953.125 primary ntfs
785 3 2953.125 3133.265 primary linux-swap
786 2 3133.266 5633.085 primary ext3
787 4 5633.086 9787.148 extended
788 5 5633.117 6633.210 logical
789 6 6633.242 9787.148 logical ext3
790 (parted) <i> help resize </i>
791 resize MINOR START END resize filesystem on partition MINOR
792
793 MINOR is the partition number used by Linux. On msdos disk labels, the
794 primary partitions number from 1-4, and logical partitions are 5
795 onwards.
796 START and END are in megabytes
797 (parted) <i> resize 2 3133.266 4000.000 </i>
798 </pre>
799
800 <impo> Be patient! The computer is working! Just look at the hardware LED on
801 your case to see that it is really working. This should take between 2 and 30
802 minutes. </impo>
803
804 <p>Once you have resized, boot back into your old linux as described. Then go to
805 <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml">http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml</uri> and follow steps 6 through 17. Don't forget to create the <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> directory before proceeding with step 7. In step 8 you have to download the requested stage-tarball as we're not working from a LiveCD.
806
807
808 Enjoy!
809 </p>
810 </body>
811 </section>
812 </chapter>
813 </guide>

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