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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3
4
5 <guide link="/doc/en/altinstall.xml">
6 <title>The Gentoo Linux alternative installation method HOWTO</title>
7 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="gerrynjr@gentoo.org">Gerald Normandin Jr.</mail></author>
8 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="lordviram@rebelpacket.net">Travis Tilley</mail></author>
9 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="volontir@yahoo.com">Oleg Raisky</mail></author>
10 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="luminousit@hotmail.com">Alex Garbutt</mail></author>
11 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="alex@openvs.com">Alexandre Georges</mail></author>
12 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="davoid@gentoo.org">Faust A. Tanasescu</mail></author>
13 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="aliz@gentoo.org">Daniel Ahlberg</mail></author>
14 <author title="Editor"><mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail></author>
15 <author title="Editor"><mail link="antifa@gentoo.org">Ken Nowack</mail></author>
16 <abstract>
17 This HOWTO is meant to be a repository of alternative Gentoo installation
18 methods, for those with special installation needs such as lack of a cdrom
19 or a computer that can't boot cds.
20 </abstract>
21
22 <version>0.31</version>
23 <date>17 July 2003</date>
24
25 <license/>
26
27 <chapter>
28 <title>About this document</title>
29 <section>
30 <body>
31
32 <p>If the standard boot-from-CD install method doesn't work for you
33 (or you just don't like it),
34 help is now here. This document serves to
35 provide a repository of alternative Gentoo Linux installation techniques
36 to those who need them.
37 Or, if you prefer, it serves as
38 a place to put your wacky installation methods. If you have an
39 installation method that you yourself find useful, or you have devised an
40 amusing way of installing Gentoo, please don't hesitate to write something
41 up and <mail link="antifa@gentoo.org">send it to me.</mail></p>
42
43
44 </body>
45 </section>
46 </chapter>
47
48 <chapter>
49 <title>Booting the LiveCD with Smart BootManager</title>
50 <section>
51
52 <body>
53 <p>Download Smart BootManager <uri link="http://btmgr.sourceforge.net/index.php3?body=download.html">http://btmgr.sourceforge.net/index.php3?body=download.html</uri>. Linux source or binary format and windows .exe versions are available as well as many language packs. However, at this time, the preferred method would be to use the binary format, as the source will not compile with newer versions of NASM.</p>
54
55 <p>Either compile the package from source or just grab the binary. There are several options that can be utilized while creating your boot floppy, as seen below.</p>
56
57 <pre caption="Smart BootManager Options">
58 <i>sbminst [-t theme] [-d drv] [-b backup_file] [-u backup_file]
59
60 -t theme select the theme to be used, in which the theme could be:
61 us = English theme de = German theme
62 hu = Hungarian theme zh = Chinese theme
63 ru = Russian theme cz = Czech theme
64 es = Spanish theme fr = French theme
65 pt = Portuguese theme
66
67
68 -d drv set the drive that you want to install Smart BootManager on;
69 for Linux:
70 /dev/fd0 is the first floppy driver,
71 /dev/hda is the first IDE harddisk driver.
72 /dev/sda is the first SCSI harddisk driver.
73 for DOS:
74 0 is the first floppy drive
75 128 is the first hard drive;
76
77 -c disable CD-ROM booting feature;
78
79 -b backup_file backup the data that will be overwritten for
80 future uninstallation;
81
82 -u backup_file uninstall Smart BootManager, should be used alone;
83
84 -y do not ask any question or warning.</i>
85 </pre>
86
87 <pre caption="Using sbminst to build the boot floppy">
88 # <i>sbminst -t us -d /dev/fd0</i>
89 </pre>
90 <note> Replace fd0 with your repective floppy device name if yours is different. </note>
91 <p>Now simply place the floppy in the floppy drive of the computer you'd like to boot the LiveCD on, as well as placing the LiveCD in the CD-ROM and boot the computer.</p>
92
93 <p>You'll be greeted with the Smart BootManager dialog. Select your CD-ROM and press ENTER to boot the LiveCD. Once booted proceed with the standard installation instructions.</p>
94
95 <p>Further information on Smart BootManager may be found at <uri>http://btmgr.sourceforge.net/</uri></p>
96 </body>
97 </section>
98 </chapter>
99
100
101 <chapter>
102 <title>Knoppix Installation</title>
103 <section>
104
105 <body>
106 <p>Booting from the <uri link="http://www.knoppix.org/">Knoppix</uri> LiveCD is a way to have a fully functional linux system while you're compiling Gentoo. Tux Racer will help you pass the time while you wait for bootstrap.</p>
107
108 <p>Boot from the Knoppix CD. It generally does a really good job of hardware detection. Although, you may have to add some boot options. </p>
109
110 <p>By default Knoppix boots into a KDE 3.0 desktop. The first thing I did was open a konsole and typed <c>sudo passwd root</c>. This lets you set the root password for Knoppix.</p>
111
112 <p> Next, I su to root and typed <c>usermod -d /root -m root</c>. This sets user roots home directory to /root (the Gentoo way) from /home/root (the Knoppix way). If you do not do this, then you will receive errors when emerging about "/home/root: not found" or something to that effect.</p>
113
114 <p>I then typed <c>exit</c> and then <c>su</c> back into root. This loads the change that was made with the usermod command. At this point, you can pick up with the standard install documentation at step 6. </p>
115 </body>
116 </section>
117 </chapter>
118
119 <chapter>
120 <title>Installing from Stage 1 without network access</title>
121 <section>
122 <body>
123
124
125 <p>Burn a LiveCD iso.</p>
126
127 <p>Get the latest portage snapshot from <uri>http://distro.ibiblio.org/pub/linux/distributions/gentoo/snapshots/</uri> (or your favorite <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror</uri>). Either place this tarball on an existing partition on the computer your are installing to, or burn it to a CD.</p>
128
129 <p>You'll also need a package list for the stage packages. Place the following dl-list.sh script on the same medium as the portage snapshot, you'll need it later.</p>
130
131 <pre caption="dl-list.sh">
132 #!/bin/bash
133
134 # set your defaults here:
135 user_defs() {
136
137 # portage directory (without a trailing "/"):
138 portage_dir="/usr/portage"
139
140 # default download mirror (without a trailing "/"):
141 gentoo_mirror="http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/Linux/distributions/gentoo"
142
143 # default sourceforge mirror (unc, telia, belnet):
144 sourceforge_mirror="unc"
145
146 # fix gnu mirror entries
147 gnu_url="ftp:\/\/ftp.gnu.org\/pub\/gnu"
148
149 }
150
151
152 #------------------------------------------------------------
153
154 # function to remove temporary files
155 cleanup() {
156
157 rm -f $temp_file_1 $temp_file_2
158 exit $1
159
160 }
161
162 # set user defaults
163 user_defs
164
165 # set the complete url for the sourceforge mirror
166 # (the \'s are needed because this goes in a sed command)
167 sourceforge_mirror_complete="http:\/\/$sourceforge_mirror.dl.sourceforge.net\/sourceforge"
168
169 # initialize counters
170 num_files=0
171 num_alt_urls=0
172 total_size=0
173
174 # initialize lists (arrays)
175 declare -a def_urls_arr
176 declare -a alt_urls_arr
177
178 # create 2 temporary files
179 temp_file_1=`mktemp -t dl-list.XXXXXX` || cleanup 1
180 temp_file_2=`mktemp -t dl-list.XXXXXX` || cleanup 1
181
182 # run "emerge -p &lt;args&gt;" (too easy to forget the "-p" in the command line...)
183 emerge -p $@ &gt; $temp_file_1 || cleanup 1
184
185 # remove the lines that do not contain the word "ebuild"
186 sed -n -e '/ebuild/p' $temp_file_1 &gt; $temp_file_2
187
188 # count how many lines were left
189 num_ebuilds=`wc -l $temp_file_2 | sed -e 's/\(.*\) \(.*\)/\1/'`
190
191 # extract the useful information from those lines: category, package and version
192 #sed -e 's:\(.*\) \(.*\)/\(.*\)-\([0-9].*\) \(.*\) \(.*\):\2 \3 \4:' $temp_file_2 &gt; $temp_file_1
193 sed -e 's:\(.*\) \(.*\)/\(.*\)-\([0-9].*\):\2 \3 \4:' $temp_file_2 &gt; $temp_file_1
194
195 # display starting message :)
196 echo -n "Generating list " &gt;&amp;2
197
198 # process each package in turn
199 while read category package version rest
200 do
201
202 # form the name of the digest file
203
204 digest_file="$portage_dir/$category/$package/files/digest-$package-$version"
205
206 # process the contents of the digest file
207 while read md5_flag md5_sum file_name file_size
208 do
209
210 # form the default url to download the file
211 def_urls_arr[$num_files]="$gentoo_mirror/distfiles/$file_name"
212
213 # increment the file counter
214 num_files=$(($num_files + 1))
215
216 # update the size accumulator (in kilobytes)
217 total_size=$(($total_size + $file_size / 1024))
218
219 done &lt; $digest_file
220
221 # form the "ebuild depend" command line
222 ebuild_depend_cmd="ebuild $portage_dir/$category/$package/$package-${version}.ebuild depend"
223
224 # execute the "ebuild depend" command
225 $ebuild_depend_cmd || cleanup 1
226
227 # form the name of the dependency file
228 dependency_file="/var/cache/edb/dep/$category/$package-$version"
229
230 # read in the 4th line from the dependency file,
231 # which contains the official download urls
232 alt_urls=`head -n 4 $dependency_file | tail -n 1`
233
234 # ignore empty url list
235 if [ -n "$alt_urls" ]
236 then
237
238 # split the urls list into $1..$N
239 set $alt_urls
240
241 # process each url in turn
242 for i in $@
243 do
244
245 # remove the (use)? strings from the url list
246 alt_url_tmp=`echo "$i" | sed -e '/\?$/d'`
247
248 # remove the "mirror://gnome" urls
249 alt_url_tmp=`echo "$alt_url_tmp" | sed -e '/^mirror:\/\/gnome/d'`
250
251 # remove the "mirror://kde" urls
252 alt_url_tmp=`echo "$alt_url_tmp" | sed -e '/^mirror:\/\/kde/d'`
253
254 # remove the "mirror://gentoo" urls (already included)
255 alt_url_tmp=`echo "$alt_url_tmp" | sed -e '/^mirror:\/\/gentoo/d'`
256
257 # translate the "mirror://sourceforge" urls into valid urls
258 alt_url_tmp=`echo "$alt_url_tmp" | sed -e "s/mirror:\/\/sourceforge/$sourceforge_mirror_complete/"`
259
260 # translate the "mirror://gnu" urls into valid urls
261 alt_url_tmp=`echo "$alt_url_tmp" | sed -e "s/mirror:\/\/gnu/$gnu_url/"`
262 # ignore empty urls
263 if [ -n "$alt_url_tmp" ]
264 then
265
266 # add the url to the list
267 alt_urls_arr[$num_alt_urls]=$alt_url_tmp
268
269 # increment the alternate url counter
270 num_alt_urls=$(($num_alt_urls + 1))
271
272 fi
273
274 done
275
276 fi
277
278 # a progress bar :)
279 echo -n "." &gt;&amp;2
280
281 done &lt; $temp_file_1
282
283 # display ending message :)
284 echo " done." &gt;&amp;2
285
286 # display default urls list
287 for i in ${def_urls_arr[@]}; do echo $i; done | sort
288
289 # display alternate urls list
290 for i in ${alt_urls_arr[@]}; do echo $i; done | sort
291
292 # display totals
293 echo "Totals:" $num_ebuilds "ebuilds," $num_files "files," $num_files "default urls," \n
294 $num_alt_urls "alternate urls," "${total_size}Kb." &lt;&amp;2
295
296 # remove temporary files and exit
297 cleanup 0
298 </pre>
299
300 <p>Follow all instructions of Gentoo Install Doc up to <c>chroot /mnt/gentoo</c> in Step 8. If you only have one CD-ROM remember to use the <c>cdcache</c> option while booting so you can unmount the LiveCD and mount your portage snapshot CD.</p>
301
302 <p>Run <c>passwd</c> and set a new password for root. Open a new virtual console (Alt-F2) and login as root with your new password.</p>
303
304 <p>On the new console (F2) continue with the Install Doc up to running the bootstrap.sh script.</p>
305
306 <p>Go back to the first console (Alt-F1, without chroot) and mount a second CD on <path>/mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2</path>. Copy the portage tarball from cdrom2 and unpack it to <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr/portage</path>. Further, grab the dl-list.sh script and place it in <path>/usr/sbin</path> and make it executable.</p>
307
308 <pre caption="Mount the snapshot cd">
309 # <i>umount /mnt/cdrom</i>
310 # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2</i>
311 # <i>mount /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2</i>
312 # <i>cp /mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2/portage-$date.tar.bz2 /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage</i>
313 # <i>cp /mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2/dl-list.sh /mnt/gentoo/usr/sbin</i>
314 # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage</i>
315 # <i>tar xvjpf portage-$date.tar.bz2</i>
316 # <i>chmod +x /mnt/gentoo/usr/sbin/dl-list.sh</i>
317 </pre>
318
319 <p>Switch back to the F2 console. Now if you try to run bootstrap.sh it will fail because it won't be able to download any files. We will fetch these files somewhere else and put them in /usr/portage/distfiles (on F2 console). </p>
320
321 <p>You need a list of Stage1 packages: glibc, baselayout, texinfo, gettext, zlib, binutils, gcc, ncurses plus their dependencies. </p>
322
323 <note>Note that you need the versions of each package synced with your portage tree.</note>
324
325 <p>Now use the dl-list.sh script to generate the package list that you need. Then copy the subsequent list to a floppy.</p>
326
327 <pre caption="Using dl-list.sh">
328 # <i>dl-list.sh glibc baselayout texinfo gettext zlib binutils gcc ncurses > stage1.list</i>
329 # <i>mount -t vfat /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy</i>
330 # <i>cp /mnt/gentoo/stage1.list /mnt/floppy</i>
331 # <i>umount /mnt/floppy</i>
332 </pre>
333
334 <p>Take the floppy to the computer that has fast access and feed this list to wget:</p>
335
336 <pre caption="Use wget to grab your source packages">
337 # <i>wget -N -i stage1.list</i>
338 </pre>
339
340
341 <p>Once you have obtained all the files, take them to the computer and copy them to <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr/portage/distfiles</path>. You will then be able to run <c>bootstrap.sh</c>. Repeat this same wget fetch and place procedure for stage2 and 3.</p>
342
343
344
345 </body>
346 </section>
347 </chapter>
348
349 <chapter>
350 <title>Netboot install</title>
351 <section>
352 <title>Requirements</title>
353 <body>
354 <p>The requirements for a netboot install are a host computer than can
355 provide a tftp server and a computer
356 that can netboot itself via either bios or a floppy drive used to boot GRUB
357 or another network bootloader. A dhcp server might also be necessary. Of
358 course, you will also need the latest build ISO, which can be found at
359 <uri>http://distro.ibiblio.org/pub/linux/distributions/gentoo/releases/</uri></p>
360 <note>Due to changes in the LiveCD, this procedure will only work for the 1.2 LiveCD. </note>
361 </body>
362 </section>
363
364 <section>
365 <title>Overview</title>
366 <body>
367
368 <p>In order to load images off the network, the first thing a netboot machine
369 must do is obtain an IP address. There are multiple ways of obtaining
370 an IP address, and any
371 one of them will do. Personally, I prefer to use GRUB for everything, but if
372 your computer supports booting from a network already then grub might not
373 be necessary, even if it might be easier to just use GRUB's <c>ifconfig</c> command
374 instead of setting up a bootp or dhcp server.</p>
375
376 <p>Once your computer has obtained an IP address, the next logical step is to find
377 out what you are going to be booting and where it might be held. Once again,
378 it would be easiest to do this with GRUB commands as opposed to setting up
379 a bootp or dhcp server. You will also need to specify how to obtain an initrd
380 and tell the kernel that it will be using this as it's root filesystem.</p>
381
382 <p>With your kernel loaded and root filesystem mounted, you may proceed
383 with installation as normal. The build image could be loaded from a cd, or it
384 can be downloaded from the network via tftp.</p>
385
386 </body>
387 </section>
388 <section>
389 <title>Using GRUB</title>
390 <body>
391
392 <p>To use GRUB for network booting purposes, you must first have GRUB
393 compiled with support for your network card. It doesn't matter if you install
394 to floppy, or to the hard drive of the computer you wish to install Gentoo
395 on. If your install target already has GRUB with network support installed,
396 then you are one step ahead. GRUB can be downloaded from
397 <uri>ftp://alpha.gnu.org/gnu/grub/</uri></p>
398
399 <p>A configure example for enabling tulip support, the network card in my
400 box:</p>
401
402 <pre caption="Manual GRUB installation">
403 # <i>./configure --enable-tulip --prefix=/usr</i>
404 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make install</i>
405 </pre>
406
407 <p>If you are currently in Gentoo and wish to install GRUB using Gentoo
408 tools, then you need to install step by step in order to configure in support
409 for your network card. An example for using ebuild to install GRUB with
410 tulip support:</p>
411
412 <pre caption="Installing and configuring GRUB on Gentoo Linux">
413 # <i>ebuild /usr/portage/sys-apps/grub/grub-0.91.ebuild clean fetch unpack</i>
414 # <i>cd /var/tmp/portage/grub-0.91/work/grub-0.91/</i>
415 # <i>./configure --prefix=/usr --sbindir=/sbin --mandir=/usr/share/man \ </i>
416 > <i>--infodir=/usr/share/info --enable-tulip</i>
417 # <i>make</i>
418 # <i>touch /var/tmp/portage/grub-0.91/.compiled</i>
419 # <i>cd /usr/portage/</i>
420 # <i>ebuild sys-apps/grub/grub-0.91.ebuild install merge</i>
421 </pre>
422
423 <p>Now that we have the GRUB shell itself installed, we need to install to
424 a boot sector. Although you could install GRUB to the boot sector of your
425 install computer's hard drive, here we will assume that you are installing
426 GRUB on a boot floppy. There are two ways of doing this. You can use the GRUB
427 shell itself, or you can use a provided script called <c>grub-install</c>. It is
428 preferable to use <c>grub-install</c> when installing GRUB to a floppy.</p>
429
430 <pre caption="grub-install example">
431 # <i>mkfs.ext2 /dev/fd0</i>
432 # <i>mount /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy/</i>
433 # <i>grub-install --root-directory=/mnt/floppy/ '(fd0)'</i>
434 # <i>umount /mnt/floppy/</i>
435 </pre>
436
437 <p><c>grub-install</c> does not always work... and isn't always the best way to install
438 GRUB. And since the GRUB shell works exactly like GRUB would when booted
439 via the boot sector, it might be more desirable just to use the GRUB shell. Here
440 is an example of how to use the GRUB shell to install GRUB to a floppy:</p>
441
442 <pre caption="Using the GRUB shell instead">
443 # <i>mkfs.ext2 /dev/fd0</i>
444 # <i>mount /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy/</i>
445 # <i>mkdir -p /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</i>
446 # <i>cp -v /usr/share/grub/i386-pc/* /mnt/floppy/boot/grub/</i>
447 # <i>grub</i>
448 grub> <i>root (fd0)</i>
449 grub> <i>setup (fd0)</i>
450 grub> <i>quit</i>
451 # <i>umount /mnt/floppy/</i>
452 </pre>
453
454 <p>Now that we have a bootable GRUB floppy, we need to set up the host tftp server
455 (I suggest netkit's tftp server)
456 for loading our kernel and initrd. If you use inetd then you will need
457 a line in your <path>/etc/inetd.conf</path> that looks
458 like this:</p>
459
460 <pre caption="/etc/inetd.conf">
461 tftp dgram udp wait nobody /usr/sbin/tcpd in.tftpd
462 </pre>
463
464 <p>To install the netkit tftp server under Gentoo Linux, emerge net-misc/netkit-tftp</p>
465
466 <note>There is an ebuild for xinetd... if you prefer to use this than feel free to do
467 so. However I do not use xinetd, and do not know how to set up tftp with it. If you
468 use it and such, please send me info on how to get xinetd working and I will include
469 them in this howto.</note>
470
471 <p>Now that we have our tftp server ready, we need a kernel and a root initrd to
472 put in it. You can compile a custom kernel yourself, but make sure it has all the
473 things necessary for running Gentoo (like devfs) and for netbooting (like initrd
474 support). The root initrd will be the rescue.gz included in the Gentoo ISO.</p>
475
476 <impo>Mounting an ISO file without burning it to cd requires loopback filesystem
477 support.</impo>
478
479 <pre>
480 # <i>mkdir /tftpboot</i>
481 # <i>mount -o loop /path/to/gentoo-ix86-1.1a.iso /mnt/cdrom/</i>
482 # <i>cp /mnt/cdrom/isolinux/kernel /mnt/cdrom/isolinux/rescue.gz /tftpboot</i>
483 # <i>chmod 644 /tftpboot/*</i>
484 # <i>umount /mnt/cdrom/</i>
485 </pre>
486
487 <p>Boot the machine you want to install to with your incredibly useful grub floppy.
488 Once booted you need to specify a way for the machine to get
489 its IP address, specify where
490 to get a kernel and it's options, and where to get it's initrd.</p>
491
492 <pre>
493 grub> <i>ifconfig --address=<c>ip.add.re.ss</c> --server=<c>ip.add.re.ss</c></i>
494 grub> <i>root (nd)</i>
495 grub> <i>kernel /tftpboot/kernel devfs=nomount vga=normal load_ramdisk=1 </i>
496 <i>prompt_ramdisk=0 ramdisk_size=24000 root=/dev/ram0 rw</i> <comment>(all on one line)</comment>
497 grub> <i>initrd /tftpboot/rescue.gz</i>
498 grub> <i>boot</i>
499 </pre>
500
501 <note>You can also use bootp and dhcp to configure your ip via grub. Use the bootp
502 and dhcp commands.</note>
503
504 <p>Now that you have your machine booted, you can install as normal. Refer to the
505 from source cd install howto.</p>
506
507 </body>
508 </section>
509 </chapter>
510
511 <chapter><title>Diskless install using PXE boot</title>
512
513 <section><title>Requirements</title>
514 <body>
515 <p>You will need a network card on the diskless client that uses the PXE protocol to boot, like many 3com cards. You will also need a BIOS that supports booting from PXE.</p>
516 </body></section>
517
518 <section><title>Server base setup</title>
519 <body>
520 <p>Create directories: The first thing to do is to create the directories where your diskless system will be stored. Create a directory called <path>/diskless</path> which houses a directory for each diskless client. For the rest of this howto we'll be working on the client 'eta'.</p>
521
522 <pre caption="directory setup">
523 # <i>mkdir /diskless</i>
524 # <i>mkdir /diskless/eta</i>
525 # <i>mkdir /diskless/eta/boot</i>
526 </pre>
527
528 <p>DHCP and TFTP setup: The client will get boot informations using DHCP and download all the required files using TFTP. Just emerge DHCP and configure it for your basic needs. Then, add the following on <path>/etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf</path>.</p>
529
530 <note>This provide a static IP address for the client and the path of a PXE boot image, here pxegrub. You have to replace the MAC address of the Ethernet card of the client and the directory where you will put the client files with the one you use.</note>
531
532 <pre caption="dhcp.conf">
533 option option-150 code 150 = text ;
534 host eta {
535 hardware ethernet 00:00:00:00:00:00;
536 fixed-address <c>ip.add.re.ss</c>;
537 option option-150 "/eta/boot/grub.lst";
538 filename "/eta/boot/pxegrub";
539 }
540 </pre>
541
542 <p>For TFTP, emerge <c>app-admin/tftp-hpa</c>. In <path>/etc/conf.d/in.tftpd</path>, put the following :</p>
543
544 <pre caption="in.tftpd">
545 INTFTPD_PATH="/diskless"
546 INTFTPD_USER="nobody"
547 INTFTPD_OPTS="-u ${INTFTPD_USER} -l -vvvvvv -p -c -s ${INTFTPD_PATH}"
548 </pre>
549
550 <p>Setup GRUB: To provide PXE booting I use GRUB. You have to compile it by yourself to enable the PXE image compilation ... but that's quite easy. First, get the latest version of the GRUB source code (<c>emerge -f grub</c> will place the tarball in <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path>). Copy the tarball to <path>/diskless</path> and then build it to make the pxe capable binary. Once the binary is built, copy it to the diskless client's boot directory. Then edit it's grub.lst config file.</p>
551
552 <pre caption="grub setup">
553 # <i>tar zxvf grub-0.92.tar.gz</i>
554 # <i>cd grub-0.92</i>
555 # <i>./configure --help</i>
556 <codenote>In the options you will see a list of supported network interface drivers. </codenote>
557 <codenote>Select the driver compatible with your card. Herein referenced a $nic</codenote>
558 # <i>./configure --enable-diskless --enable-$nic</i>
559 # <i>make</i>
560 # <i>cd stage2</i>
561 # <i>cp pxegrub /diskless/eta/boot/pxegrub</i>
562 # <i>nano -w /diskless/eta/boot/grub.lst</i>
563 </pre>
564
565 <pre caption="grub.lst">
566 default 0
567 timeout 30
568
569 title=Diskless Gentoo
570 root (nd)
571 kernel /eta/bzImage ip=dhcp root=/dev/nfs nfsroot=<c>ip.add.re.ss</c>:/diskless/eta
572
573 <codenote>For the nfsroot option, the IP address is the one of the server and </codenote>
574 <codenote>the directory is the one where your diskless client files are located (on the server).</codenote>
575 </pre>
576
577 <p>Setup NFS: NFS is quite easy to configure. The only thing you have to do is to add a line on the <path>/etc/exports</path> config file :</p>
578
579 <pre caption="/etc/exports">
580 # <i>nano -w /etc/exports</i>
581 NFS file systems being exported. See exports(5).
582 /diskless/eta eta(rw,sync,no_root_squash)
583 </pre>
584
585 <p>Update your hosts: One important thing to do now is to modify your <path>/etc/hosts</path> file to fit your needs. </p>
586
587 <pre caption="/etc/hosts">
588 127.0.0.1 localhost
589
590 192.168.1.10 eta.example.com eta
591 192.168.1.20 sigma.example.com sigma
592 </pre>
593 </body>
594 </section>
595
596 <section><title>Creating the system on the server</title>
597
598 <body>
599
600 <p>Reboot the server on a Gentoo LiveCD. Follow the standard install procedure as explained in the Gentoo Install Howto BUT with the following differences. When you mount the file system, do the following (where hdaX is the partition where you created the /diskless directory). You do not need to mount any other partitions as all of the files will reside in the <path>/diskless/eta</path> directory.</p>
601
602 <pre caption="mounting the filesystem">
603 #<i> mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
604 </pre>
605
606 <p>Stage tarballs and chroot: This example uses a stage3 tarball. Mount <path>/proc</path> to your diskless directory and chroot into it to continue with the install. Then follow the installation manual until kernel configuration.</p>
607
608 <warn>Be very careful where you extract your stage tarball. You don't want to end up extracting over your existing installation.</warn>
609
610 <pre caption="extracting the stage tarball">
611 # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/</i>
612 # <i>tar -xvjpf /mnt/cdrom/gentoo/stage3-*.tar.bz2</i>
613 # <i>mount -t proc /proc /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/proc</i>
614 # <i>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/etc/resolv.conf</i>
615 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/ /bin/bash</i>
616 # <i>env-update</i>
617 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
618 </pre>
619
620 <p>Kernel configuration: When you do the <c>make menuconfig</c> of your kernel configuration, don't forget to enable the following options with the others recommended into the install howto.</p>
621
622 <pre caption="menuconfig options">
623 - Your network card device support
624
625 - Under "Networking options" :
626
627 [*] TCP/IP networking
628 [*] IP: kernel level autoconfiguration
629 [*] IP: DHCP support
630 [*] IP: BOOTP support
631
632
633 - Under "File systems --> Network File Systems" :
634
635 &lt;*&gt; NFS file system support
636 [*] Provide NFSv3 client support
637 [*] Root file system on NFS
638 </pre>
639
640 <p>Next configure your diskless client's <path>/etc/fstab</path>.</p>
641
642 <pre caption="/etc/fstab">
643 # <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
644 /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro 0 0
645 proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
646 tmpfs /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0
647 </pre>
648
649 <p>Bootloader. Don't install another bootloader because we already have one - pxegrub. Simply finish the install and restart the server. Start the services you'll need to boot the new client: DHCP, TFTPD, and NFS.</p>
650
651 <pre caption="Starting services">
652 # <i>/etc/init.d/dhcp start</i>
653 # <i>/etc/init.d/tftpd start</i>
654 # <i>/etc/init.d/nfs start</i>
655 </pre>
656
657 </body></section>
658
659 <section><title>Booting the new client</title>
660 <body>
661 <p>For the new client to boot properly, you'll need to configure the bios and the network card to use PXE as the first boot method - before CD-ROM or floppy. For help with this consult your hardware manuals or manufacturers website. The network card should get an IP address using DHCP and download the GRUB PXE image using TFTP. Then, you should see a nice black and white GRUB bootmenu where you will select the kernel to boot and press Enter. If everything is ok the kernel should boot, mount the root filesystem using NFS and provide you with a login prompt. Enjoy.</p>
662 </body></section>
663
664 </chapter>
665
666
667
668 <chapter> <title>Installing Gentoo from an existing Linux distribution </title>
669 <section> <title> Requirements </title>
670 <body>
671 <p>In order to install Gentoo from your existing Linux distribution you need to
672 have chroot command installed, and have a copy of the Gentoo installation
673 tarball or ISO you want to install. A network connection would be preferable if
674 you want more than what's supplied in your tarball. (by the way, a tarball is
675 just a file ending in .tbz or .tar.gz). The author used RedHat Linux 7.3 as the
676 "host" operating system, but it is not very important. Let's get started! </p>
677 </body>
678 </section>
679
680 <section> <title> Overview </title>
681 <body>
682 <p>We will first allocate a partition to Gentoo by resizing our existing Linux partition, mount the partition, untar the tarball that is mounted, chroot inside the psuedo-system and start building. Once the bootstrap process is done, we will do some final configuration on the system so as to make sure it boots, then we are ready to reboot and use Gentoo. </p>
683 </body>
684 </section>
685
686 <section> <title> How should we make space for Gentoo? </title>
687 <body>
688
689 <p>
690 The root partition is the filesystem mounted under <path>/</path>. A quick run of mount on my system shows what I am talking about. We well also use df (disk free) to see how much space I have left and how I will be resizing. Note that it is not mandatory to resize your root partition! You could be resizing anything else supported by our resizer, but let's talk about that later.</p>
691
692
693 <pre caption="Filesystem information">
694 # <i>mount</i>
695 /dev/hdb2 on / type ext3 (rw)
696 none on /proc type proc (rw)
697 none on /dev/pts type devpts (rw,gid=5,mode=620)
698 none on /dev/shm type tmpfs (rw)
699 # <i>df -h </i>
700 Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
701 /dev/hdb2 4.0G 1.9G 2.4G 82% /
702 none 38M 0 38M 0% /dev/shm
703 </pre>
704
705 <p>As we can see, the partition mounted as <path>/</path> named <path>/dev/hdb2</path> has 2.4 gigabytes free. In my case, I think I will resize it as to leave 400Megs free of space, therefore allocating 2 gigabytes for Gentoo. Not bad, I could have quite some stuff installed. However, think that even one gigabyte is enough for most users. So let's partition this thing! </p>
706
707 </body> </section>
708
709 <section> <title> Building parted to resize partition </title>
710 <body>
711 <p>Parted is an utility supplied by the GNU foundation, an old and respectable huge project whose software you are using in this very moment. There is one tool, however, that is extremely useful for us at the moment. It's called parted, partition editor and we can get it from <uri>
712 http://www.gnu.org/software/parted/</uri>
713 </p>
714 <note> There are other tools for doing resize of partitions as well, but author
715 is unsure/uninterested whether PartitionMagic(tm) or other software of the kind
716 do the job. It's the reader's job to check them out </note>
717
718 <p>
719 Look up on that page the type of filesystem you want to resize and see if parted
720 can do it. If not, you're out of luck, you will have to destroy some partition
721 to make space for Gentoo, and reinstall back. Go ahead by downloading the
722 software, install it. Here we have a problem. We want to resize our Linux root
723 partition, therefore we must boot from a floppy disk a minimal linux system and
724 use previously-compiled parted copied to a diskette in order to resize <path>/</path>.
725 However, if you can unmount the partition while still in Linux you are lucky,
726 you don't need to do what follows. Just compile parted and run it on an
727 unmounted partition you chose to resize. Here's how I did it for my system.
728 </p>
729
730 <impo> Make sure that the operations you want to do on your partition are
731 supported by parted! </impo>
732
733 <p> Get tomsrtbt boot/root disk (free of charge) from <uri>
734 http://freshmeat.net/tomsrtbt </uri>, create a floppy as suggested in the
735 Documentation that accompanies the software package and insert a new floppy in
736 the drive for the next step. </p>
737
738 <note> Note again that Linux is synonym of "There's one more way to do it". Your
739 objective is to run parted on an unmounted partition so it can do its work. You
740 might use some other boot/root diskset other than tomsrtbt. You might not even
741 need to do this step at all, that is only umount the filesystem you want to
742 repartition in your Linux session and run parted on it. </note>
743
744 <pre caption="Utility disk creation">
745 # <i>mkfs.minix /dev/fd0</i>
746 480 inodes
747 1440 blocks
748 Firstdatazone=19 (19)
749 Zonesize=1024
750 Maxsize=268966912
751 </pre>
752
753 We will now proceed with the build of parted. If it's not already downloaded and untarred, do so now and cd into the corresponding directory. Now run the following set of commands to build the utility and copy it to your floppy disk.
754
755 <pre caption="Building the utility floppy">
756 # <i> mkdir /floppy; mount -t minix /dev/fd0 /floppy &amp;&amp;
757 export CFLAGS="-O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer -static" &amp;&amp; ./configure
758 &amp;&amp; make &amp;&amp; cp parted/parted /floppy &amp;&amp; umount /floppy </i>
759 </pre>
760
761 <p>
762 Congratulations, you are ready to reboot and resize your partition. Do this only
763 after taking a quick look at the parted documentation on the GNU website. The
764 resize should take under 30 minutes for the largest hard-drives, be patient.
765 Reboot your system with the tomsrtbt boot disk (just pop it inside), and once
766 you are logged in, switch the disk in the drive with your utility disk we have
767 created above and type mount /dev/fd0 /floppy to have parted under /floppy.
768 There you go. Run parted and you will be able to resize your partition. Once
769 this lenghty process done, we are ready to have the real fun, by installing
770 Gentoo. Reboot back into your old Linux system for now. Drive you wish to
771 operate on is the drive containing the partition we want to resize. For
772 example, if we want to resize /dev/hda3, the drive is /dev/hda
773 </p>
774
775 <pre caption="Commands to run once logged into tomsrtbt system">
776 # <i>mount /dev/fd0 /floppy </i>
777 # <i>cd /floppy; ./parted [drive you wish to operate on]</i>
778 (parted) <i> print </i>
779 Disk geometry for /dev/hdb: 0.000-9787.148 megabytes
780 Disk label type: msdos
781 Minor Start End Type Filesystem Flags
782 1 0.031 2953.125 primary ntfs
783 3 2953.125 3133.265 primary linux-swap
784 2 3133.266 5633.085 primary ext3
785 4 5633.086 9787.148 extended
786 5 5633.117 6633.210 logical
787 6 6633.242 9787.148 logical ext3
788 (parted) <i> help resize </i>
789 resize MINOR START END resize filesystem on partition MINOR
790
791 MINOR is the partition number used by Linux. On msdos disk labels, the
792 primary partitions number from 1-4, and logical partitions are 5
793 onwards.
794 START and END are in megabytes
795 (parted) <i> resize 2 3133.266 4000.000 </i>
796 </pre>
797
798 <impo> Be patient! The computer is working! Just look at the hardware LED on
799 your case to see that it is really working. This should take between 2 and 30
800 minutes. </impo>
801
802 <p>Once you have resized, boot back into your old linux as described. Then go to
803 <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml">http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/gentoo-x86-install.xml</uri> and follow steps 6 through 17. Don't forget to create the <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> directory before proceeding with step 7. In step 8 you have to download the requested stage-tarball as we're not working from a LiveCD.
804
805
806 Enjoy!
807 </p>
808 </body>
809 </section>
810 </chapter>
811 </guide>

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