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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/altinstall.xml,v 1.24 2004/04/11 10:52:16 cam Exp $ -->
3 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4
5
6 <guide link="/doc/en/altinstall.xml">
7 <title>The Gentoo Linux alternative installation method HOWTO</title>
8 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="gerrynjr@gentoo.org">Gerald Normandin Jr.</mail></author>
9 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="lordviram@rebelpacket.net">Travis Tilley</mail></author>
10 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="volontir@yahoo.com">Oleg Raisky</mail></author>
11 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="luminousit@hotmail.com">Alex Garbutt</mail></author>
12 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="alex@openvs.com">Alexandre Georges</mail></author>
13 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="vargen@b0d.org">Magnus Backanda</mail></author>
14 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="davoid@gentoo.org">Faust A. Tanasescu</mail></author>
15 <author title="Contributor"><mail link="aliz@gentoo.org">Daniel Ahlberg</mail></author>
16 <author title="Editor"><mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail></author>
17 <author title="Reviewer"><mail link="antifa@gentoo.org">Ken Nowack</mail></author>
18 <author title="Editor"><mail link="blubber@gentoo.org">Tiemo Kieft</mail></author>
19 <abstract>
20 This HOWTO is meant to be a repository of alternative Gentoo installation
21 methods, for those with special installation needs such as lack of a cdrom
22 or a computer that can't boot cds.
23 </abstract>
24
25 <license/>
26
27 <version>0.37</version>
28 <date>April 11, 2004</date>
29
30 <chapter>
31 <title>About this document</title>
32 <section>
33 <body>
34
35 <p>If the standard boot-from-CD install method doesn't work for you
36 (or you just don't like it),
37 help is now here. This document serves to
38 provide a repository of alternative Gentoo Linux installation techniques
39 to those who need them.
40 Or, if you prefer, it serves as
41 a place to put your wacky installation methods. If you have an
42 installation method that you yourself find useful, or you have devised an
43 amusing way of installing Gentoo, please don't hesitate to write something
44 up and <mail link="antifa@gentoo.org">send it to me.</mail></p>
45
46
47 </body>
48 </section>
49 </chapter>
50
51 <chapter>
52 <title>Booting the LiveCD with Smart BootManager</title>
53 <section>
54
55 <body>
56 <p>Download Smart BootManager <uri link="http://btmgr.sourceforge.net/index.php3?body=download.html">http://btmgr.sourceforge.net/index.php3?body=download.html</uri>. Linux source or binary format and windows .exe versions are available as well as many language packs. However, at this time, the preferred method would be to use the binary format, as the source will not compile with newer versions of NASM.</p>
57
58 <p>Either compile the package from source or just grab the binary. There are several options that can be utilized while creating your boot floppy, as seen below.</p>
59
60 <pre caption="Smart BootManager Options">
61 <i>sbminst [-t theme] [-d drv] [-b backup_file] [-u backup_file]
62
63 -t theme select the theme to be used, in which the theme could be:
64 us = English theme de = German theme
65 hu = Hungarian theme zh = Chinese theme
66 ru = Russian theme cz = Czech theme
67 es = Spanish theme fr = French theme
68 pt = Portuguese theme
69
70
71 -d drv set the drive that you want to install Smart BootManager on;
72 for Linux:
73 /dev/fd0 is the first floppy driver,
74 /dev/hda is the first IDE harddisk driver.
75 /dev/sda is the first SCSI harddisk driver.
76 for DOS:
77 0 is the first floppy drive
78 128 is the first hard drive;
79
80 -c disable CD-ROM booting feature;
81
82 -b backup_file backup the data that will be overwritten for
83 future uninstallation;
84
85 -u backup_file uninstall Smart BootManager, should be used alone;
86
87 -y do not ask any question or warning.</i>
88 </pre>
89
90 <pre caption="Using sbminst to build the boot floppy">
91 # <i>sbminst -t us -d /dev/fd0</i>
92 </pre>
93 <note> Replace fd0 with your repective floppy device name if yours is different. </note>
94 <p>Now simply place the floppy in the floppy drive of the computer you'd like to boot the LiveCD on, as well as placing the LiveCD in the CD-ROM and boot the computer.</p>
95
96 <p>You'll be greeted with the Smart BootManager dialog. Select your CD-ROM and press ENTER to boot the LiveCD. Once booted proceed with the standard installation instructions.</p>
97
98 <p>Further information on Smart BootManager may be found at <uri>http://btmgr.sourceforge.net/</uri></p>
99 </body>
100 </section>
101 </chapter>
102
103
104 <chapter>
105 <title>Knoppix Installation</title>
106 <section>
107
108 <body>
109 <p>Booting from the <uri link="http://www.knoppix.org/">Knoppix</uri> LiveCD is a way to have a fully functional linux system while you're compiling Gentoo. Tux Racer will help you pass the time while you wait for bootstrap.</p>
110
111 <p>Boot from the Knoppix CD. It generally does a really good job of hardware detection. Although, you may have to add some boot options. </p>
112
113 <p>By default Knoppix boots into a KDE 3.0 desktop. The first thing I did was open a konsole and typed <c>sudo passwd root</c>. This lets you set the root password for Knoppix.</p>
114
115 <p> Next, I su to root and typed <c>usermod -d /root -m root</c>. This sets user roots home directory to /root (the Gentoo way) from /home/root (the Knoppix way). If you do not do this, then you will receive errors when emerging about "/home/root: not found" or something to that effect.</p>
116
117 <p>I then typed <c>exit</c> and then <c>su</c> back into root. This loads the change that was made with the usermod command. Now create the <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> mountpoint using <c>mkdir</c>:</p>
118
119 <pre caption="Creating the /mnt/gentoo mountpoint">
120 # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</i>
121 </pre>
122
123 <p>At this point, you can pick up with the standard install documentation at
124 <uri link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=1&amp;chap=4">part 4</uri>. However, when you're asked to mount the proc system, issue the following command instead: </p>
125
126 <pre caption = "Bind-mounting the proc pseudo filesystem">
127 # <i>mount -o bind /proc /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
128 </pre>
129
130 </body>
131 </section>
132 </chapter>
133
134 <chapter>
135 <title>Installing from Stage 1 without network access</title>
136 <section>
137 <body>
138
139
140 <p>Burn a LiveCD iso.</p>
141
142 <p>Get the latest portage snapshot from <uri>http://distro.ibiblio.org/pub/linux/distributions/gentoo/snapshots/</uri> (or your favorite <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/mirrors.xml">mirror</uri>). Either place this tarball on an existing partition on the computer your are installing to, or burn it to a CD.</p>
143
144 <p>You'll also need a package list for the stage packages. Place the following dl-list.sh script on the same medium as the portage snapshot, you'll need it later.</p>
145
146 <pre caption="dl-list.sh">
147 #!/bin/bash
148
149 # set your defaults here:
150 user_defs() {
151
152 # portage directory (without a trailing "/"):
153 portage_dir="/usr/portage"
154
155 # default download mirror (without a trailing "/"):
156 gentoo_mirror="http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/Linux/distributions/gentoo"
157
158 # default sourceforge mirror (unc, telia, belnet):
159 sourceforge_mirror="unc"
160
161 # fix gnu mirror entries
162 gnu_url="ftp:\/\/ftp.gnu.org\/pub\/gnu"
163
164 }
165
166
167 #------------------------------------------------------------
168
169 # function to remove temporary files
170 cleanup() {
171
172 rm -f $temp_file_1 $temp_file_2
173 exit $1
174
175 }
176
177 # set user defaults
178 user_defs
179
180 # set the complete url for the sourceforge mirror
181 # (the \'s are needed because this goes in a sed command)
182 sourceforge_mirror_complete="http:\/\/$sourceforge_mirror.dl.sourceforge.net\/sourceforge"
183
184 # initialize counters
185 num_files=0
186 num_alt_urls=0
187 total_size=0
188
189 # initialize lists (arrays)
190 declare -a def_urls_arr
191 declare -a alt_urls_arr
192
193 # create 2 temporary files
194 temp_file_1=`mktemp -t dl-list.XXXXXX` || cleanup 1
195 temp_file_2=`mktemp -t dl-list.XXXXXX` || cleanup 1
196
197 # run "emerge -p &lt;args&gt;" (too easy to forget the "-p" in the command line...)
198 emerge -p $@ &gt; $temp_file_1 || cleanup 1
199
200 # remove the lines that do not contain the word "ebuild"
201 sed -n -e '/ebuild/p' $temp_file_1 &gt; $temp_file_2
202
203 # count how many lines were left
204 num_ebuilds=`wc -l $temp_file_2 | sed -e 's/\(.*\) \(.*\)/\1/'`
205
206 # extract the useful information from those lines: category, package and version
207 #sed -e 's:\(.*\) \(.*\)/\(.*\)-\([0-9].*\) \(.*\) \(.*\):\2 \3 \4:' $temp_file_2 &gt; $temp_file_1
208 sed -e 's:\(.*\) \(.*\)/\(.*\)-\([0-9].*\):\2 \3 \4:' $temp_file_2 &gt; $temp_file_1
209
210 # display starting message :)
211 echo -n "Generating list " &gt;&amp;2
212
213 # process each package in turn
214 while read category package version rest
215 do
216
217 # form the name of the digest file
218
219 digest_file="$portage_dir/$category/$package/files/digest-$package-$version"
220
221 # process the contents of the digest file
222 while read md5_flag md5_sum file_name file_size
223 do
224
225 # form the default url to download the file
226 def_urls_arr[$num_files]="$gentoo_mirror/distfiles/$file_name"
227
228 # increment the file counter
229 num_files=$(($num_files + 1))
230
231 # update the size accumulator (in kilobytes)
232 total_size=$(($total_size + $file_size / 1024))
233
234 done &lt; $digest_file
235
236 # form the "ebuild depend" command line
237 ebuild_depend_cmd="ebuild $portage_dir/$category/$package/$package-${version}.ebuild depend"
238
239 # execute the "ebuild depend" command
240 $ebuild_depend_cmd || cleanup 1
241
242 # form the name of the dependency file
243 dependency_file="/var/cache/edb/dep/$category/$package-$version"
244
245 # read in the 4th line from the dependency file,
246 # which contains the official download urls
247 alt_urls=`head -n 4 $dependency_file | tail -n 1`
248
249 # ignore empty url list
250 if [ -n "$alt_urls" ]
251 then
252
253 # split the urls list into $1..$N
254 set $alt_urls
255
256 # process each url in turn
257 for i in $@
258 do
259
260 # remove the (use)? strings from the url list
261 alt_url_tmp=`echo "$i" | sed -e '/\?$/d'`
262
263 # remove the "mirror://gnome" urls
264 alt_url_tmp=`echo "$alt_url_tmp" | sed -e '/^mirror:\/\/gnome/d'`
265
266 # remove the "mirror://kde" urls
267 alt_url_tmp=`echo "$alt_url_tmp" | sed -e '/^mirror:\/\/kde/d'`
268
269 # remove the "mirror://gentoo" urls (already included)
270 alt_url_tmp=`echo "$alt_url_tmp" | sed -e '/^mirror:\/\/gentoo/d'`
271
272 # translate the "mirror://sourceforge" urls into valid urls
273 alt_url_tmp=`echo "$alt_url_tmp" | sed -e "s/mirror:\/\/sourceforge/$sourceforge_mirror_complete/"`
274
275 # translate the "mirror://gnu" urls into valid urls
276 alt_url_tmp=`echo "$alt_url_tmp" | sed -e "s/mirror:\/\/gnu/$gnu_url/"`
277 # ignore empty urls
278 if [ -n "$alt_url_tmp" ]
279 then
280
281 # add the url to the list
282 alt_urls_arr[$num_alt_urls]=$alt_url_tmp
283
284 # increment the alternate url counter
285 num_alt_urls=$(($num_alt_urls + 1))
286
287 fi
288
289 done
290
291 fi
292
293 # a progress bar :)
294 echo -n "." &gt;&amp;2
295
296 done &lt; $temp_file_1
297
298 # display ending message :)
299 echo " done." &gt;&amp;2
300
301 # display default urls list
302 for i in ${def_urls_arr[@]}; do echo $i; done | sort
303
304 # display alternate urls list
305 for i in ${alt_urls_arr[@]}; do echo $i; done | sort
306
307 # display totals
308 echo "Totals:" $num_ebuilds "ebuilds," $num_files "files," $num_files "default urls," \n
309 $num_alt_urls "alternate urls," "${total_size}Kb." &lt;&amp;2
310
311 # remove temporary files and exit
312 cleanup 0
313 </pre>
314
315 <p>Follow all instructions of Gentoo Install Doc up to <c>chroot /mnt/gentoo</c> in Step 8. If you only have one CD-ROM remember to use the <c>cdcache</c> option while booting so you can unmount the LiveCD and mount your portage snapshot CD.</p>
316
317 <p>Open a new console (Alt-F2), we will continue with the Install Doc up to running the bootstrap.sh script.</p>
318
319 <warn>Older realeases of the livecd required you to change the password using the <c>passwd</c> command, before logging in manually.</warn>
320
321
322 <p>Go back to the first console (Alt-F1, without chroot) and mount a second CD on <path>/mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2</path>. Copy the portage tarball from cdrom2 and unpack it to <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr/portage</path>. Further, grab the dl-list.sh script and place it in <path>/usr/sbin</path> and make it executable.</p>
323
324 <pre caption="Mount the snapshot cd">
325 # <i>umount /mnt/cdrom</i>
326 # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2</i>
327 # <i>mount /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2</i>
328 # <i>cp /mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2/portage-$date.tar.bz2 /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage</i>
329 # <i>cp /mnt/gentoo/mnt/cdrom2/dl-list.sh /mnt/gentoo/usr/sbin</i>
330 # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo/usr/portage</i>
331 # <i>tar xvjpf portage-$date.tar.bz2</i>
332 # <i>chmod +x /mnt/gentoo/usr/sbin/dl-list.sh</i>
333 </pre>
334
335 <p>Switch back to the F2 console. Now if you try to run bootstrap.sh it will fail because it won't be able to download any files. We will fetch these files somewhere else and put them in /usr/portage/distfiles (on F2 console). </p>
336
337 <p>You need a list of Stage1 packages: glibc, baselayout, texinfo, gettext, zlib, binutils, gcc, ncurses plus their dependencies. </p>
338
339 <note>Note that you need the versions of each package synced with your portage tree.</note>
340
341 <p>Now use the dl-list.sh script to generate the package list that you need. Then copy the subsequent list to a floppy.</p>
342
343 <pre caption="Using dl-list.sh">
344 # <i>dl-list.sh glibc baselayout texinfo gettext zlib binutils gcc ncurses > stage1.list</i>
345 # <i>mount -t vfat /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy</i>
346 # <i>cp /mnt/gentoo/stage1.list /mnt/floppy</i>
347 # <i>umount /mnt/floppy</i>
348 </pre>
349
350 <p>Take the floppy to the computer that has fast access and feed this list to wget:</p>
351
352 <pre caption="Use wget to grab your source packages">
353 # <i>wget -N -i stage1.list</i>
354 </pre>
355
356
357 <p>Once you have obtained all the files, take them to the computer and copy them to <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr/portage/distfiles</path>. You will then be able to run <c>bootstrap.sh</c>. Repeat this same wget fetch and place procedure for stage2 and 3.</p>
358
359
360
361 </body>
362 </section>
363 </chapter>
364
365 <chapter><title>Diskless install using PXE boot</title>
366
367 <section><title>Requirements</title>
368 <body>
369 <p>You will need a network card on the diskless client that uses the PXE protocol to boot, like many 3com cards. You will also need a BIOS that supports booting from PXE.</p>
370 </body></section>
371
372 <section><title>Server base setup</title>
373 <body>
374 <p>Create directories: The first thing to do is to create the directories where your diskless system will be stored. Create a directory called <path>/diskless</path> which houses a directory for each diskless client. For the rest of this howto we'll be working on the client 'eta'.</p>
375
376 <pre caption="directory setup">
377 # <i>mkdir /diskless</i>
378 # <i>mkdir /diskless/eta</i>
379 # <i>mkdir /diskless/eta/boot</i>
380 </pre>
381
382 <p>DHCP and TFTP setup: The client will get boot informations using DHCP and download all the required files using TFTP. Just emerge DHCP and configure it for your basic needs. Then, add the following on <path>/etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf</path>.</p>
383
384 <note>This provide a static IP address for the client and the path of a PXE boot image, here pxegrub. You have to replace the MAC address of the Ethernet card of the client and the directory where you will put the client files with the one you use.</note>
385
386 <pre caption="dhcp.conf">
387 option option-150 code 150 = text ;
388 host eta {
389 hardware ethernet 00:00:00:00:00:00;
390 fixed-address <i>ip.add.re.ss</i>;
391 option option-150 "/eta/boot/grub.lst";
392 filename "/eta/boot/pxegrub";
393 }
394 </pre>
395
396 <p>For TFTP, emerge <c>app-admin/tftp-hpa</c>. In <path>/etc/conf.d/in.tftpd</path>, put the following :</p>
397
398 <pre caption="in.tftpd">
399 INTFTPD_PATH="/diskless"
400 INTFTPD_USER="nobody"
401 INTFTPD_OPTS="-u ${INTFTPD_USER} -l -vvvvvv -p -c -s ${INTFTPD_PATH}"
402 </pre>
403
404 <p>Setup GRUB: To provide PXE booting I use GRUB. You have to compile it by yourself to enable the PXE image compilation ... but that's quite easy. First, get the latest version of the GRUB source code (<c>emerge -f grub</c> will place the tarball in <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path>). Copy the tarball to <path>/diskless</path> and then build it to make the pxe capable binary. Once the binary is built, copy it to the diskless client's boot directory. Then edit it's grub.lst config file.</p>
405
406 <pre caption="grub setup">
407 # <i>tar zxvf grub-0.92.tar.gz</i>
408 # <i>cd grub-0.92</i>
409 # <i>./configure --help</i>
410 <codenote>In the options you will see a list of supported network interface drivers. </codenote>
411 <codenote>Select the driver compatible with your card. Herein referenced a $nic</codenote>
412 # <i>./configure --enable-diskless --enable-$nic</i>
413 # <i>make</i>
414 # <i>cd stage2</i>
415 # <i>cp pxegrub /diskless/eta/boot/pxegrub</i>
416 # <i>nano -w /diskless/eta/boot/grub.lst</i>
417 </pre>
418
419 <pre caption="grub.lst">
420 default 0
421 timeout 30
422
423 title=Diskless Gentoo
424 root (nd)
425 kernel /eta/bzImage ip=dhcp root=/dev/nfs nfsroot=<i>ip.add.re.ss</i>:/diskless/eta
426
427 <codenote>For the nfsroot option, the IP address is the one of the server and </codenote>
428 <codenote>the directory is the one where your diskless client files are located (on the server).</codenote>
429 </pre>
430
431 <p>Setup NFS: NFS is quite easy to configure. The only thing you have to do is to add a line on the <path>/etc/exports</path> config file :</p>
432
433 <pre caption="/etc/exports">
434 # <i>nano -w /etc/exports</i>
435 NFS file systems being exported. See exports(5).
436 /diskless/eta eta(rw,sync,no_root_squash)
437 </pre>
438
439 <p>Update your hosts: One important thing to do now is to modify your <path>/etc/hosts</path> file to fit your needs. </p>
440
441 <pre caption="/etc/hosts">
442 127.0.0.1 localhost
443
444 192.168.1.10 eta.example.com eta
445 192.168.1.20 sigma.example.com sigma
446 </pre>
447 </body>
448 </section>
449
450 <section><title>Creating the system on the server</title>
451
452 <body>
453
454 <p>Reboot the server on a Gentoo LiveCD. Follow the standard install procedure as explained in the Gentoo Install Howto BUT with the following differences. When you mount the file system, do the following (where hdaX is the partition where you created the /diskless directory). You do not need to mount any other partitions as all of the files will reside in the <path>/diskless/eta</path> directory.</p>
455
456 <pre caption="mounting the filesystem">
457 #<i> mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
458 </pre>
459
460 <p>Stage tarballs and chroot: This example uses a stage3 tarball. Mount <path>/proc</path> to your diskless directory and chroot into it to continue with the install. Then follow the installation manual until kernel configuration.</p>
461
462 <warn>Be very careful where you extract your stage tarball. You don't want to end up extracting over your existing installation.</warn>
463
464 <pre caption="extracting the stage tarball">
465 # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/</i>
466 # <i>tar -xvjpf /mnt/cdrom/gentoo/stage3-*.tar.bz2</i>
467 # <i>mount -t proc /proc /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/proc</i>
468 # <i>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/etc/resolv.conf</i>
469 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo/diskless/eta/ /bin/bash</i>
470 # <i>env-update</i>
471 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
472 </pre>
473
474 <p>Kernel configuration: When you do the <c>make menuconfig</c> of your kernel configuration, don't forget to enable the following options with the others recommended into the install howto.</p>
475
476 <pre caption="menuconfig options">
477 - Your network card device support
478
479 - Under "Networking options" :
480
481 [*] TCP/IP networking
482 [*] IP: kernel level autoconfiguration
483 [*] IP: DHCP support
484 [*] IP: BOOTP support
485
486
487 - Under "File systems --> Network File Systems" :
488
489 &lt;*&gt; NFS file system support
490 [*] Provide NFSv3 client support
491 [*] Root file system on NFS
492 </pre>
493
494 <p>Next configure your diskless client's <path>/etc/fstab</path>.</p>
495
496 <pre caption="/etc/fstab">
497 # <i>nano -w /etc/fstab</i>
498 /dev/cdroms/cdrom0 /mnt/cdrom iso9660 noauto,ro 0 0
499 proc /proc proc defaults 0 0
500 tmpfs /dev/shm tmpfs defaults 0 0
501 </pre>
502
503 <p>Bootloader. Don't install another bootloader because we already have one - pxegrub. Simply finish the install and restart the server. Start the services you'll need to boot the new client: DHCP, TFTPD, and NFS.</p>
504
505 <pre caption="Starting services">
506 # <i>/etc/init.d/dhcp start</i>
507 # <i>/etc/init.d/tftpd start</i>
508 # <i>/etc/init.d/nfs start</i>
509 </pre>
510
511 </body></section>
512
513 <section><title>Booting the new client</title>
514 <body>
515 <p>For the new client to boot properly, you'll need to configure the bios and the network card to use PXE as the first boot method - before CD-ROM or floppy. For help with this consult your hardware manuals or manufacturers website. The network card should get an IP address using DHCP and download the GRUB PXE image using TFTP. Then, you should see a nice black and white GRUB bootmenu where you will select the kernel to boot and press Enter. If everything is ok the kernel should boot, mount the root filesystem using NFS and provide you with a login prompt. Enjoy.</p>
516 </body></section>
517
518 </chapter>
519
520
521
522 <chapter> <title>Installing Gentoo from an existing Linux distribution </title>
523 <section> <title> Requirements </title>
524 <body>
525 <p>In order to install Gentoo from your existing Linux distribution you need to
526 have chroot command installed, and have a copy of the Gentoo installation
527 tarball or ISO you want to install. A network connection would be preferable if
528 you want more than what's supplied in your tarball. (by the way, a tarball is
529 just a file ending in .tbz or .tar.gz). The author used RedHat Linux 7.3 as the
530 "host" operating system, but it is not very important. Let's get started! </p>
531 </body>
532 </section>
533
534 <section> <title> Overview </title>
535 <body>
536 <p>We will first allocate a partition to Gentoo by resizing our existing Linux partition, mount the partition, untar the tarball that is mounted, chroot inside the psuedo-system and start building. Once the bootstrap process is done, we will do some final configuration on the system so as to make sure it boots, then we are ready to reboot and use Gentoo. </p>
537 </body>
538 </section>
539
540 <section> <title> How should we make space for Gentoo? </title>
541 <body>
542
543 <p>
544 The root partition is the filesystem mounted under <path>/</path>. A quick run of mount on my system shows what I am talking about. We well also use df (disk free) to see how much space I have left and how I will be resizing. Note that it is not mandatory to resize your root partition! You could be resizing anything else supported by our resizer, but let's talk about that later.</p>
545
546
547 <pre caption="Filesystem information">
548 # <i>mount</i>
549 /dev/hdb2 on / type ext3 (rw)
550 none on /proc type proc (rw)
551 none on /dev/pts type devpts (rw,gid=5,mode=620)
552 none on /dev/shm type tmpfs (rw)
553 # <i>df -h </i>
554 Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
555 /dev/hdb2 4.0G 1.9G 2.4G 82% /
556 none 38M 0 38M 0% /dev/shm
557 </pre>
558
559 <p>As we can see, the partition mounted as <path>/</path> named <path>/dev/hdb2</path> has 2.4 gigabytes free. In my case, I think I will resize it as to leave 400Megs free of space, therefore allocating 2 gigabytes for Gentoo. Not bad, I could have quite some stuff installed. However, think that even one gigabyte is enough for most users. So let's partition this thing! </p>
560
561 </body>
562 </section>
563
564 <section>
565 <title>Building parted to resize partition</title>
566 <body>
567
568 <p>
569 Parted is an utility supplied by the GNU foundation, an old and respectable huge project whose software you are using in this very moment. There is one tool, however, that is extremely useful for us at the moment. It's called parted, partition editor and we can get it from <uri>http://www.gnu.org/software/parted/</uri>
570 </p>
571
572 <note>
573 There are other tools for doing resize of partitions as well, but author
574 is unsure/uninterested whether PartitionMagic(tm) or other software of the kind
575 do the job. It's the reader's job to check them out
576 </note>
577
578 <p>
579 Look up on that page the type of filesystem you want to resize and see if parted
580 can do it. If not, you're out of luck, you will have to destroy some partition
581 to make space for Gentoo, and reinstall back. Go ahead by downloading the
582 software, install it. Here we have a problem. We want to resize our Linux root
583 partition, therefore we must boot from a floppy disk a minimal linux system and
584 use previously-compiled parted copied to a diskette in order to resize <path>/</path>.
585 However, if you can unmount the partition while still in Linux you are lucky,
586 you don't need to do what follows. Just compile parted and run it on an
587 unmounted partition you chose to resize. Here's how I did it for my system.
588 </p>
589
590 <impo>
591 Make sure that the operations you want to do on your partition are
592 supported by parted!
593 </impo>
594
595 <p>
596 Get tomsrtbt boot/root disk (free of charge) from <uri>http://freshmeat.net/tomsrtbt </uri>, create a floppy as suggested in the Documentation that accompanies the software package and insert a new floppy in the drive for the next step.
597 </p>
598
599 <note>
600 Note again that Linux is synonym of "There's one more way to do it". Your
601 objective is to run parted on an unmounted partition so it can do its work. You
602 might use some other boot/root diskset other than tomsrtbt. You might not even
603 need to do this step at all, that is only umount the filesystem you want to
604 repartition in your Linux session and run parted on it.
605 </note>
606
607 <pre caption="Utility disk creation">
608 # <i>mkfs.minix /dev/fd0</i>
609 480 inodes
610 1440 blocks
611 Firstdatazone=19 (19)
612 Zonesize=1024
613 Maxsize=268966912
614 </pre>
615
616 <p>
617 We will now proceed with the build of parted. If it's not already downloaded and untarred, do so now and cd into the corresponding directory. Now run the following set of commands to build the utility and copy it to your floppy disk.
618 </p>
619
620 <pre caption="Building the utility floppy">
621 # <i> mkdir /floppy; mount -t minix /dev/fd0 /floppy &amp;&amp;
622 export CFLAGS="-O3 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer -static" &amp;&amp; ./configure
623 &amp;&amp; make &amp;&amp; cp parted/parted /floppy &amp;&amp; umount /floppy </i>
624 </pre>
625
626 <p>
627 Congratulations, you are ready to reboot and resize your partition. Do this only
628 after taking a quick look at the parted documentation on the GNU website. The
629 resize should take under 30 minutes for the largest hard-drives, be patient.
630 Reboot your system with the tomsrtbt boot disk (just pop it inside), and once
631 you are logged in, switch the disk in the drive with your utility disk we have
632 created above and type mount /dev/fd0 /floppy to have parted under /floppy.
633 There you go. Run parted and you will be able to resize your partition. Once
634 this lenghty process done, we are ready to have the real fun, by installing
635 Gentoo. Reboot back into your old Linux system for now. Drive you wish to
636 operate on is the drive containing the partition we want to resize. For
637 example, if we want to resize /dev/hda3, the drive is /dev/hda
638 </p>
639
640 <pre caption="Commands to run once logged into tomsrtbt system">
641 # <i>mount /dev/fd0 /floppy </i>
642 # <i>cd /floppy; ./parted [drive you wish to operate on]</i>
643 (parted) <i> print </i>
644 Disk geometry for /dev/hdb: 0.000-9787.148 megabytes
645 Disk label type: msdos
646 Minor Start End Type Filesystem Flags
647 1 0.031 2953.125 primary ntfs
648 3 2953.125 3133.265 primary linux-swap
649 2 3133.266 5633.085 primary ext3
650 4 5633.086 9787.148 extended
651 5 5633.117 6633.210 logical
652 6 6633.242 9787.148 logical ext3
653 (parted) <i> help resize </i>
654 resize MINOR START END resize filesystem on partition MINOR
655
656 MINOR is the partition number used by Linux. On msdos disk labels, the
657 primary partitions number from 1-4, and logical partitions are 5
658 onwards.
659 START and END are in megabytes
660 (parted) <i> resize 2 3133.266 4000.000 </i>
661 </pre>
662
663 <impo> Be patient! The computer is working! Just look at the hardware LED on
664 your case to see that it is really working. This should take between 2 and 30
665 minutes. </impo>
666
667 <p>Once you have resized, boot back into your old linux as described. Then go to
668 <uri link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=1&amp;chap=5">The Gentoo Handbook: Installing the Gentoo Installation Files</uri> and follow the instructions. When chrooting, use the following command to flush your environment:
669 </p>
670
671 <pre caption = "Flushing the environment during chroot">
672 # <i>env -i chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
673 </pre>
674
675 <p>
676 Enjoy!
677 </p>
678 </body>
679 </section>
680 </chapter>
681 </guide>

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