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#97274 - Initial version of the doc, Lots of thanks to Chris "Da PUNK" White :)

1 fox2mike 1.1 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2     <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3     <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/draft/bugzilla-howto.xml,v 1.7 2005/07/07 11:56:02 swift Exp $ -->
4    
5     <guide link="/doc/en/bugzilla-howto.xml">
6     <title>Gentoo Bug Reporting Guide</title>
7    
8     <author title="Author">
9     <mail link="chriswhite@gentoo.org">Chris White</mail>
10     </author>
11     <author title="Editor">
12     <mail link="fox2mike@gentoo.org">Shyam Mani</mail>
13     </author>
14    
15     <abstract>
16     This document shows the proper method of reporting bugs using Bugzilla.
17     </abstract>
18    
19     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
20     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
21     <license/>
22    
23     <version>1.0</version>
24     <date>2005-07-07</date>
25    
26     <chapter>
27     <title>Introduction</title>
28     <section>
29     <title>Preface</title>
30     <body>
31    
32     <p>
33     Often one of the factors that delay a bug being fixed is how it is reported. By
34     creating this guide, I hope to help improve the communication between
35     developers and users in bug resolution. Getting bugs fixed is an important, if
36     not crucial part of the quality assurance of any project and hopefully this
37     guide will help make that a success.
38     </p>
39    
40     </body>
41     </section>
42     <section>
43     <title>Initial Finding</title>
44     <body>
45    
46     <p>
47     You're emerge-ing a package or working with a program, then suddenly the worst
48     happens -- you find a bug. Bugs come in many forms, whether it be emerge
49     failures or segmentation faults. Whatever the cause, the fact still remains that
50     such a bug must be fixed. Here is a few examples of such bugs.
51     </p>
52    
53     <pre caption="A run time error">
54     $ <i>./bad_code `perl -e 'print Ax100'`</i>
55     Segmentation fault
56     </pre>
57    
58     <pre caption="An emerge failure">
59     /usr/lib/gcc-lib/i686-pc-linux-gnu/3.3.2/include/g++-v3/backward/backward_warning.h:32:2:
60     warning: #warning This file includes at least one deprecated or antiquated
61     header. Please consider using one of the 32 headers found in section 17.4.1.2 of
62     the C++ standard. Examples include substituting the &lt;X&gt; header for the &lt;X.h&gt;
63     header for C++ includes, or &lt;sstream&gt; instead of the deprecated header
64     &lt;strstream.h&gt;. To disable this warning use -Wno-deprecated.
65     In file included from main.cc:40:
66     menudef.h:55: error: brace-enclosed initializer used to initialize `
67     OXPopupMenu*'
68     menudef.h:62: error: brace-enclosed initializer used to initialize `
69     OXPopupMenu*'
70     menudef.h:70: error: brace-enclosed initializer used to initialize `
71     OXPopupMenu*'
72     menudef.h:78: error: brace-enclosed initializer used to initialize `
73     OXPopupMenu*'
74     main.cc: In member function `void OXMain::DoOpen()':
75     main.cc:323: warning: unused variable `FILE*fp'
76     main.cc: In member function `void OXMain::DoSave(char*)':
77     main.cc:337: warning: unused variable `FILE*fp'
78     make[1]: *** [main.o] Error 1
79     make[1]: Leaving directory
80     `/var/tmp/portage/xclass-0.7.4/work/xclass-0.7.4/example-app'
81     make: *** [shared] Error 2
82    
83     !!! ERROR: x11-libs/xclass-0.7.4 failed.
84     !!! Function src_compile, Line 29, Exitcode 2
85     !!! 'emake shared' failed
86     </pre>
87    
88     <p>
89     These errors can be quite troublesome. However, once you find them, what do
90     you do? The following sections will look at 2 important tools for handling
91     run time errors. After that, we'll take a look at compile errors, and how to
92     handle them. Let's start out with the first tool for debugging run time
93     errors -- <c>gdb</c>
94     </p>
95    
96     </body>
97     </section>
98     </chapter>
99    
100    
101     <chapter>
102     <title>Debugging using GDB</title>
103     <section>
104     <title>Introduction</title>
105     <body>
106    
107     <p>
108     GDB, or the (G)NU (D)e(B)ugger, is a program used to find run time errors that
109     normally involve memory corruption. First off, let's take a look at what
110     debugging entails. One of the main things you must do in order to debug a
111     program is to <c>emerge</c> the program with FEATURES="nostrip". This prevents
112     the stripping of debug symbols. Why are programs stripped by default? The reason
113     is the same as that for having gzipped man pages -- saving space. Here's how the
114     size of a program varies with and without debug symbol stripping.
115     </p>
116    
117     <pre caption="Filesize Comparison">
118     <comment>(debug symbols stripped)</comment>
119     -rwxr-xr-x 1 chris users 3140 6/28 13:11 bad_code
120     <comment>(debug symbols intact)</comment>
121     -rwxr-xr-x 1 chris users 6374 6/28 13:10 bad_code
122     </pre>
123    
124     <p>
125     Just for reference, <e>bad_code</e> is the program we'll be debugging with
126     <c>gdb</c> later on. As you can see, the program without debugging symbols is
127     3140 bytes, while the program with them is 6374 bytes. That's close to double
128     the size! Two more things can be done for debugging. The first is adding -g to
129     your CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS. This flag adds more debugging information than is
130     generally included. We'll see what that means later on. Lastly, you can also add
131     debug to the package's USE flags. This can be done with the
132     <path>package.use</path> file.
133     </p>
134    
135     <pre caption="Using package.use to add debug USE flag">
136     # <i>echo "category/package debug" >> /etc/portage/package.use</i>
137     </pre>
138    
139     <note>
140     The directory <path>/etc/portage</path> does not exist by default and you may
141     have to create it, if you have not already done so. If the package already has
142     USE flags set in <path>package.use</path>, you will need to manually modify them
143     in your favorite editor.
144     </note>
145    
146     <p>
147     Now that that's done, you will need to re-emerge your package to set the
148     new debug settings into place. This can be done as follows:
149     </p>
150    
151     <pre caption="Re-emergeing a package with debugging">
152     # <i>FEATURES="nostrip" emerge package</i>
153     </pre>
154    
155     <p>
156     Now that debug symbols are setup, we can continue with debugging the program.
157     </p>
158    
159     </body>
160     </section>
161     <section>
162     <title>Running the program with GDB</title>
163     <body>
164    
165     <p>
166     Let's say we have a program here called "bad_code" (I know, it's sort of cheesy
167     but..). Some person claims he can break the code and provides an example. You go
168     ahead and test it out:
169     </p>
170    
171     <pre caption="Breaking The Program">
172     $ <i>./bad_code `perl -e 'print Ax100'`</i>
173     Segmentation fault
174     </pre>
175    
176     <p>
177     It seems this person was right. Since the program is obviously broken, we have
178     a bug at hand. Now, it's time to use <c>gdb</c> to help solve this matter. First
179     we run <c>gdb</c> with <c>--args</c>, then give it the full program with
180     arguments like shown:
181     </p>
182    
183     <pre caption="Running Our Program Through GDB">
184     $ <i>gdb --args ./bad_code `perl -e 'print Ax100'`</i>
185     GNU gdb 6.3
186     Copyright 2004 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
187     GDB is free software, covered by the GNU General Public License, and you are
188     welcome to change it and/or distribute copies of it under certain conditions.
189     Type "show copying" to see the conditions.
190     There is absolutely no warranty for GDB. Type "show warranty" for details.
191     This GDB was configured as "i686-pc-linux-gnu"...Using host libthread_db library "/lib/libthread_db.so.1".
192     </pre>
193    
194     <p>
195     You should see a small terminal like setup after that which says "(gdb)" and
196     waits for input. First, we have to run the program. We type in <c>run</c> at the
197     command and receive a notice like:
198     </p>
199    
200     <pre caption="Running the program in GDB">
201     (gdb) run
202     Starting program: /home/chris/bad_code
203    
204     Program received signal SIGSEGV, Segmentation fault.
205     0xb7ec6dc0 in strcpy () from /lib/libc.so.6
206     </pre>
207    
208     <p>
209     Here we see the program starting, as well as a notification of SIGSEGV, or
210     Segmentation Fault. This is GDB telling us that our program has crashed. It
211     also gives the last run function it could trace when the program crashes.
212     However, this isn't too useful, as there could be multiple strcpy's in the
213     program, making it hard for developers to find which one is causing the issue.
214     In order to help them out, we do what's called a backtrace. A backtrace runs
215     backwards through all the functions that occurred upon program execution, to the
216     function at fault. Functions that return (without causing a crash) will not show
217     up on the backtrace. To get a backtrace, at the (gdb) prompt, type in <c>bt</c>.
218     You will get something like this:
219     </p>
220    
221     <pre caption="Program backtrace">
222     (gdb) bt
223     #0 0xb7ec6dc0 in strcpy () from /lib/libc.so.6
224     #1 0x0804838c in run_it ()
225     #2 0x080483ba in main ()
226     </pre>
227    
228     <p>
229     So as we see here, first main() was run, then run_it(), and somewhere in run_it
230     lies the strcpy() at fault. Things such as this help developers narrow things
231     down. Now, there are a few exceptions to the output. First off is forgetting
232     to disable debug symbols with FEATURES="nostrip". With debug symbols stripped,
233     output looks something like this:
234     </p>
235    
236     <pre caption="Program backtrace With debug symbols stripped">
237     (gdb) bt
238     #0 0xb7e2cdc0 in strcpy () from /lib/libc.so.6
239     #1 0x0804838c in ?? ()
240     #2 0xbfd19510 in ?? ()
241     #3 0x00000000 in ?? ()
242     #4 0x00000000 in ?? ()
243     #5 0xb7eef148 in libgcc_s_personality () from /lib/libc.so.6
244     #6 0x080482ed in ?? ()
245     #7 0x080495b0 in ?? ()
246     #8 0xbfd19528 in ?? ()
247     #9 0xb7dd73b8 in __guard_setup () from /lib/libc.so.6
248     #10 0xb7dd742d in __guard_setup () from /lib/libc.so.6
249     #11 0x00000006 in ?? ()
250     #12 0xbfd19548 in ?? ()
251     #13 0x080483ba in ?? ()
252     #14 0x00000000 in ?? ()
253     #15 0x00000000 in ?? ()
254     #16 0xb7deebcc in __new_exitfn () from /lib/libc.so.6
255     #17 0x00000000 in ?? ()
256     #18 0xbfd19560 in ?? ()
257     #19 0xb7ef017c in nullserv () from /lib/libc.so.6
258     #20 0xb7dd6f37 in __libc_start_main () from /lib/libc.so.6
259     #21 0x00000001 in ?? ()
260     #22 0xbfd195d4 in ?? ()
261     #23 0xbfd195dc in ?? ()
262     #24 0x08048201 in ?? ()
263     </pre>
264    
265     <p>
266     This backtrace contains a large number of ?? marks. This is because without
267     debug symbols, <c>gdb</c> doesn't know how the program was ran. Hence, it is
268     crucial that debug symbols are <e>not</e> stripped. Now remember a while ago I
269     told you about the -g flag. Let's see what the output looks like with that:
270     </p>
271    
272     <pre caption="Program backtrace with -g flag">
273     (gdb) bt
274     #0 0xb7e4bdc0 in strcpy () from /lib/libc.so.6
275     #1 0x0804838c in run_it (input=0x0) at bad_code.c:7
276     #2 0x080483ba in main (argc=1, argv=0xbfd3a434) at bad_code.c:12
277     </pre>
278    
279     <p>
280     Here we see that a lot more information is available for developers. Not only is
281     variable information displayed, but even the exact line numbers of the source
282     files. This method is the most preferred if you can spare the extra space.
283     Here's how much the file size varies between debug, strip, and -g programs.
284     </p>
285    
286     <pre caption="Filesize differences With -g flag">
287     <comment>(debug symbols stripped)</comment>
288     -rwxr-xr-x 1 chris users 3140 6/28 13:11 bad_code
289     <comment>(debug symbols enabled)</comment>
290     -rwxr-xr-x 1 chris users 6374 6/28 13:10 bad_code
291     <comment>(-g flag enabled)</comment>
292     -rwxr-xr-x 1 chris users 7366 6/28 13:11 bad_code
293     </pre>
294    
295     <p>
296     As you can see, -g adds about a 1000 more bytes to the file size over the one
297     with debugging symbols. However, as shown above, this increase in file size can
298     be worth it if presenting debug information to developers. Now that we have
299     obtained the backtrace, we can save it to a file by copying and pasting from the
300     terminal (if it's a non-x based terminal, you can use gpm. To keep this doc
301     simple, I recommend you read up on the documentation for gpm to see how to copy
302     and paste with it). Now that we're done with <c>gdb</c>, we can quit.
303     </p>
304    
305     <pre caption="Quitting GDB">
306     (gdb) quit
307     The program is running. Exit anyway? (y or n) y
308     $
309     </pre>
310    
311     <p>
312     This ends the walk-through of <c>gdb</c>. Using <c>gdb</c>, I hope that you will
313     be able to use it to create better bug reports. However, there are other types
314     of errors that can cause a program to fail during run time. One of the other
315     ways is through improper file access. We can find those using a nifty little
316     tool called <c>strace</c>.
317     </p>
318    
319     </body>
320     </section>
321     </chapter>
322    
323     <chapter>
324     <title>Finding file access errors using strace</title>
325     <section>
326     <title>Introduction</title>
327     <body>
328    
329     <p>
330     Programs often use files to get configuration information, get access
331     to hardware, or write logs. Often a program attempts to reach such files
332     incorrectly. A program called <c>strace</c> was created to help deal with
333     this. <c>strace</c> traces system calls (hence the name) which include
334     calls that use the memory and files. For our example, we're going to take a
335     program foobar2. This is an updated version of foobar. However, during the
336     changeover to foobar2, you notice all your configurations are missing! In
337     foobar version 1, you had it setup to say "foo", but now it's using the default
338     "bar".
339     </p>
340    
341     <pre caption="Foobar2 With an invalid configuration">
342     $ <i>./foobar2</i>
343     Configuration says: bar
344     </pre>
345    
346     <p>
347     Our previous configuration specifically had it set to foo, so let's use
348     <c>strace</c> to find out what's going on.
349     </p>
350    
351     </body>
352     </section>
353     <section>
354     <title>Using strace to track the issue</title>
355     <body>
356    
357     <p>
358     Let's have <c>strace</c> log the results of the system calls. To do this, we run
359     <c>strace</c> with the -o[file] arguments. Let's use it on foobar2 like so:
360     </p>
361    
362     <pre caption="Running foobar2 through strace">
363     # <i>strace -ostrace.log ./foobar2</i>
364     </pre>
365    
366     <p>
367     This creates a file called strace.log in the current directory. We check the
368     file, and shown below are the relevant parts from the file.
369     </p>
370    
371     <pre caption="A Look At the strace Log">
372     open(".foobar2/config", O_RDONLY) = 3
373     read(3, "bar", 3) = 3
374     </pre>
375    
376     <p>
377     Aha! So There's the problem. Someone moved the configuration directory to
378     <path>.foobar2</path> instead of <path>.foobar</path>. We also see the program
379     reading in "bar" as it should. In this case, we can recommend the ebuild
380     maintainer to put a warning about it. For now though, we can copy over the
381     config file from .foobar and modify it to produce the correct results.
382     </p>
383    
384     </body>
385     </section>
386     <section>
387     <title>Conclusion</title>
388     <body>
389    
390     <p>
391     Now we've taken care of finding run time bugs. These bugs prove to be
392     problematic when you try and run your programs. However, run time errors are
393     the least of your concern if your program won't compile at all. Let's take a
394     look at how to address <c>emerge</c> compile errors.
395     </p>
396    
397     </body>
398     </section>
399     </chapter>
400    
401     <chapter>
402     <title>Handling emerge Errors</title>
403     <section>
404     <title>Introduction</title>
405     <body>
406    
407     <p>
408     <c>emerge</c> errors, such as the one displayed earlier, can be a major cause
409     of frustration for users. Reporting them is considered crucial for helping
410     maintain the health of Gentoo. Let's take a look at a sample ebuild, foobar2,
411     which contains some build errors.
412     </p>
413    
414     </body>
415     </section>
416     <section id="emerge_error">
417     <title>Evaluating emerge Errors</title>
418     <body>
419    
420     <p>
421     Let's take a look at this very simple <c>emerge</c> error:
422     </p>
423    
424     <pre caption="emerge Error">
425     gcc -D__TEST__ -D__GNU__ -D__LINUX__ -L/usr/lib -I/usr/include -L/usr/lib/nspr/ -I/usr/include/fmod -c -o foobar2-7.o foobar2-7.c
426     gcc -D__TEST__ -D__GNU__ -D__LINUX__ -L/usr/lib -I/usr/include -L/usr/lib/nspr/ -I/usr/include/fmod -c -o foobar2-8.o foobar2-8.c
427     gcc -D__TEST__ -D__GNU__ -D__LINUX__ -L/usr/lib -I/usr/include -L/usr/lib/nspr/ -I/usr/include/fmod -c -o foobar2-9.o foobar2-9.c
428     gcc -D__TEST__ -D__GNU__ -D__LINUX__ -L/usr/lib -I/usr/include -L/usr/lib/nspr/ -I/usr/include/fmod -c -o foobar2.o foobar2.c
429     foobar2.c:1:17: ogg.h: No such file or directory
430     make: *** [foobar2.o] Error 1
431    
432     !!! ERROR: sys-apps/foobar2-1.0 failed.
433     !!! Function src_compile, Line 19, Exitcode 2
434     !!! Make failed!
435     !!! If you need support, post the topmost build error, NOT this status message
436     </pre>
437    
438     <p>
439     The compile is going smoothly, then it stops and presents an error message. This
440     particular error can be split into 3 different sections, The compile, the build
441     error, and the emerge error message as shown below.
442     </p>
443    
444     <pre caption="Parts of the error">
445     <comment>(Compile Error)</comment>
446     gcc -D__TEST__ -D__GNU__ -D__LINUX__ -L/usr/lib -I/usr/include -L/usr/lib/nspr/ -I/usr/include/fmod -c -o foobar2-7.o foobar2-7.c
447     gcc -D__TEST__ -D__GNU__ -D__LINUX__ -L/usr/lib -I/usr/include -L/usr/lib/nspr/ -I/usr/include/fmod -c -o foobar2-8.o foobar2-8.c
448     gcc -D__TEST__ -D__GNU__ -D__LINUX__ -L/usr/lib -I/usr/include -L/usr/lib/nspr/ -I/usr/include/fmod -c -o foobar2-9.o foobar2-9.c
449     gcc -D__TEST__ -D__GNU__ -D__LINUX__ -L/usr/lib -I/usr/include -L/usr/lib/nspr/ -I/usr/include/fmod -c -o foobar2.o foobar2.c
450    
451     <comment>(Build Error)</comment>
452     foobar2.c:1:17: ogg.h: No such file or directory
453     make: *** [foobar2.o] Error 1
454    
455     <comment>(Emerge Error)</comment>
456     !!! ERROR: sys-apps/foobar2-1.0 failed.
457     !!! Function src_compile, Line 19, Exitcode 2
458     !!! Make failed!
459     !!! If you need support, post the topmost build error, NOT this status message
460     </pre>
461    
462     <p>
463     The compile is what leads up to the error. Most often, it's good to at least
464     include 10 lines of compile information so that the developer knows where the
465     compile is at. Make errors are the actual error, and the information the
466     developer needs. When you see "make: ***", this is often where the error has
467     occurred. Normally, you can copy and paste 10 lines above it and the developer
468     will be able to address the issue. However, this may not always work and we'll
469     take a look at an alternative shortly. The emerge error is what <c>emerge</c>
470     can address from the make error. Often people make the mistake of posting the
471     emerge error and that's all. This is useless by itself, but with make error and
472     compile information, a developer can get what application and what version of
473     the package is failing. As a side note, make is commonly used as the build
474     process for programs (<b>but not always</b>). If you can't find a "make: ***"
475     error anywhere, then simply copy and paste 20 lines before the emerge error.
476     This should take care of most all build system error messages. Now let's say the
477     errors seem to be quite large. 10 lines won't be enough to catch everything.
478     That's where PORT_LOGDIR comes into play.
479     </p>
480    
481     </body>
482     </section>
483     <section>
484     <title>emerge and PORT_LOGDIR</title>
485     <body>
486    
487     <p>
488     PORT_LOGDIR is a portage variable that sets up a log directory for separate
489     emerge logs. Let's take a look and see what that entails. First, run your emerge
490     with PORT_LOGDIR set to your favorite log location. Let's say we have a
491     location /var/log/portage. We'll use that for our log directory:
492     </p>
493    
494     <note>
495     In the default setup, /var/log/portage does not exist, and you will most likely
496     have to create it. If you do not, portage will fail to write the logs.
497     </note>
498    
499     <pre caption="emerge-ing With PORT_LOGDIR">
500     # <i>PORT_LOGDIR=/var/log/portage emerge foobar2</i>
501     </pre>
502    
503     <p>
504     Now the emerge fails again. However, this time we have a log we can work with,
505     and attach to the bug later on. Let's take a quick look at our log directory.
506     </p>
507    
508     <pre caption="PORT_LOGDIR Contents">
509     # <i>ls -la /var/log/portage</i>
510     total 16
511     drwxrws--- 2 root root 4096 Jun 30 10:08 .
512     drwxr-xr-x 15 root root 4096 Jun 30 10:08 ..
513     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 7390 Jun 30 10:09 2115-foobar2-1.0.log
514     </pre>
515    
516     <p>
517     The log files have the format [counter]-[package name]-[version].log. Counter
518     is a special variable that is meant to state this package as the n-th package
519     you've emerged. This prevents duplicate logs from appearing. A quick look at
520     the log file will show the entire emerge process. This can be attached later
521     on as we'll see in the bug reporting section. Now that we've safely obtained
522     our information needed to report the bug we can continue to do so. However,
523     before we get started on that, we need to make sure no one else has reported
524     the issue. Let's take a look at searching for bugs.
525     </p>
526    
527     </body>
528     </section>
529     </chapter>
530    
531     <chapter>
532     <title>Searching Using Bugzilla</title>
533     <section>
534     <title>Introduction</title>
535     <body>
536    
537     <p>
538     <uri link="http://www.bugzilla.org">Bugzilla</uri> is what we at Gentoo use to
539     handle bugs. Gentoo's Bugzilla is reachable by HTTPS and HTTP. HTTPS is
540     available for those on insecure networks or simply paranoid :). For the sake of
541     consistency, I will be using the HTTPS version in the examples to follow. Head
542     over to <uri link="https://bugs.gentoo.org">Gentoo Bugs</uri> to see how it
543     looks.
544     </p>
545    
546     <p>
547     One of the most frustrating thing for developers and bug-wranglers is finding
548     duplicate bug reports. This causes them valuable time they could be using to
549     find new and more important bugs. Often, this can be prevented by a few simple
550     search methods. So we're going to see how to search for bugs and find out if
551     you have one that's similar. For this example, we're going to use the xclass
552     emerge error that was used earlier:
553     </p>
554    
555     <pre caption="xclass emerge error">
556     /usr/lib/gcc-lib/i686-pc-linux-gnu/3.3.2/include/g++-v3/backward/backward_warning.h:32:2:
557     warning: #warning This file includes at least one deprecated or antiquated
558     header. Please consider using one of the 32 headers found in section 17.4.1.2 of
559     the C++ standard. Examples include substituting the &lt;X&gt; header for the &lt;X.h&gt;
560     header for C++ includes, or &lt;sstream&gt; instead of the deprecated header
561     &lt;strstream.h&gt;. To disable this warning use -Wno-deprecated.
562     In file included from main.cc:40:
563     menudef.h:55: error: brace-enclosed initializer used to initialize `
564     OXPopupMenu*'
565     menudef.h:62: error: brace-enclosed initializer used to initialize `
566     OXPopupMenu*'
567     menudef.h:70: error: brace-enclosed initializer used to initialize `
568     OXPopupMenu*'
569     menudef.h:78: error: brace-enclosed initializer used to initialize `
570     OXPopupMenu*'
571     main.cc: In member function `void OXMain::DoOpen()':
572     main.cc:323: warning: unused variable `FILE*fp'
573     main.cc: In member function `void OXMain::DoSave(char*)':
574     main.cc:337: warning: unused variable `FILE*fp'
575     make[1]: *** [main.o] Error 1
576     make[1]: Leaving directory
577     `/var/tmp/portage/xclass-0.7.4/work/xclass-0.7.4/example-app'
578     make: *** [shared] Error 2
579    
580     !!! ERROR: x11-libs/xclass-0.7.4 failed.
581     !!! Function src_compile, Line 29, Exitcode 2
582     !!! 'emake shared' failed
583     </pre>
584    
585     <p>
586     So to begin searching, we head over to the <uri
587     link="http://bugs.gentoo.org/">Bugzilla Homepage</uri>.
588     </p>
589    
590     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-homepage.png" caption="Bugzilla Homepage"/>
591    
592     <p>
593     In order to begin our search, we'll click on "Query Existing bug reports". The
594     reason why we choose this versus the basic bug search is because the basic bug
595     search tends to give vague results and often hinders users from looking
596     through the results and finding the duplicate bug. Once we click on the query
597     screen, we reach the next page:
598     </p>
599    
600     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-search.png" caption="Bugzilla Search Page"/>
601    
602     <note>
603     If you've used the Advanced Search before, you'll most likely see that screen
604     instead.
605     </note>
606    
607     <p>
608     Proceed on clicking the "Advanced Search" link to bring up the Advanced
609     Search page:
610     </p>
611    
612     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-adv-search.png" caption="Advanced Search Page"/>
613    
614     <p>
615     This is how the Advanced Search Page looks like. While it may seem overwhelming
616     at first, we're going to look at a few simple areas to narrow down the rather
617     vague searches bugzilla returns.
618     </p>
619    
620     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-content.png" caption="Content"/>
621    
622     <p>
623     The first field is the summary of the bug. Here we're simply going to put the
624     name of the package that's crashing. If you still don't get results, try
625     removing the package name, just in case someone didn't put that in the summary
626     (highly unlikely, but I've seen my fair share of strange bug reports).
627     </p>
628    
629     <p>
630     Product, Component, and Version should all be set to the default. This
631     prevents us from being too specific and missing all the bugs.
632     </p>
633    
634     <p>
635     Comment is the important part. Use comment to list what appears to be a
636     specific instance of the error. Basically, don't use anything like the
637     beginning of the build error, find a line that's before it stating a true
638     error. Also, you'll want to filter out any punctuation to prevent bugzilla
639     from interpreting the results the comment the wrong way. Example from the xclass
640     emerge error:
641     </p>
642    
643     <pre caption="Comment Line Content">
644     menudef.h:78: error: brace-enclosed initializer used to initialize `OXPopupMenu'
645     <comment>(Remove the quotes ' ')</comment>
646     menudef.h 78 error brace-enclosed initializer used to initialize OXPopupMenu
647     </pre>
648    
649     <p>
650     The above is specific enough to where we'll find the bug without wading through
651     other xclass compile failure candidates.
652     </p>
653    
654     <p>
655     URI, Whiteboard, and Keywords can all be left alone. What we've entered so far
656     should be enough to find our bug. Let's see what we have filled out:
657     </p>
658    
659     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-comp-search.png" caption="Completed Search Form"/>
660    
661     <p>
662     Now we click on the Search button and here come the results:
663     </p>
664    
665     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-search-result.png" caption="Search Results"/>
666    
667     <p>
668     Only 2 bugs! That's a lot easier to deal with. We click on the first one to
669     check, and sure enough it's the one we're looking for:
670     </p>
671    
672     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-located.png" caption="Bug Located"/>
673    
674     <p>
675     Not only is it the one we want, but it has also been resolved. By checking the
676     last comment we see the solution and know what to do in order to resolve it.
677     Now, let's see what would have happened if we had not used the advanced search:
678     </p>
679    
680     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-basic-search-result.png" caption="Basic Search Results"/>
681    
682     <p>
683     4 more bugs to deal with! It gets even worse with larger packages. However,
684     with these simple tools, we're able to significantly narrow down the search to
685     try and locate a specific bug.
686     </p>
687    
688     </body>
689     </section>
690     <section>
691     <title>Conclusion</title>
692     <body>
693    
694     <p>
695     Let's say that you have searched and searched but still can't find a bug.
696     You've found yourself a new bug. Let's take a look at the bug reporting process
697     for submitting your new bug.
698     </p>
699    
700     </body>
701     </section>
702     </chapter>
703    
704     <chapter>
705     <title>Reporting Bugs</title>
706     <section>
707     <title>Introduction</title>
708     <body>
709    
710     <p>
711     In this chapter, we'll figure out how to use Bugzilla to file a shiny, new bug.
712     Head over to <uri link="https://bugs.gentoo.org">Gentoo Bugs</uri> and...
713     </p>
714    
715     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-homepage.png" caption="Bugzilla Homepage"/>
716    
717     <p>
718     Go ahead and click on "Report a Bug - Using the Guided format".
719     </p>
720    
721     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-prod-select.png" caption="Product Selection"/>
722    
723     <p>
724     As you can see, <b>major</b> emphasis has been placed on putting your bug in the
725     right place. Gentoo Linux is where a large majority of bugs go. Despite this,
726     some people will file ebuild bugs in portage development (assumption that
727     portage team handles the portage tree) or infra (assumption that infra has
728     access to mirrors and rsync and can fix it directly). This is simply not how
729     things work. Our bug goes in Gentoo Linux, as it's an ebuild bug. We head over
730     there and are presented with the multi-step bug reporting process.
731     </p>
732    
733     <note>
734     We would rather see a non-Gentoo Linux bug filed in Gentoo Linux than a Gentoo
735     Linux bug filed in non-Gentoo Linux projects! While neither is preferred, the
736     former is more acceptable and understandable (except website bugs.. we might
737     have an issue with that...)
738     </note>
739    
740     <p>
741     Let us now proceed with Step 1...
742     </p>
743    
744     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-guide-step1.png" caption="Guided Format Step 1"/>
745    
746     <p>
747     The first step here is really important (as the red text tells you). This is
748     where you search to see that someone else hasn't hit the same bug you have, yet.
749     If you do skip this step, and a bug like yours already exists, it will be marked
750     as a DUPLICATE thus wasting a large amount of QA effort. To give you an idea,
751     the numbers that are struck out above are duplicate bugs. Now comes step 2,
752     where we give the information.
753     </p>
754    
755     </body>
756     </section>
757     <section>
758     <title>Required Information</title>
759     <body>
760    
761     <p>
762     Onto Step 2, let's see what we have here.
763     </p>
764    
765     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-basic.png" caption="Basic Information"/>
766    
767     <p>
768     First, there's the product. This is Gentoo Linux, which we selected earlier.
769     Component is where the problem occurs. We use this to help us sort out the
770     severity of the issue (i.e. baselayout and core systems will be more important
771     than new ebuilds or application bugs). Here we select Application, as it is an
772     application at fault. Hardware platform is what architecture you're running.
773     If you were running SPARC, you would set it to SPARC. For this example, we know
774     this error can occur on multiple architectures, so we'll select All. Operating
775     System is what Operating System you're using. Because Gentoo is considered a
776     "Meta-distribution", it can run on other operating systems beside Linux.
777     Examples are Gentoo on MacOS, Gentoo on FreeBSD, etc. For this example,
778     we'll select All, as this can occur on all types of systems. Build Identifier
779     is what is being used to report the bugs (for logging purposes). You can just
780     leave this as is. Let's see what we have so far:
781     </p>
782    
783     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-basic-comp.png" caption="Completed Basic Information"/>
784    
785     <p>
786     That does look good, so we'll begin with the actual report. In this instance,
787     we'll use the foobar2 bug as our example. URL is used to point to errors on a
788     site someplace (pastebin, etc.). However, doing it inside the bug allows the
789     developers be able to reference to it at any time and is preferred. Then we have
790     the summary. In the summary, you should put the package category, name, and
791     number. Not including the category really isn't too bad, but it's recommended.
792     If you don't include the package name, however, we won't know what you're
793     filling a bug for, and will have to ask you about it later. The version number
794     is important for people searching for bugs. If 20 people filed bugs and not one
795     put a version number, how would people looking for similar bugs be able to tell
796     if one was there's? They'd have to look through every single bug, which isn't
797     too hard, but if there are say, 200 bugs.. it's not that easy. After all the
798     package information, you'll want to include a small description of the incident.
799     Here's an example:
800     </p>
801    
802     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-summary.png" caption="Summary"/>
803    
804     <p>
805     Just these simple rules can make handling bugs a lot easier. Next are the
806     details. Here we put in the information about the bug. We'll demonstrate with an
807     example:
808     </p>
809    
810     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-details.png" caption="Details"/>
811    
812     <p>
813     So now the developer knows why we're filing the bug. They can then try to
814     reproduce it. Reproducibility tells us how often we were able to make the
815     problem recur. In this example, we can reproduce it any time simply by running
816     foobar2. Let's put that information in:
817     </p>
818    
819     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-reprod.png" caption="Reproduction"/>
820    
821     <p>
822     So now we have explained how we found the bug. Next we want to explain what
823     the results were and what we think they should be:
824     </p>
825    
826     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-results.png" caption="Results"/>
827    
828     <p>
829     Next we put additional information. This can be things such as stack traces,
830     <b>sections</b> of strace logs, but most importantly, your emerge --info output.
831     Here's an example:
832     </p>
833    
834     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-addl-info.png" caption="Additional Information"/>
835    
836     <p>
837     Lastly we select the severity of the bug. Please look this over carefully. In
838     most cases it's OK to leave it as is and someone will raise/lower it for you.
839     However, if you raise the severity of the bug, please make sure you read it over
840     carefully and make sure you're not making a mistake. Here we will set it to the
841     default of normal:
842     </p>
843    
844     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-sev.png" caption="Severity"/>
845    
846     <p>
847     Now we can submit the bug report by clicking on the Submit Bug Report box. You
848     will now see your new bug come up. See <uri
849     link="https://bugs.gentoo.org/show_bug.cgi?id=97265">Bug 97561</uri> for what
850     the result looks like. We've reported our bug! Now let's see how it's dealt
851     with.
852     </p>
853    
854     </body>
855     </section>
856     </chapter>
857    
858     <chapter>
859     <title>Working With Your Bug</title>
860     <section>
861     <body>
862    
863     <p>
864     looking at the bug, we see the information we provided earlier:
865     </p>
866    
867     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-new-basic.png" caption="New Bug Basic Information"/>
868    
869     <p>
870     And our details are there too:
871     </p>
872    
873     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-new-details.png" caption="New Bug Details"/>
874    
875     <p>
876     Now as you can see, the bug has been assigned to bug-wranglers@gentoo.org. This
877     is the default location for Application component bugs. However, bug-wranglers
878     (usually) won't fix our bugs, so we'll reassign it to someone that can (you can
879     let bug-wranglers re-assign it for you as well). For this we use the package's
880     metadata.xml. You can normally find them in
881     /usr/portage/category/package/metadata.xml. Here's one I've made up for foobar2:
882     </p>
883    
884     <pre caption="metadata.xml">
885     &lt;?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?&gt;
886     &lt;!DOCTYPE pkgmetadata SYSTEM "http://www.gentoo.org/dtd/metadata.dtd"&gt;
887     &lt;pkgmetadata&gt;
888     &lt;herd&gt;chriswhite&lt;/herd&gt;
889     &lt;maintainer&gt;
890     &lt;email&gt;chriswhite@gentoo.org&lt;/email&gt;
891     &lt;name&gt;Chris White&lt;/name&gt;
892     &lt;/maintainer&gt;
893     &lt;longdescription lang="en"&gt;
894     Foobar2 is a package that uses a configuration file to display a word.
895     &lt;/longdescription&gt;
896     &lt;/pkgmetadata&gt;
897     </pre>
898    
899     <p>
900     Notice the maintainer section.T his lists the maintainer of the package, which
901     in this case is myself, Chris White. The email listed is chriswhite@gentoo.org.
902     We will use this to re-assign the bug to the proper person. To do this, click
903     the bubble next to Reassign bug to, then fill in the email:
904     </p>
905    
906     <note>
907     A package without a metadata.xml file should be re-assigned to
908     maintainer-needed@gentoo.org.
909     </note>
910    
911     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-reassign.png" caption="Bug Reassignment"/>
912    
913     <p>
914     Then hit the Commit button for the changes to take place. The bug has been
915     reassigned to me. Shortly afterward, you notice (by email usually) that I've
916     responded to your bug. I've stated that I'd like to see an strace log to figure
917     out how the program is trying to reach your configuration file. You follow the
918     previous instructions on using strace and obtain an strace log. Now you need to
919     attach it to the bug. In order to do this, click on "Create A New Attachment".
920     </p>
921    
922     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-new-attach.png" caption="New Attachment"/>
923    
924     <p>
925     Now we have to attach the log. We click on the "Browse..." button under "File"
926     and select the strace log. For Description, we'll put "strace log". Content-Type
927     is what kind of file we're attaching. A common mistake is to set it to
928     auto. In most cases it's best to manually set it. Our log file is a
929     plain text file, so we select "plain text (text/plain)". Obsoletes are for when
930     you are attaching a revision to a previously attached file. You can simply click
931     a check box next to the old file and Bugzilla will cross it out in the bug,
932     indicating that the attachment has been obsoleted. Reassignment means you want
933     to take the bug yourself. I rarely tend to use this.. and I don't think you will
934     need to at some point (unless you create great patches and we don't care about
935     you taking our bugs ;). Comments are for leaving comments about the file you're
936     posting. We'll put "Here is the strace file you requested". Now we have
937     something like this:
938     </p>
939    
940     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-new-attach-comp.png" caption="New Attachment Completed"/>
941    
942     <p>
943     We Submit the patch and it is now reflected on the bug report.
944     </p>
945    
946     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-strace.png" caption="Attached strace log"/>
947    
948     <p>
949     Now, while we're waiting another person notices your bug during step 1 of the
950     Guided Format. This person wants to see the status of the bug as well. He or
951     she may do so by putting their email in the Add CC field like so:
952     </p>
953    
954     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-add-email.png" caption="Adding Email To CC:"/>
955    
956     <note>
957     Email addresses must be registered with bugzilla. In order to CC multiple
958     addresses, simply separate them with commas or spaces.
959     </note>
960    
961     <p>
962     After all this work, the bug can undergo various status markings. Here's a few:
963     </p>
964    
965     <ul>
966     <li>
967     UNCONFIRMED - You're generally not going to see this too often. This
968     means that a bug reporter has opened a bug using the advanced method and is
969     uncertain his or her bug is an actual bug.
970     </li>
971     <li>
972     NEW - Bugs that are first opened are considered new.
973     </li>
974     <li>
975     ASSIGNED - When the person you've assigned the bug too validates your
976     bug, it will often receive ASSIGNED status while they figure out the issue.
977     This let's you know that they've accepted your bug as a real bug.
978     </li>
979     <li>
980     REOPENED - Someone has resolved a bug and you think the solution is not
981     feasible or the problem still persists. At this point, you may re-open the
982     bug. However <b>please do not abuse this</b>. If a developer closes the bug a
983     second or even third time, chances are that your bug is closed.
984     </li>
985     </ul>
986    
987     <p>
988     Now shortly afterward, I find the error in the strace log. I resolve the bug
989     as RESOLVED FIXED and say that there was a change in the location of
990     configuration files, and that I will update the ebuild with a warning about it.
991     The bug now becomes resolved, and you are displayed with this:
992     </p>
993    
994     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-reso.png" caption="Resolved Bug"/>
995    
996     <p>
997     Also note the section here:
998     </p>
999    
1000     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-options.png" caption="Bug Options"/>
1001    
1002     <p>
1003     This gives you the option of Reopening the bug if you wish to (i.e. the developer
1004     thinks it's resolved but it's really not to your standards). Now our bug is
1005     fixed! However, different resolutions can occur. Here's a small list:
1006     </p>
1007    
1008     <ul>
1009     <li>
1010     FIXED - The bug is fixed, follow the instructions to resolve your
1011     issue.
1012     </li>
1013     <li>
1014     INVALID - You did not do something specifically documented, causing the
1015     bug
1016     </li>
1017     <li>
1018     DUPLICATE - You didn't use this guide and reported a duplicate bug
1019     :)
1020     </li>
1021     <li>
1022     WORKSFORME - Developer/person assigned the bug cannot reproduce your
1023     error
1024     </li>
1025     </ul>
1026    
1027     </body>
1028     </section>
1029    
1030     <section>
1031     <title>Conclusion</title>
1032     <body>
1033    
1034     <p>
1035     This concludes the howto on working with Bugzilla. I hope you find this useful.
1036     If you have any questions, comments, or ideas regarding this document, please
1037     send them to me at <mail
1038     link="chriswhite@gentoo.org">chriswhite@gentoo.org</mail>. Special
1039     thanks go to moreon for his notes on -g flags and compile errors, the people at
1040     #gentoo-bugs for helping out with bug-wrangling, and Griffon26 for his notes on
1041     maintainer-needed.
1042     </p>
1043    
1044     </body>
1045     </section>
1046     </chapter>
1047     </guide>

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