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Revision 1.10 - (hide annotations) (download) (as text)
Sun Apr 1 10:35:45 2007 UTC (7 years, 8 months ago) by nightmorph
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added a smarter way to do attachments and info, thanks to jakub for the suggestion, bug 172975

1 fox2mike 1.1 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2     <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 nightmorph 1.10 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/bugzilla-howto.xml,v 1.9 2007/02/14 21:30:15 nightmorph Exp $ -->
4 fox2mike 1.1
5     <guide link="/doc/en/bugzilla-howto.xml">
6     <title>Gentoo Bug Reporting Guide</title>
7    
8     <author title="Author">
9     <mail link="chriswhite@gentoo.org">Chris White</mail>
10     </author>
11     <author title="Editor">
12     <mail link="fox2mike@gentoo.org">Shyam Mani</mail>
13     </author>
14    
15     <abstract>
16     This document shows the proper method of reporting bugs using Bugzilla.
17     </abstract>
18    
19     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
20     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
21     <license/>
22    
23 nightmorph 1.10 <version>1.9</version>
24     <date>2007-04-01</date>
25 fox2mike 1.1
26     <chapter>
27     <title>Introduction</title>
28     <section>
29     <title>Preface</title>
30     <body>
31    
32     <p>
33 fox2mike 1.3 One of the factors that delay a bug being fixed is the way it is reported. By
34     creating this guide, we hope to help improve the communication between
35 fox2mike 1.1 developers and users in bug resolution. Getting bugs fixed is an important, if
36 fox2mike 1.3 not crucial part of the quality assurance for any project and hopefully this
37 fox2mike 1.1 guide will help make that a success.
38     </p>
39    
40     </body>
41     </section>
42     <section>
43 fox2mike 1.3 <title>Bugs!!!!</title>
44 fox2mike 1.1 <body>
45    
46     <p>
47 fox2mike 1.3 You're emerge-ing a package or working with a program and suddenly the worst
48     happens -- you find a bug. Bugs come in many forms like emerge failures or
49     segmentation faults. Whatever the cause, the fact still remains that such a bug
50     must be fixed. Here is a few examples of such bugs.
51 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
52    
53     <pre caption="A run time error">
54     $ <i>./bad_code `perl -e 'print Ax100'`</i>
55     Segmentation fault
56     </pre>
57    
58     <pre caption="An emerge failure">
59     /usr/lib/gcc-lib/i686-pc-linux-gnu/3.3.2/include/g++-v3/backward/backward_warning.h:32:2:
60     warning: #warning This file includes at least one deprecated or antiquated
61     header. Please consider using one of the 32 headers found in section 17.4.1.2 of
62     the C++ standard. Examples include substituting the &lt;X&gt; header for the &lt;X.h&gt;
63     header for C++ includes, or &lt;sstream&gt; instead of the deprecated header
64     &lt;strstream.h&gt;. To disable this warning use -Wno-deprecated.
65     In file included from main.cc:40:
66     menudef.h:55: error: brace-enclosed initializer used to initialize `
67     OXPopupMenu*'
68     menudef.h:62: error: brace-enclosed initializer used to initialize `
69     OXPopupMenu*'
70     menudef.h:70: error: brace-enclosed initializer used to initialize `
71     OXPopupMenu*'
72     menudef.h:78: error: brace-enclosed initializer used to initialize `
73     OXPopupMenu*'
74     main.cc: In member function `void OXMain::DoOpen()':
75     main.cc:323: warning: unused variable `FILE*fp'
76     main.cc: In member function `void OXMain::DoSave(char*)':
77     main.cc:337: warning: unused variable `FILE*fp'
78     make[1]: *** [main.o] Error 1
79     make[1]: Leaving directory
80     `/var/tmp/portage/xclass-0.7.4/work/xclass-0.7.4/example-app'
81     make: *** [shared] Error 2
82    
83     !!! ERROR: x11-libs/xclass-0.7.4 failed.
84     !!! Function src_compile, Line 29, Exitcode 2
85     !!! 'emake shared' failed
86     </pre>
87    
88     <p>
89 neysx 1.5 These errors can be quite troublesome. However, once you find them, what do you
90     do? The following sections will look at two important tools for handling run
91     time errors. After that, we'll take a look at compile errors, and how to handle
92     them. Let's start out with the first tool for debugging run time errors --
93     <c>gdb</c>.
94 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
95    
96     </body>
97     </section>
98     </chapter>
99    
100    
101     <chapter>
102     <title>Debugging using GDB</title>
103     <section>
104     <title>Introduction</title>
105     <body>
106    
107     <p>
108     GDB, or the (G)NU (D)e(B)ugger, is a program used to find run time errors that
109     normally involve memory corruption. First off, let's take a look at what
110     debugging entails. One of the main things you must do in order to debug a
111 fox2mike 1.3 program is to <c>emerge</c> the program with <c>FEATURES="nostrip"</c>. This
112     prevents the stripping of debug symbols. Why are programs stripped by default?
113     The reason is the same as that for having gzipped man pages -- saving space.
114 neysx 1.5 Here's how the size of a program varies with and without debug symbol stripping.
115 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
116    
117     <pre caption="Filesize Comparison">
118     <comment>(debug symbols stripped)</comment>
119     -rwxr-xr-x 1 chris users 3140 6/28 13:11 bad_code
120     <comment>(debug symbols intact)</comment>
121     -rwxr-xr-x 1 chris users 6374 6/28 13:10 bad_code
122     </pre>
123    
124     <p>
125     Just for reference, <e>bad_code</e> is the program we'll be debugging with
126     <c>gdb</c> later on. As you can see, the program without debugging symbols is
127     3140 bytes, while the program with them is 6374 bytes. That's close to double
128 fox2mike 1.3 the size! Two more things can be done for debugging. The first is adding ggdb3
129     to your CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS. This flag adds more debugging information than is
130     generally included. We'll see what that means later on. This is how
131 neysx 1.5 <path>/etc/make.conf</path> <e>might</e> look with the newly added flags.
132 fox2mike 1.3 </p>
133    
134     <pre caption="make.conf settings">
135 vapier 1.6 CFLAGS="-O1 -pipe -g -ggdb"
136 fox2mike 1.3 CXXFLAGS="${CFLAGS}"
137     </pre>
138    
139     <p>
140 neysx 1.5 Lastly, you can also add debug to the package's USE flags. This can be done
141     with the <path>package.use</path> file.
142     </p>
143 fox2mike 1.1
144     <pre caption="Using package.use to add debug USE flag">
145     # <i>echo "category/package debug" >> /etc/portage/package.use</i>
146     </pre>
147    
148     <note>
149     The directory <path>/etc/portage</path> does not exist by default and you may
150     have to create it, if you have not already done so. If the package already has
151     USE flags set in <path>package.use</path>, you will need to manually modify them
152     in your favorite editor.
153     </note>
154    
155     <p>
156 fox2mike 1.3 Then we re-emerge the package with the modifications we've done so far as shown
157     below.
158 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
159    
160     <pre caption="Re-emergeing a package with debugging">
161     # <i>FEATURES="nostrip" emerge package</i>
162     </pre>
163    
164     <p>
165     Now that debug symbols are setup, we can continue with debugging the program.
166     </p>
167    
168     </body>
169     </section>
170     <section>
171     <title>Running the program with GDB</title>
172     <body>
173    
174     <p>
175 fox2mike 1.3 Let's say we have a program here called "bad_code". Some person claims that the
176     program crashes and provides an example. You go ahead and test it out:
177 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
178    
179     <pre caption="Breaking The Program">
180     $ <i>./bad_code `perl -e 'print Ax100'`</i>
181     Segmentation fault
182     </pre>
183    
184     <p>
185     It seems this person was right. Since the program is obviously broken, we have
186     a bug at hand. Now, it's time to use <c>gdb</c> to help solve this matter. First
187     we run <c>gdb</c> with <c>--args</c>, then give it the full program with
188     arguments like shown:
189     </p>
190    
191     <pre caption="Running Our Program Through GDB">
192     $ <i>gdb --args ./bad_code `perl -e 'print Ax100'`</i>
193     GNU gdb 6.3
194     Copyright 2004 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
195     GDB is free software, covered by the GNU General Public License, and you are
196     welcome to change it and/or distribute copies of it under certain conditions.
197     Type "show copying" to see the conditions.
198     There is absolutely no warranty for GDB. Type "show warranty" for details.
199     This GDB was configured as "i686-pc-linux-gnu"...Using host libthread_db library "/lib/libthread_db.so.1".
200     </pre>
201    
202 fox2mike 1.3 <note>
203     One can also debug with core dumps. These core files contain the same
204     information that the program would produce when run with gdb. In order to debug
205     with a core file with bad_code, you would run <c>gdb ./bad_code core</c> where
206     core is the name of the core file.
207     </note>
208    
209 fox2mike 1.1 <p>
210 fox2mike 1.3 You should see a prompt that says "(gdb)" and waits for input. First, we have to
211     run the program. We type in <c>run</c> at the command and receive a notice like:
212 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
213    
214     <pre caption="Running the program in GDB">
215 fox2mike 1.3 (gdb) <i>run</i>
216 fox2mike 1.1 Starting program: /home/chris/bad_code
217    
218     Program received signal SIGSEGV, Segmentation fault.
219     0xb7ec6dc0 in strcpy () from /lib/libc.so.6
220     </pre>
221    
222     <p>
223     Here we see the program starting, as well as a notification of SIGSEGV, or
224     Segmentation Fault. This is GDB telling us that our program has crashed. It
225     also gives the last run function it could trace when the program crashes.
226     However, this isn't too useful, as there could be multiple strcpy's in the
227     program, making it hard for developers to find which one is causing the issue.
228     In order to help them out, we do what's called a backtrace. A backtrace runs
229     backwards through all the functions that occurred upon program execution, to the
230     function at fault. Functions that return (without causing a crash) will not show
231     up on the backtrace. To get a backtrace, at the (gdb) prompt, type in <c>bt</c>.
232     You will get something like this:
233     </p>
234    
235     <pre caption="Program backtrace">
236 fox2mike 1.3 (gdb) <i>bt</i>
237 fox2mike 1.1 #0 0xb7ec6dc0 in strcpy () from /lib/libc.so.6
238     #1 0x0804838c in run_it ()
239     #2 0x080483ba in main ()
240     </pre>
241    
242     <p>
243 fox2mike 1.3 You can notice the trace pattern clearly. main() is called first, followed by
244     run_it(), and somewhere in run_it() lies the strcpy() at fault. Things such as
245     this help developers narrow down problems. There are a few exceptions to the
246     output. First off is forgetting to enable debug symbols with
247     <c>FEATURES="nostrip"</c>. With debug symbols stripped, the output looks something
248     like this:
249 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
250    
251     <pre caption="Program backtrace With debug symbols stripped">
252 fox2mike 1.3 (gdb) <i>bt</i>
253 fox2mike 1.1 #0 0xb7e2cdc0 in strcpy () from /lib/libc.so.6
254     #1 0x0804838c in ?? ()
255     #2 0xbfd19510 in ?? ()
256     #3 0x00000000 in ?? ()
257     #4 0x00000000 in ?? ()
258     #5 0xb7eef148 in libgcc_s_personality () from /lib/libc.so.6
259     #6 0x080482ed in ?? ()
260     #7 0x080495b0 in ?? ()
261     #8 0xbfd19528 in ?? ()
262     #9 0xb7dd73b8 in __guard_setup () from /lib/libc.so.6
263     #10 0xb7dd742d in __guard_setup () from /lib/libc.so.6
264     #11 0x00000006 in ?? ()
265     #12 0xbfd19548 in ?? ()
266     #13 0x080483ba in ?? ()
267     #14 0x00000000 in ?? ()
268     #15 0x00000000 in ?? ()
269     #16 0xb7deebcc in __new_exitfn () from /lib/libc.so.6
270     #17 0x00000000 in ?? ()
271     #18 0xbfd19560 in ?? ()
272     #19 0xb7ef017c in nullserv () from /lib/libc.so.6
273     #20 0xb7dd6f37 in __libc_start_main () from /lib/libc.so.6
274     #21 0x00000001 in ?? ()
275     #22 0xbfd195d4 in ?? ()
276     #23 0xbfd195dc in ?? ()
277     #24 0x08048201 in ?? ()
278     </pre>
279    
280     <p>
281     This backtrace contains a large number of ?? marks. This is because without
282 fox2mike 1.3 debug symbols, <c>gdb</c> doesn't know how the program was run. Hence, it is
283     crucial that debug symbols are <e>not</e> stripped. Now remember a while ago we
284 vapier 1.6 mentioned the -ggdb flag. Let's see what the output looks like with the flag
285 fox2mike 1.3 enabled:
286 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
287    
288 fox2mike 1.3 <pre caption="Program backtrace with -ggdb3">
289     (gdb) <i>bt</i>
290 fox2mike 1.1 #0 0xb7e4bdc0 in strcpy () from /lib/libc.so.6
291     #1 0x0804838c in run_it (input=0x0) at bad_code.c:7
292     #2 0x080483ba in main (argc=1, argv=0xbfd3a434) at bad_code.c:12
293     </pre>
294    
295     <p>
296     Here we see that a lot more information is available for developers. Not only is
297 fox2mike 1.3 function information displayed, but even the exact line numbers of the source
298 fox2mike 1.1 files. This method is the most preferred if you can spare the extra space.
299 vapier 1.6 Here's how much the file size varies between debug, strip, and -ggdb enabled
300 fox2mike 1.3 programs.
301 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
302    
303 vapier 1.6 <pre caption="Filesize differences With -ggdb flag">
304 fox2mike 1.1 <comment>(debug symbols stripped)</comment>
305     -rwxr-xr-x 1 chris users 3140 6/28 13:11 bad_code
306     <comment>(debug symbols enabled)</comment>
307     -rwxr-xr-x 1 chris users 6374 6/28 13:10 bad_code
308 vapier 1.6 <comment>(-ggdb flag enabled)</comment>
309 fox2mike 1.3 -rwxr-xr-x 1 chris users 19552 6/28 13:11 bad_code
310 fox2mike 1.1 </pre>
311    
312     <p>
313 nightmorph 1.8 As you can see, -ggdb adds about <e>13178</e> more bytes to the file size over
314     the one with debugging symbols. However, as shown above, this increase in file
315     size can be worth it if presenting debug information to developers. The
316     backtrace can be saved to a file by copying and pasting from the terminal (if
317     it's a non-x based terminal, you can use gpm. To keep this doc simple, I
318     recommend you read up on the <uri link="/doc/en/gpm.xml#doc_chap4">documentation
319     for gpm</uri> to see how to copy and paste with it). Now that we're done with
320     <c>gdb</c>, we can quit.
321 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
322    
323     <pre caption="Quitting GDB">
324 fox2mike 1.3 (gdb) <i>quit</i>
325     The program is running. Exit anyway? (y or n) <i>y</i>
326 fox2mike 1.1 $
327     </pre>
328    
329     <p>
330 fox2mike 1.3 This ends the walk-through of <c>gdb</c>. Using <c>gdb</c>, we hope that you will
331 fox2mike 1.1 be able to use it to create better bug reports. However, there are other types
332     of errors that can cause a program to fail during run time. One of the other
333     ways is through improper file access. We can find those using a nifty little
334     tool called <c>strace</c>.
335     </p>
336    
337     </body>
338     </section>
339     </chapter>
340    
341     <chapter>
342     <title>Finding file access errors using strace</title>
343     <section>
344     <title>Introduction</title>
345     <body>
346    
347     <p>
348 fox2mike 1.3 Programs often use files to fetch configuration information, access hardware or
349     write logs. Sometimes, a program attempts to reach such files incorrectly. A
350     tool called <c>strace</c> was created to help deal with this. <c>strace</c>
351     traces system calls (hence the name) which include calls that use the memory and
352     files. For our example, we're going to take a program foobar2. This is an
353     updated version of foobar. However, during the change over to foobar2, you notice
354     all your configurations are missing! In foobar version 1, you had it setup to
355     say "foo", but now it's using the default "bar".
356 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
357    
358     <pre caption="Foobar2 With an invalid configuration">
359     $ <i>./foobar2</i>
360     Configuration says: bar
361     </pre>
362    
363     <p>
364     Our previous configuration specifically had it set to foo, so let's use
365     <c>strace</c> to find out what's going on.
366     </p>
367    
368     </body>
369     </section>
370     <section>
371     <title>Using strace to track the issue</title>
372     <body>
373    
374     <p>
375 fox2mike 1.3 We make <c>strace</c> log the results of the system calls. To do this, we run
376     <c>strace</c> with the -o[file] arguments. Let's use it on foobar2 as shown.
377 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
378    
379     <pre caption="Running foobar2 through strace">
380     # <i>strace -ostrace.log ./foobar2</i>
381     </pre>
382    
383     <p>
384 fox2mike 1.2 This creates a file called <path>strace.log</path> in the current directory. We
385     check the file, and shown below are the relevant parts from the file.
386 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
387    
388     <pre caption="A Look At the strace Log">
389     open(".foobar2/config", O_RDONLY) = 3
390     read(3, "bar", 3) = 3
391     </pre>
392    
393     <p>
394     Aha! So There's the problem. Someone moved the configuration directory to
395     <path>.foobar2</path> instead of <path>.foobar</path>. We also see the program
396     reading in "bar" as it should. In this case, we can recommend the ebuild
397     maintainer to put a warning about it. For now though, we can copy over the
398 fox2mike 1.2 config file from <path>.foobar</path> and modify it to produce the correct
399 neysx 1.5 results.
400 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
401    
402     </body>
403     </section>
404     <section>
405     <title>Conclusion</title>
406     <body>
407    
408     <p>
409     Now we've taken care of finding run time bugs. These bugs prove to be
410     problematic when you try and run your programs. However, run time errors are
411 fox2mike 1.3 the least of your concerns if your program won't compile at all. Let's take a
412 fox2mike 1.1 look at how to address <c>emerge</c> compile errors.
413     </p>
414    
415     </body>
416     </section>
417     </chapter>
418    
419     <chapter>
420     <title>Handling emerge Errors</title>
421     <section>
422     <title>Introduction</title>
423     <body>
424    
425     <p>
426     <c>emerge</c> errors, such as the one displayed earlier, can be a major cause
427 fox2mike 1.3 of frustration for users. Reporting them is considered crucial for maintaining
428     the health of Gentoo. Let's take a look at a sample ebuild, foobar2, which
429     contains some build errors.
430 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
431    
432     </body>
433     </section>
434     <section id="emerge_error">
435     <title>Evaluating emerge Errors</title>
436     <body>
437    
438     <p>
439     Let's take a look at this very simple <c>emerge</c> error:
440     </p>
441    
442     <pre caption="emerge Error">
443     gcc -D__TEST__ -D__GNU__ -D__LINUX__ -L/usr/lib -I/usr/include -L/usr/lib/nspr/ -I/usr/include/fmod -c -o foobar2-7.o foobar2-7.c
444     gcc -D__TEST__ -D__GNU__ -D__LINUX__ -L/usr/lib -I/usr/include -L/usr/lib/nspr/ -I/usr/include/fmod -c -o foobar2-8.o foobar2-8.c
445     gcc -D__TEST__ -D__GNU__ -D__LINUX__ -L/usr/lib -I/usr/include -L/usr/lib/nspr/ -I/usr/include/fmod -c -o foobar2-9.o foobar2-9.c
446     gcc -D__TEST__ -D__GNU__ -D__LINUX__ -L/usr/lib -I/usr/include -L/usr/lib/nspr/ -I/usr/include/fmod -c -o foobar2.o foobar2.c
447     foobar2.c:1:17: ogg.h: No such file or directory
448     make: *** [foobar2.o] Error 1
449    
450     !!! ERROR: sys-apps/foobar2-1.0 failed.
451     !!! Function src_compile, Line 19, Exitcode 2
452     !!! Make failed!
453     !!! If you need support, post the topmost build error, NOT this status message
454     </pre>
455    
456     <p>
457 fox2mike 1.3 The program is compiling smoothly when it suddenly stops and presents an error message. This
458     particular error can be split into 3 different sections, The compile messages, the build
459 fox2mike 1.1 error, and the emerge error message as shown below.
460     </p>
461    
462     <pre caption="Parts of the error">
463 fox2mike 1.3 <comment>(Compilation Messages)</comment>
464 fox2mike 1.1 gcc -D__TEST__ -D__GNU__ -D__LINUX__ -L/usr/lib -I/usr/include -L/usr/lib/nspr/ -I/usr/include/fmod -c -o foobar2-7.o foobar2-7.c
465     gcc -D__TEST__ -D__GNU__ -D__LINUX__ -L/usr/lib -I/usr/include -L/usr/lib/nspr/ -I/usr/include/fmod -c -o foobar2-8.o foobar2-8.c
466     gcc -D__TEST__ -D__GNU__ -D__LINUX__ -L/usr/lib -I/usr/include -L/usr/lib/nspr/ -I/usr/include/fmod -c -o foobar2-9.o foobar2-9.c
467     gcc -D__TEST__ -D__GNU__ -D__LINUX__ -L/usr/lib -I/usr/include -L/usr/lib/nspr/ -I/usr/include/fmod -c -o foobar2.o foobar2.c
468    
469     <comment>(Build Error)</comment>
470     foobar2.c:1:17: ogg.h: No such file or directory
471     make: *** [foobar2.o] Error 1
472    
473 fox2mike 1.3 <comment>(emerge Error)</comment>
474 fox2mike 1.1 !!! ERROR: sys-apps/foobar2-1.0 failed.
475     !!! Function src_compile, Line 19, Exitcode 2
476     !!! Make failed!
477     !!! If you need support, post the topmost build error, NOT this status message
478     </pre>
479    
480     <p>
481 fox2mike 1.3 The compilation messages are what lead up to the error. Most often, it's good to
482     at least include 10 lines of compile information so that the developer knows
483     where the compilation was at when the error occurred.
484     </p>
485    
486     <p>
487     Make errors are the actual error and the information the developer needs. When
488     you see "make: ***", this is often where the error has occurred. Normally, you
489     can copy and paste 10 lines above it and the developer will be able to address
490     the issue. However, this may not always work and we'll take a look at an
491     alternative shortly.
492     </p>
493    
494     <p>
495     The emerge error is what <c>emerge</c> throws out as an error. Sometimes, this
496     might also contain some important information. Often people make the mistake of
497     posting the emerge error and that's all. This is useless by itself, but with
498     make error and compile information, a developer can get what application and
499     what version of the package is failing. As a side note, make is commonly used as
500     the build process for programs (<b>but not always</b>). If you can't find a
501     "make: ***" error anywhere, then simply copy and paste 20 lines before the
502     emerge error. This should take care of most all build system error messages. Now
503     let's say the errors seem to be quite large. 10 lines won't be enough to catch
504     everything. That's where PORT_LOGDIR comes into play.
505 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
506    
507     </body>
508     </section>
509     <section>
510     <title>emerge and PORT_LOGDIR</title>
511     <body>
512    
513     <p>
514 neysx 1.5 PORT_LOGDIR is a portage variable that sets up a log directory for separate
515     emerge logs. Let's take a look and see what that entails. First, run your
516     emerge with PORT_LOGDIR set to your favorite log location. Let's say we have a
517 fox2mike 1.3 location <path>/var/log/portage</path>. We'll use that for our log directory:
518 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
519    
520     <note>
521 fox2mike 1.3 In the default setup, <path>/var/log/portage</path> does not exist, and you will
522     most likely have to create it. If you do not, portage will fail to write the
523     logs.
524 fox2mike 1.1 </note>
525    
526     <pre caption="emerge-ing With PORT_LOGDIR">
527     # <i>PORT_LOGDIR=/var/log/portage emerge foobar2</i>
528     </pre>
529    
530     <p>
531     Now the emerge fails again. However, this time we have a log we can work with,
532     and attach to the bug later on. Let's take a quick look at our log directory.
533     </p>
534    
535     <pre caption="PORT_LOGDIR Contents">
536     # <i>ls -la /var/log/portage</i>
537     total 16
538     drwxrws--- 2 root root 4096 Jun 30 10:08 .
539     drwxr-xr-x 15 root root 4096 Jun 30 10:08 ..
540     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 7390 Jun 30 10:09 2115-foobar2-1.0.log
541     </pre>
542    
543     <p>
544     The log files have the format [counter]-[package name]-[version].log. Counter
545     is a special variable that is meant to state this package as the n-th package
546     you've emerged. This prevents duplicate logs from appearing. A quick look at
547     the log file will show the entire emerge process. This can be attached later
548     on as we'll see in the bug reporting section. Now that we've safely obtained
549     our information needed to report the bug we can continue to do so. However,
550     before we get started on that, we need to make sure no one else has reported
551     the issue. Let's take a look at searching for bugs.
552     </p>
553    
554     </body>
555     </section>
556     </chapter>
557    
558     <chapter>
559     <title>Searching Using Bugzilla</title>
560     <section>
561     <title>Introduction</title>
562     <body>
563    
564     <p>
565     <uri link="http://www.bugzilla.org">Bugzilla</uri> is what we at Gentoo use to
566     handle bugs. Gentoo's Bugzilla is reachable by HTTPS and HTTP. HTTPS is
567     available for those on insecure networks or simply paranoid :). For the sake of
568 fox2mike 1.3 consistency, we will be using the HTTPS version in the examples to follow. Head
569 fox2mike 1.1 over to <uri link="https://bugs.gentoo.org">Gentoo Bugs</uri> to see how it
570     looks.
571     </p>
572    
573     <p>
574 fox2mike 1.3 One of the most frustrating things for developers and bug-wranglers is finding
575     duplicate bug reports. These cost them valuable time that they could otherwise
576     use to work on more important bugs. Often, this can be prevented by a few simple
577 fox2mike 1.1 search methods. So we're going to see how to search for bugs and find out if
578     you have one that's similar. For this example, we're going to use the xclass
579 fox2mike 1.3 emerge error that was used earlier.
580 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
581    
582     <pre caption="xclass emerge error">
583     /usr/lib/gcc-lib/i686-pc-linux-gnu/3.3.2/include/g++-v3/backward/backward_warning.h:32:2:
584     warning: #warning This file includes at least one deprecated or antiquated
585     header. Please consider using one of the 32 headers found in section 17.4.1.2 of
586     the C++ standard. Examples include substituting the &lt;X&gt; header for the &lt;X.h&gt;
587     header for C++ includes, or &lt;sstream&gt; instead of the deprecated header
588     &lt;strstream.h&gt;. To disable this warning use -Wno-deprecated.
589     In file included from main.cc:40:
590     menudef.h:55: error: brace-enclosed initializer used to initialize `
591     OXPopupMenu*'
592     menudef.h:62: error: brace-enclosed initializer used to initialize `
593     OXPopupMenu*'
594     menudef.h:70: error: brace-enclosed initializer used to initialize `
595     OXPopupMenu*'
596     menudef.h:78: error: brace-enclosed initializer used to initialize `
597     OXPopupMenu*'
598     main.cc: In member function `void OXMain::DoOpen()':
599     main.cc:323: warning: unused variable `FILE*fp'
600     main.cc: In member function `void OXMain::DoSave(char*)':
601     main.cc:337: warning: unused variable `FILE*fp'
602     make[1]: *** [main.o] Error 1
603     make[1]: Leaving directory
604     `/var/tmp/portage/xclass-0.7.4/work/xclass-0.7.4/example-app'
605     make: *** [shared] Error 2
606    
607     !!! ERROR: x11-libs/xclass-0.7.4 failed.
608     !!! Function src_compile, Line 29, Exitcode 2
609     !!! 'emake shared' failed
610     </pre>
611    
612     <p>
613     So to begin searching, we head over to the <uri
614 fox2mike 1.2 link="https://bugs.gentoo.org/">Bugzilla Homepage</uri>.
615 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
616    
617     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-homepage.png" caption="Bugzilla Homepage"/>
618    
619     <p>
620 fox2mike 1.3 We'll click on "Query Existing bug reports". The reason why we choose this
621     over the basic bug search is because the basic bug search tends to give vague
622     results and often hinders users from looking through the results and finding the
623     duplicate bug. Once we click on the query screen, we reach the next page:
624 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
625    
626     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-search.png" caption="Bugzilla Search Page"/>
627    
628     <note>
629     If you've used the Advanced Search before, you'll most likely see that screen
630     instead.
631     </note>
632    
633     <p>
634 fox2mike 1.3 Proceed by clicking on the "Advanced Search" link to bring up the Advanced
635     Search page.
636 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
637    
638     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-adv-search.png" caption="Advanced Search Page"/>
639    
640     <p>
641     This is how the Advanced Search Page looks like. While it may seem overwhelming
642     at first, we're going to look at a few simple areas to narrow down the rather
643 neysx 1.5 vague searches bugzilla returns.
644 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
645    
646     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-content.png" caption="Content"/>
647    
648     <p>
649     The first field is the summary of the bug. Here we're simply going to put the
650 fox2mike 1.3 name of the package that's crashing. If bugzie doesn't return results, try
651 fox2mike 1.1 removing the package name, just in case someone didn't put that in the summary
652 fox2mike 1.3 (highly unlikely, but we've seen a fair share of strange bug reports).
653 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
654    
655     <p>
656     Product, Component, and Version should all be set to the default. This
657     prevents us from being too specific and missing all the bugs.
658     </p>
659    
660     <p>
661 fox2mike 1.3 Comment is the important part. Use the comment field to list what appears to be a
662 fox2mike 1.1 specific instance of the error. Basically, don't use anything like the
663     beginning of the build error, find a line that's before it stating a true
664     error. Also, you'll want to filter out any punctuation to prevent bugzilla
665     from interpreting the results the comment the wrong way. Example from the xclass
666     emerge error:
667     </p>
668    
669     <pre caption="Comment Line Content">
670     menudef.h:78: error: brace-enclosed initializer used to initialize `OXPopupMenu'
671     <comment>(Remove the quotes ' ')</comment>
672     menudef.h 78 error brace-enclosed initializer used to initialize OXPopupMenu
673     </pre>
674    
675     <p>
676     The above is specific enough to where we'll find the bug without wading through
677     other xclass compile failure candidates.
678     </p>
679    
680     <p>
681     URI, Whiteboard, and Keywords can all be left alone. What we've entered so far
682 fox2mike 1.3 should be enough to find our bug. Let's take a look at what we have filled out.
683 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
684    
685     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-comp-search.png" caption="Completed Search Form"/>
686    
687     <p>
688 fox2mike 1.3 Now we click on the Search button and here come the results...
689 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
690    
691     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-search-result.png" caption="Search Results"/>
692    
693     <p>
694     Only 2 bugs! That's a lot easier to deal with. We click on the first one to
695 fox2mike 1.3 check, and sure enough it's the one we're looking for.
696 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
697    
698     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-located.png" caption="Bug Located"/>
699    
700     <p>
701     Not only is it the one we want, but it has also been resolved. By checking the
702     last comment we see the solution and know what to do in order to resolve it.
703 fox2mike 1.3 Now, let's see what would have happened if we had not used the advanced search.
704 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
705    
706     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-basic-search-result.png" caption="Basic Search Results"/>
707    
708     <p>
709     4 more bugs to deal with! It gets even worse with larger packages. However,
710     with these simple tools, we're able to significantly narrow down the search to
711     try and locate a specific bug.
712     </p>
713    
714     </body>
715     </section>
716     <section>
717     <title>Conclusion</title>
718     <body>
719    
720     <p>
721     Let's say that you have searched and searched but still can't find a bug.
722     You've found yourself a new bug. Let's take a look at the bug reporting process
723     for submitting your new bug.
724     </p>
725    
726     </body>
727     </section>
728     </chapter>
729    
730     <chapter>
731     <title>Reporting Bugs</title>
732     <section>
733     <title>Introduction</title>
734     <body>
735    
736     <p>
737     In this chapter, we'll figure out how to use Bugzilla to file a shiny, new bug.
738     Head over to <uri link="https://bugs.gentoo.org">Gentoo Bugs</uri> and...
739     </p>
740    
741     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-homepage.png" caption="Bugzilla Homepage"/>
742    
743     <p>
744 fox2mike 1.3 Click on "Report a Bug - Using the guided format".
745 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
746    
747     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-prod-select.png" caption="Product Selection"/>
748    
749     <p>
750     As you can see, <b>major</b> emphasis has been placed on putting your bug in the
751 fox2mike 1.3 right place. Gentoo Linux is where a large majority of bugs go.
752     </p>
753    
754     <p>
755     Despite this, some people will file ebuild bugs in portage development
756     (assumption that portage team handles the portage tree) or infra (assumption
757     that infra has access to mirrors and rsync and can fix it directly). This is
758     simply not how things work.
759     </p>
760    
761     <p>
762     Another common misconception occurs with our Documentation bugs. For example, a
763 neysx 1.5 user finds a bug with the <uri link="/proj/en/releng/catalyst/">Catalyst
764 fox2mike 1.3 Docs</uri>. The general tendency is to file a bug under Docs-user, which gets
765     assigned to the <uri link="http://gdp.gentoo.org">GDP</uri>, when it should
766 neysx 1.5 actually go to a member of the <uri link="/proj/en/releng/">Release
767     Engineering</uri> team. As a rule of thumb, only documentation under
768     <path>http://www.gentoo.org/doc/*</path> is under the GDP. Anything under
769     <path>http://www.gentoo.org/proj/*</path> is under the respective teams.
770 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
771    
772     <note>
773 fox2mike 1.3 We would rather see a bug whose product was not supposed to be Gentoo Linux but
774     has been filed under the same rather than seeing a bug which belongs the Gentoo
775     Linux product and filed elsewhere. While neither is preferred, the former is more
776     acceptable and understandable (except website bugs.. we might have an issue with
777     that...).
778 fox2mike 1.1 </note>
779    
780     <p>
781 neysx 1.5 Our bug goes in Gentoo Linux as it's an ebuild bug. We head over there and are
782     presented with the multi-step bug reporting process. Let us now proceed with
783     Step 1...
784 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
785    
786     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-guide-step1.png" caption="Guided Format Step 1"/>
787    
788     <p>
789     The first step here is really important (as the red text tells you). This is
790     where you search to see that someone else hasn't hit the same bug you have, yet.
791 fox2mike 1.3 If you do skip this step and a bug like yours already exists, it will be marked
792 fox2mike 1.1 as a DUPLICATE thus wasting a large amount of QA effort. To give you an idea,
793 fox2mike 1.3 the bug numbers that are struck out above are duplicate bugs. Now comes step 2,
794 fox2mike 1.1 where we give the information.
795     </p>
796    
797     </body>
798     </section>
799     <section>
800     <title>Required Information</title>
801     <body>
802    
803 fox2mike 1.3 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-basic.png" caption="Basic Information"/>
804    
805 fox2mike 1.1 <p>
806 fox2mike 1.3 Let us take a closer look at what's what.
807 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
808    
809 fox2mike 1.3 <ul>
810     <li>
811 neysx 1.5 First, there's the Product. The product will narrow down the bug to a
812     specific area of Gentoo like Bugzilla (for bugs relating to
813     bugs.gentoo.org), Docs-user(for User Documentation) or Gentoo Linux (for
814     ebuilds and the like).
815 fox2mike 1.3 </li>
816     <li>
817 neysx 1.5 Component is where exactly the problem occurs, more specifically which part
818     of selected product the bug comes under. This makes classification easier.
819 fox2mike 1.3 </li>
820     <li>
821 neysx 1.5 Hardware platform is what architecture you're running. If you were running
822     SPARC, you would set it to SPARC.
823 fox2mike 1.3 </li>
824     <li>
825 neysx 1.5 Operating System is what Operating System you're using. Because Gentoo is
826     considered a "Meta-distribution", it can run on other operating systems
827     beside Linux.
828 fox2mike 1.3 </li>
829     </ul>
830 fox2mike 1.1
831     <p>
832 fox2mike 1.3 So, for our example bug, we have :
833 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
834    
835 fox2mike 1.3 <ul>
836 neysx 1.5 <li>Product - Gentoo Linux (Since it is an ebuild issue)</li>
837     <li>Component - Application (It is an application at fault, foobar2)</li>
838     <li>Hardware Platform - All (This error could occur across architectures)</li>
839     <li>Operation System - All (It could occur on all types of systems)</li>
840 fox2mike 1.3 </ul>
841    
842 fox2mike 1.1 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-basic-comp.png" caption="Completed Basic Information"/>
843    
844 fox2mike 1.3 <ul>
845     <li>
846 neysx 1.5 Build Identifier is basically the User Agent of the browser that is being
847     used to report the bugs (for logging purposes). You can just leave this as
848     is.
849 fox2mike 1.3 </li>
850     <li>
851 nightmorph 1.10 URL is optional and is used to point to relevant information on another site
852     (upstream bugzilla, release notes on package homepage etc.). You should
853     never use URL to point to pastebins for error messages, logs, <c>emerge
854     --info</c> output, screenshots or similar information. Instead, these should
855     always be attached to the bug.
856 fox2mike 1.3 </li>
857     <li>
858 neysx 1.5 In the Summary, you should put the package category, name, and number.
859 fox2mike 1.3 </li>
860     </ul>
861    
862 fox2mike 1.1 <p>
863 fox2mike 1.3 Not including the category in the summary really isn't too bad, but it's
864     recommended. If you don't include the package name, however, we won't know what
865     you're filling a bug for, and will have to ask you about it later. The version
866     number is important for people searching for bugs. If 20 people filed bugs and
867     not one put a version number, how would people looking for similar bugs be able
868     to tell if one was there's? They'd have to look through every single bug, which
869     isn't too hard, but if there are say, 200 bugs.. it's not that easy. After all
870     the package information, you'll want to include a small description of the
871     incident. Here's an example:
872 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
873    
874     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-summary.png" caption="Summary"/>
875    
876     <p>
877 fox2mike 1.3 These simple rules can make handling bugs a lot easier. Next are the details.
878     Here we put in the information about the bug. We'll demonstrate with an example:
879 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
880    
881     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-details.png" caption="Details"/>
882    
883     <p>
884 fox2mike 1.3 Now the developer knows why we're filing the bug. They can then try to
885 fox2mike 1.1 reproduce it. Reproducibility tells us how often we were able to make the
886     problem recur. In this example, we can reproduce it any time simply by running
887 fox2mike 1.3 foobar2. Let's put that information in.
888 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
889    
890     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-reprod.png" caption="Reproduction"/>
891    
892     <p>
893 fox2mike 1.3 We have explained how we found the bug. The next step is to explain what were
894     the results we got and what we think they should actually be.
895 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
896    
897     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-results.png" caption="Results"/>
898    
899     <p>
900 neysx 1.5 We could then provide additional information. This could be things such as
901     stack traces, <b>sections</b> (since the whole log is usually big and of not
902     much use) of strace logs, but most importantly, your <c>emerge --info</c>
903     output. Here's an example.
904 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
905    
906     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-addl-info.png" caption="Additional Information"/>
907    
908     <p>
909     Lastly we select the severity of the bug. Please look this over carefully. In
910     most cases it's OK to leave it as is and someone will raise/lower it for you.
911     However, if you raise the severity of the bug, please make sure you read it over
912 fox2mike 1.3 carefully and make sure you're not making a mistake. A run down of the various
913     levels is given below.
914 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
915    
916 fox2mike 1.3 <ul>
917     <li>
918 neysx 1.5 Blocker - The program just plain doesn't want to emerge or is a major
919     hinderance to the system. For example a <c>baselayout</c> issue which
920     prevents a system from booting up would be a sure candidate to be labelled
921     blocker.
922 fox2mike 1.3 </li>
923     <li>
924 neysx 1.5 Critical - The program has loss of data or severe memory leaks during
925     runtime. Again, an important program like say <c>net-tools</c> failing to
926     compile could be labelled critical. It won't prevent the system from
927     starting up, but is quite essential for day to day stuff.
928 fox2mike 1.3 </li>
929     <li>
930 neysx 1.5 Major - The program crashes, but nothing that causes your system severe
931     damage or information loss.
932 fox2mike 1.3 </li>
933     <li>
934 neysx 1.5 Minor - Your program crashes here and there with apparent workarounds.
935 fox2mike 1.3 </li>
936     <li>
937 neysx 1.5 Normal - The default. If you're not sure leave it here unless it's a new
938     build or cosmetic change, then read below for more information.
939 fox2mike 1.3 </li>
940 neysx 1.5 <li>Trivial - Things such as a mispelled word or whitespace clean up. </li>
941 fox2mike 1.3 <li>
942 neysx 1.5 Enhancement - A request to enable a new feature in a program, or more
943     specifically <e>new ebuilds</e>.
944 fox2mike 1.3 </li>
945     </ul>
946    
947 fox2mike 1.1 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-sev.png" caption="Severity"/>
948    
949     <p>
950 fox2mike 1.3 Here, we'll set it to Normal.
951     </p>
952    
953     <p>
954 fox2mike 1.1 Now we can submit the bug report by clicking on the Submit Bug Report box. You
955     will now see your new bug come up. See <uri
956     link="https://bugs.gentoo.org/show_bug.cgi?id=97265">Bug 97561</uri> for what
957     the result looks like. We've reported our bug! Now let's see how it's dealt
958     with.
959     </p>
960    
961     </body>
962     </section>
963 nightmorph 1.9 <section>
964     <title>Zero-day bump requests</title>
965     <body>
966    
967     <p>
968     So far, we've shown what to do when filing a bug. Now let's take a look at what
969     <e>not</e> to do.
970     </p>
971    
972     <p>
973     Suppose that you've eagerly been following an upstream project's schedule, and
974     when you check their homepage, guess what? They just released a new version a
975     few minutes ago! Most users would immediately rush over to Gentoo's bugzilla to
976     report the new version is available; please bump the existing version and add
977     it to Portage, etc. However, this is exactly what you should <b>not</b> do.
978     These kinds of requests are called zero-day (or 0-day) bump requests, as they're
979     made the same day that a new version is released.
980     </p>
981    
982     <impo>
983     <b>Please wait <e>at least</e> 48 hours before reporting a new release on our
984     bugzilla.</b> Also, you <e>must</e> check bugzilla before posting your request
985     to make sure that someone else hasn't already reported it, or that the Gentoo
986     maintainers haven't already dealt with the new version.
987     </impo>
988    
989     <p>
990     Why should you wait? First, it's quite rude to demand that Gentoo developers
991     drop everything they're doing just to add a new release that came out 15 minutes
992     ago. Your zero-day bump request could be marked as INVALID or LATER, as
993     developers have plenty of pressing issues to keep them busy. Second, developers
994     are usually aware of pending new releases well in advance of users, as they must
995     follow upstream quite closely. They already know a new version is on its way.
996     In many cases, they will have already opened a bug, or might even already added
997     it in Portage as a masked package.
998     </p>
999    
1000     <p>
1001     Be smart when testing and requesting new versions of packages. Search bugzilla
1002     before posting your bump request -- is there already a bug open? Have you synced
1003     lately; is it already in Portage? Has it actually been released by upstream?
1004     Basic common sense will go a long way, and will endear you to developers that
1005     already have a lot to do. If it's been several days since release and you're
1006     sure that there are no open requests for it (and that it's not in Portage), then
1007     you can open up a new bug. Be sure to mention that it compiles and runs well on
1008     your arch. Any other helpful information you provide is most welcome.
1009     </p>
1010    
1011     <p>
1012     Want to see the newest version of your favorite package in Portage? File smart
1013     bugs.
1014     </p>
1015    
1016     </body>
1017     </section>
1018 fox2mike 1.1 </chapter>
1019    
1020     <chapter>
1021     <title>Working With Your Bug</title>
1022     <section>
1023     <body>
1024    
1025     <p>
1026 fox2mike 1.3 Looking at the bug, we see the information we provided earlier. You will notice
1027     that the bug has been assigned to bug-wranglers@gentoo.org. This is the default
1028     location for Application component bugs.
1029 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
1030    
1031     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-new-basic.png" caption="New Bug Basic Information"/>
1032    
1033     <p>
1034 fox2mike 1.3 The details we entered about the bug are available as well.
1035 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
1036    
1037     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-new-details.png" caption="New Bug Details"/>
1038    
1039     <p>
1040 fox2mike 1.3 However, bug-wranglers (usually) won't fix our bugs, so we'll reassign it to
1041     someone that can (you can let bug-wranglers re-assign it for you as well). For
1042     this we use the package's metadata.xml. You can normally find them in
1043     <path>/usr/portage/category/package/metadata.xml</path>. Here's one I've made up
1044     for foobar2.
1045 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
1046    
1047 fox2mike 1.3 <note>
1048     You have to be the reporter of the bug or a member of certain Gentoo Bugzilla
1049     groups (like Gentoo Developers) to be able to reassign bugs.
1050     </note>
1051    
1052 fox2mike 1.1 <pre caption="metadata.xml">
1053     &lt;?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?&gt;
1054     &lt;!DOCTYPE pkgmetadata SYSTEM "http://www.gentoo.org/dtd/metadata.dtd"&gt;
1055     &lt;pkgmetadata&gt;
1056     &lt;herd&gt;chriswhite&lt;/herd&gt;
1057     &lt;maintainer&gt;
1058     &lt;email&gt;chriswhite@gentoo.org&lt;/email&gt;
1059     &lt;name&gt;Chris White&lt;/name&gt;
1060     &lt;/maintainer&gt;
1061     &lt;longdescription lang="en"&gt;
1062     Foobar2 is a package that uses a configuration file to display a word.
1063     &lt;/longdescription&gt;
1064     &lt;/pkgmetadata&gt;
1065     </pre>
1066    
1067     <p>
1068 fox2mike 1.3 Notice the maintainer section. This lists the maintainer of the package, which
1069 fox2mike 1.1 in this case is myself, Chris White. The email listed is chriswhite@gentoo.org.
1070     We will use this to re-assign the bug to the proper person. To do this, click
1071 fox2mike 1.3 the bubble next to Reassign bug to, then fill in the email.
1072 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
1073    
1074     <note>
1075 fox2mike 1.3 A bug for a package without a metadata.xml file should be re-assigned to
1076     maintainer-needed@gentoo.org and a package that needs a Gentoo Developer to
1077     maintain should be assigned to maintainer-wanted@gentoo.org.
1078 fox2mike 1.1 </note>
1079    
1080     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-reassign.png" caption="Bug Reassignment"/>
1081    
1082     <p>
1083     Then hit the Commit button for the changes to take place. The bug has been
1084     reassigned to me. Shortly afterward, you notice (by email usually) that I've
1085     responded to your bug. I've stated that I'd like to see an strace log to figure
1086     out how the program is trying to reach your configuration file. You follow the
1087     previous instructions on using strace and obtain an strace log. Now you need to
1088     attach it to the bug. In order to do this, click on "Create A New Attachment".
1089     </p>
1090    
1091     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-new-attach.png" caption="New Attachment"/>
1092    
1093     <p>
1094 fox2mike 1.3 Now we have to attach the log. Let's go throught it step wise.
1095 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
1096    
1097 fox2mike 1.3 <ul>
1098     <li>
1099 neysx 1.5 File - This is the location of the file in your machine. In this example,
1100     the location of <path>strace.log</path>. You can use the "Browse..." button
1101     to select the file, or enter the path directly in the text field.
1102 fox2mike 1.3 </li>
1103     <li>
1104 neysx 1.5 Description - A short one liner, or a few wors describing the attachment.
1105     We'll just enter strace.log here, since that's quite self-explanatory.
1106 fox2mike 1.3 </li>
1107     <li>
1108 neysx 1.5 Content Type - This is the type of the file we're attaching to the bug.
1109 fox2mike 1.3 </li>
1110     <li>
1111 neysx 1.5 Obsoletes - If there were attachements submitted to the bug before the
1112     current one, you have an option of declaring them obsoleted by yours. Since
1113     we have no prior attachments to this bug, we need not bother.
1114 fox2mike 1.3 </li>
1115     <li>
1116 neysx 1.5 Comment - Enter comments that will be visible along with the attachments.
1117     You could elaborate on the attachment here, if needed.
1118 fox2mike 1.3 </li>
1119     </ul>
1120    
1121     <p>
1122     With respect to Content Type, here are a few more details. You can check the
1123 neysx 1.5 "patch" checkbox if you're submitting a patch. Otherwise, you could ask
1124     Bugzilla to "auto-detect" the file type (not advisable). The other options are
1125     "select from list", which is most frequently used. Use plain text (text/plain)
1126     for <e>most</e> attachments except binary files like images (which can use
1127     image/gif, image/jpeg or image/png depending on type) or compressed files like
1128     .tar.bz2 which would use application/octet-stream as content type.
1129 fox2mike 1.3 </p>
1130    
1131    
1132 fox2mike 1.1 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-new-attach-comp.png" caption="New Attachment Completed"/>
1133    
1134     <p>
1135 fox2mike 1.3 We submit <path>strace.log</path> and it is reflected on the bug report.
1136 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
1137    
1138     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-strace.png" caption="Attached strace log"/>
1139    
1140     <p>
1141 fox2mike 1.3 We've mentioned before that sometimes ebuilds will tell you to attach a file in
1142     the emerge error. An example can be seen below.
1143     </p>
1144    
1145     <pre caption="Example File Attachment Request">
1146     configure: error: PNG support requires ZLIB. Use --with-zlib-dir=&lt;DIR&gt;
1147    
1148     !!! Please attach the config.log to your bug report:
1149     !!! /var/tmp/portage/php-5.0.3-r1/work/php-5.0.3/config.log
1150    
1151     !!! ERROR: dev-php/php-5.0.3-r1 failed.
1152     !!! Function econf, Line 485, Exitcode 0
1153     !!! econf failed
1154     !!! If you need support, post the topmost build error, NOT this status message.
1155     </pre>
1156    
1157     <p>
1158     Please attach any file mentioned like this to your bug report.
1159     </p>
1160    
1161     <p>
1162 rane 1.7 Sometimes a developer might ask you to attach a diff or patch for a file.
1163     Standard diff files can be obtained through:
1164     </p>
1165    
1166     <pre caption="Standard Diff Creation">
1167     $ <i>cp file file.old</i>
1168     $ <i>nano file</i>
1169     $ <i>diff -u file.old file</i>
1170     </pre>
1171    
1172     <p>
1173     For C/C++ source files, the <b>-p</b> flag is added to show what function calls
1174     the diff applies to:
1175     </p>
1176    
1177     <pre caption="Diff-ing C/C++ source">
1178     $ <i>cp file.c file.c.old</i>
1179     $ <i>nano file.c</i>
1180     $ <i>diff -up file.c.old file.c</i>
1181     </pre>
1182    
1183     <p>
1184     The documentation team will require the flag combination <b>-Nt</b> as well as
1185     <b>-u</b>. This mainly has to do with tab expansion. You can create such a diff
1186     with:
1187     </p>
1188    
1189     <pre caption="Documentation diffs">
1190     $<i> cp file.xml file.xml.old</i>
1191     $<i> nano file.xml</i>
1192     $<i> diff -Nut file.xml.old file.xml</i>
1193     </pre>
1194    
1195     <p>
1196     And your diff is created. While we're doing all this, suppose another person
1197     finds your bug by searching through bugzilla and is curious to keep track of
1198     the bug, they may do so by putting their email in the Add CC field of the bug
1199     as shown below. You could also keep track of other bugs by following the same
1200     method.
1201 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
1202    
1203     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-add-email.png" caption="Adding Email To CC:"/>
1204    
1205     <note>
1206 fox2mike 1.3 Email addresses must be registered with Gentoo Bugzilla. In order to CC multiple
1207 fox2mike 1.1 addresses, simply separate them with commas or spaces.
1208     </note>
1209    
1210     <p>
1211 fox2mike 1.3 After all this work, the bug can undergo various status markings. This is
1212     usually done by the Gentoo Developers and sometimes by the reporter. The
1213     following are the various possible states a bug may go through during its
1214     lifetime.
1215 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
1216    
1217     <ul>
1218     <li>
1219 neysx 1.5 UNCONFIRMED - You're generally not going to see this too often. This means
1220     that a bug reporter has opened a bug using the advanced method and is
1221     uncertain his or her bug is an actual bug.
1222 fox2mike 1.2 </li>
1223 neysx 1.5 <li>NEW - Bugs that are first opened are considered new.</li>
1224 fox2mike 1.1 <li>
1225 neysx 1.5 ASSIGNED - When the person you've assigned the bug too validates your bug,
1226     it will often receive ASSIGNED status while they figure out the issue.
1227     This lets you know that they've accepted your bug as a real bug.
1228 fox2mike 1.2 </li>
1229 fox2mike 1.1 <li>
1230 neysx 1.5 REOPENED - Someone has resolved a bug and you think the solution is not
1231     feasible or the problem still persists. At this point, you may re-open the
1232     bug. Please <b>do not abuse this</b>. If a developer closes the bug a
1233     second or third time, chances are that your bug is closed.
1234 fox2mike 1.2 </li>
1235 fox2mike 1.1 <li>
1236 neysx 1.5 RESOLVED - A firm decision has been taken on the bug. Usually goes onto
1237     FIXED to indicate the bug is solved and the matter closed although various
1238     other resolutions are possible. We'll look into those a little later.
1239 fox2mike 1.3 </li>
1240     <li>
1241 neysx 1.5 VERIFIED - The steps take to work the bug are correct. This is usually a QA
1242     thing.
1243 fox2mike 1.3 </li>
1244     <li>
1245 neysx 1.5 CLOSED - Basically means RIP for the bug and it's buried under the never
1246     ending flow of new bugs.
1247 fox2mike 1.2 </li>
1248 fox2mike 1.1 </ul>
1249    
1250     <p>
1251 fox2mike 1.3 Now shortly afterward, we find the error in the strace log and fix the bug and
1252 neysx 1.5 mark it as RESOLVED FIXED and mention that there was a change in the location
1253     of configuration files, and that I will update the ebuild with a warning about
1254     it. The bug now becomes resolved, and you are shown the following.
1255 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
1256    
1257     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-reso.png" caption="Resolved Bug"/>
1258    
1259     <p>
1260 fox2mike 1.3 A little below, you'll see the following:
1261 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
1262    
1263     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-options.png" caption="Bug Options"/>
1264    
1265     <p>
1266 neysx 1.5 This gives you the option of Reopening the bug if you wish to (i.e. the
1267     developer thinks it's resolved but it's really not to your standards). Now our
1268     bug is fixed! However, different resolutions can occur. Here's a small list:
1269 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
1270    
1271     <ul>
1272     <li>
1273 neysx 1.5 FIXED - The bug is fixed, follow the instructions to resolve your issue.
1274 fox2mike 1.2 </li>
1275 fox2mike 1.1 <li>
1276 neysx 1.5 INVALID - You did not do something specifically documented, causing the
1277     bug.
1278 fox2mike 1.2 </li>
1279 neysx 1.5 <li>DUPLICATE - You didn't use this guide and reported a duplicate bug.</li>
1280 fox2mike 1.1 <li>
1281 neysx 1.5 WORKSFORME - Developer/person assigned the bug cannot reproduce your error.
1282 fox2mike 1.3 </li>
1283     <li>
1284 neysx 1.5 CANTFIX - Somehow the bug cannot be solved because of certain
1285     circumstances. These circumstances will be noted by the person taking the
1286     bug.
1287 fox2mike 1.3 </li>
1288     <li>
1289 neysx 1.5 WONTFIX - This is usually applied to new ebuilds or feature requests.
1290     Basically the developer does not want to add a certain feature because it
1291     is not needed, a better alternative exists, or it's just plain broken.
1292     Sometimes you may be given a solution to get said issue resolved.
1293 fox2mike 1.3 </li>
1294     <li>
1295 neysx 1.5 UPSTREAM - The bug cannot be fixed by the Gentoo development team, and have
1296     requested you take the problem upstream (the people that actually made the
1297     program) for review. Upstream has a few ways of handling bugs. These
1298     include mailing lists, irc channels, and even bug reporting systems. If
1299     you're not sure how to contact them, ask in the bug and someone will point
1300     you to the right direction.
1301 fox2mike 1.2 </li>
1302 fox2mike 1.1 </ul>
1303    
1304 fox2mike 1.3 <p>
1305     Sometimes, before the bug can be resolved, a developer may request that you
1306     test an updated ebulid. In the next chapter we'll take a look at testing
1307     ebuilds.
1308     </p>
1309    
1310 fox2mike 1.1 </body>
1311     </section>
1312 fox2mike 1.3 </chapter>
1313 fox2mike 1.1
1314 fox2mike 1.3 <chapter>
1315     <title>Testing Ebuilds</title>
1316     <section>
1317     <title>Getting The Files</title>
1318     <body>
1319    
1320     <p>
1321     Let's say that you reported a bug for the foobar2 compile fix from earlier. Now
1322     developers might find out what the problem is and might need you to test the
1323     ebuild for them to be sure it works for you as well:
1324     </p>
1325    
1326     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-ebuild-request.png" caption="Ebuild Test Request"/>
1327    
1328     <p>
1329     Some rather confusing vocabulary is used here. First off, let's see what an
1330     overlay is. An overlay is a special directory like <path>/usr/portage</path>,
1331     the difference being that when you <c>emerge sync</c>, files contained within it
1332     will not be deleted. Luckily, a special <path>/usr/local/portage</path>
1333     directory is created for that purpose. Let's go ahead and set our portage
1334     overlay in<path>/etc/make.conf</path>. Open make.conf up in your favorite editor
1335     and add this towards the end.
1336     </p>
1337    
1338     <pre caption="Setting Up PORTDIR_OVERLAY">
1339     PORTDIR_OVERLAY="/usr/local/portage"
1340     </pre>
1341    
1342     <p>
1343     Now we'll want to create the appropriate directories to put our test ebuild
1344     files in. In this case, we're supposed to put them in sys-apps/foobar2. You'll
1345     notice that the second comment asks for a files directory for the patch. The
1346     files directory holds the digests (md5sums of files for a particular version of
1347     a package) and any other required files that aren't included with the standard
1348     source archive (patches, init.d scripts, etc). This is a subdir in the package
1349     directory called files. Go ahead and create these directories:
1350     </p>
1351    
1352     <pre caption="Setting Up The Category And Package Directories">
1353     # <i>mkdir -p /usr/local/portage/sys-apps/foobar2/files</i>
1354     </pre>
1355    
1356     <note>
1357     The -p in mkdir creates not only the directory you want but also any missing
1358     parent directories as well (sys-apps and foobar2 in this case).
1359     </note>
1360    
1361     <p>
1362     Ok now, we can go ahead and download the files. First, download the ebuild
1363     into <path>/usr/local/portage/sys-apps/foobar2</path>, and then add the patch
1364     to <path>/usr/local/portage/sys-apps/foobar2/files</path>. Now that we have the
1365     files, we can begin working on testing the ebuild.
1366     </p>
1367    
1368     </body>
1369     </section>
1370     <section>
1371     <title>Testing The ebuild</title>
1372     <body>
1373    
1374     <p>
1375     The process to create an ebuild that can be used by emerge is fairly simple. You
1376     must create a Manifest and a digest file for the ebuild. This can be done with
1377     the ebuild command. Run it as shown.
1378     </p>
1379    
1380     <pre caption="Creating the Manifest and digest files">
1381     # <i>ebuild foobar2-1.0.ebuild digest</i>
1382     &gt;&gt;&gt; Generating digest file...
1383     &lt;&lt;&lt; foobar2-1.0.tar.bz2
1384     &gt;&gt;&gt; Generating manifest file...
1385     &lt;&lt;&lt; foobar2-1.0.ebuild
1386     &lt;&lt;&lt; files/digest-foobar2-1.0
1387     &lt;&lt;&lt; files/foobar2-1.0-Makefile.patch
1388     &gt;&gt;&gt; Computed message digests.
1389     </pre>
1390    
1391     <p>
1392     Now let's test to see if it works as it should.
1393     </p>
1394    
1395     <pre caption="Testing With emerge -pv">
1396     # <i>emerge -pv foobar2</i>
1397    
1398     These are the packages that I would merge, in order:
1399    
1400     Calculating dependencies ...done!
1401     [ebuild N ] sys-apps/foobar2-1.0 0 kB [1]
1402    
1403     Total size of downloads: 0 kB
1404     Portage overlays:
1405     [1] /usr/local/portage
1406     </pre>
1407    
1408     <p>
1409     It does seem to have worked! You'll notice the [1] next to the [ebuild] line.
1410     That points to <path>/usr/local/portage</path>, which is the overlay we created
1411     earlier. Now we go ahead and emerge the package.
1412     </p>
1413    
1414     <pre caption="Emerge Result">
1415 neysx 1.5 # <i>emerge foobar2</i>
1416 fox2mike 1.3 Calculating dependencies ...done!
1417     <comment>(compile info snipped)</comment>
1418     >>> Unpacking foobar2-1.0.tar.bz2 to /var/tmp/portage/foobar2-1.0/work
1419     * Applying foobar2-1.0-Makefile.patch ... [ ok ]
1420     <comment>(compile info snipped)</comment>
1421     >>> Merging sys-apps/foobar2-1.0 to /
1422     >>> chris +sandbox(preinst)
1423     --- /usr/
1424     --- /usr/bin/
1425     >>> /usr/bin/foobar2
1426     </pre>
1427    
1428     <p>
1429     In the first section we see that the emerge started off as it should. The second
1430     section shows our patch being applied successfully by the "[ ok ]" status
1431     message to the right. The last section tells us the program compiled ok. The
1432     patch works! Now we can go and let the developer know that their patch works
1433     fine, and that they can commit the fix to portage.
1434     </p>
1435    
1436     </body>
1437     </section>
1438 fox2mike 1.1 <section>
1439     <title>Conclusion</title>
1440     <body>
1441    
1442     <p>
1443     This concludes the howto on working with Bugzilla. I hope you find this useful.
1444     If you have any questions, comments, or ideas regarding this document, please
1445 neysx 1.5 send them to me at <mail>chriswhite@gentoo.org</mail>. Special thanks go to
1446     moreon for his notes on -g flags and compile errors, the people at #gentoo-bugs
1447     for helping out with bug-wrangling, Griffon26 for his notes on
1448 fox2mike 1.3 maintainer-needed, robbat2 for general suggestions and fox2mike for fixing up
1449     the doc and adding stuff as needed.
1450 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
1451    
1452     </body>
1453     </section>
1454     </chapter>
1455     </guide>

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