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1 fox2mike 1.1 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2     <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 nightmorph 1.14 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/bugzilla-howto.xml,v 1.13 2008/05/23 20:42:42 swift Exp $ -->
4 fox2mike 1.1
5     <guide link="/doc/en/bugzilla-howto.xml">
6     <title>Gentoo Bug Reporting Guide</title>
7    
8     <author title="Author">
9     <mail link="chriswhite@gentoo.org">Chris White</mail>
10     </author>
11     <author title="Editor">
12     <mail link="fox2mike@gentoo.org">Shyam Mani</mail>
13     </author>
14    
15     <abstract>
16     This document shows the proper method of reporting bugs using Bugzilla.
17     </abstract>
18    
19     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
20     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
21     <license/>
22    
23 nightmorph 1.14 <version>1.12</version>
24     <date>2009-01-25</date>
25 fox2mike 1.1
26     <chapter>
27     <title>Introduction</title>
28     <section>
29     <title>Preface</title>
30     <body>
31    
32     <p>
33 fox2mike 1.3 One of the factors that delay a bug being fixed is the way it is reported. By
34     creating this guide, we hope to help improve the communication between
35 fox2mike 1.1 developers and users in bug resolution. Getting bugs fixed is an important, if
36 fox2mike 1.3 not crucial part of the quality assurance for any project and hopefully this
37 fox2mike 1.1 guide will help make that a success.
38     </p>
39    
40     </body>
41     </section>
42     <section>
43 fox2mike 1.3 <title>Bugs!!!!</title>
44 fox2mike 1.1 <body>
45    
46     <p>
47 fox2mike 1.3 You're emerge-ing a package or working with a program and suddenly the worst
48     happens -- you find a bug. Bugs come in many forms like emerge failures or
49     segmentation faults. Whatever the cause, the fact still remains that such a bug
50     must be fixed. Here is a few examples of such bugs.
51 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
52    
53     <pre caption="A run time error">
54     $ <i>./bad_code `perl -e 'print Ax100'`</i>
55     Segmentation fault
56     </pre>
57    
58     <pre caption="An emerge failure">
59     /usr/lib/gcc-lib/i686-pc-linux-gnu/3.3.2/include/g++-v3/backward/backward_warning.h:32:2:
60     warning: #warning This file includes at least one deprecated or antiquated
61     header. Please consider using one of the 32 headers found in section 17.4.1.2 of
62     the C++ standard. Examples include substituting the &lt;X&gt; header for the &lt;X.h&gt;
63     header for C++ includes, or &lt;sstream&gt; instead of the deprecated header
64     &lt;strstream.h&gt;. To disable this warning use -Wno-deprecated.
65     In file included from main.cc:40:
66     menudef.h:55: error: brace-enclosed initializer used to initialize `
67     OXPopupMenu*'
68     menudef.h:62: error: brace-enclosed initializer used to initialize `
69     OXPopupMenu*'
70     menudef.h:70: error: brace-enclosed initializer used to initialize `
71     OXPopupMenu*'
72     menudef.h:78: error: brace-enclosed initializer used to initialize `
73     OXPopupMenu*'
74     main.cc: In member function `void OXMain::DoOpen()':
75     main.cc:323: warning: unused variable `FILE*fp'
76     main.cc: In member function `void OXMain::DoSave(char*)':
77     main.cc:337: warning: unused variable `FILE*fp'
78     make[1]: *** [main.o] Error 1
79     make[1]: Leaving directory
80     `/var/tmp/portage/xclass-0.7.4/work/xclass-0.7.4/example-app'
81     make: *** [shared] Error 2
82    
83     !!! ERROR: x11-libs/xclass-0.7.4 failed.
84     !!! Function src_compile, Line 29, Exitcode 2
85     !!! 'emake shared' failed
86     </pre>
87    
88     <p>
89 neysx 1.5 These errors can be quite troublesome. However, once you find them, what do you
90     do? The following sections will look at two important tools for handling run
91     time errors. After that, we'll take a look at compile errors, and how to handle
92     them. Let's start out with the first tool for debugging run time errors --
93     <c>gdb</c>.
94 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
95    
96     </body>
97     </section>
98     </chapter>
99    
100    
101     <chapter>
102     <title>Debugging using GDB</title>
103     <section>
104     <title>Introduction</title>
105     <body>
106    
107     <p>
108     GDB, or the (G)NU (D)e(B)ugger, is a program used to find run time errors that
109     normally involve memory corruption. First off, let's take a look at what
110     debugging entails. One of the main things you must do in order to debug a
111 fox2mike 1.3 program is to <c>emerge</c> the program with <c>FEATURES="nostrip"</c>. This
112     prevents the stripping of debug symbols. Why are programs stripped by default?
113     The reason is the same as that for having gzipped man pages -- saving space.
114 neysx 1.5 Here's how the size of a program varies with and without debug symbol stripping.
115 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
116    
117     <pre caption="Filesize Comparison">
118     <comment>(debug symbols stripped)</comment>
119     -rwxr-xr-x 1 chris users 3140 6/28 13:11 bad_code
120     <comment>(debug symbols intact)</comment>
121     -rwxr-xr-x 1 chris users 6374 6/28 13:10 bad_code
122     </pre>
123    
124     <p>
125     Just for reference, <e>bad_code</e> is the program we'll be debugging with
126     <c>gdb</c> later on. As you can see, the program without debugging symbols is
127     3140 bytes, while the program with them is 6374 bytes. That's close to double
128 fox2mike 1.3 the size! Two more things can be done for debugging. The first is adding ggdb3
129     to your CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS. This flag adds more debugging information than is
130     generally included. We'll see what that means later on. This is how
131 neysx 1.5 <path>/etc/make.conf</path> <e>might</e> look with the newly added flags.
132 fox2mike 1.3 </p>
133    
134     <pre caption="make.conf settings">
135 vapier 1.6 CFLAGS="-O1 -pipe -g -ggdb"
136 fox2mike 1.3 CXXFLAGS="${CFLAGS}"
137     </pre>
138    
139     <p>
140 neysx 1.5 Lastly, you can also add debug to the package's USE flags. This can be done
141     with the <path>package.use</path> file.
142     </p>
143 fox2mike 1.1
144     <pre caption="Using package.use to add debug USE flag">
145     # <i>echo "category/package debug" >> /etc/portage/package.use</i>
146     </pre>
147    
148     <note>
149     The directory <path>/etc/portage</path> does not exist by default and you may
150     have to create it, if you have not already done so. If the package already has
151     USE flags set in <path>package.use</path>, you will need to manually modify them
152     in your favorite editor.
153     </note>
154    
155     <p>
156 fox2mike 1.3 Then we re-emerge the package with the modifications we've done so far as shown
157     below.
158 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
159    
160     <pre caption="Re-emergeing a package with debugging">
161     # <i>FEATURES="nostrip" emerge package</i>
162     </pre>
163    
164     <p>
165     Now that debug symbols are setup, we can continue with debugging the program.
166     </p>
167    
168     </body>
169     </section>
170     <section>
171     <title>Running the program with GDB</title>
172     <body>
173    
174     <p>
175 fox2mike 1.3 Let's say we have a program here called "bad_code". Some person claims that the
176     program crashes and provides an example. You go ahead and test it out:
177 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
178    
179     <pre caption="Breaking The Program">
180     $ <i>./bad_code `perl -e 'print Ax100'`</i>
181     Segmentation fault
182     </pre>
183    
184     <p>
185     It seems this person was right. Since the program is obviously broken, we have
186     a bug at hand. Now, it's time to use <c>gdb</c> to help solve this matter. First
187     we run <c>gdb</c> with <c>--args</c>, then give it the full program with
188     arguments like shown:
189     </p>
190    
191     <pre caption="Running Our Program Through GDB">
192     $ <i>gdb --args ./bad_code `perl -e 'print Ax100'`</i>
193     GNU gdb 6.3
194     Copyright 2004 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
195     GDB is free software, covered by the GNU General Public License, and you are
196     welcome to change it and/or distribute copies of it under certain conditions.
197     Type "show copying" to see the conditions.
198     There is absolutely no warranty for GDB. Type "show warranty" for details.
199     This GDB was configured as "i686-pc-linux-gnu"...Using host libthread_db library "/lib/libthread_db.so.1".
200     </pre>
201    
202 fox2mike 1.3 <note>
203     One can also debug with core dumps. These core files contain the same
204 swift 1.13 information that the program would produce when run with gdb. In order to debug
205 fox2mike 1.3 with a core file with bad_code, you would run <c>gdb ./bad_code core</c> where
206     core is the name of the core file.
207     </note>
208    
209 fox2mike 1.1 <p>
210 fox2mike 1.3 You should see a prompt that says "(gdb)" and waits for input. First, we have to
211     run the program. We type in <c>run</c> at the command and receive a notice like:
212 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
213    
214     <pre caption="Running the program in GDB">
215 fox2mike 1.3 (gdb) <i>run</i>
216 fox2mike 1.1 Starting program: /home/chris/bad_code
217    
218     Program received signal SIGSEGV, Segmentation fault.
219     0xb7ec6dc0 in strcpy () from /lib/libc.so.6
220     </pre>
221    
222     <p>
223     Here we see the program starting, as well as a notification of SIGSEGV, or
224     Segmentation Fault. This is GDB telling us that our program has crashed. It
225     also gives the last run function it could trace when the program crashes.
226     However, this isn't too useful, as there could be multiple strcpy's in the
227     program, making it hard for developers to find which one is causing the issue.
228     In order to help them out, we do what's called a backtrace. A backtrace runs
229     backwards through all the functions that occurred upon program execution, to the
230     function at fault. Functions that return (without causing a crash) will not show
231     up on the backtrace. To get a backtrace, at the (gdb) prompt, type in <c>bt</c>.
232     You will get something like this:
233     </p>
234    
235     <pre caption="Program backtrace">
236 fox2mike 1.3 (gdb) <i>bt</i>
237 fox2mike 1.1 #0 0xb7ec6dc0 in strcpy () from /lib/libc.so.6
238     #1 0x0804838c in run_it ()
239     #2 0x080483ba in main ()
240     </pre>
241    
242     <p>
243 fox2mike 1.3 You can notice the trace pattern clearly. main() is called first, followed by
244     run_it(), and somewhere in run_it() lies the strcpy() at fault. Things such as
245     this help developers narrow down problems. There are a few exceptions to the
246     output. First off is forgetting to enable debug symbols with
247     <c>FEATURES="nostrip"</c>. With debug symbols stripped, the output looks something
248     like this:
249 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
250    
251     <pre caption="Program backtrace With debug symbols stripped">
252 fox2mike 1.3 (gdb) <i>bt</i>
253 fox2mike 1.1 #0 0xb7e2cdc0 in strcpy () from /lib/libc.so.6
254     #1 0x0804838c in ?? ()
255     #2 0xbfd19510 in ?? ()
256     #3 0x00000000 in ?? ()
257     #4 0x00000000 in ?? ()
258     #5 0xb7eef148 in libgcc_s_personality () from /lib/libc.so.6
259     #6 0x080482ed in ?? ()
260     #7 0x080495b0 in ?? ()
261     #8 0xbfd19528 in ?? ()
262     #9 0xb7dd73b8 in __guard_setup () from /lib/libc.so.6
263     #10 0xb7dd742d in __guard_setup () from /lib/libc.so.6
264     #11 0x00000006 in ?? ()
265     #12 0xbfd19548 in ?? ()
266     #13 0x080483ba in ?? ()
267     #14 0x00000000 in ?? ()
268     #15 0x00000000 in ?? ()
269     #16 0xb7deebcc in __new_exitfn () from /lib/libc.so.6
270     #17 0x00000000 in ?? ()
271     #18 0xbfd19560 in ?? ()
272     #19 0xb7ef017c in nullserv () from /lib/libc.so.6
273     #20 0xb7dd6f37 in __libc_start_main () from /lib/libc.so.6
274     #21 0x00000001 in ?? ()
275     #22 0xbfd195d4 in ?? ()
276     #23 0xbfd195dc in ?? ()
277     #24 0x08048201 in ?? ()
278     </pre>
279    
280     <p>
281     This backtrace contains a large number of ?? marks. This is because without
282 fox2mike 1.3 debug symbols, <c>gdb</c> doesn't know how the program was run. Hence, it is
283     crucial that debug symbols are <e>not</e> stripped. Now remember a while ago we
284 vapier 1.6 mentioned the -ggdb flag. Let's see what the output looks like with the flag
285 fox2mike 1.3 enabled:
286 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
287    
288 fox2mike 1.3 <pre caption="Program backtrace with -ggdb3">
289     (gdb) <i>bt</i>
290 fox2mike 1.1 #0 0xb7e4bdc0 in strcpy () from /lib/libc.so.6
291     #1 0x0804838c in run_it (input=0x0) at bad_code.c:7
292     #2 0x080483ba in main (argc=1, argv=0xbfd3a434) at bad_code.c:12
293     </pre>
294    
295     <p>
296     Here we see that a lot more information is available for developers. Not only is
297 fox2mike 1.3 function information displayed, but even the exact line numbers of the source
298 fox2mike 1.1 files. This method is the most preferred if you can spare the extra space.
299 vapier 1.6 Here's how much the file size varies between debug, strip, and -ggdb enabled
300 fox2mike 1.3 programs.
301 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
302    
303 vapier 1.6 <pre caption="Filesize differences With -ggdb flag">
304 fox2mike 1.1 <comment>(debug symbols stripped)</comment>
305     -rwxr-xr-x 1 chris users 3140 6/28 13:11 bad_code
306     <comment>(debug symbols enabled)</comment>
307     -rwxr-xr-x 1 chris users 6374 6/28 13:10 bad_code
308 vapier 1.6 <comment>(-ggdb flag enabled)</comment>
309 fox2mike 1.3 -rwxr-xr-x 1 chris users 19552 6/28 13:11 bad_code
310 fox2mike 1.1 </pre>
311    
312     <p>
313 nightmorph 1.8 As you can see, -ggdb adds about <e>13178</e> more bytes to the file size over
314     the one with debugging symbols. However, as shown above, this increase in file
315     size can be worth it if presenting debug information to developers. The
316     backtrace can be saved to a file by copying and pasting from the terminal (if
317     it's a non-x based terminal, you can use gpm. To keep this doc simple, I
318     recommend you read up on the <uri link="/doc/en/gpm.xml#doc_chap4">documentation
319     for gpm</uri> to see how to copy and paste with it). Now that we're done with
320     <c>gdb</c>, we can quit.
321 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
322    
323     <pre caption="Quitting GDB">
324 fox2mike 1.3 (gdb) <i>quit</i>
325     The program is running. Exit anyway? (y or n) <i>y</i>
326 fox2mike 1.1 $
327     </pre>
328    
329     <p>
330 swift 1.13 This ends the walk-through of <c>gdb</c>. Using <c>gdb</c>, we hope that you
331     will be able to use it to create better bug reports. However, there are other
332     types of errors that can cause a program to fail during run time. One of the
333     other ways is through improper file access. We can find those using a nifty
334     little tool called <c>strace</c>.
335 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
336    
337     </body>
338     </section>
339     </chapter>
340    
341     <chapter>
342     <title>Finding file access errors using strace</title>
343     <section>
344     <title>Introduction</title>
345     <body>
346    
347     <p>
348 fox2mike 1.3 Programs often use files to fetch configuration information, access hardware or
349     write logs. Sometimes, a program attempts to reach such files incorrectly. A
350     tool called <c>strace</c> was created to help deal with this. <c>strace</c>
351     traces system calls (hence the name) which include calls that use the memory and
352     files. For our example, we're going to take a program foobar2. This is an
353 swift 1.13 updated version of foobar. However, during the change over to foobar2, you
354     notice all your configurations are missing! In foobar version 1, you had it
355     setup to say "foo", but now it's using the default "bar".
356 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
357    
358     <pre caption="Foobar2 With an invalid configuration">
359     $ <i>./foobar2</i>
360     Configuration says: bar
361     </pre>
362    
363     <p>
364     Our previous configuration specifically had it set to foo, so let's use
365     <c>strace</c> to find out what's going on.
366     </p>
367    
368     </body>
369     </section>
370     <section>
371     <title>Using strace to track the issue</title>
372     <body>
373    
374     <p>
375 fox2mike 1.3 We make <c>strace</c> log the results of the system calls. To do this, we run
376     <c>strace</c> with the -o[file] arguments. Let's use it on foobar2 as shown.
377 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
378    
379     <pre caption="Running foobar2 through strace">
380     # <i>strace -ostrace.log ./foobar2</i>
381     </pre>
382    
383     <p>
384 fox2mike 1.2 This creates a file called <path>strace.log</path> in the current directory. We
385     check the file, and shown below are the relevant parts from the file.
386 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
387    
388     <pre caption="A Look At the strace Log">
389     open(".foobar2/config", O_RDONLY) = 3
390     read(3, "bar", 3) = 3
391     </pre>
392    
393     <p>
394     Aha! So There's the problem. Someone moved the configuration directory to
395     <path>.foobar2</path> instead of <path>.foobar</path>. We also see the program
396     reading in "bar" as it should. In this case, we can recommend the ebuild
397     maintainer to put a warning about it. For now though, we can copy over the
398 fox2mike 1.2 config file from <path>.foobar</path> and modify it to produce the correct
399 neysx 1.5 results.
400 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
401    
402     </body>
403     </section>
404     <section>
405     <title>Conclusion</title>
406     <body>
407    
408     <p>
409     Now we've taken care of finding run time bugs. These bugs prove to be
410     problematic when you try and run your programs. However, run time errors are
411 fox2mike 1.3 the least of your concerns if your program won't compile at all. Let's take a
412 fox2mike 1.1 look at how to address <c>emerge</c> compile errors.
413     </p>
414    
415     </body>
416     </section>
417     </chapter>
418    
419     <chapter>
420     <title>Handling emerge Errors</title>
421     <section>
422     <title>Introduction</title>
423     <body>
424    
425     <p>
426     <c>emerge</c> errors, such as the one displayed earlier, can be a major cause
427 fox2mike 1.3 of frustration for users. Reporting them is considered crucial for maintaining
428     the health of Gentoo. Let's take a look at a sample ebuild, foobar2, which
429     contains some build errors.
430 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
431    
432     </body>
433     </section>
434     <section id="emerge_error">
435     <title>Evaluating emerge Errors</title>
436     <body>
437    
438     <p>
439     Let's take a look at this very simple <c>emerge</c> error:
440     </p>
441    
442 nightmorph 1.14 <pre caption="emerge Error (long lines are manually wrapped to fit the window)">
443     gcc -D__TEST__ -D__GNU__ -D__LINUX__ -L/usr/lib -I/usr/include -L/usr/lib/nspr/ -I/usr/include/fmod \
444     -c -o foobar2-7.o foobar2-7.c
445     gcc -D__TEST__ -D__GNU__ -D__LINUX__ -L/usr/lib -I/usr/include -L/usr/lib/nspr/ -I/usr/include/fmod \
446     -c -o foobar2-8.o foobar2-8.c
447     gcc -D__TEST__ -D__GNU__ -D__LINUX__ -L/usr/lib -I/usr/include -L/usr/lib/nspr/ -I/usr/include/fmod \
448     -c -o foobar2-9.o foobar2-9.c
449     gcc -D__TEST__ -D__GNU__ -D__LINUX__ -L/usr/lib -I/usr/include -L/usr/lib/nspr/ -I/usr/include/fmod \
450     -c -o foobar2.o foobar2.c
451 fox2mike 1.1 foobar2.c:1:17: ogg.h: No such file or directory
452     make: *** [foobar2.o] Error 1
453    
454     !!! ERROR: sys-apps/foobar2-1.0 failed.
455     !!! Function src_compile, Line 19, Exitcode 2
456     !!! Make failed!
457     !!! If you need support, post the topmost build error, NOT this status message
458     </pre>
459    
460     <p>
461 swift 1.13 The program is compiling smoothly when it suddenly stops and presents an error
462     message. This particular error can be split into 3 different sections, The
463     compile messages, the build error, and the emerge error message as shown below.
464 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
465    
466 nightmorph 1.14 <pre caption="Parts of the error (long lines are manually wrapped to fit the window)">
467 fox2mike 1.3 <comment>(Compilation Messages)</comment>
468 nightmorph 1.14 gcc -D__TEST__ -D__GNU__ -D__LINUX__ -L/usr/lib -I/usr/include -L/usr/lib/nspr/ -I/usr/include/fmod \
469     -c -o foobar2-7.o foobar2-7.c
470     gcc -D__TEST__ -D__GNU__ -D__LINUX__ -L/usr/lib -I/usr/include -L/usr/lib/nspr/ -I/usr/include/fmod \
471     -c -o foobar2-8.o foobar2-8.c
472     gcc -D__TEST__ -D__GNU__ -D__LINUX__ -L/usr/lib -I/usr/include -L/usr/lib/nspr/ -I/usr/include/fmod \
473     -c -o foobar2-9.o foobar2-9.c
474     gcc -D__TEST__ -D__GNU__ -D__LINUX__ -L/usr/lib -I/usr/include -L/usr/lib/nspr/ -I/usr/include/fmod \
475     -c -o foobar2.o foobar2.c
476 fox2mike 1.1
477     <comment>(Build Error)</comment>
478     foobar2.c:1:17: ogg.h: No such file or directory
479     make: *** [foobar2.o] Error 1
480    
481 fox2mike 1.3 <comment>(emerge Error)</comment>
482 fox2mike 1.1 !!! ERROR: sys-apps/foobar2-1.0 failed.
483     !!! Function src_compile, Line 19, Exitcode 2
484     !!! Make failed!
485     !!! If you need support, post the topmost build error, NOT this status message
486     </pre>
487    
488     <p>
489 fox2mike 1.3 The compilation messages are what lead up to the error. Most often, it's good to
490     at least include 10 lines of compile information so that the developer knows
491     where the compilation was at when the error occurred.
492     </p>
493    
494     <p>
495     Make errors are the actual error and the information the developer needs. When
496     you see "make: ***", this is often where the error has occurred. Normally, you
497     can copy and paste 10 lines above it and the developer will be able to address
498     the issue. However, this may not always work and we'll take a look at an
499     alternative shortly.
500     </p>
501    
502     <p>
503     The emerge error is what <c>emerge</c> throws out as an error. Sometimes, this
504     might also contain some important information. Often people make the mistake of
505     posting the emerge error and that's all. This is useless by itself, but with
506     make error and compile information, a developer can get what application and
507     what version of the package is failing. As a side note, make is commonly used as
508     the build process for programs (<b>but not always</b>). If you can't find a
509     "make: ***" error anywhere, then simply copy and paste 20 lines before the
510     emerge error. This should take care of most all build system error messages. Now
511     let's say the errors seem to be quite large. 10 lines won't be enough to catch
512     everything. That's where PORT_LOGDIR comes into play.
513 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
514    
515     </body>
516     </section>
517     <section>
518     <title>emerge and PORT_LOGDIR</title>
519     <body>
520    
521     <p>
522 neysx 1.5 PORT_LOGDIR is a portage variable that sets up a log directory for separate
523     emerge logs. Let's take a look and see what that entails. First, run your
524     emerge with PORT_LOGDIR set to your favorite log location. Let's say we have a
525 fox2mike 1.3 location <path>/var/log/portage</path>. We'll use that for our log directory:
526 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
527    
528     <note>
529 fox2mike 1.3 In the default setup, <path>/var/log/portage</path> does not exist, and you will
530     most likely have to create it. If you do not, portage will fail to write the
531     logs.
532 fox2mike 1.1 </note>
533    
534     <pre caption="emerge-ing With PORT_LOGDIR">
535 nightmorph 1.14 # <i>PORT_LOGDIR=/var/log/portage emerge cate-gory/foobar2</i>
536 fox2mike 1.1 </pre>
537    
538     <p>
539     Now the emerge fails again. However, this time we have a log we can work with,
540     and attach to the bug later on. Let's take a quick look at our log directory.
541     </p>
542    
543     <pre caption="PORT_LOGDIR Contents">
544     # <i>ls -la /var/log/portage</i>
545     total 16
546     drwxrws--- 2 root root 4096 Jun 30 10:08 .
547     drwxr-xr-x 15 root root 4096 Jun 30 10:08 ..
548 nightmorph 1.14 -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 7390 Jun 30 10:09 cate-gory:foobar2-1.0:20090110-213217.log
549 fox2mike 1.1 </pre>
550    
551     <p>
552 nightmorph 1.14 The log files have the format [category]:[package name]-[version]:[date].log. A
553     quick look at the log file will show the entire emerge process. This can be
554     attached later on as we'll see in the bug reporting section. Now that we've
555     safely obtained our information needed to report the bug we can continue to do
556     so. However, before we get started on that, we need to make sure no one else
557     has reported the issue. Let's take a look at searching for bugs.
558 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
559    
560     </body>
561     </section>
562     </chapter>
563    
564     <chapter>
565     <title>Searching Using Bugzilla</title>
566     <section>
567     <title>Introduction</title>
568     <body>
569    
570     <p>
571     <uri link="http://www.bugzilla.org">Bugzilla</uri> is what we at Gentoo use to
572     handle bugs. Gentoo's Bugzilla is reachable by HTTPS and HTTP. HTTPS is
573     available for those on insecure networks or simply paranoid :). For the sake of
574 fox2mike 1.3 consistency, we will be using the HTTPS version in the examples to follow. Head
575 fox2mike 1.1 over to <uri link="https://bugs.gentoo.org">Gentoo Bugs</uri> to see how it
576     looks.
577     </p>
578    
579     <p>
580 fox2mike 1.3 One of the most frustrating things for developers and bug-wranglers is finding
581     duplicate bug reports. These cost them valuable time that they could otherwise
582     use to work on more important bugs. Often, this can be prevented by a few simple
583 fox2mike 1.1 search methods. So we're going to see how to search for bugs and find out if
584     you have one that's similar. For this example, we're going to use the xclass
585 fox2mike 1.3 emerge error that was used earlier.
586 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
587    
588     <pre caption="xclass emerge error">
589     /usr/lib/gcc-lib/i686-pc-linux-gnu/3.3.2/include/g++-v3/backward/backward_warning.h:32:2:
590     warning: #warning This file includes at least one deprecated or antiquated
591     header. Please consider using one of the 32 headers found in section 17.4.1.2 of
592     the C++ standard. Examples include substituting the &lt;X&gt; header for the &lt;X.h&gt;
593     header for C++ includes, or &lt;sstream&gt; instead of the deprecated header
594     &lt;strstream.h&gt;. To disable this warning use -Wno-deprecated.
595     In file included from main.cc:40:
596     menudef.h:55: error: brace-enclosed initializer used to initialize `
597     OXPopupMenu*'
598     menudef.h:62: error: brace-enclosed initializer used to initialize `
599     OXPopupMenu*'
600     menudef.h:70: error: brace-enclosed initializer used to initialize `
601     OXPopupMenu*'
602     menudef.h:78: error: brace-enclosed initializer used to initialize `
603     OXPopupMenu*'
604     main.cc: In member function `void OXMain::DoOpen()':
605     main.cc:323: warning: unused variable `FILE*fp'
606     main.cc: In member function `void OXMain::DoSave(char*)':
607     main.cc:337: warning: unused variable `FILE*fp'
608     make[1]: *** [main.o] Error 1
609     make[1]: Leaving directory
610     `/var/tmp/portage/xclass-0.7.4/work/xclass-0.7.4/example-app'
611     make: *** [shared] Error 2
612    
613     !!! ERROR: x11-libs/xclass-0.7.4 failed.
614     !!! Function src_compile, Line 29, Exitcode 2
615     !!! 'emake shared' failed
616     </pre>
617    
618     <p>
619     So to begin searching, we head over to the <uri
620 fox2mike 1.2 link="https://bugs.gentoo.org/">Bugzilla Homepage</uri>.
621 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
622    
623     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-homepage.png" caption="Bugzilla Homepage"/>
624    
625     <p>
626 fox2mike 1.3 We'll click on "Query Existing bug reports". The reason why we choose this
627     over the basic bug search is because the basic bug search tends to give vague
628     results and often hinders users from looking through the results and finding the
629     duplicate bug. Once we click on the query screen, we reach the next page:
630 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
631    
632     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-search.png" caption="Bugzilla Search Page"/>
633    
634     <note>
635     If you've used the Advanced Search before, you'll most likely see that screen
636     instead.
637     </note>
638    
639     <p>
640 fox2mike 1.3 Proceed by clicking on the "Advanced Search" link to bring up the Advanced
641     Search page.
642 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
643    
644     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-adv-search.png" caption="Advanced Search Page"/>
645    
646     <p>
647     This is how the Advanced Search Page looks like. While it may seem overwhelming
648     at first, we're going to look at a few simple areas to narrow down the rather
649 neysx 1.5 vague searches bugzilla returns.
650 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
651    
652     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-content.png" caption="Content"/>
653    
654     <p>
655     The first field is the summary of the bug. Here we're simply going to put the
656 fox2mike 1.3 name of the package that's crashing. If bugzie doesn't return results, try
657 fox2mike 1.1 removing the package name, just in case someone didn't put that in the summary
658 fox2mike 1.3 (highly unlikely, but we've seen a fair share of strange bug reports).
659 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
660    
661     <p>
662     Product, Component, and Version should all be set to the default. This
663     prevents us from being too specific and missing all the bugs.
664     </p>
665    
666     <p>
667 swift 1.13 Comment is the important part. Use the comment field to list what appears to be
668     a specific instance of the error. Basically, don't use anything like the
669 fox2mike 1.1 beginning of the build error, find a line that's before it stating a true
670     error. Also, you'll want to filter out any punctuation to prevent bugzilla
671     from interpreting the results the comment the wrong way. Example from the xclass
672     emerge error:
673     </p>
674    
675     <pre caption="Comment Line Content">
676     menudef.h:78: error: brace-enclosed initializer used to initialize `OXPopupMenu'
677     <comment>(Remove the quotes ' ')</comment>
678     menudef.h 78 error brace-enclosed initializer used to initialize OXPopupMenu
679     </pre>
680    
681     <p>
682     The above is specific enough to where we'll find the bug without wading through
683     other xclass compile failure candidates.
684     </p>
685    
686     <p>
687     URI, Whiteboard, and Keywords can all be left alone. What we've entered so far
688 fox2mike 1.3 should be enough to find our bug. Let's take a look at what we have filled out.
689 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
690    
691     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-comp-search.png" caption="Completed Search Form"/>
692    
693     <p>
694 fox2mike 1.3 Now we click on the Search button and here come the results...
695 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
696    
697     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-search-result.png" caption="Search Results"/>
698    
699     <p>
700     Only 2 bugs! That's a lot easier to deal with. We click on the first one to
701 fox2mike 1.3 check, and sure enough it's the one we're looking for.
702 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
703    
704     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-located.png" caption="Bug Located"/>
705    
706     <p>
707     Not only is it the one we want, but it has also been resolved. By checking the
708     last comment we see the solution and know what to do in order to resolve it.
709 fox2mike 1.3 Now, let's see what would have happened if we had not used the advanced search.
710 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
711    
712     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-basic-search-result.png" caption="Basic Search Results"/>
713    
714     <p>
715     4 more bugs to deal with! It gets even worse with larger packages. However,
716     with these simple tools, we're able to significantly narrow down the search to
717     try and locate a specific bug.
718     </p>
719    
720     </body>
721     </section>
722     <section>
723     <title>Conclusion</title>
724     <body>
725    
726     <p>
727     Let's say that you have searched and searched but still can't find a bug.
728     You've found yourself a new bug. Let's take a look at the bug reporting process
729     for submitting your new bug.
730     </p>
731    
732     </body>
733     </section>
734     </chapter>
735    
736     <chapter>
737     <title>Reporting Bugs</title>
738     <section>
739     <title>Introduction</title>
740     <body>
741    
742     <p>
743     In this chapter, we'll figure out how to use Bugzilla to file a shiny, new bug.
744     Head over to <uri link="https://bugs.gentoo.org">Gentoo Bugs</uri> and...
745     </p>
746    
747     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-homepage.png" caption="Bugzilla Homepage"/>
748    
749     <p>
750 fox2mike 1.3 Click on "Report a Bug - Using the guided format".
751 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
752    
753     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-prod-select.png" caption="Product Selection"/>
754    
755     <p>
756     As you can see, <b>major</b> emphasis has been placed on putting your bug in the
757 fox2mike 1.3 right place. Gentoo Linux is where a large majority of bugs go.
758     </p>
759    
760     <p>
761     Despite this, some people will file ebuild bugs in portage development
762     (assumption that portage team handles the portage tree) or infra (assumption
763     that infra has access to mirrors and rsync and can fix it directly). This is
764     simply not how things work.
765     </p>
766    
767     <p>
768     Another common misconception occurs with our Documentation bugs. For example, a
769 neysx 1.5 user finds a bug with the <uri link="/proj/en/releng/catalyst/">Catalyst
770 fox2mike 1.3 Docs</uri>. The general tendency is to file a bug under Docs-user, which gets
771     assigned to the <uri link="http://gdp.gentoo.org">GDP</uri>, when it should
772 neysx 1.5 actually go to a member of the <uri link="/proj/en/releng/">Release
773     Engineering</uri> team. As a rule of thumb, only documentation under
774     <path>http://www.gentoo.org/doc/*</path> is under the GDP. Anything under
775     <path>http://www.gentoo.org/proj/*</path> is under the respective teams.
776 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
777    
778     <note>
779 fox2mike 1.3 We would rather see a bug whose product was not supposed to be Gentoo Linux but
780     has been filed under the same rather than seeing a bug which belongs the Gentoo
781 swift 1.13 Linux product and filed elsewhere. While neither is preferred, the former is
782     more acceptable and understandable (except website bugs.. we might have an issue
783     with that...).
784 fox2mike 1.1 </note>
785    
786     <p>
787 neysx 1.5 Our bug goes in Gentoo Linux as it's an ebuild bug. We head over there and are
788     presented with the multi-step bug reporting process. Let us now proceed with
789     Step 1...
790 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
791    
792     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-guide-step1.png" caption="Guided Format Step 1"/>
793    
794     <p>
795     The first step here is really important (as the red text tells you). This is
796     where you search to see that someone else hasn't hit the same bug you have, yet.
797 fox2mike 1.3 If you do skip this step and a bug like yours already exists, it will be marked
798 fox2mike 1.1 as a DUPLICATE thus wasting a large amount of QA effort. To give you an idea,
799 fox2mike 1.3 the bug numbers that are struck out above are duplicate bugs. Now comes step 2,
800 fox2mike 1.1 where we give the information.
801     </p>
802    
803     </body>
804     </section>
805     <section>
806     <title>Required Information</title>
807     <body>
808    
809 fox2mike 1.3 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-basic.png" caption="Basic Information"/>
810    
811 fox2mike 1.1 <p>
812 fox2mike 1.3 Let us take a closer look at what's what.
813 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
814    
815 fox2mike 1.3 <ul>
816     <li>
817 neysx 1.5 First, there's the Product. The product will narrow down the bug to a
818     specific area of Gentoo like Bugzilla (for bugs relating to
819     bugs.gentoo.org), Docs-user(for User Documentation) or Gentoo Linux (for
820     ebuilds and the like).
821 fox2mike 1.3 </li>
822     <li>
823 neysx 1.5 Component is where exactly the problem occurs, more specifically which part
824     of selected product the bug comes under. This makes classification easier.
825 fox2mike 1.3 </li>
826     <li>
827 neysx 1.5 Hardware platform is what architecture you're running. If you were running
828     SPARC, you would set it to SPARC.
829 fox2mike 1.3 </li>
830     <li>
831 neysx 1.5 Operating System is what Operating System you're using. Because Gentoo is
832     considered a "Meta-distribution", it can run on other operating systems
833     beside Linux.
834 fox2mike 1.3 </li>
835     </ul>
836 fox2mike 1.1
837     <p>
838 fox2mike 1.3 So, for our example bug, we have :
839 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
840    
841 fox2mike 1.3 <ul>
842 neysx 1.5 <li>Product - Gentoo Linux (Since it is an ebuild issue)</li>
843     <li>Component - Application (It is an application at fault, foobar2)</li>
844     <li>Hardware Platform - All (This error could occur across architectures)</li>
845     <li>Operation System - All (It could occur on all types of systems)</li>
846 fox2mike 1.3 </ul>
847    
848 fox2mike 1.1 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-basic-comp.png" caption="Completed Basic Information"/>
849    
850 fox2mike 1.3 <ul>
851     <li>
852 neysx 1.5 Build Identifier is basically the User Agent of the browser that is being
853     used to report the bugs (for logging purposes). You can just leave this as
854     is.
855 fox2mike 1.3 </li>
856     <li>
857 nightmorph 1.10 URL is optional and is used to point to relevant information on another site
858     (upstream bugzilla, release notes on package homepage etc.). You should
859     never use URL to point to pastebins for error messages, logs, <c>emerge
860     --info</c> output, screenshots or similar information. Instead, these should
861     always be attached to the bug.
862 fox2mike 1.3 </li>
863     <li>
864 neysx 1.5 In the Summary, you should put the package category, name, and number.
865 fox2mike 1.3 </li>
866     </ul>
867    
868 fox2mike 1.1 <p>
869 fox2mike 1.3 Not including the category in the summary really isn't too bad, but it's
870     recommended. If you don't include the package name, however, we won't know what
871     you're filling a bug for, and will have to ask you about it later. The version
872     number is important for people searching for bugs. If 20 people filed bugs and
873     not one put a version number, how would people looking for similar bugs be able
874     to tell if one was there's? They'd have to look through every single bug, which
875     isn't too hard, but if there are say, 200 bugs.. it's not that easy. After all
876     the package information, you'll want to include a small description of the
877     incident. Here's an example:
878 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
879    
880     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-summary.png" caption="Summary"/>
881    
882     <p>
883 fox2mike 1.3 These simple rules can make handling bugs a lot easier. Next are the details.
884     Here we put in the information about the bug. We'll demonstrate with an example:
885 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
886    
887     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-details.png" caption="Details"/>
888    
889     <p>
890 fox2mike 1.3 Now the developer knows why we're filing the bug. They can then try to
891 fox2mike 1.1 reproduce it. Reproducibility tells us how often we were able to make the
892     problem recur. In this example, we can reproduce it any time simply by running
893 fox2mike 1.3 foobar2. Let's put that information in.
894 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
895    
896     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-reprod.png" caption="Reproduction"/>
897    
898     <p>
899 fox2mike 1.3 We have explained how we found the bug. The next step is to explain what were
900     the results we got and what we think they should actually be.
901 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
902    
903     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-results.png" caption="Results"/>
904    
905     <p>
906 neysx 1.5 We could then provide additional information. This could be things such as
907     stack traces, <b>sections</b> (since the whole log is usually big and of not
908     much use) of strace logs, but most importantly, your <c>emerge --info</c>
909     output. Here's an example.
910 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
911    
912     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-addl-info.png" caption="Additional Information"/>
913    
914     <p>
915     Lastly we select the severity of the bug. Please look this over carefully. In
916     most cases it's OK to leave it as is and someone will raise/lower it for you.
917     However, if you raise the severity of the bug, please make sure you read it over
918 fox2mike 1.3 carefully and make sure you're not making a mistake. A run down of the various
919     levels is given below.
920 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
921    
922 fox2mike 1.3 <ul>
923     <li>
924 neysx 1.5 Blocker - The program just plain doesn't want to emerge or is a major
925     hinderance to the system. For example a <c>baselayout</c> issue which
926     prevents a system from booting up would be a sure candidate to be labelled
927     blocker.
928 fox2mike 1.3 </li>
929     <li>
930 neysx 1.5 Critical - The program has loss of data or severe memory leaks during
931     runtime. Again, an important program like say <c>net-tools</c> failing to
932     compile could be labelled critical. It won't prevent the system from
933     starting up, but is quite essential for day to day stuff.
934 fox2mike 1.3 </li>
935     <li>
936 neysx 1.5 Major - The program crashes, but nothing that causes your system severe
937     damage or information loss.
938 fox2mike 1.3 </li>
939     <li>
940 neysx 1.5 Minor - Your program crashes here and there with apparent workarounds.
941 fox2mike 1.3 </li>
942     <li>
943 swift 1.13 Normal - The default. If you're not sure leave it here unless it's a new
944 neysx 1.5 build or cosmetic change, then read below for more information.
945 fox2mike 1.3 </li>
946 neysx 1.5 <li>Trivial - Things such as a mispelled word or whitespace clean up. </li>
947 fox2mike 1.3 <li>
948 neysx 1.5 Enhancement - A request to enable a new feature in a program, or more
949     specifically <e>new ebuilds</e>.
950 fox2mike 1.3 </li>
951     </ul>
952    
953 fox2mike 1.1 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-sev.png" caption="Severity"/>
954    
955     <p>
956 fox2mike 1.3 Here, we'll set it to Normal.
957     </p>
958    
959     <p>
960 fox2mike 1.1 Now we can submit the bug report by clicking on the Submit Bug Report box. You
961     will now see your new bug come up. See <uri
962     link="https://bugs.gentoo.org/show_bug.cgi?id=97265">Bug 97561</uri> for what
963     the result looks like. We've reported our bug! Now let's see how it's dealt
964     with.
965     </p>
966    
967     </body>
968     </section>
969 nightmorph 1.9 <section>
970     <title>Zero-day bump requests</title>
971     <body>
972    
973     <p>
974     So far, we've shown what to do when filing a bug. Now let's take a look at what
975     <e>not</e> to do.
976     </p>
977    
978     <p>
979     Suppose that you've eagerly been following an upstream project's schedule, and
980     when you check their homepage, guess what? They just released a new version a
981     few minutes ago! Most users would immediately rush over to Gentoo's bugzilla to
982     report the new version is available; please bump the existing version and add
983     it to Portage, etc. However, this is exactly what you should <b>not</b> do.
984     These kinds of requests are called zero-day (or 0-day) bump requests, as they're
985     made the same day that a new version is released.
986     </p>
987    
988     <impo>
989     <b>Please wait <e>at least</e> 48 hours before reporting a new release on our
990     bugzilla.</b> Also, you <e>must</e> check bugzilla before posting your request
991     to make sure that someone else hasn't already reported it, or that the Gentoo
992     maintainers haven't already dealt with the new version.
993     </impo>
994    
995     <p>
996     Why should you wait? First, it's quite rude to demand that Gentoo developers
997     drop everything they're doing just to add a new release that came out 15 minutes
998     ago. Your zero-day bump request could be marked as INVALID or LATER, as
999     developers have plenty of pressing issues to keep them busy. Second, developers
1000     are usually aware of pending new releases well in advance of users, as they must
1001     follow upstream quite closely. They already know a new version is on its way.
1002     In many cases, they will have already opened a bug, or might even already added
1003     it in Portage as a masked package.
1004     </p>
1005    
1006     <p>
1007     Be smart when testing and requesting new versions of packages. Search bugzilla
1008     before posting your bump request -- is there already a bug open? Have you synced
1009     lately; is it already in Portage? Has it actually been released by upstream?
1010     Basic common sense will go a long way, and will endear you to developers that
1011     already have a lot to do. If it's been several days since release and you're
1012     sure that there are no open requests for it (and that it's not in Portage), then
1013     you can open up a new bug. Be sure to mention that it compiles and runs well on
1014     your arch. Any other helpful information you provide is most welcome.
1015     </p>
1016    
1017     <p>
1018     Want to see the newest version of your favorite package in Portage? File smart
1019     bugs.
1020     </p>
1021    
1022     </body>
1023     </section>
1024 fox2mike 1.1 </chapter>
1025    
1026     <chapter>
1027     <title>Working With Your Bug</title>
1028     <section>
1029     <body>
1030    
1031     <p>
1032 fox2mike 1.3 Looking at the bug, we see the information we provided earlier. You will notice
1033     that the bug has been assigned to bug-wranglers@gentoo.org. This is the default
1034     location for Application component bugs.
1035 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
1036    
1037     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-new-basic.png" caption="New Bug Basic Information"/>
1038    
1039     <p>
1040 fox2mike 1.3 The details we entered about the bug are available as well.
1041 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
1042    
1043     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-new-details.png" caption="New Bug Details"/>
1044    
1045     <p>
1046 fox2mike 1.3 However, bug-wranglers (usually) won't fix our bugs, so we'll reassign it to
1047     someone that can (you can let bug-wranglers re-assign it for you as well). For
1048     this we use the package's metadata.xml. You can normally find them in
1049     <path>/usr/portage/category/package/metadata.xml</path>. Here's one I've made up
1050     for foobar2.
1051 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
1052    
1053 fox2mike 1.3 <note>
1054     You have to be the reporter of the bug or a member of certain Gentoo Bugzilla
1055     groups (like Gentoo Developers) to be able to reassign bugs.
1056     </note>
1057    
1058 fox2mike 1.1 <pre caption="metadata.xml">
1059     &lt;?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?&gt;
1060     &lt;!DOCTYPE pkgmetadata SYSTEM "http://www.gentoo.org/dtd/metadata.dtd"&gt;
1061     &lt;pkgmetadata&gt;
1062     &lt;herd&gt;chriswhite&lt;/herd&gt;
1063     &lt;maintainer&gt;
1064     &lt;email&gt;chriswhite@gentoo.org&lt;/email&gt;
1065     &lt;name&gt;Chris White&lt;/name&gt;
1066     &lt;/maintainer&gt;
1067     &lt;longdescription lang="en"&gt;
1068     Foobar2 is a package that uses a configuration file to display a word.
1069     &lt;/longdescription&gt;
1070     &lt;/pkgmetadata&gt;
1071     </pre>
1072    
1073     <p>
1074 fox2mike 1.3 Notice the maintainer section. This lists the maintainer of the package, which
1075 fox2mike 1.1 in this case is myself, Chris White. The email listed is chriswhite@gentoo.org.
1076     We will use this to re-assign the bug to the proper person. To do this, click
1077 fox2mike 1.3 the bubble next to Reassign bug to, then fill in the email.
1078 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
1079    
1080     <note>
1081 fox2mike 1.3 A bug for a package without a metadata.xml file should be re-assigned to
1082     maintainer-needed@gentoo.org and a package that needs a Gentoo Developer to
1083     maintain should be assigned to maintainer-wanted@gentoo.org.
1084 fox2mike 1.1 </note>
1085    
1086     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-reassign.png" caption="Bug Reassignment"/>
1087    
1088     <p>
1089     Then hit the Commit button for the changes to take place. The bug has been
1090     reassigned to me. Shortly afterward, you notice (by email usually) that I've
1091     responded to your bug. I've stated that I'd like to see an strace log to figure
1092     out how the program is trying to reach your configuration file. You follow the
1093     previous instructions on using strace and obtain an strace log. Now you need to
1094     attach it to the bug. In order to do this, click on "Create A New Attachment".
1095     </p>
1096    
1097     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-new-attach.png" caption="New Attachment"/>
1098    
1099     <p>
1100 fox2mike 1.3 Now we have to attach the log. Let's go throught it step wise.
1101 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
1102    
1103 fox2mike 1.3 <ul>
1104     <li>
1105 neysx 1.5 File - This is the location of the file in your machine. In this example,
1106     the location of <path>strace.log</path>. You can use the "Browse..." button
1107     to select the file, or enter the path directly in the text field.
1108 fox2mike 1.3 </li>
1109     <li>
1110 neysx 1.5 Description - A short one liner, or a few wors describing the attachment.
1111     We'll just enter strace.log here, since that's quite self-explanatory.
1112 fox2mike 1.3 </li>
1113     <li>
1114 neysx 1.5 Content Type - This is the type of the file we're attaching to the bug.
1115 fox2mike 1.3 </li>
1116     <li>
1117 neysx 1.5 Obsoletes - If there were attachements submitted to the bug before the
1118     current one, you have an option of declaring them obsoleted by yours. Since
1119     we have no prior attachments to this bug, we need not bother.
1120 fox2mike 1.3 </li>
1121     <li>
1122 neysx 1.5 Comment - Enter comments that will be visible along with the attachments.
1123     You could elaborate on the attachment here, if needed.
1124 fox2mike 1.3 </li>
1125     </ul>
1126    
1127     <p>
1128     With respect to Content Type, here are a few more details. You can check the
1129 neysx 1.5 "patch" checkbox if you're submitting a patch. Otherwise, you could ask
1130     Bugzilla to "auto-detect" the file type (not advisable). The other options are
1131     "select from list", which is most frequently used. Use plain text (text/plain)
1132     for <e>most</e> attachments except binary files like images (which can use
1133     image/gif, image/jpeg or image/png depending on type) or compressed files like
1134     .tar.bz2 which would use application/octet-stream as content type.
1135 fox2mike 1.3 </p>
1136    
1137    
1138 fox2mike 1.1 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-new-attach-comp.png" caption="New Attachment Completed"/>
1139    
1140     <p>
1141 fox2mike 1.3 We submit <path>strace.log</path> and it is reflected on the bug report.
1142 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
1143    
1144     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-strace.png" caption="Attached strace log"/>
1145    
1146     <p>
1147 fox2mike 1.3 We've mentioned before that sometimes ebuilds will tell you to attach a file in
1148     the emerge error. An example can be seen below.
1149     </p>
1150    
1151     <pre caption="Example File Attachment Request">
1152     configure: error: PNG support requires ZLIB. Use --with-zlib-dir=&lt;DIR&gt;
1153    
1154     !!! Please attach the config.log to your bug report:
1155     !!! /var/tmp/portage/php-5.0.3-r1/work/php-5.0.3/config.log
1156    
1157     !!! ERROR: dev-php/php-5.0.3-r1 failed.
1158     !!! Function econf, Line 485, Exitcode 0
1159     !!! econf failed
1160     !!! If you need support, post the topmost build error, NOT this status message.
1161     </pre>
1162    
1163     <p>
1164     Please attach any file mentioned like this to your bug report.
1165     </p>
1166    
1167     <p>
1168 rane 1.7 Sometimes a developer might ask you to attach a diff or patch for a file.
1169     Standard diff files can be obtained through:
1170     </p>
1171    
1172     <pre caption="Standard Diff Creation">
1173     $ <i>cp file file.old</i>
1174     $ <i>nano file</i>
1175     $ <i>diff -u file.old file</i>
1176     </pre>
1177    
1178     <p>
1179     For C/C++ source files, the <b>-p</b> flag is added to show what function calls
1180     the diff applies to:
1181     </p>
1182    
1183     <pre caption="Diff-ing C/C++ source">
1184     $ <i>cp file.c file.c.old</i>
1185     $ <i>nano file.c</i>
1186     $ <i>diff -up file.c.old file.c</i>
1187     </pre>
1188    
1189     <p>
1190     The documentation team will require the flag combination <b>-Nt</b> as well as
1191 swift 1.13 <b>-u</b>. This mainly has to do with tab expansion. You can create such a diff
1192 rane 1.7 with:
1193     </p>
1194    
1195     <pre caption="Documentation diffs">
1196     $<i> cp file.xml file.xml.old</i>
1197     $<i> nano file.xml</i>
1198     $<i> diff -Nut file.xml.old file.xml</i>
1199     </pre>
1200    
1201     <p>
1202     And your diff is created. While we're doing all this, suppose another person
1203     finds your bug by searching through bugzilla and is curious to keep track of
1204     the bug, they may do so by putting their email in the Add CC field of the bug
1205     as shown below. You could also keep track of other bugs by following the same
1206     method.
1207 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
1208    
1209     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-add-email.png" caption="Adding Email To CC:"/>
1210    
1211     <note>
1212 fox2mike 1.3 Email addresses must be registered with Gentoo Bugzilla. In order to CC multiple
1213 fox2mike 1.1 addresses, simply separate them with commas or spaces.
1214     </note>
1215    
1216     <p>
1217 fox2mike 1.3 After all this work, the bug can undergo various status markings. This is
1218     usually done by the Gentoo Developers and sometimes by the reporter. The
1219     following are the various possible states a bug may go through during its
1220     lifetime.
1221 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
1222    
1223     <ul>
1224     <li>
1225 neysx 1.5 UNCONFIRMED - You're generally not going to see this too often. This means
1226     that a bug reporter has opened a bug using the advanced method and is
1227     uncertain his or her bug is an actual bug.
1228 fox2mike 1.2 </li>
1229 neysx 1.5 <li>NEW - Bugs that are first opened are considered new.</li>
1230 fox2mike 1.1 <li>
1231 neysx 1.5 ASSIGNED - When the person you've assigned the bug too validates your bug,
1232     it will often receive ASSIGNED status while they figure out the issue.
1233     This lets you know that they've accepted your bug as a real bug.
1234 fox2mike 1.2 </li>
1235 fox2mike 1.1 <li>
1236 neysx 1.5 REOPENED - Someone has resolved a bug and you think the solution is not
1237     feasible or the problem still persists. At this point, you may re-open the
1238     bug. Please <b>do not abuse this</b>. If a developer closes the bug a
1239     second or third time, chances are that your bug is closed.
1240 fox2mike 1.2 </li>
1241 fox2mike 1.1 <li>
1242 neysx 1.5 RESOLVED - A firm decision has been taken on the bug. Usually goes onto
1243     FIXED to indicate the bug is solved and the matter closed although various
1244     other resolutions are possible. We'll look into those a little later.
1245 fox2mike 1.3 </li>
1246     <li>
1247 neysx 1.5 VERIFIED - The steps take to work the bug are correct. This is usually a QA
1248     thing.
1249 fox2mike 1.3 </li>
1250     <li>
1251 neysx 1.5 CLOSED - Basically means RIP for the bug and it's buried under the never
1252     ending flow of new bugs.
1253 fox2mike 1.2 </li>
1254 fox2mike 1.1 </ul>
1255    
1256     <p>
1257 fox2mike 1.3 Now shortly afterward, we find the error in the strace log and fix the bug and
1258 neysx 1.5 mark it as RESOLVED FIXED and mention that there was a change in the location
1259     of configuration files, and that I will update the ebuild with a warning about
1260 swift 1.13 it. The bug now becomes resolved, and you are shown the following.
1261 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
1262    
1263     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-reso.png" caption="Resolved Bug"/>
1264    
1265     <p>
1266 fox2mike 1.3 A little below, you'll see the following:
1267 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
1268    
1269     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-options.png" caption="Bug Options"/>
1270    
1271     <p>
1272 neysx 1.5 This gives you the option of Reopening the bug if you wish to (i.e. the
1273     developer thinks it's resolved but it's really not to your standards). Now our
1274     bug is fixed! However, different resolutions can occur. Here's a small list:
1275 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
1276    
1277     <ul>
1278     <li>
1279 neysx 1.5 FIXED - The bug is fixed, follow the instructions to resolve your issue.
1280 fox2mike 1.2 </li>
1281 fox2mike 1.1 <li>
1282 neysx 1.5 INVALID - You did not do something specifically documented, causing the
1283     bug.
1284 fox2mike 1.2 </li>
1285 neysx 1.5 <li>DUPLICATE - You didn't use this guide and reported a duplicate bug.</li>
1286 fox2mike 1.1 <li>
1287 neysx 1.5 WORKSFORME - Developer/person assigned the bug cannot reproduce your error.
1288 fox2mike 1.3 </li>
1289     <li>
1290 neysx 1.5 CANTFIX - Somehow the bug cannot be solved because of certain
1291 swift 1.13 circumstances. These circumstances will be noted by the person taking the
1292 neysx 1.5 bug.
1293 fox2mike 1.3 </li>
1294     <li>
1295 neysx 1.5 WONTFIX - This is usually applied to new ebuilds or feature requests.
1296     Basically the developer does not want to add a certain feature because it
1297     is not needed, a better alternative exists, or it's just plain broken.
1298     Sometimes you may be given a solution to get said issue resolved.
1299 fox2mike 1.3 </li>
1300     <li>
1301 neysx 1.5 UPSTREAM - The bug cannot be fixed by the Gentoo development team, and have
1302     requested you take the problem upstream (the people that actually made the
1303     program) for review. Upstream has a few ways of handling bugs. These
1304     include mailing lists, irc channels, and even bug reporting systems. If
1305     you're not sure how to contact them, ask in the bug and someone will point
1306     you to the right direction.
1307 fox2mike 1.2 </li>
1308 fox2mike 1.1 </ul>
1309    
1310 fox2mike 1.3 <p>
1311     Sometimes, before the bug can be resolved, a developer may request that you
1312 swift 1.13 test an updated ebulid. In the next chapter we'll take a look at testing
1313 fox2mike 1.3 ebuilds.
1314     </p>
1315    
1316 fox2mike 1.1 </body>
1317     </section>
1318 fox2mike 1.3 </chapter>
1319 fox2mike 1.1
1320 fox2mike 1.3 <chapter>
1321     <title>Testing Ebuilds</title>
1322     <section>
1323     <title>Getting The Files</title>
1324     <body>
1325    
1326     <p>
1327     Let's say that you reported a bug for the foobar2 compile fix from earlier. Now
1328     developers might find out what the problem is and might need you to test the
1329     ebuild for them to be sure it works for you as well:
1330     </p>
1331    
1332     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-ebuild-request.png" caption="Ebuild Test Request"/>
1333    
1334     <p>
1335     Some rather confusing vocabulary is used here. First off, let's see what an
1336     overlay is. An overlay is a special directory like <path>/usr/portage</path>,
1337     the difference being that when you <c>emerge sync</c>, files contained within it
1338     will not be deleted. Luckily, a special <path>/usr/local/portage</path>
1339     directory is created for that purpose. Let's go ahead and set our portage
1340     overlay in<path>/etc/make.conf</path>. Open make.conf up in your favorite editor
1341     and add this towards the end.
1342     </p>
1343    
1344     <pre caption="Setting Up PORTDIR_OVERLAY">
1345     PORTDIR_OVERLAY="/usr/local/portage"
1346     </pre>
1347    
1348     <p>
1349     Now we'll want to create the appropriate directories to put our test ebuild
1350     files in. In this case, we're supposed to put them in sys-apps/foobar2. You'll
1351 jkt 1.12 notice that the second comment asks for a <path>files</path> directory for the
1352     patch. This directory holds other required files that aren't included with
1353     the standard source archive (patches, init.d scripts, etc). This is a subdir in
1354     the package directory called <path>files</path>. Go ahead and create these
1355     directories:
1356 fox2mike 1.3 </p>
1357    
1358     <pre caption="Setting Up The Category And Package Directories">
1359     # <i>mkdir -p /usr/local/portage/sys-apps/foobar2/files</i>
1360     </pre>
1361    
1362     <note>
1363     The -p in mkdir creates not only the directory you want but also any missing
1364     parent directories as well (sys-apps and foobar2 in this case).
1365     </note>
1366    
1367     <p>
1368     Ok now, we can go ahead and download the files. First, download the ebuild
1369     into <path>/usr/local/portage/sys-apps/foobar2</path>, and then add the patch
1370     to <path>/usr/local/portage/sys-apps/foobar2/files</path>. Now that we have the
1371     files, we can begin working on testing the ebuild.
1372     </p>
1373    
1374     </body>
1375     </section>
1376     <section>
1377     <title>Testing The ebuild</title>
1378     <body>
1379    
1380     <p>
1381     The process to create an ebuild that can be used by emerge is fairly simple. You
1382 jkt 1.11 must create a Manifest file for the ebuild. This can be done with
1383 fox2mike 1.3 the ebuild command. Run it as shown.
1384     </p>
1385    
1386 jkt 1.11 <pre caption="Creating the Manifest file">
1387     # <i>ebuild foobar2-1.0.ebuild manifest</i>
1388     &gt;&gt;&gt; Creating Manifest for /usr/local/portage/sys-apps/foobar2
1389 fox2mike 1.3 </pre>
1390    
1391     <p>
1392     Now let's test to see if it works as it should.
1393     </p>
1394    
1395     <pre caption="Testing With emerge -pv">
1396     # <i>emerge -pv foobar2</i>
1397    
1398     These are the packages that I would merge, in order:
1399    
1400     Calculating dependencies ...done!
1401     [ebuild N ] sys-apps/foobar2-1.0 0 kB [1]
1402    
1403     Total size of downloads: 0 kB
1404     Portage overlays:
1405     [1] /usr/local/portage
1406     </pre>
1407    
1408     <p>
1409     It does seem to have worked! You'll notice the [1] next to the [ebuild] line.
1410     That points to <path>/usr/local/portage</path>, which is the overlay we created
1411     earlier. Now we go ahead and emerge the package.
1412     </p>
1413    
1414     <pre caption="Emerge Result">
1415 neysx 1.5 # <i>emerge foobar2</i>
1416 fox2mike 1.3 Calculating dependencies ...done!
1417     <comment>(compile info snipped)</comment>
1418     >>> Unpacking foobar2-1.0.tar.bz2 to /var/tmp/portage/foobar2-1.0/work
1419     * Applying foobar2-1.0-Makefile.patch ... [ ok ]
1420     <comment>(compile info snipped)</comment>
1421     >>> Merging sys-apps/foobar2-1.0 to /
1422     >>> chris +sandbox(preinst)
1423     --- /usr/
1424     --- /usr/bin/
1425     >>> /usr/bin/foobar2
1426     </pre>
1427    
1428     <p>
1429     In the first section we see that the emerge started off as it should. The second
1430     section shows our patch being applied successfully by the "[ ok ]" status
1431 swift 1.13 message to the right. The last section tells us the program compiled ok. The
1432 fox2mike 1.3 patch works! Now we can go and let the developer know that their patch works
1433     fine, and that they can commit the fix to portage.
1434     </p>
1435    
1436     </body>
1437     </section>
1438 fox2mike 1.1 <section>
1439     <title>Conclusion</title>
1440     <body>
1441    
1442     <p>
1443     This concludes the howto on working with Bugzilla. I hope you find this useful.
1444     If you have any questions, comments, or ideas regarding this document, please
1445 neysx 1.5 send them to me at <mail>chriswhite@gentoo.org</mail>. Special thanks go to
1446     moreon for his notes on -g flags and compile errors, the people at #gentoo-bugs
1447     for helping out with bug-wrangling, Griffon26 for his notes on
1448 fox2mike 1.3 maintainer-needed, robbat2 for general suggestions and fox2mike for fixing up
1449     the doc and adding stuff as needed.
1450 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
1451    
1452     </body>
1453     </section>
1454     </chapter>
1455     </guide>

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