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Tue Aug 30 02:51:12 2005 UTC (8 years, 10 months ago) by vapier
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tell users to utilize -ggdb -g instead of -ggdb3 since -ggdb3 can cause problems itself and -ggdb/-g is sufficient most of the time

1 fox2mike 1.1 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2     <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 vapier 1.6 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/bugzilla-howto.xml,v 1.5 2005/07/22 23:46:11 neysx Exp $ -->
4 fox2mike 1.1
5     <guide link="/doc/en/bugzilla-howto.xml">
6     <title>Gentoo Bug Reporting Guide</title>
7    
8     <author title="Author">
9     <mail link="chriswhite@gentoo.org">Chris White</mail>
10     </author>
11     <author title="Editor">
12     <mail link="fox2mike@gentoo.org">Shyam Mani</mail>
13     </author>
14    
15     <abstract>
16     This document shows the proper method of reporting bugs using Bugzilla.
17     </abstract>
18    
19     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
20     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
21     <license/>
22    
23 vapier 1.6 <version>1.5</version>
24     <date>2005-08-29</date>
25 fox2mike 1.1
26     <chapter>
27     <title>Introduction</title>
28     <section>
29     <title>Preface</title>
30     <body>
31    
32     <p>
33 fox2mike 1.3 One of the factors that delay a bug being fixed is the way it is reported. By
34     creating this guide, we hope to help improve the communication between
35 fox2mike 1.1 developers and users in bug resolution. Getting bugs fixed is an important, if
36 fox2mike 1.3 not crucial part of the quality assurance for any project and hopefully this
37 fox2mike 1.1 guide will help make that a success.
38     </p>
39    
40     </body>
41     </section>
42     <section>
43 fox2mike 1.3 <title>Bugs!!!!</title>
44 fox2mike 1.1 <body>
45    
46     <p>
47 fox2mike 1.3 You're emerge-ing a package or working with a program and suddenly the worst
48     happens -- you find a bug. Bugs come in many forms like emerge failures or
49     segmentation faults. Whatever the cause, the fact still remains that such a bug
50     must be fixed. Here is a few examples of such bugs.
51 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
52    
53     <pre caption="A run time error">
54     $ <i>./bad_code `perl -e 'print Ax100'`</i>
55     Segmentation fault
56     </pre>
57    
58     <pre caption="An emerge failure">
59     /usr/lib/gcc-lib/i686-pc-linux-gnu/3.3.2/include/g++-v3/backward/backward_warning.h:32:2:
60     warning: #warning This file includes at least one deprecated or antiquated
61     header. Please consider using one of the 32 headers found in section 17.4.1.2 of
62     the C++ standard. Examples include substituting the &lt;X&gt; header for the &lt;X.h&gt;
63     header for C++ includes, or &lt;sstream&gt; instead of the deprecated header
64     &lt;strstream.h&gt;. To disable this warning use -Wno-deprecated.
65     In file included from main.cc:40:
66     menudef.h:55: error: brace-enclosed initializer used to initialize `
67     OXPopupMenu*'
68     menudef.h:62: error: brace-enclosed initializer used to initialize `
69     OXPopupMenu*'
70     menudef.h:70: error: brace-enclosed initializer used to initialize `
71     OXPopupMenu*'
72     menudef.h:78: error: brace-enclosed initializer used to initialize `
73     OXPopupMenu*'
74     main.cc: In member function `void OXMain::DoOpen()':
75     main.cc:323: warning: unused variable `FILE*fp'
76     main.cc: In member function `void OXMain::DoSave(char*)':
77     main.cc:337: warning: unused variable `FILE*fp'
78     make[1]: *** [main.o] Error 1
79     make[1]: Leaving directory
80     `/var/tmp/portage/xclass-0.7.4/work/xclass-0.7.4/example-app'
81     make: *** [shared] Error 2
82    
83     !!! ERROR: x11-libs/xclass-0.7.4 failed.
84     !!! Function src_compile, Line 29, Exitcode 2
85     !!! 'emake shared' failed
86     </pre>
87    
88     <p>
89 neysx 1.5 These errors can be quite troublesome. However, once you find them, what do you
90     do? The following sections will look at two important tools for handling run
91     time errors. After that, we'll take a look at compile errors, and how to handle
92     them. Let's start out with the first tool for debugging run time errors --
93     <c>gdb</c>.
94 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
95    
96     </body>
97     </section>
98     </chapter>
99    
100    
101     <chapter>
102     <title>Debugging using GDB</title>
103     <section>
104     <title>Introduction</title>
105     <body>
106    
107     <p>
108     GDB, or the (G)NU (D)e(B)ugger, is a program used to find run time errors that
109     normally involve memory corruption. First off, let's take a look at what
110     debugging entails. One of the main things you must do in order to debug a
111 fox2mike 1.3 program is to <c>emerge</c> the program with <c>FEATURES="nostrip"</c>. This
112     prevents the stripping of debug symbols. Why are programs stripped by default?
113     The reason is the same as that for having gzipped man pages -- saving space.
114 neysx 1.5 Here's how the size of a program varies with and without debug symbol stripping.
115 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
116    
117     <pre caption="Filesize Comparison">
118     <comment>(debug symbols stripped)</comment>
119     -rwxr-xr-x 1 chris users 3140 6/28 13:11 bad_code
120     <comment>(debug symbols intact)</comment>
121     -rwxr-xr-x 1 chris users 6374 6/28 13:10 bad_code
122     </pre>
123    
124     <p>
125     Just for reference, <e>bad_code</e> is the program we'll be debugging with
126     <c>gdb</c> later on. As you can see, the program without debugging symbols is
127     3140 bytes, while the program with them is 6374 bytes. That's close to double
128 fox2mike 1.3 the size! Two more things can be done for debugging. The first is adding ggdb3
129     to your CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS. This flag adds more debugging information than is
130     generally included. We'll see what that means later on. This is how
131 neysx 1.5 <path>/etc/make.conf</path> <e>might</e> look with the newly added flags.
132 fox2mike 1.3 </p>
133    
134     <pre caption="make.conf settings">
135 vapier 1.6 CFLAGS="-O1 -pipe -g -ggdb"
136 fox2mike 1.3 CXXFLAGS="${CFLAGS}"
137     </pre>
138    
139     <p>
140 neysx 1.5 Lastly, you can also add debug to the package's USE flags. This can be done
141     with the <path>package.use</path> file.
142     </p>
143 fox2mike 1.1
144     <pre caption="Using package.use to add debug USE flag">
145     # <i>echo "category/package debug" >> /etc/portage/package.use</i>
146     </pre>
147    
148     <note>
149     The directory <path>/etc/portage</path> does not exist by default and you may
150     have to create it, if you have not already done so. If the package already has
151     USE flags set in <path>package.use</path>, you will need to manually modify them
152     in your favorite editor.
153     </note>
154    
155     <p>
156 fox2mike 1.3 Then we re-emerge the package with the modifications we've done so far as shown
157     below.
158 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
159    
160     <pre caption="Re-emergeing a package with debugging">
161     # <i>FEATURES="nostrip" emerge package</i>
162     </pre>
163    
164     <p>
165     Now that debug symbols are setup, we can continue with debugging the program.
166     </p>
167    
168     </body>
169     </section>
170     <section>
171     <title>Running the program with GDB</title>
172     <body>
173    
174     <p>
175 fox2mike 1.3 Let's say we have a program here called "bad_code". Some person claims that the
176     program crashes and provides an example. You go ahead and test it out:
177 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
178    
179     <pre caption="Breaking The Program">
180     $ <i>./bad_code `perl -e 'print Ax100'`</i>
181     Segmentation fault
182     </pre>
183    
184     <p>
185     It seems this person was right. Since the program is obviously broken, we have
186     a bug at hand. Now, it's time to use <c>gdb</c> to help solve this matter. First
187     we run <c>gdb</c> with <c>--args</c>, then give it the full program with
188     arguments like shown:
189     </p>
190    
191     <pre caption="Running Our Program Through GDB">
192     $ <i>gdb --args ./bad_code `perl -e 'print Ax100'`</i>
193     GNU gdb 6.3
194     Copyright 2004 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
195     GDB is free software, covered by the GNU General Public License, and you are
196     welcome to change it and/or distribute copies of it under certain conditions.
197     Type "show copying" to see the conditions.
198     There is absolutely no warranty for GDB. Type "show warranty" for details.
199     This GDB was configured as "i686-pc-linux-gnu"...Using host libthread_db library "/lib/libthread_db.so.1".
200     </pre>
201    
202 fox2mike 1.3 <note>
203     One can also debug with core dumps. These core files contain the same
204     information that the program would produce when run with gdb. In order to debug
205     with a core file with bad_code, you would run <c>gdb ./bad_code core</c> where
206     core is the name of the core file.
207     </note>
208    
209 fox2mike 1.1 <p>
210 fox2mike 1.3 You should see a prompt that says "(gdb)" and waits for input. First, we have to
211     run the program. We type in <c>run</c> at the command and receive a notice like:
212 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
213    
214     <pre caption="Running the program in GDB">
215 fox2mike 1.3 (gdb) <i>run</i>
216 fox2mike 1.1 Starting program: /home/chris/bad_code
217    
218     Program received signal SIGSEGV, Segmentation fault.
219     0xb7ec6dc0 in strcpy () from /lib/libc.so.6
220     </pre>
221    
222     <p>
223     Here we see the program starting, as well as a notification of SIGSEGV, or
224     Segmentation Fault. This is GDB telling us that our program has crashed. It
225     also gives the last run function it could trace when the program crashes.
226     However, this isn't too useful, as there could be multiple strcpy's in the
227     program, making it hard for developers to find which one is causing the issue.
228     In order to help them out, we do what's called a backtrace. A backtrace runs
229     backwards through all the functions that occurred upon program execution, to the
230     function at fault. Functions that return (without causing a crash) will not show
231     up on the backtrace. To get a backtrace, at the (gdb) prompt, type in <c>bt</c>.
232     You will get something like this:
233     </p>
234    
235     <pre caption="Program backtrace">
236 fox2mike 1.3 (gdb) <i>bt</i>
237 fox2mike 1.1 #0 0xb7ec6dc0 in strcpy () from /lib/libc.so.6
238     #1 0x0804838c in run_it ()
239     #2 0x080483ba in main ()
240     </pre>
241    
242     <p>
243 fox2mike 1.3 You can notice the trace pattern clearly. main() is called first, followed by
244     run_it(), and somewhere in run_it() lies the strcpy() at fault. Things such as
245     this help developers narrow down problems. There are a few exceptions to the
246     output. First off is forgetting to enable debug symbols with
247     <c>FEATURES="nostrip"</c>. With debug symbols stripped, the output looks something
248     like this:
249 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
250    
251     <pre caption="Program backtrace With debug symbols stripped">
252 fox2mike 1.3 (gdb) <i>bt</i>
253 fox2mike 1.1 #0 0xb7e2cdc0 in strcpy () from /lib/libc.so.6
254     #1 0x0804838c in ?? ()
255     #2 0xbfd19510 in ?? ()
256     #3 0x00000000 in ?? ()
257     #4 0x00000000 in ?? ()
258     #5 0xb7eef148 in libgcc_s_personality () from /lib/libc.so.6
259     #6 0x080482ed in ?? ()
260     #7 0x080495b0 in ?? ()
261     #8 0xbfd19528 in ?? ()
262     #9 0xb7dd73b8 in __guard_setup () from /lib/libc.so.6
263     #10 0xb7dd742d in __guard_setup () from /lib/libc.so.6
264     #11 0x00000006 in ?? ()
265     #12 0xbfd19548 in ?? ()
266     #13 0x080483ba in ?? ()
267     #14 0x00000000 in ?? ()
268     #15 0x00000000 in ?? ()
269     #16 0xb7deebcc in __new_exitfn () from /lib/libc.so.6
270     #17 0x00000000 in ?? ()
271     #18 0xbfd19560 in ?? ()
272     #19 0xb7ef017c in nullserv () from /lib/libc.so.6
273     #20 0xb7dd6f37 in __libc_start_main () from /lib/libc.so.6
274     #21 0x00000001 in ?? ()
275     #22 0xbfd195d4 in ?? ()
276     #23 0xbfd195dc in ?? ()
277     #24 0x08048201 in ?? ()
278     </pre>
279    
280     <p>
281     This backtrace contains a large number of ?? marks. This is because without
282 fox2mike 1.3 debug symbols, <c>gdb</c> doesn't know how the program was run. Hence, it is
283     crucial that debug symbols are <e>not</e> stripped. Now remember a while ago we
284 vapier 1.6 mentioned the -ggdb flag. Let's see what the output looks like with the flag
285 fox2mike 1.3 enabled:
286 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
287    
288 fox2mike 1.3 <pre caption="Program backtrace with -ggdb3">
289     (gdb) <i>bt</i>
290 fox2mike 1.1 #0 0xb7e4bdc0 in strcpy () from /lib/libc.so.6
291     #1 0x0804838c in run_it (input=0x0) at bad_code.c:7
292     #2 0x080483ba in main (argc=1, argv=0xbfd3a434) at bad_code.c:12
293     </pre>
294    
295     <p>
296     Here we see that a lot more information is available for developers. Not only is
297 fox2mike 1.3 function information displayed, but even the exact line numbers of the source
298 fox2mike 1.1 files. This method is the most preferred if you can spare the extra space.
299 vapier 1.6 Here's how much the file size varies between debug, strip, and -ggdb enabled
300 fox2mike 1.3 programs.
301 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
302    
303 vapier 1.6 <pre caption="Filesize differences With -ggdb flag">
304 fox2mike 1.1 <comment>(debug symbols stripped)</comment>
305     -rwxr-xr-x 1 chris users 3140 6/28 13:11 bad_code
306     <comment>(debug symbols enabled)</comment>
307     -rwxr-xr-x 1 chris users 6374 6/28 13:10 bad_code
308 vapier 1.6 <comment>(-ggdb flag enabled)</comment>
309 fox2mike 1.3 -rwxr-xr-x 1 chris users 19552 6/28 13:11 bad_code
310 fox2mike 1.1 </pre>
311    
312     <p>
313 vapier 1.6 As you can see, -ggdb adds about <e>13178</e> more bytes to the file size over the one
314 fox2mike 1.1 with debugging symbols. However, as shown above, this increase in file size can
315 fox2mike 1.4 be worth it if presenting debug information to developers. The backtrace can be
316 fox2mike 1.3 saved to a file by copying and pasting from the terminal (if it's a non-x based
317     terminal, you can use gpm. To keep this doc simple, I recommend you read up on
318     the documentation for gpm to see how to copy and paste with it). Now that we're
319     done with <c>gdb</c>, we can quit.
320 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
321    
322     <pre caption="Quitting GDB">
323 fox2mike 1.3 (gdb) <i>quit</i>
324     The program is running. Exit anyway? (y or n) <i>y</i>
325 fox2mike 1.1 $
326     </pre>
327    
328     <p>
329 fox2mike 1.3 This ends the walk-through of <c>gdb</c>. Using <c>gdb</c>, we hope that you will
330 fox2mike 1.1 be able to use it to create better bug reports. However, there are other types
331     of errors that can cause a program to fail during run time. One of the other
332     ways is through improper file access. We can find those using a nifty little
333     tool called <c>strace</c>.
334     </p>
335    
336     </body>
337     </section>
338     </chapter>
339    
340     <chapter>
341     <title>Finding file access errors using strace</title>
342     <section>
343     <title>Introduction</title>
344     <body>
345    
346     <p>
347 fox2mike 1.3 Programs often use files to fetch configuration information, access hardware or
348     write logs. Sometimes, a program attempts to reach such files incorrectly. A
349     tool called <c>strace</c> was created to help deal with this. <c>strace</c>
350     traces system calls (hence the name) which include calls that use the memory and
351     files. For our example, we're going to take a program foobar2. This is an
352     updated version of foobar. However, during the change over to foobar2, you notice
353     all your configurations are missing! In foobar version 1, you had it setup to
354     say "foo", but now it's using the default "bar".
355 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
356    
357     <pre caption="Foobar2 With an invalid configuration">
358     $ <i>./foobar2</i>
359     Configuration says: bar
360     </pre>
361    
362     <p>
363     Our previous configuration specifically had it set to foo, so let's use
364     <c>strace</c> to find out what's going on.
365     </p>
366    
367     </body>
368     </section>
369     <section>
370     <title>Using strace to track the issue</title>
371     <body>
372    
373     <p>
374 fox2mike 1.3 We make <c>strace</c> log the results of the system calls. To do this, we run
375     <c>strace</c> with the -o[file] arguments. Let's use it on foobar2 as shown.
376 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
377    
378     <pre caption="Running foobar2 through strace">
379     # <i>strace -ostrace.log ./foobar2</i>
380     </pre>
381    
382     <p>
383 fox2mike 1.2 This creates a file called <path>strace.log</path> in the current directory. We
384     check the file, and shown below are the relevant parts from the file.
385 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
386    
387     <pre caption="A Look At the strace Log">
388     open(".foobar2/config", O_RDONLY) = 3
389     read(3, "bar", 3) = 3
390     </pre>
391    
392     <p>
393     Aha! So There's the problem. Someone moved the configuration directory to
394     <path>.foobar2</path> instead of <path>.foobar</path>. We also see the program
395     reading in "bar" as it should. In this case, we can recommend the ebuild
396     maintainer to put a warning about it. For now though, we can copy over the
397 fox2mike 1.2 config file from <path>.foobar</path> and modify it to produce the correct
398 neysx 1.5 results.
399 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
400    
401     </body>
402     </section>
403     <section>
404     <title>Conclusion</title>
405     <body>
406    
407     <p>
408     Now we've taken care of finding run time bugs. These bugs prove to be
409     problematic when you try and run your programs. However, run time errors are
410 fox2mike 1.3 the least of your concerns if your program won't compile at all. Let's take a
411 fox2mike 1.1 look at how to address <c>emerge</c> compile errors.
412     </p>
413    
414     </body>
415     </section>
416     </chapter>
417    
418     <chapter>
419     <title>Handling emerge Errors</title>
420     <section>
421     <title>Introduction</title>
422     <body>
423    
424     <p>
425     <c>emerge</c> errors, such as the one displayed earlier, can be a major cause
426 fox2mike 1.3 of frustration for users. Reporting them is considered crucial for maintaining
427     the health of Gentoo. Let's take a look at a sample ebuild, foobar2, which
428     contains some build errors.
429 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
430    
431     </body>
432     </section>
433     <section id="emerge_error">
434     <title>Evaluating emerge Errors</title>
435     <body>
436    
437     <p>
438     Let's take a look at this very simple <c>emerge</c> error:
439     </p>
440    
441     <pre caption="emerge Error">
442     gcc -D__TEST__ -D__GNU__ -D__LINUX__ -L/usr/lib -I/usr/include -L/usr/lib/nspr/ -I/usr/include/fmod -c -o foobar2-7.o foobar2-7.c
443     gcc -D__TEST__ -D__GNU__ -D__LINUX__ -L/usr/lib -I/usr/include -L/usr/lib/nspr/ -I/usr/include/fmod -c -o foobar2-8.o foobar2-8.c
444     gcc -D__TEST__ -D__GNU__ -D__LINUX__ -L/usr/lib -I/usr/include -L/usr/lib/nspr/ -I/usr/include/fmod -c -o foobar2-9.o foobar2-9.c
445     gcc -D__TEST__ -D__GNU__ -D__LINUX__ -L/usr/lib -I/usr/include -L/usr/lib/nspr/ -I/usr/include/fmod -c -o foobar2.o foobar2.c
446     foobar2.c:1:17: ogg.h: No such file or directory
447     make: *** [foobar2.o] Error 1
448    
449     !!! ERROR: sys-apps/foobar2-1.0 failed.
450     !!! Function src_compile, Line 19, Exitcode 2
451     !!! Make failed!
452     !!! If you need support, post the topmost build error, NOT this status message
453     </pre>
454    
455     <p>
456 fox2mike 1.3 The program is compiling smoothly when it suddenly stops and presents an error message. This
457     particular error can be split into 3 different sections, The compile messages, the build
458 fox2mike 1.1 error, and the emerge error message as shown below.
459     </p>
460    
461     <pre caption="Parts of the error">
462 fox2mike 1.3 <comment>(Compilation Messages)</comment>
463 fox2mike 1.1 gcc -D__TEST__ -D__GNU__ -D__LINUX__ -L/usr/lib -I/usr/include -L/usr/lib/nspr/ -I/usr/include/fmod -c -o foobar2-7.o foobar2-7.c
464     gcc -D__TEST__ -D__GNU__ -D__LINUX__ -L/usr/lib -I/usr/include -L/usr/lib/nspr/ -I/usr/include/fmod -c -o foobar2-8.o foobar2-8.c
465     gcc -D__TEST__ -D__GNU__ -D__LINUX__ -L/usr/lib -I/usr/include -L/usr/lib/nspr/ -I/usr/include/fmod -c -o foobar2-9.o foobar2-9.c
466     gcc -D__TEST__ -D__GNU__ -D__LINUX__ -L/usr/lib -I/usr/include -L/usr/lib/nspr/ -I/usr/include/fmod -c -o foobar2.o foobar2.c
467    
468     <comment>(Build Error)</comment>
469     foobar2.c:1:17: ogg.h: No such file or directory
470     make: *** [foobar2.o] Error 1
471    
472 fox2mike 1.3 <comment>(emerge Error)</comment>
473 fox2mike 1.1 !!! ERROR: sys-apps/foobar2-1.0 failed.
474     !!! Function src_compile, Line 19, Exitcode 2
475     !!! Make failed!
476     !!! If you need support, post the topmost build error, NOT this status message
477     </pre>
478    
479     <p>
480 fox2mike 1.3 The compilation messages are what lead up to the error. Most often, it's good to
481     at least include 10 lines of compile information so that the developer knows
482     where the compilation was at when the error occurred.
483     </p>
484    
485     <p>
486     Make errors are the actual error and the information the developer needs. When
487     you see "make: ***", this is often where the error has occurred. Normally, you
488     can copy and paste 10 lines above it and the developer will be able to address
489     the issue. However, this may not always work and we'll take a look at an
490     alternative shortly.
491     </p>
492    
493     <p>
494     The emerge error is what <c>emerge</c> throws out as an error. Sometimes, this
495     might also contain some important information. Often people make the mistake of
496     posting the emerge error and that's all. This is useless by itself, but with
497     make error and compile information, a developer can get what application and
498     what version of the package is failing. As a side note, make is commonly used as
499     the build process for programs (<b>but not always</b>). If you can't find a
500     "make: ***" error anywhere, then simply copy and paste 20 lines before the
501     emerge error. This should take care of most all build system error messages. Now
502     let's say the errors seem to be quite large. 10 lines won't be enough to catch
503     everything. That's where PORT_LOGDIR comes into play.
504 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
505    
506     </body>
507     </section>
508     <section>
509     <title>emerge and PORT_LOGDIR</title>
510     <body>
511    
512     <p>
513 neysx 1.5 PORT_LOGDIR is a portage variable that sets up a log directory for separate
514     emerge logs. Let's take a look and see what that entails. First, run your
515     emerge with PORT_LOGDIR set to your favorite log location. Let's say we have a
516 fox2mike 1.3 location <path>/var/log/portage</path>. We'll use that for our log directory:
517 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
518    
519     <note>
520 fox2mike 1.3 In the default setup, <path>/var/log/portage</path> does not exist, and you will
521     most likely have to create it. If you do not, portage will fail to write the
522     logs.
523 fox2mike 1.1 </note>
524    
525     <pre caption="emerge-ing With PORT_LOGDIR">
526     # <i>PORT_LOGDIR=/var/log/portage emerge foobar2</i>
527     </pre>
528    
529     <p>
530     Now the emerge fails again. However, this time we have a log we can work with,
531     and attach to the bug later on. Let's take a quick look at our log directory.
532     </p>
533    
534     <pre caption="PORT_LOGDIR Contents">
535     # <i>ls -la /var/log/portage</i>
536     total 16
537     drwxrws--- 2 root root 4096 Jun 30 10:08 .
538     drwxr-xr-x 15 root root 4096 Jun 30 10:08 ..
539     -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 7390 Jun 30 10:09 2115-foobar2-1.0.log
540     </pre>
541    
542     <p>
543     The log files have the format [counter]-[package name]-[version].log. Counter
544     is a special variable that is meant to state this package as the n-th package
545     you've emerged. This prevents duplicate logs from appearing. A quick look at
546     the log file will show the entire emerge process. This can be attached later
547     on as we'll see in the bug reporting section. Now that we've safely obtained
548     our information needed to report the bug we can continue to do so. However,
549     before we get started on that, we need to make sure no one else has reported
550     the issue. Let's take a look at searching for bugs.
551     </p>
552    
553     </body>
554     </section>
555     </chapter>
556    
557     <chapter>
558     <title>Searching Using Bugzilla</title>
559     <section>
560     <title>Introduction</title>
561     <body>
562    
563     <p>
564     <uri link="http://www.bugzilla.org">Bugzilla</uri> is what we at Gentoo use to
565     handle bugs. Gentoo's Bugzilla is reachable by HTTPS and HTTP. HTTPS is
566     available for those on insecure networks or simply paranoid :). For the sake of
567 fox2mike 1.3 consistency, we will be using the HTTPS version in the examples to follow. Head
568 fox2mike 1.1 over to <uri link="https://bugs.gentoo.org">Gentoo Bugs</uri> to see how it
569     looks.
570     </p>
571    
572     <p>
573 fox2mike 1.3 One of the most frustrating things for developers and bug-wranglers is finding
574     duplicate bug reports. These cost them valuable time that they could otherwise
575     use to work on more important bugs. Often, this can be prevented by a few simple
576 fox2mike 1.1 search methods. So we're going to see how to search for bugs and find out if
577     you have one that's similar. For this example, we're going to use the xclass
578 fox2mike 1.3 emerge error that was used earlier.
579 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
580    
581     <pre caption="xclass emerge error">
582     /usr/lib/gcc-lib/i686-pc-linux-gnu/3.3.2/include/g++-v3/backward/backward_warning.h:32:2:
583     warning: #warning This file includes at least one deprecated or antiquated
584     header. Please consider using one of the 32 headers found in section 17.4.1.2 of
585     the C++ standard. Examples include substituting the &lt;X&gt; header for the &lt;X.h&gt;
586     header for C++ includes, or &lt;sstream&gt; instead of the deprecated header
587     &lt;strstream.h&gt;. To disable this warning use -Wno-deprecated.
588     In file included from main.cc:40:
589     menudef.h:55: error: brace-enclosed initializer used to initialize `
590     OXPopupMenu*'
591     menudef.h:62: error: brace-enclosed initializer used to initialize `
592     OXPopupMenu*'
593     menudef.h:70: error: brace-enclosed initializer used to initialize `
594     OXPopupMenu*'
595     menudef.h:78: error: brace-enclosed initializer used to initialize `
596     OXPopupMenu*'
597     main.cc: In member function `void OXMain::DoOpen()':
598     main.cc:323: warning: unused variable `FILE*fp'
599     main.cc: In member function `void OXMain::DoSave(char*)':
600     main.cc:337: warning: unused variable `FILE*fp'
601     make[1]: *** [main.o] Error 1
602     make[1]: Leaving directory
603     `/var/tmp/portage/xclass-0.7.4/work/xclass-0.7.4/example-app'
604     make: *** [shared] Error 2
605    
606     !!! ERROR: x11-libs/xclass-0.7.4 failed.
607     !!! Function src_compile, Line 29, Exitcode 2
608     !!! 'emake shared' failed
609     </pre>
610    
611     <p>
612     So to begin searching, we head over to the <uri
613 fox2mike 1.2 link="https://bugs.gentoo.org/">Bugzilla Homepage</uri>.
614 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
615    
616     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-homepage.png" caption="Bugzilla Homepage"/>
617    
618     <p>
619 fox2mike 1.3 We'll click on "Query Existing bug reports". The reason why we choose this
620     over the basic bug search is because the basic bug search tends to give vague
621     results and often hinders users from looking through the results and finding the
622     duplicate bug. Once we click on the query screen, we reach the next page:
623 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
624    
625     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-search.png" caption="Bugzilla Search Page"/>
626    
627     <note>
628     If you've used the Advanced Search before, you'll most likely see that screen
629     instead.
630     </note>
631    
632     <p>
633 fox2mike 1.3 Proceed by clicking on the "Advanced Search" link to bring up the Advanced
634     Search page.
635 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
636    
637     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-adv-search.png" caption="Advanced Search Page"/>
638    
639     <p>
640     This is how the Advanced Search Page looks like. While it may seem overwhelming
641     at first, we're going to look at a few simple areas to narrow down the rather
642 neysx 1.5 vague searches bugzilla returns.
643 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
644    
645     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-content.png" caption="Content"/>
646    
647     <p>
648     The first field is the summary of the bug. Here we're simply going to put the
649 fox2mike 1.3 name of the package that's crashing. If bugzie doesn't return results, try
650 fox2mike 1.1 removing the package name, just in case someone didn't put that in the summary
651 fox2mike 1.3 (highly unlikely, but we've seen a fair share of strange bug reports).
652 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
653    
654     <p>
655     Product, Component, and Version should all be set to the default. This
656     prevents us from being too specific and missing all the bugs.
657     </p>
658    
659     <p>
660 fox2mike 1.3 Comment is the important part. Use the comment field to list what appears to be a
661 fox2mike 1.1 specific instance of the error. Basically, don't use anything like the
662     beginning of the build error, find a line that's before it stating a true
663     error. Also, you'll want to filter out any punctuation to prevent bugzilla
664     from interpreting the results the comment the wrong way. Example from the xclass
665     emerge error:
666     </p>
667    
668     <pre caption="Comment Line Content">
669     menudef.h:78: error: brace-enclosed initializer used to initialize `OXPopupMenu'
670     <comment>(Remove the quotes ' ')</comment>
671     menudef.h 78 error brace-enclosed initializer used to initialize OXPopupMenu
672     </pre>
673    
674     <p>
675     The above is specific enough to where we'll find the bug without wading through
676     other xclass compile failure candidates.
677     </p>
678    
679     <p>
680     URI, Whiteboard, and Keywords can all be left alone. What we've entered so far
681 fox2mike 1.3 should be enough to find our bug. Let's take a look at what we have filled out.
682 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
683    
684     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-comp-search.png" caption="Completed Search Form"/>
685    
686     <p>
687 fox2mike 1.3 Now we click on the Search button and here come the results...
688 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
689    
690     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-search-result.png" caption="Search Results"/>
691    
692     <p>
693     Only 2 bugs! That's a lot easier to deal with. We click on the first one to
694 fox2mike 1.3 check, and sure enough it's the one we're looking for.
695 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
696    
697     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-located.png" caption="Bug Located"/>
698    
699     <p>
700     Not only is it the one we want, but it has also been resolved. By checking the
701     last comment we see the solution and know what to do in order to resolve it.
702 fox2mike 1.3 Now, let's see what would have happened if we had not used the advanced search.
703 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
704    
705     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-basic-search-result.png" caption="Basic Search Results"/>
706    
707     <p>
708     4 more bugs to deal with! It gets even worse with larger packages. However,
709     with these simple tools, we're able to significantly narrow down the search to
710     try and locate a specific bug.
711     </p>
712    
713     </body>
714     </section>
715     <section>
716     <title>Conclusion</title>
717     <body>
718    
719     <p>
720     Let's say that you have searched and searched but still can't find a bug.
721     You've found yourself a new bug. Let's take a look at the bug reporting process
722     for submitting your new bug.
723     </p>
724    
725     </body>
726     </section>
727     </chapter>
728    
729     <chapter>
730     <title>Reporting Bugs</title>
731     <section>
732     <title>Introduction</title>
733     <body>
734    
735     <p>
736     In this chapter, we'll figure out how to use Bugzilla to file a shiny, new bug.
737     Head over to <uri link="https://bugs.gentoo.org">Gentoo Bugs</uri> and...
738     </p>
739    
740     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-homepage.png" caption="Bugzilla Homepage"/>
741    
742     <p>
743 fox2mike 1.3 Click on "Report a Bug - Using the guided format".
744 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
745    
746     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-prod-select.png" caption="Product Selection"/>
747    
748     <p>
749     As you can see, <b>major</b> emphasis has been placed on putting your bug in the
750 fox2mike 1.3 right place. Gentoo Linux is where a large majority of bugs go.
751     </p>
752    
753     <p>
754     Despite this, some people will file ebuild bugs in portage development
755     (assumption that portage team handles the portage tree) or infra (assumption
756     that infra has access to mirrors and rsync and can fix it directly). This is
757     simply not how things work.
758     </p>
759    
760     <p>
761     Another common misconception occurs with our Documentation bugs. For example, a
762 neysx 1.5 user finds a bug with the <uri link="/proj/en/releng/catalyst/">Catalyst
763 fox2mike 1.3 Docs</uri>. The general tendency is to file a bug under Docs-user, which gets
764     assigned to the <uri link="http://gdp.gentoo.org">GDP</uri>, when it should
765 neysx 1.5 actually go to a member of the <uri link="/proj/en/releng/">Release
766     Engineering</uri> team. As a rule of thumb, only documentation under
767     <path>http://www.gentoo.org/doc/*</path> is under the GDP. Anything under
768     <path>http://www.gentoo.org/proj/*</path> is under the respective teams.
769 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
770    
771     <note>
772 fox2mike 1.3 We would rather see a bug whose product was not supposed to be Gentoo Linux but
773     has been filed under the same rather than seeing a bug which belongs the Gentoo
774     Linux product and filed elsewhere. While neither is preferred, the former is more
775     acceptable and understandable (except website bugs.. we might have an issue with
776     that...).
777 fox2mike 1.1 </note>
778    
779     <p>
780 neysx 1.5 Our bug goes in Gentoo Linux as it's an ebuild bug. We head over there and are
781     presented with the multi-step bug reporting process. Let us now proceed with
782     Step 1...
783 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
784    
785     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-guide-step1.png" caption="Guided Format Step 1"/>
786    
787     <p>
788     The first step here is really important (as the red text tells you). This is
789     where you search to see that someone else hasn't hit the same bug you have, yet.
790 fox2mike 1.3 If you do skip this step and a bug like yours already exists, it will be marked
791 fox2mike 1.1 as a DUPLICATE thus wasting a large amount of QA effort. To give you an idea,
792 fox2mike 1.3 the bug numbers that are struck out above are duplicate bugs. Now comes step 2,
793 fox2mike 1.1 where we give the information.
794     </p>
795    
796     </body>
797     </section>
798     <section>
799     <title>Required Information</title>
800     <body>
801    
802 fox2mike 1.3 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-basic.png" caption="Basic Information"/>
803    
804 fox2mike 1.1 <p>
805 fox2mike 1.3 Let us take a closer look at what's what.
806 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
807    
808 fox2mike 1.3 <ul>
809     <li>
810 neysx 1.5 First, there's the Product. The product will narrow down the bug to a
811     specific area of Gentoo like Bugzilla (for bugs relating to
812     bugs.gentoo.org), Docs-user(for User Documentation) or Gentoo Linux (for
813     ebuilds and the like).
814 fox2mike 1.3 </li>
815     <li>
816 neysx 1.5 Component is where exactly the problem occurs, more specifically which part
817     of selected product the bug comes under. This makes classification easier.
818 fox2mike 1.3 </li>
819     <li>
820 neysx 1.5 Hardware platform is what architecture you're running. If you were running
821     SPARC, you would set it to SPARC.
822 fox2mike 1.3 </li>
823     <li>
824 neysx 1.5 Operating System is what Operating System you're using. Because Gentoo is
825     considered a "Meta-distribution", it can run on other operating systems
826     beside Linux.
827 fox2mike 1.3 </li>
828     </ul>
829 fox2mike 1.1
830     <p>
831 fox2mike 1.3 So, for our example bug, we have :
832 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
833    
834 fox2mike 1.3 <ul>
835 neysx 1.5 <li>Product - Gentoo Linux (Since it is an ebuild issue)</li>
836     <li>Component - Application (It is an application at fault, foobar2)</li>
837     <li>Hardware Platform - All (This error could occur across architectures)</li>
838     <li>Operation System - All (It could occur on all types of systems)</li>
839 fox2mike 1.3 </ul>
840    
841 fox2mike 1.1 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-basic-comp.png" caption="Completed Basic Information"/>
842    
843 fox2mike 1.3 <ul>
844     <li>
845 neysx 1.5 Build Identifier is basically the User Agent of the browser that is being
846     used to report the bugs (for logging purposes). You can just leave this as
847     is.
848 fox2mike 1.3 </li>
849     <li>
850 neysx 1.5 URL is optional and is used to point to errors on a site someplace
851     (pastebin, etc.). However, doing it inside the bug allows the developers be
852     able to reference to it at any time and is preferred.
853 fox2mike 1.3 </li>
854     <li>
855 neysx 1.5 In the Summary, you should put the package category, name, and number.
856 fox2mike 1.3 </li>
857     </ul>
858    
859 fox2mike 1.1 <p>
860 fox2mike 1.3 Not including the category in the summary really isn't too bad, but it's
861     recommended. If you don't include the package name, however, we won't know what
862     you're filling a bug for, and will have to ask you about it later. The version
863     number is important for people searching for bugs. If 20 people filed bugs and
864     not one put a version number, how would people looking for similar bugs be able
865     to tell if one was there's? They'd have to look through every single bug, which
866     isn't too hard, but if there are say, 200 bugs.. it's not that easy. After all
867     the package information, you'll want to include a small description of the
868     incident. Here's an example:
869 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
870    
871     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-summary.png" caption="Summary"/>
872    
873     <p>
874 fox2mike 1.3 These simple rules can make handling bugs a lot easier. Next are the details.
875     Here we put in the information about the bug. We'll demonstrate with an example:
876 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
877    
878     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-details.png" caption="Details"/>
879    
880     <p>
881 fox2mike 1.3 Now the developer knows why we're filing the bug. They can then try to
882 fox2mike 1.1 reproduce it. Reproducibility tells us how often we were able to make the
883     problem recur. In this example, we can reproduce it any time simply by running
884 fox2mike 1.3 foobar2. Let's put that information in.
885 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
886    
887     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-reprod.png" caption="Reproduction"/>
888    
889     <p>
890 fox2mike 1.3 We have explained how we found the bug. The next step is to explain what were
891     the results we got and what we think they should actually be.
892 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
893    
894     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-results.png" caption="Results"/>
895    
896     <p>
897 neysx 1.5 We could then provide additional information. This could be things such as
898     stack traces, <b>sections</b> (since the whole log is usually big and of not
899     much use) of strace logs, but most importantly, your <c>emerge --info</c>
900     output. Here's an example.
901 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
902    
903     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-addl-info.png" caption="Additional Information"/>
904    
905     <p>
906     Lastly we select the severity of the bug. Please look this over carefully. In
907     most cases it's OK to leave it as is and someone will raise/lower it for you.
908     However, if you raise the severity of the bug, please make sure you read it over
909 fox2mike 1.3 carefully and make sure you're not making a mistake. A run down of the various
910     levels is given below.
911 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
912    
913 fox2mike 1.3 <ul>
914     <li>
915 neysx 1.5 Blocker - The program just plain doesn't want to emerge or is a major
916     hinderance to the system. For example a <c>baselayout</c> issue which
917     prevents a system from booting up would be a sure candidate to be labelled
918     blocker.
919 fox2mike 1.3 </li>
920     <li>
921 neysx 1.5 Critical - The program has loss of data or severe memory leaks during
922     runtime. Again, an important program like say <c>net-tools</c> failing to
923     compile could be labelled critical. It won't prevent the system from
924     starting up, but is quite essential for day to day stuff.
925 fox2mike 1.3 </li>
926     <li>
927 neysx 1.5 Major - The program crashes, but nothing that causes your system severe
928     damage or information loss.
929 fox2mike 1.3 </li>
930     <li>
931 neysx 1.5 Minor - Your program crashes here and there with apparent workarounds.
932 fox2mike 1.3 </li>
933     <li>
934 neysx 1.5 Normal - The default. If you're not sure leave it here unless it's a new
935     build or cosmetic change, then read below for more information.
936 fox2mike 1.3 </li>
937 neysx 1.5 <li>Trivial - Things such as a mispelled word or whitespace clean up. </li>
938 fox2mike 1.3 <li>
939 neysx 1.5 Enhancement - A request to enable a new feature in a program, or more
940     specifically <e>new ebuilds</e>.
941 fox2mike 1.3 </li>
942     </ul>
943    
944 fox2mike 1.1 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-sev.png" caption="Severity"/>
945    
946     <p>
947 fox2mike 1.3 Here, we'll set it to Normal.
948     </p>
949    
950     <p>
951 fox2mike 1.1 Now we can submit the bug report by clicking on the Submit Bug Report box. You
952     will now see your new bug come up. See <uri
953     link="https://bugs.gentoo.org/show_bug.cgi?id=97265">Bug 97561</uri> for what
954     the result looks like. We've reported our bug! Now let's see how it's dealt
955     with.
956     </p>
957    
958     </body>
959     </section>
960     </chapter>
961    
962     <chapter>
963     <title>Working With Your Bug</title>
964     <section>
965     <body>
966    
967     <p>
968 fox2mike 1.3 Looking at the bug, we see the information we provided earlier. You will notice
969     that the bug has been assigned to bug-wranglers@gentoo.org. This is the default
970     location for Application component bugs.
971 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
972    
973     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-new-basic.png" caption="New Bug Basic Information"/>
974    
975     <p>
976 fox2mike 1.3 The details we entered about the bug are available as well.
977 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
978    
979     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-new-details.png" caption="New Bug Details"/>
980    
981     <p>
982 fox2mike 1.3 However, bug-wranglers (usually) won't fix our bugs, so we'll reassign it to
983     someone that can (you can let bug-wranglers re-assign it for you as well). For
984     this we use the package's metadata.xml. You can normally find them in
985     <path>/usr/portage/category/package/metadata.xml</path>. Here's one I've made up
986     for foobar2.
987 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
988    
989 fox2mike 1.3 <note>
990     You have to be the reporter of the bug or a member of certain Gentoo Bugzilla
991     groups (like Gentoo Developers) to be able to reassign bugs.
992     </note>
993    
994 fox2mike 1.1 <pre caption="metadata.xml">
995     &lt;?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?&gt;
996     &lt;!DOCTYPE pkgmetadata SYSTEM "http://www.gentoo.org/dtd/metadata.dtd"&gt;
997     &lt;pkgmetadata&gt;
998     &lt;herd&gt;chriswhite&lt;/herd&gt;
999     &lt;maintainer&gt;
1000     &lt;email&gt;chriswhite@gentoo.org&lt;/email&gt;
1001     &lt;name&gt;Chris White&lt;/name&gt;
1002     &lt;/maintainer&gt;
1003     &lt;longdescription lang="en"&gt;
1004     Foobar2 is a package that uses a configuration file to display a word.
1005     &lt;/longdescription&gt;
1006     &lt;/pkgmetadata&gt;
1007     </pre>
1008    
1009     <p>
1010 fox2mike 1.3 Notice the maintainer section. This lists the maintainer of the package, which
1011 fox2mike 1.1 in this case is myself, Chris White. The email listed is chriswhite@gentoo.org.
1012     We will use this to re-assign the bug to the proper person. To do this, click
1013 fox2mike 1.3 the bubble next to Reassign bug to, then fill in the email.
1014 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
1015    
1016     <note>
1017 fox2mike 1.3 A bug for a package without a metadata.xml file should be re-assigned to
1018     maintainer-needed@gentoo.org and a package that needs a Gentoo Developer to
1019     maintain should be assigned to maintainer-wanted@gentoo.org.
1020 fox2mike 1.1 </note>
1021    
1022     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-reassign.png" caption="Bug Reassignment"/>
1023    
1024     <p>
1025     Then hit the Commit button for the changes to take place. The bug has been
1026     reassigned to me. Shortly afterward, you notice (by email usually) that I've
1027     responded to your bug. I've stated that I'd like to see an strace log to figure
1028     out how the program is trying to reach your configuration file. You follow the
1029     previous instructions on using strace and obtain an strace log. Now you need to
1030     attach it to the bug. In order to do this, click on "Create A New Attachment".
1031     </p>
1032    
1033     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-new-attach.png" caption="New Attachment"/>
1034    
1035     <p>
1036 fox2mike 1.3 Now we have to attach the log. Let's go throught it step wise.
1037 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
1038    
1039 fox2mike 1.3 <ul>
1040     <li>
1041 neysx 1.5 File - This is the location of the file in your machine. In this example,
1042     the location of <path>strace.log</path>. You can use the "Browse..." button
1043     to select the file, or enter the path directly in the text field.
1044 fox2mike 1.3 </li>
1045     <li>
1046 neysx 1.5 Description - A short one liner, or a few wors describing the attachment.
1047     We'll just enter strace.log here, since that's quite self-explanatory.
1048 fox2mike 1.3 </li>
1049     <li>
1050 neysx 1.5 Content Type - This is the type of the file we're attaching to the bug.
1051 fox2mike 1.3 </li>
1052     <li>
1053 neysx 1.5 Obsoletes - If there were attachements submitted to the bug before the
1054     current one, you have an option of declaring them obsoleted by yours. Since
1055     we have no prior attachments to this bug, we need not bother.
1056 fox2mike 1.3 </li>
1057     <li>
1058 neysx 1.5 Comment - Enter comments that will be visible along with the attachments.
1059     You could elaborate on the attachment here, if needed.
1060 fox2mike 1.3 </li>
1061     </ul>
1062    
1063     <p>
1064     With respect to Content Type, here are a few more details. You can check the
1065 neysx 1.5 "patch" checkbox if you're submitting a patch. Otherwise, you could ask
1066     Bugzilla to "auto-detect" the file type (not advisable). The other options are
1067     "select from list", which is most frequently used. Use plain text (text/plain)
1068     for <e>most</e> attachments except binary files like images (which can use
1069     image/gif, image/jpeg or image/png depending on type) or compressed files like
1070     .tar.bz2 which would use application/octet-stream as content type.
1071 fox2mike 1.3 </p>
1072    
1073    
1074 fox2mike 1.1 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-new-attach-comp.png" caption="New Attachment Completed"/>
1075    
1076     <p>
1077 fox2mike 1.3 We submit <path>strace.log</path> and it is reflected on the bug report.
1078 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
1079    
1080     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-strace.png" caption="Attached strace log"/>
1081    
1082     <p>
1083 fox2mike 1.3 We've mentioned before that sometimes ebuilds will tell you to attach a file in
1084     the emerge error. An example can be seen below.
1085     </p>
1086    
1087     <pre caption="Example File Attachment Request">
1088     configure: error: PNG support requires ZLIB. Use --with-zlib-dir=&lt;DIR&gt;
1089    
1090     !!! Please attach the config.log to your bug report:
1091     !!! /var/tmp/portage/php-5.0.3-r1/work/php-5.0.3/config.log
1092    
1093     !!! ERROR: dev-php/php-5.0.3-r1 failed.
1094     !!! Function econf, Line 485, Exitcode 0
1095     !!! econf failed
1096     !!! If you need support, post the topmost build error, NOT this status message.
1097     </pre>
1098    
1099     <p>
1100     Please attach any file mentioned like this to your bug report.
1101     </p>
1102    
1103     <p>
1104     While we're doing all this, suppose another person finds your bug by searching
1105     through bugzilla and is curious to keep track of the bug, they may do so by
1106     putting their email in the Add CC field of the bug as shown below. You could
1107     also keep track of other bugs by following the same method.
1108 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
1109    
1110     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-add-email.png" caption="Adding Email To CC:"/>
1111    
1112     <note>
1113 fox2mike 1.3 Email addresses must be registered with Gentoo Bugzilla. In order to CC multiple
1114 fox2mike 1.1 addresses, simply separate them with commas or spaces.
1115     </note>
1116    
1117     <p>
1118 fox2mike 1.3 After all this work, the bug can undergo various status markings. This is
1119     usually done by the Gentoo Developers and sometimes by the reporter. The
1120     following are the various possible states a bug may go through during its
1121     lifetime.
1122 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
1123    
1124     <ul>
1125     <li>
1126 neysx 1.5 UNCONFIRMED - You're generally not going to see this too often. This means
1127     that a bug reporter has opened a bug using the advanced method and is
1128     uncertain his or her bug is an actual bug.
1129 fox2mike 1.2 </li>
1130 neysx 1.5 <li>NEW - Bugs that are first opened are considered new.</li>
1131 fox2mike 1.1 <li>
1132 neysx 1.5 ASSIGNED - When the person you've assigned the bug too validates your bug,
1133     it will often receive ASSIGNED status while they figure out the issue.
1134     This lets you know that they've accepted your bug as a real bug.
1135 fox2mike 1.2 </li>
1136 fox2mike 1.1 <li>
1137 neysx 1.5 REOPENED - Someone has resolved a bug and you think the solution is not
1138     feasible or the problem still persists. At this point, you may re-open the
1139     bug. Please <b>do not abuse this</b>. If a developer closes the bug a
1140     second or third time, chances are that your bug is closed.
1141 fox2mike 1.2 </li>
1142 fox2mike 1.1 <li>
1143 neysx 1.5 RESOLVED - A firm decision has been taken on the bug. Usually goes onto
1144     FIXED to indicate the bug is solved and the matter closed although various
1145     other resolutions are possible. We'll look into those a little later.
1146 fox2mike 1.3 </li>
1147     <li>
1148 neysx 1.5 VERIFIED - The steps take to work the bug are correct. This is usually a QA
1149     thing.
1150 fox2mike 1.3 </li>
1151     <li>
1152 neysx 1.5 CLOSED - Basically means RIP for the bug and it's buried under the never
1153     ending flow of new bugs.
1154 fox2mike 1.2 </li>
1155 fox2mike 1.1 </ul>
1156    
1157     <p>
1158 fox2mike 1.3 Now shortly afterward, we find the error in the strace log and fix the bug and
1159 neysx 1.5 mark it as RESOLVED FIXED and mention that there was a change in the location
1160     of configuration files, and that I will update the ebuild with a warning about
1161     it. The bug now becomes resolved, and you are shown the following.
1162 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
1163    
1164     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-reso.png" caption="Resolved Bug"/>
1165    
1166     <p>
1167 fox2mike 1.3 A little below, you'll see the following:
1168 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
1169    
1170     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-options.png" caption="Bug Options"/>
1171    
1172     <p>
1173 neysx 1.5 This gives you the option of Reopening the bug if you wish to (i.e. the
1174     developer thinks it's resolved but it's really not to your standards). Now our
1175     bug is fixed! However, different resolutions can occur. Here's a small list:
1176 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
1177    
1178     <ul>
1179     <li>
1180 neysx 1.5 FIXED - The bug is fixed, follow the instructions to resolve your issue.
1181 fox2mike 1.2 </li>
1182 fox2mike 1.1 <li>
1183 neysx 1.5 INVALID - You did not do something specifically documented, causing the
1184     bug.
1185 fox2mike 1.2 </li>
1186 neysx 1.5 <li>DUPLICATE - You didn't use this guide and reported a duplicate bug.</li>
1187 fox2mike 1.1 <li>
1188 neysx 1.5 WORKSFORME - Developer/person assigned the bug cannot reproduce your error.
1189 fox2mike 1.3 </li>
1190     <li>
1191 neysx 1.5 CANTFIX - Somehow the bug cannot be solved because of certain
1192     circumstances. These circumstances will be noted by the person taking the
1193     bug.
1194 fox2mike 1.3 </li>
1195     <li>
1196 neysx 1.5 WONTFIX - This is usually applied to new ebuilds or feature requests.
1197     Basically the developer does not want to add a certain feature because it
1198     is not needed, a better alternative exists, or it's just plain broken.
1199     Sometimes you may be given a solution to get said issue resolved.
1200 fox2mike 1.3 </li>
1201     <li>
1202 neysx 1.5 UPSTREAM - The bug cannot be fixed by the Gentoo development team, and have
1203     requested you take the problem upstream (the people that actually made the
1204     program) for review. Upstream has a few ways of handling bugs. These
1205     include mailing lists, irc channels, and even bug reporting systems. If
1206     you're not sure how to contact them, ask in the bug and someone will point
1207     you to the right direction.
1208 fox2mike 1.2 </li>
1209 fox2mike 1.1 </ul>
1210    
1211 fox2mike 1.3 <p>
1212     Sometimes, before the bug can be resolved, a developer may request that you
1213     test an updated ebulid. In the next chapter we'll take a look at testing
1214     ebuilds.
1215     </p>
1216    
1217 fox2mike 1.1 </body>
1218     </section>
1219 fox2mike 1.3 </chapter>
1220 fox2mike 1.1
1221 fox2mike 1.3 <chapter>
1222     <title>Testing Ebuilds</title>
1223     <section>
1224     <title>Getting The Files</title>
1225     <body>
1226    
1227     <p>
1228     Let's say that you reported a bug for the foobar2 compile fix from earlier. Now
1229     developers might find out what the problem is and might need you to test the
1230     ebuild for them to be sure it works for you as well:
1231     </p>
1232    
1233     <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-ebuild-request.png" caption="Ebuild Test Request"/>
1234    
1235     <p>
1236     Some rather confusing vocabulary is used here. First off, let's see what an
1237     overlay is. An overlay is a special directory like <path>/usr/portage</path>,
1238     the difference being that when you <c>emerge sync</c>, files contained within it
1239     will not be deleted. Luckily, a special <path>/usr/local/portage</path>
1240     directory is created for that purpose. Let's go ahead and set our portage
1241     overlay in<path>/etc/make.conf</path>. Open make.conf up in your favorite editor
1242     and add this towards the end.
1243     </p>
1244    
1245     <pre caption="Setting Up PORTDIR_OVERLAY">
1246     PORTDIR_OVERLAY="/usr/local/portage"
1247     </pre>
1248    
1249     <p>
1250     Now we'll want to create the appropriate directories to put our test ebuild
1251     files in. In this case, we're supposed to put them in sys-apps/foobar2. You'll
1252     notice that the second comment asks for a files directory for the patch. The
1253     files directory holds the digests (md5sums of files for a particular version of
1254     a package) and any other required files that aren't included with the standard
1255     source archive (patches, init.d scripts, etc). This is a subdir in the package
1256     directory called files. Go ahead and create these directories:
1257     </p>
1258    
1259     <pre caption="Setting Up The Category And Package Directories">
1260     # <i>mkdir -p /usr/local/portage/sys-apps/foobar2/files</i>
1261     </pre>
1262    
1263     <note>
1264     The -p in mkdir creates not only the directory you want but also any missing
1265     parent directories as well (sys-apps and foobar2 in this case).
1266     </note>
1267    
1268     <p>
1269     Ok now, we can go ahead and download the files. First, download the ebuild
1270     into <path>/usr/local/portage/sys-apps/foobar2</path>, and then add the patch
1271     to <path>/usr/local/portage/sys-apps/foobar2/files</path>. Now that we have the
1272     files, we can begin working on testing the ebuild.
1273     </p>
1274    
1275     </body>
1276     </section>
1277     <section>
1278     <title>Testing The ebuild</title>
1279     <body>
1280    
1281     <p>
1282     The process to create an ebuild that can be used by emerge is fairly simple. You
1283     must create a Manifest and a digest file for the ebuild. This can be done with
1284     the ebuild command. Run it as shown.
1285     </p>
1286    
1287     <pre caption="Creating the Manifest and digest files">
1288     # <i>ebuild foobar2-1.0.ebuild digest</i>
1289     &gt;&gt;&gt; Generating digest file...
1290     &lt;&lt;&lt; foobar2-1.0.tar.bz2
1291     &gt;&gt;&gt; Generating manifest file...
1292     &lt;&lt;&lt; foobar2-1.0.ebuild
1293     &lt;&lt;&lt; files/digest-foobar2-1.0
1294     &lt;&lt;&lt; files/foobar2-1.0-Makefile.patch
1295     &gt;&gt;&gt; Computed message digests.
1296     </pre>
1297    
1298     <p>
1299     Now let's test to see if it works as it should.
1300     </p>
1301    
1302     <pre caption="Testing With emerge -pv">
1303     # <i>emerge -pv foobar2</i>
1304    
1305     These are the packages that I would merge, in order:
1306    
1307     Calculating dependencies ...done!
1308     [ebuild N ] sys-apps/foobar2-1.0 0 kB [1]
1309    
1310     Total size of downloads: 0 kB
1311     Portage overlays:
1312     [1] /usr/local/portage
1313     </pre>
1314    
1315     <p>
1316     It does seem to have worked! You'll notice the [1] next to the [ebuild] line.
1317     That points to <path>/usr/local/portage</path>, which is the overlay we created
1318     earlier. Now we go ahead and emerge the package.
1319     </p>
1320    
1321     <pre caption="Emerge Result">
1322 neysx 1.5 # <i>emerge foobar2</i>
1323 fox2mike 1.3 Calculating dependencies ...done!
1324     <comment>(compile info snipped)</comment>
1325     >>> Unpacking foobar2-1.0.tar.bz2 to /var/tmp/portage/foobar2-1.0/work
1326     * Applying foobar2-1.0-Makefile.patch ... [ ok ]
1327     <comment>(compile info snipped)</comment>
1328     >>> Merging sys-apps/foobar2-1.0 to /
1329     >>> chris +sandbox(preinst)
1330     --- /usr/
1331     --- /usr/bin/
1332     >>> /usr/bin/foobar2
1333     </pre>
1334    
1335     <p>
1336     In the first section we see that the emerge started off as it should. The second
1337     section shows our patch being applied successfully by the "[ ok ]" status
1338     message to the right. The last section tells us the program compiled ok. The
1339     patch works! Now we can go and let the developer know that their patch works
1340     fine, and that they can commit the fix to portage.
1341     </p>
1342    
1343     </body>
1344     </section>
1345 fox2mike 1.1 <section>
1346     <title>Conclusion</title>
1347     <body>
1348    
1349     <p>
1350     This concludes the howto on working with Bugzilla. I hope you find this useful.
1351     If you have any questions, comments, or ideas regarding this document, please
1352 neysx 1.5 send them to me at <mail>chriswhite@gentoo.org</mail>. Special thanks go to
1353     moreon for his notes on -g flags and compile errors, the people at #gentoo-bugs
1354     for helping out with bug-wrangling, Griffon26 for his notes on
1355 fox2mike 1.3 maintainer-needed, robbat2 for general suggestions and fox2mike for fixing up
1356     the doc and adding stuff as needed.
1357 fox2mike 1.1 </p>
1358    
1359     </body>
1360     </section>
1361     </chapter>
1362     </guide>

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