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1 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/bugzilla-howto.xml,v 1.7 2006/09/02 05:26:46 rane Exp $ -->
4
5 <guide link="/doc/en/bugzilla-howto.xml">
6 <title>Gentoo Bug Reporting Guide</title>
7
8 <author title="Author">
9 <mail link="chriswhite@gentoo.org">Chris White</mail>
10 </author>
11 <author title="Editor">
12 <mail link="fox2mike@gentoo.org">Shyam Mani</mail>
13 </author>
14
15 <abstract>
16 This document shows the proper method of reporting bugs using Bugzilla.
17 </abstract>
18
19 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
20 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
21 <license/>
22
23 <version>1.7</version>
24 <date>2006-11-10</date>
25
26 <chapter>
27 <title>Introduction</title>
28 <section>
29 <title>Preface</title>
30 <body>
31
32 <p>
33 One of the factors that delay a bug being fixed is the way it is reported. By
34 creating this guide, we hope to help improve the communication between
35 developers and users in bug resolution. Getting bugs fixed is an important, if
36 not crucial part of the quality assurance for any project and hopefully this
37 guide will help make that a success.
38 </p>
39
40 </body>
41 </section>
42 <section>
43 <title>Bugs!!!!</title>
44 <body>
45
46 <p>
47 You're emerge-ing a package or working with a program and suddenly the worst
48 happens -- you find a bug. Bugs come in many forms like emerge failures or
49 segmentation faults. Whatever the cause, the fact still remains that such a bug
50 must be fixed. Here is a few examples of such bugs.
51 </p>
52
53 <pre caption="A run time error">
54 $ <i>./bad_code `perl -e 'print Ax100'`</i>
55 Segmentation fault
56 </pre>
57
58 <pre caption="An emerge failure">
59 /usr/lib/gcc-lib/i686-pc-linux-gnu/3.3.2/include/g++-v3/backward/backward_warning.h:32:2:
60 warning: #warning This file includes at least one deprecated or antiquated
61 header. Please consider using one of the 32 headers found in section 17.4.1.2 of
62 the C++ standard. Examples include substituting the &lt;X&gt; header for the &lt;X.h&gt;
63 header for C++ includes, or &lt;sstream&gt; instead of the deprecated header
64 &lt;strstream.h&gt;. To disable this warning use -Wno-deprecated.
65 In file included from main.cc:40:
66 menudef.h:55: error: brace-enclosed initializer used to initialize `
67 OXPopupMenu*'
68 menudef.h:62: error: brace-enclosed initializer used to initialize `
69 OXPopupMenu*'
70 menudef.h:70: error: brace-enclosed initializer used to initialize `
71 OXPopupMenu*'
72 menudef.h:78: error: brace-enclosed initializer used to initialize `
73 OXPopupMenu*'
74 main.cc: In member function `void OXMain::DoOpen()':
75 main.cc:323: warning: unused variable `FILE*fp'
76 main.cc: In member function `void OXMain::DoSave(char*)':
77 main.cc:337: warning: unused variable `FILE*fp'
78 make[1]: *** [main.o] Error 1
79 make[1]: Leaving directory
80 `/var/tmp/portage/xclass-0.7.4/work/xclass-0.7.4/example-app'
81 make: *** [shared] Error 2
82
83 !!! ERROR: x11-libs/xclass-0.7.4 failed.
84 !!! Function src_compile, Line 29, Exitcode 2
85 !!! 'emake shared' failed
86 </pre>
87
88 <p>
89 These errors can be quite troublesome. However, once you find them, what do you
90 do? The following sections will look at two important tools for handling run
91 time errors. After that, we'll take a look at compile errors, and how to handle
92 them. Let's start out with the first tool for debugging run time errors --
93 <c>gdb</c>.
94 </p>
95
96 </body>
97 </section>
98 </chapter>
99
100
101 <chapter>
102 <title>Debugging using GDB</title>
103 <section>
104 <title>Introduction</title>
105 <body>
106
107 <p>
108 GDB, or the (G)NU (D)e(B)ugger, is a program used to find run time errors that
109 normally involve memory corruption. First off, let's take a look at what
110 debugging entails. One of the main things you must do in order to debug a
111 program is to <c>emerge</c> the program with <c>FEATURES="nostrip"</c>. This
112 prevents the stripping of debug symbols. Why are programs stripped by default?
113 The reason is the same as that for having gzipped man pages -- saving space.
114 Here's how the size of a program varies with and without debug symbol stripping.
115 </p>
116
117 <pre caption="Filesize Comparison">
118 <comment>(debug symbols stripped)</comment>
119 -rwxr-xr-x 1 chris users 3140 6/28 13:11 bad_code
120 <comment>(debug symbols intact)</comment>
121 -rwxr-xr-x 1 chris users 6374 6/28 13:10 bad_code
122 </pre>
123
124 <p>
125 Just for reference, <e>bad_code</e> is the program we'll be debugging with
126 <c>gdb</c> later on. As you can see, the program without debugging symbols is
127 3140 bytes, while the program with them is 6374 bytes. That's close to double
128 the size! Two more things can be done for debugging. The first is adding ggdb3
129 to your CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS. This flag adds more debugging information than is
130 generally included. We'll see what that means later on. This is how
131 <path>/etc/make.conf</path> <e>might</e> look with the newly added flags.
132 </p>
133
134 <pre caption="make.conf settings">
135 CFLAGS="-O1 -pipe -g -ggdb"
136 CXXFLAGS="${CFLAGS}"
137 </pre>
138
139 <p>
140 Lastly, you can also add debug to the package's USE flags. This can be done
141 with the <path>package.use</path> file.
142 </p>
143
144 <pre caption="Using package.use to add debug USE flag">
145 # <i>echo "category/package debug" >> /etc/portage/package.use</i>
146 </pre>
147
148 <note>
149 The directory <path>/etc/portage</path> does not exist by default and you may
150 have to create it, if you have not already done so. If the package already has
151 USE flags set in <path>package.use</path>, you will need to manually modify them
152 in your favorite editor.
153 </note>
154
155 <p>
156 Then we re-emerge the package with the modifications we've done so far as shown
157 below.
158 </p>
159
160 <pre caption="Re-emergeing a package with debugging">
161 # <i>FEATURES="nostrip" emerge package</i>
162 </pre>
163
164 <p>
165 Now that debug symbols are setup, we can continue with debugging the program.
166 </p>
167
168 </body>
169 </section>
170 <section>
171 <title>Running the program with GDB</title>
172 <body>
173
174 <p>
175 Let's say we have a program here called "bad_code". Some person claims that the
176 program crashes and provides an example. You go ahead and test it out:
177 </p>
178
179 <pre caption="Breaking The Program">
180 $ <i>./bad_code `perl -e 'print Ax100'`</i>
181 Segmentation fault
182 </pre>
183
184 <p>
185 It seems this person was right. Since the program is obviously broken, we have
186 a bug at hand. Now, it's time to use <c>gdb</c> to help solve this matter. First
187 we run <c>gdb</c> with <c>--args</c>, then give it the full program with
188 arguments like shown:
189 </p>
190
191 <pre caption="Running Our Program Through GDB">
192 $ <i>gdb --args ./bad_code `perl -e 'print Ax100'`</i>
193 GNU gdb 6.3
194 Copyright 2004 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
195 GDB is free software, covered by the GNU General Public License, and you are
196 welcome to change it and/or distribute copies of it under certain conditions.
197 Type "show copying" to see the conditions.
198 There is absolutely no warranty for GDB. Type "show warranty" for details.
199 This GDB was configured as "i686-pc-linux-gnu"...Using host libthread_db library "/lib/libthread_db.so.1".
200 </pre>
201
202 <note>
203 One can also debug with core dumps. These core files contain the same
204 information that the program would produce when run with gdb. In order to debug
205 with a core file with bad_code, you would run <c>gdb ./bad_code core</c> where
206 core is the name of the core file.
207 </note>
208
209 <p>
210 You should see a prompt that says "(gdb)" and waits for input. First, we have to
211 run the program. We type in <c>run</c> at the command and receive a notice like:
212 </p>
213
214 <pre caption="Running the program in GDB">
215 (gdb) <i>run</i>
216 Starting program: /home/chris/bad_code
217
218 Program received signal SIGSEGV, Segmentation fault.
219 0xb7ec6dc0 in strcpy () from /lib/libc.so.6
220 </pre>
221
222 <p>
223 Here we see the program starting, as well as a notification of SIGSEGV, or
224 Segmentation Fault. This is GDB telling us that our program has crashed. It
225 also gives the last run function it could trace when the program crashes.
226 However, this isn't too useful, as there could be multiple strcpy's in the
227 program, making it hard for developers to find which one is causing the issue.
228 In order to help them out, we do what's called a backtrace. A backtrace runs
229 backwards through all the functions that occurred upon program execution, to the
230 function at fault. Functions that return (without causing a crash) will not show
231 up on the backtrace. To get a backtrace, at the (gdb) prompt, type in <c>bt</c>.
232 You will get something like this:
233 </p>
234
235 <pre caption="Program backtrace">
236 (gdb) <i>bt</i>
237 #0 0xb7ec6dc0 in strcpy () from /lib/libc.so.6
238 #1 0x0804838c in run_it ()
239 #2 0x080483ba in main ()
240 </pre>
241
242 <p>
243 You can notice the trace pattern clearly. main() is called first, followed by
244 run_it(), and somewhere in run_it() lies the strcpy() at fault. Things such as
245 this help developers narrow down problems. There are a few exceptions to the
246 output. First off is forgetting to enable debug symbols with
247 <c>FEATURES="nostrip"</c>. With debug symbols stripped, the output looks something
248 like this:
249 </p>
250
251 <pre caption="Program backtrace With debug symbols stripped">
252 (gdb) <i>bt</i>
253 #0 0xb7e2cdc0 in strcpy () from /lib/libc.so.6
254 #1 0x0804838c in ?? ()
255 #2 0xbfd19510 in ?? ()
256 #3 0x00000000 in ?? ()
257 #4 0x00000000 in ?? ()
258 #5 0xb7eef148 in libgcc_s_personality () from /lib/libc.so.6
259 #6 0x080482ed in ?? ()
260 #7 0x080495b0 in ?? ()
261 #8 0xbfd19528 in ?? ()
262 #9 0xb7dd73b8 in __guard_setup () from /lib/libc.so.6
263 #10 0xb7dd742d in __guard_setup () from /lib/libc.so.6
264 #11 0x00000006 in ?? ()
265 #12 0xbfd19548 in ?? ()
266 #13 0x080483ba in ?? ()
267 #14 0x00000000 in ?? ()
268 #15 0x00000000 in ?? ()
269 #16 0xb7deebcc in __new_exitfn () from /lib/libc.so.6
270 #17 0x00000000 in ?? ()
271 #18 0xbfd19560 in ?? ()
272 #19 0xb7ef017c in nullserv () from /lib/libc.so.6
273 #20 0xb7dd6f37 in __libc_start_main () from /lib/libc.so.6
274 #21 0x00000001 in ?? ()
275 #22 0xbfd195d4 in ?? ()
276 #23 0xbfd195dc in ?? ()
277 #24 0x08048201 in ?? ()
278 </pre>
279
280 <p>
281 This backtrace contains a large number of ?? marks. This is because without
282 debug symbols, <c>gdb</c> doesn't know how the program was run. Hence, it is
283 crucial that debug symbols are <e>not</e> stripped. Now remember a while ago we
284 mentioned the -ggdb flag. Let's see what the output looks like with the flag
285 enabled:
286 </p>
287
288 <pre caption="Program backtrace with -ggdb3">
289 (gdb) <i>bt</i>
290 #0 0xb7e4bdc0 in strcpy () from /lib/libc.so.6
291 #1 0x0804838c in run_it (input=0x0) at bad_code.c:7
292 #2 0x080483ba in main (argc=1, argv=0xbfd3a434) at bad_code.c:12
293 </pre>
294
295 <p>
296 Here we see that a lot more information is available for developers. Not only is
297 function information displayed, but even the exact line numbers of the source
298 files. This method is the most preferred if you can spare the extra space.
299 Here's how much the file size varies between debug, strip, and -ggdb enabled
300 programs.
301 </p>
302
303 <pre caption="Filesize differences With -ggdb flag">
304 <comment>(debug symbols stripped)</comment>
305 -rwxr-xr-x 1 chris users 3140 6/28 13:11 bad_code
306 <comment>(debug symbols enabled)</comment>
307 -rwxr-xr-x 1 chris users 6374 6/28 13:10 bad_code
308 <comment>(-ggdb flag enabled)</comment>
309 -rwxr-xr-x 1 chris users 19552 6/28 13:11 bad_code
310 </pre>
311
312 <p>
313 As you can see, -ggdb adds about <e>13178</e> more bytes to the file size over
314 the one with debugging symbols. However, as shown above, this increase in file
315 size can be worth it if presenting debug information to developers. The
316 backtrace can be saved to a file by copying and pasting from the terminal (if
317 it's a non-x based terminal, you can use gpm. To keep this doc simple, I
318 recommend you read up on the <uri link="/doc/en/gpm.xml#doc_chap4">documentation
319 for gpm</uri> to see how to copy and paste with it). Now that we're done with
320 <c>gdb</c>, we can quit.
321 </p>
322
323 <pre caption="Quitting GDB">
324 (gdb) <i>quit</i>
325 The program is running. Exit anyway? (y or n) <i>y</i>
326 $
327 </pre>
328
329 <p>
330 This ends the walk-through of <c>gdb</c>. Using <c>gdb</c>, we hope that you will
331 be able to use it to create better bug reports. However, there are other types
332 of errors that can cause a program to fail during run time. One of the other
333 ways is through improper file access. We can find those using a nifty little
334 tool called <c>strace</c>.
335 </p>
336
337 </body>
338 </section>
339 </chapter>
340
341 <chapter>
342 <title>Finding file access errors using strace</title>
343 <section>
344 <title>Introduction</title>
345 <body>
346
347 <p>
348 Programs often use files to fetch configuration information, access hardware or
349 write logs. Sometimes, a program attempts to reach such files incorrectly. A
350 tool called <c>strace</c> was created to help deal with this. <c>strace</c>
351 traces system calls (hence the name) which include calls that use the memory and
352 files. For our example, we're going to take a program foobar2. This is an
353 updated version of foobar. However, during the change over to foobar2, you notice
354 all your configurations are missing! In foobar version 1, you had it setup to
355 say "foo", but now it's using the default "bar".
356 </p>
357
358 <pre caption="Foobar2 With an invalid configuration">
359 $ <i>./foobar2</i>
360 Configuration says: bar
361 </pre>
362
363 <p>
364 Our previous configuration specifically had it set to foo, so let's use
365 <c>strace</c> to find out what's going on.
366 </p>
367
368 </body>
369 </section>
370 <section>
371 <title>Using strace to track the issue</title>
372 <body>
373
374 <p>
375 We make <c>strace</c> log the results of the system calls. To do this, we run
376 <c>strace</c> with the -o[file] arguments. Let's use it on foobar2 as shown.
377 </p>
378
379 <pre caption="Running foobar2 through strace">
380 # <i>strace -ostrace.log ./foobar2</i>
381 </pre>
382
383 <p>
384 This creates a file called <path>strace.log</path> in the current directory. We
385 check the file, and shown below are the relevant parts from the file.
386 </p>
387
388 <pre caption="A Look At the strace Log">
389 open(".foobar2/config", O_RDONLY) = 3
390 read(3, "bar", 3) = 3
391 </pre>
392
393 <p>
394 Aha! So There's the problem. Someone moved the configuration directory to
395 <path>.foobar2</path> instead of <path>.foobar</path>. We also see the program
396 reading in "bar" as it should. In this case, we can recommend the ebuild
397 maintainer to put a warning about it. For now though, we can copy over the
398 config file from <path>.foobar</path> and modify it to produce the correct
399 results.
400 </p>
401
402 </body>
403 </section>
404 <section>
405 <title>Conclusion</title>
406 <body>
407
408 <p>
409 Now we've taken care of finding run time bugs. These bugs prove to be
410 problematic when you try and run your programs. However, run time errors are
411 the least of your concerns if your program won't compile at all. Let's take a
412 look at how to address <c>emerge</c> compile errors.
413 </p>
414
415 </body>
416 </section>
417 </chapter>
418
419 <chapter>
420 <title>Handling emerge Errors</title>
421 <section>
422 <title>Introduction</title>
423 <body>
424
425 <p>
426 <c>emerge</c> errors, such as the one displayed earlier, can be a major cause
427 of frustration for users. Reporting them is considered crucial for maintaining
428 the health of Gentoo. Let's take a look at a sample ebuild, foobar2, which
429 contains some build errors.
430 </p>
431
432 </body>
433 </section>
434 <section id="emerge_error">
435 <title>Evaluating emerge Errors</title>
436 <body>
437
438 <p>
439 Let's take a look at this very simple <c>emerge</c> error:
440 </p>
441
442 <pre caption="emerge Error">
443 gcc -D__TEST__ -D__GNU__ -D__LINUX__ -L/usr/lib -I/usr/include -L/usr/lib/nspr/ -I/usr/include/fmod -c -o foobar2-7.o foobar2-7.c
444 gcc -D__TEST__ -D__GNU__ -D__LINUX__ -L/usr/lib -I/usr/include -L/usr/lib/nspr/ -I/usr/include/fmod -c -o foobar2-8.o foobar2-8.c
445 gcc -D__TEST__ -D__GNU__ -D__LINUX__ -L/usr/lib -I/usr/include -L/usr/lib/nspr/ -I/usr/include/fmod -c -o foobar2-9.o foobar2-9.c
446 gcc -D__TEST__ -D__GNU__ -D__LINUX__ -L/usr/lib -I/usr/include -L/usr/lib/nspr/ -I/usr/include/fmod -c -o foobar2.o foobar2.c
447 foobar2.c:1:17: ogg.h: No such file or directory
448 make: *** [foobar2.o] Error 1
449
450 !!! ERROR: sys-apps/foobar2-1.0 failed.
451 !!! Function src_compile, Line 19, Exitcode 2
452 !!! Make failed!
453 !!! If you need support, post the topmost build error, NOT this status message
454 </pre>
455
456 <p>
457 The program is compiling smoothly when it suddenly stops and presents an error message. This
458 particular error can be split into 3 different sections, The compile messages, the build
459 error, and the emerge error message as shown below.
460 </p>
461
462 <pre caption="Parts of the error">
463 <comment>(Compilation Messages)</comment>
464 gcc -D__TEST__ -D__GNU__ -D__LINUX__ -L/usr/lib -I/usr/include -L/usr/lib/nspr/ -I/usr/include/fmod -c -o foobar2-7.o foobar2-7.c
465 gcc -D__TEST__ -D__GNU__ -D__LINUX__ -L/usr/lib -I/usr/include -L/usr/lib/nspr/ -I/usr/include/fmod -c -o foobar2-8.o foobar2-8.c
466 gcc -D__TEST__ -D__GNU__ -D__LINUX__ -L/usr/lib -I/usr/include -L/usr/lib/nspr/ -I/usr/include/fmod -c -o foobar2-9.o foobar2-9.c
467 gcc -D__TEST__ -D__GNU__ -D__LINUX__ -L/usr/lib -I/usr/include -L/usr/lib/nspr/ -I/usr/include/fmod -c -o foobar2.o foobar2.c
468
469 <comment>(Build Error)</comment>
470 foobar2.c:1:17: ogg.h: No such file or directory
471 make: *** [foobar2.o] Error 1
472
473 <comment>(emerge Error)</comment>
474 !!! ERROR: sys-apps/foobar2-1.0 failed.
475 !!! Function src_compile, Line 19, Exitcode 2
476 !!! Make failed!
477 !!! If you need support, post the topmost build error, NOT this status message
478 </pre>
479
480 <p>
481 The compilation messages are what lead up to the error. Most often, it's good to
482 at least include 10 lines of compile information so that the developer knows
483 where the compilation was at when the error occurred.
484 </p>
485
486 <p>
487 Make errors are the actual error and the information the developer needs. When
488 you see "make: ***", this is often where the error has occurred. Normally, you
489 can copy and paste 10 lines above it and the developer will be able to address
490 the issue. However, this may not always work and we'll take a look at an
491 alternative shortly.
492 </p>
493
494 <p>
495 The emerge error is what <c>emerge</c> throws out as an error. Sometimes, this
496 might also contain some important information. Often people make the mistake of
497 posting the emerge error and that's all. This is useless by itself, but with
498 make error and compile information, a developer can get what application and
499 what version of the package is failing. As a side note, make is commonly used as
500 the build process for programs (<b>but not always</b>). If you can't find a
501 "make: ***" error anywhere, then simply copy and paste 20 lines before the
502 emerge error. This should take care of most all build system error messages. Now
503 let's say the errors seem to be quite large. 10 lines won't be enough to catch
504 everything. That's where PORT_LOGDIR comes into play.
505 </p>
506
507 </body>
508 </section>
509 <section>
510 <title>emerge and PORT_LOGDIR</title>
511 <body>
512
513 <p>
514 PORT_LOGDIR is a portage variable that sets up a log directory for separate
515 emerge logs. Let's take a look and see what that entails. First, run your
516 emerge with PORT_LOGDIR set to your favorite log location. Let's say we have a
517 location <path>/var/log/portage</path>. We'll use that for our log directory:
518 </p>
519
520 <note>
521 In the default setup, <path>/var/log/portage</path> does not exist, and you will
522 most likely have to create it. If you do not, portage will fail to write the
523 logs.
524 </note>
525
526 <pre caption="emerge-ing With PORT_LOGDIR">
527 # <i>PORT_LOGDIR=/var/log/portage emerge foobar2</i>
528 </pre>
529
530 <p>
531 Now the emerge fails again. However, this time we have a log we can work with,
532 and attach to the bug later on. Let's take a quick look at our log directory.
533 </p>
534
535 <pre caption="PORT_LOGDIR Contents">
536 # <i>ls -la /var/log/portage</i>
537 total 16
538 drwxrws--- 2 root root 4096 Jun 30 10:08 .
539 drwxr-xr-x 15 root root 4096 Jun 30 10:08 ..
540 -rw-r--r-- 1 root root 7390 Jun 30 10:09 2115-foobar2-1.0.log
541 </pre>
542
543 <p>
544 The log files have the format [counter]-[package name]-[version].log. Counter
545 is a special variable that is meant to state this package as the n-th package
546 you've emerged. This prevents duplicate logs from appearing. A quick look at
547 the log file will show the entire emerge process. This can be attached later
548 on as we'll see in the bug reporting section. Now that we've safely obtained
549 our information needed to report the bug we can continue to do so. However,
550 before we get started on that, we need to make sure no one else has reported
551 the issue. Let's take a look at searching for bugs.
552 </p>
553
554 </body>
555 </section>
556 </chapter>
557
558 <chapter>
559 <title>Searching Using Bugzilla</title>
560 <section>
561 <title>Introduction</title>
562 <body>
563
564 <p>
565 <uri link="http://www.bugzilla.org">Bugzilla</uri> is what we at Gentoo use to
566 handle bugs. Gentoo's Bugzilla is reachable by HTTPS and HTTP. HTTPS is
567 available for those on insecure networks or simply paranoid :). For the sake of
568 consistency, we will be using the HTTPS version in the examples to follow. Head
569 over to <uri link="https://bugs.gentoo.org">Gentoo Bugs</uri> to see how it
570 looks.
571 </p>
572
573 <p>
574 One of the most frustrating things for developers and bug-wranglers is finding
575 duplicate bug reports. These cost them valuable time that they could otherwise
576 use to work on more important bugs. Often, this can be prevented by a few simple
577 search methods. So we're going to see how to search for bugs and find out if
578 you have one that's similar. For this example, we're going to use the xclass
579 emerge error that was used earlier.
580 </p>
581
582 <pre caption="xclass emerge error">
583 /usr/lib/gcc-lib/i686-pc-linux-gnu/3.3.2/include/g++-v3/backward/backward_warning.h:32:2:
584 warning: #warning This file includes at least one deprecated or antiquated
585 header. Please consider using one of the 32 headers found in section 17.4.1.2 of
586 the C++ standard. Examples include substituting the &lt;X&gt; header for the &lt;X.h&gt;
587 header for C++ includes, or &lt;sstream&gt; instead of the deprecated header
588 &lt;strstream.h&gt;. To disable this warning use -Wno-deprecated.
589 In file included from main.cc:40:
590 menudef.h:55: error: brace-enclosed initializer used to initialize `
591 OXPopupMenu*'
592 menudef.h:62: error: brace-enclosed initializer used to initialize `
593 OXPopupMenu*'
594 menudef.h:70: error: brace-enclosed initializer used to initialize `
595 OXPopupMenu*'
596 menudef.h:78: error: brace-enclosed initializer used to initialize `
597 OXPopupMenu*'
598 main.cc: In member function `void OXMain::DoOpen()':
599 main.cc:323: warning: unused variable `FILE*fp'
600 main.cc: In member function `void OXMain::DoSave(char*)':
601 main.cc:337: warning: unused variable `FILE*fp'
602 make[1]: *** [main.o] Error 1
603 make[1]: Leaving directory
604 `/var/tmp/portage/xclass-0.7.4/work/xclass-0.7.4/example-app'
605 make: *** [shared] Error 2
606
607 !!! ERROR: x11-libs/xclass-0.7.4 failed.
608 !!! Function src_compile, Line 29, Exitcode 2
609 !!! 'emake shared' failed
610 </pre>
611
612 <p>
613 So to begin searching, we head over to the <uri
614 link="https://bugs.gentoo.org/">Bugzilla Homepage</uri>.
615 </p>
616
617 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-homepage.png" caption="Bugzilla Homepage"/>
618
619 <p>
620 We'll click on "Query Existing bug reports". The reason why we choose this
621 over the basic bug search is because the basic bug search tends to give vague
622 results and often hinders users from looking through the results and finding the
623 duplicate bug. Once we click on the query screen, we reach the next page:
624 </p>
625
626 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-search.png" caption="Bugzilla Search Page"/>
627
628 <note>
629 If you've used the Advanced Search before, you'll most likely see that screen
630 instead.
631 </note>
632
633 <p>
634 Proceed by clicking on the "Advanced Search" link to bring up the Advanced
635 Search page.
636 </p>
637
638 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-adv-search.png" caption="Advanced Search Page"/>
639
640 <p>
641 This is how the Advanced Search Page looks like. While it may seem overwhelming
642 at first, we're going to look at a few simple areas to narrow down the rather
643 vague searches bugzilla returns.
644 </p>
645
646 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-content.png" caption="Content"/>
647
648 <p>
649 The first field is the summary of the bug. Here we're simply going to put the
650 name of the package that's crashing. If bugzie doesn't return results, try
651 removing the package name, just in case someone didn't put that in the summary
652 (highly unlikely, but we've seen a fair share of strange bug reports).
653 </p>
654
655 <p>
656 Product, Component, and Version should all be set to the default. This
657 prevents us from being too specific and missing all the bugs.
658 </p>
659
660 <p>
661 Comment is the important part. Use the comment field to list what appears to be a
662 specific instance of the error. Basically, don't use anything like the
663 beginning of the build error, find a line that's before it stating a true
664 error. Also, you'll want to filter out any punctuation to prevent bugzilla
665 from interpreting the results the comment the wrong way. Example from the xclass
666 emerge error:
667 </p>
668
669 <pre caption="Comment Line Content">
670 menudef.h:78: error: brace-enclosed initializer used to initialize `OXPopupMenu'
671 <comment>(Remove the quotes ' ')</comment>
672 menudef.h 78 error brace-enclosed initializer used to initialize OXPopupMenu
673 </pre>
674
675 <p>
676 The above is specific enough to where we'll find the bug without wading through
677 other xclass compile failure candidates.
678 </p>
679
680 <p>
681 URI, Whiteboard, and Keywords can all be left alone. What we've entered so far
682 should be enough to find our bug. Let's take a look at what we have filled out.
683 </p>
684
685 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-comp-search.png" caption="Completed Search Form"/>
686
687 <p>
688 Now we click on the Search button and here come the results...
689 </p>
690
691 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-search-result.png" caption="Search Results"/>
692
693 <p>
694 Only 2 bugs! That's a lot easier to deal with. We click on the first one to
695 check, and sure enough it's the one we're looking for.
696 </p>
697
698 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-located.png" caption="Bug Located"/>
699
700 <p>
701 Not only is it the one we want, but it has also been resolved. By checking the
702 last comment we see the solution and know what to do in order to resolve it.
703 Now, let's see what would have happened if we had not used the advanced search.
704 </p>
705
706 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-basic-search-result.png" caption="Basic Search Results"/>
707
708 <p>
709 4 more bugs to deal with! It gets even worse with larger packages. However,
710 with these simple tools, we're able to significantly narrow down the search to
711 try and locate a specific bug.
712 </p>
713
714 </body>
715 </section>
716 <section>
717 <title>Conclusion</title>
718 <body>
719
720 <p>
721 Let's say that you have searched and searched but still can't find a bug.
722 You've found yourself a new bug. Let's take a look at the bug reporting process
723 for submitting your new bug.
724 </p>
725
726 </body>
727 </section>
728 </chapter>
729
730 <chapter>
731 <title>Reporting Bugs</title>
732 <section>
733 <title>Introduction</title>
734 <body>
735
736 <p>
737 In this chapter, we'll figure out how to use Bugzilla to file a shiny, new bug.
738 Head over to <uri link="https://bugs.gentoo.org">Gentoo Bugs</uri> and...
739 </p>
740
741 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-homepage.png" caption="Bugzilla Homepage"/>
742
743 <p>
744 Click on "Report a Bug - Using the guided format".
745 </p>
746
747 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-prod-select.png" caption="Product Selection"/>
748
749 <p>
750 As you can see, <b>major</b> emphasis has been placed on putting your bug in the
751 right place. Gentoo Linux is where a large majority of bugs go.
752 </p>
753
754 <p>
755 Despite this, some people will file ebuild bugs in portage development
756 (assumption that portage team handles the portage tree) or infra (assumption
757 that infra has access to mirrors and rsync and can fix it directly). This is
758 simply not how things work.
759 </p>
760
761 <p>
762 Another common misconception occurs with our Documentation bugs. For example, a
763 user finds a bug with the <uri link="/proj/en/releng/catalyst/">Catalyst
764 Docs</uri>. The general tendency is to file a bug under Docs-user, which gets
765 assigned to the <uri link="http://gdp.gentoo.org">GDP</uri>, when it should
766 actually go to a member of the <uri link="/proj/en/releng/">Release
767 Engineering</uri> team. As a rule of thumb, only documentation under
768 <path>http://www.gentoo.org/doc/*</path> is under the GDP. Anything under
769 <path>http://www.gentoo.org/proj/*</path> is under the respective teams.
770 </p>
771
772 <note>
773 We would rather see a bug whose product was not supposed to be Gentoo Linux but
774 has been filed under the same rather than seeing a bug which belongs the Gentoo
775 Linux product and filed elsewhere. While neither is preferred, the former is more
776 acceptable and understandable (except website bugs.. we might have an issue with
777 that...).
778 </note>
779
780 <p>
781 Our bug goes in Gentoo Linux as it's an ebuild bug. We head over there and are
782 presented with the multi-step bug reporting process. Let us now proceed with
783 Step 1...
784 </p>
785
786 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-guide-step1.png" caption="Guided Format Step 1"/>
787
788 <p>
789 The first step here is really important (as the red text tells you). This is
790 where you search to see that someone else hasn't hit the same bug you have, yet.
791 If you do skip this step and a bug like yours already exists, it will be marked
792 as a DUPLICATE thus wasting a large amount of QA effort. To give you an idea,
793 the bug numbers that are struck out above are duplicate bugs. Now comes step 2,
794 where we give the information.
795 </p>
796
797 </body>
798 </section>
799 <section>
800 <title>Required Information</title>
801 <body>
802
803 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-basic.png" caption="Basic Information"/>
804
805 <p>
806 Let us take a closer look at what's what.
807 </p>
808
809 <ul>
810 <li>
811 First, there's the Product. The product will narrow down the bug to a
812 specific area of Gentoo like Bugzilla (for bugs relating to
813 bugs.gentoo.org), Docs-user(for User Documentation) or Gentoo Linux (for
814 ebuilds and the like).
815 </li>
816 <li>
817 Component is where exactly the problem occurs, more specifically which part
818 of selected product the bug comes under. This makes classification easier.
819 </li>
820 <li>
821 Hardware platform is what architecture you're running. If you were running
822 SPARC, you would set it to SPARC.
823 </li>
824 <li>
825 Operating System is what Operating System you're using. Because Gentoo is
826 considered a "Meta-distribution", it can run on other operating systems
827 beside Linux.
828 </li>
829 </ul>
830
831 <p>
832 So, for our example bug, we have :
833 </p>
834
835 <ul>
836 <li>Product - Gentoo Linux (Since it is an ebuild issue)</li>
837 <li>Component - Application (It is an application at fault, foobar2)</li>
838 <li>Hardware Platform - All (This error could occur across architectures)</li>
839 <li>Operation System - All (It could occur on all types of systems)</li>
840 </ul>
841
842 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-basic-comp.png" caption="Completed Basic Information"/>
843
844 <ul>
845 <li>
846 Build Identifier is basically the User Agent of the browser that is being
847 used to report the bugs (for logging purposes). You can just leave this as
848 is.
849 </li>
850 <li>
851 URL is optional and is used to point to errors on a site someplace
852 (pastebin, etc.). However, doing it inside the bug allows the developers be
853 able to reference to it at any time and is preferred.
854 </li>
855 <li>
856 In the Summary, you should put the package category, name, and number.
857 </li>
858 </ul>
859
860 <p>
861 Not including the category in the summary really isn't too bad, but it's
862 recommended. If you don't include the package name, however, we won't know what
863 you're filling a bug for, and will have to ask you about it later. The version
864 number is important for people searching for bugs. If 20 people filed bugs and
865 not one put a version number, how would people looking for similar bugs be able
866 to tell if one was there's? They'd have to look through every single bug, which
867 isn't too hard, but if there are say, 200 bugs.. it's not that easy. After all
868 the package information, you'll want to include a small description of the
869 incident. Here's an example:
870 </p>
871
872 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-summary.png" caption="Summary"/>
873
874 <p>
875 These simple rules can make handling bugs a lot easier. Next are the details.
876 Here we put in the information about the bug. We'll demonstrate with an example:
877 </p>
878
879 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-details.png" caption="Details"/>
880
881 <p>
882 Now the developer knows why we're filing the bug. They can then try to
883 reproduce it. Reproducibility tells us how often we were able to make the
884 problem recur. In this example, we can reproduce it any time simply by running
885 foobar2. Let's put that information in.
886 </p>
887
888 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-reprod.png" caption="Reproduction"/>
889
890 <p>
891 We have explained how we found the bug. The next step is to explain what were
892 the results we got and what we think they should actually be.
893 </p>
894
895 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-results.png" caption="Results"/>
896
897 <p>
898 We could then provide additional information. This could be things such as
899 stack traces, <b>sections</b> (since the whole log is usually big and of not
900 much use) of strace logs, but most importantly, your <c>emerge --info</c>
901 output. Here's an example.
902 </p>
903
904 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-addl-info.png" caption="Additional Information"/>
905
906 <p>
907 Lastly we select the severity of the bug. Please look this over carefully. In
908 most cases it's OK to leave it as is and someone will raise/lower it for you.
909 However, if you raise the severity of the bug, please make sure you read it over
910 carefully and make sure you're not making a mistake. A run down of the various
911 levels is given below.
912 </p>
913
914 <ul>
915 <li>
916 Blocker - The program just plain doesn't want to emerge or is a major
917 hinderance to the system. For example a <c>baselayout</c> issue which
918 prevents a system from booting up would be a sure candidate to be labelled
919 blocker.
920 </li>
921 <li>
922 Critical - The program has loss of data or severe memory leaks during
923 runtime. Again, an important program like say <c>net-tools</c> failing to
924 compile could be labelled critical. It won't prevent the system from
925 starting up, but is quite essential for day to day stuff.
926 </li>
927 <li>
928 Major - The program crashes, but nothing that causes your system severe
929 damage or information loss.
930 </li>
931 <li>
932 Minor - Your program crashes here and there with apparent workarounds.
933 </li>
934 <li>
935 Normal - The default. If you're not sure leave it here unless it's a new
936 build or cosmetic change, then read below for more information.
937 </li>
938 <li>Trivial - Things such as a mispelled word or whitespace clean up. </li>
939 <li>
940 Enhancement - A request to enable a new feature in a program, or more
941 specifically <e>new ebuilds</e>.
942 </li>
943 </ul>
944
945 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-sev.png" caption="Severity"/>
946
947 <p>
948 Here, we'll set it to Normal.
949 </p>
950
951 <p>
952 Now we can submit the bug report by clicking on the Submit Bug Report box. You
953 will now see your new bug come up. See <uri
954 link="https://bugs.gentoo.org/show_bug.cgi?id=97265">Bug 97561</uri> for what
955 the result looks like. We've reported our bug! Now let's see how it's dealt
956 with.
957 </p>
958
959 </body>
960 </section>
961 </chapter>
962
963 <chapter>
964 <title>Working With Your Bug</title>
965 <section>
966 <body>
967
968 <p>
969 Looking at the bug, we see the information we provided earlier. You will notice
970 that the bug has been assigned to bug-wranglers@gentoo.org. This is the default
971 location for Application component bugs.
972 </p>
973
974 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-new-basic.png" caption="New Bug Basic Information"/>
975
976 <p>
977 The details we entered about the bug are available as well.
978 </p>
979
980 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-new-details.png" caption="New Bug Details"/>
981
982 <p>
983 However, bug-wranglers (usually) won't fix our bugs, so we'll reassign it to
984 someone that can (you can let bug-wranglers re-assign it for you as well). For
985 this we use the package's metadata.xml. You can normally find them in
986 <path>/usr/portage/category/package/metadata.xml</path>. Here's one I've made up
987 for foobar2.
988 </p>
989
990 <note>
991 You have to be the reporter of the bug or a member of certain Gentoo Bugzilla
992 groups (like Gentoo Developers) to be able to reassign bugs.
993 </note>
994
995 <pre caption="metadata.xml">
996 &lt;?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?&gt;
997 &lt;!DOCTYPE pkgmetadata SYSTEM "http://www.gentoo.org/dtd/metadata.dtd"&gt;
998 &lt;pkgmetadata&gt;
999 &lt;herd&gt;chriswhite&lt;/herd&gt;
1000 &lt;maintainer&gt;
1001 &lt;email&gt;chriswhite@gentoo.org&lt;/email&gt;
1002 &lt;name&gt;Chris White&lt;/name&gt;
1003 &lt;/maintainer&gt;
1004 &lt;longdescription lang="en"&gt;
1005 Foobar2 is a package that uses a configuration file to display a word.
1006 &lt;/longdescription&gt;
1007 &lt;/pkgmetadata&gt;
1008 </pre>
1009
1010 <p>
1011 Notice the maintainer section. This lists the maintainer of the package, which
1012 in this case is myself, Chris White. The email listed is chriswhite@gentoo.org.
1013 We will use this to re-assign the bug to the proper person. To do this, click
1014 the bubble next to Reassign bug to, then fill in the email.
1015 </p>
1016
1017 <note>
1018 A bug for a package without a metadata.xml file should be re-assigned to
1019 maintainer-needed@gentoo.org and a package that needs a Gentoo Developer to
1020 maintain should be assigned to maintainer-wanted@gentoo.org.
1021 </note>
1022
1023 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-reassign.png" caption="Bug Reassignment"/>
1024
1025 <p>
1026 Then hit the Commit button for the changes to take place. The bug has been
1027 reassigned to me. Shortly afterward, you notice (by email usually) that I've
1028 responded to your bug. I've stated that I'd like to see an strace log to figure
1029 out how the program is trying to reach your configuration file. You follow the
1030 previous instructions on using strace and obtain an strace log. Now you need to
1031 attach it to the bug. In order to do this, click on "Create A New Attachment".
1032 </p>
1033
1034 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-new-attach.png" caption="New Attachment"/>
1035
1036 <p>
1037 Now we have to attach the log. Let's go throught it step wise.
1038 </p>
1039
1040 <ul>
1041 <li>
1042 File - This is the location of the file in your machine. In this example,
1043 the location of <path>strace.log</path>. You can use the "Browse..." button
1044 to select the file, or enter the path directly in the text field.
1045 </li>
1046 <li>
1047 Description - A short one liner, or a few wors describing the attachment.
1048 We'll just enter strace.log here, since that's quite self-explanatory.
1049 </li>
1050 <li>
1051 Content Type - This is the type of the file we're attaching to the bug.
1052 </li>
1053 <li>
1054 Obsoletes - If there were attachements submitted to the bug before the
1055 current one, you have an option of declaring them obsoleted by yours. Since
1056 we have no prior attachments to this bug, we need not bother.
1057 </li>
1058 <li>
1059 Comment - Enter comments that will be visible along with the attachments.
1060 You could elaborate on the attachment here, if needed.
1061 </li>
1062 </ul>
1063
1064 <p>
1065 With respect to Content Type, here are a few more details. You can check the
1066 "patch" checkbox if you're submitting a patch. Otherwise, you could ask
1067 Bugzilla to "auto-detect" the file type (not advisable). The other options are
1068 "select from list", which is most frequently used. Use plain text (text/plain)
1069 for <e>most</e> attachments except binary files like images (which can use
1070 image/gif, image/jpeg or image/png depending on type) or compressed files like
1071 .tar.bz2 which would use application/octet-stream as content type.
1072 </p>
1073
1074
1075 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-new-attach-comp.png" caption="New Attachment Completed"/>
1076
1077 <p>
1078 We submit <path>strace.log</path> and it is reflected on the bug report.
1079 </p>
1080
1081 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-strace.png" caption="Attached strace log"/>
1082
1083 <p>
1084 We've mentioned before that sometimes ebuilds will tell you to attach a file in
1085 the emerge error. An example can be seen below.
1086 </p>
1087
1088 <pre caption="Example File Attachment Request">
1089 configure: error: PNG support requires ZLIB. Use --with-zlib-dir=&lt;DIR&gt;
1090
1091 !!! Please attach the config.log to your bug report:
1092 !!! /var/tmp/portage/php-5.0.3-r1/work/php-5.0.3/config.log
1093
1094 !!! ERROR: dev-php/php-5.0.3-r1 failed.
1095 !!! Function econf, Line 485, Exitcode 0
1096 !!! econf failed
1097 !!! If you need support, post the topmost build error, NOT this status message.
1098 </pre>
1099
1100 <p>
1101 Please attach any file mentioned like this to your bug report.
1102 </p>
1103
1104 <p>
1105 Sometimes a developer might ask you to attach a diff or patch for a file.
1106 Standard diff files can be obtained through:
1107 </p>
1108
1109 <pre caption="Standard Diff Creation">
1110 $ <i>cp file file.old</i>
1111 $ <i>nano file</i>
1112 $ <i>diff -u file.old file</i>
1113 </pre>
1114
1115 <p>
1116 For C/C++ source files, the <b>-p</b> flag is added to show what function calls
1117 the diff applies to:
1118 </p>
1119
1120 <pre caption="Diff-ing C/C++ source">
1121 $ <i>cp file.c file.c.old</i>
1122 $ <i>nano file.c</i>
1123 $ <i>diff -up file.c.old file.c</i>
1124 </pre>
1125
1126 <p>
1127 The documentation team will require the flag combination <b>-Nt</b> as well as
1128 <b>-u</b>. This mainly has to do with tab expansion. You can create such a diff
1129 with:
1130 </p>
1131
1132 <pre caption="Documentation diffs">
1133 $<i> cp file.xml file.xml.old</i>
1134 $<i> nano file.xml</i>
1135 $<i> diff -Nut file.xml.old file.xml</i>
1136 </pre>
1137
1138 <p>
1139 And your diff is created. While we're doing all this, suppose another person
1140 finds your bug by searching through bugzilla and is curious to keep track of
1141 the bug, they may do so by putting their email in the Add CC field of the bug
1142 as shown below. You could also keep track of other bugs by following the same
1143 method.
1144 </p>
1145
1146 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-add-email.png" caption="Adding Email To CC:"/>
1147
1148 <note>
1149 Email addresses must be registered with Gentoo Bugzilla. In order to CC multiple
1150 addresses, simply separate them with commas or spaces.
1151 </note>
1152
1153 <p>
1154 After all this work, the bug can undergo various status markings. This is
1155 usually done by the Gentoo Developers and sometimes by the reporter. The
1156 following are the various possible states a bug may go through during its
1157 lifetime.
1158 </p>
1159
1160 <ul>
1161 <li>
1162 UNCONFIRMED - You're generally not going to see this too often. This means
1163 that a bug reporter has opened a bug using the advanced method and is
1164 uncertain his or her bug is an actual bug.
1165 </li>
1166 <li>NEW - Bugs that are first opened are considered new.</li>
1167 <li>
1168 ASSIGNED - When the person you've assigned the bug too validates your bug,
1169 it will often receive ASSIGNED status while they figure out the issue.
1170 This lets you know that they've accepted your bug as a real bug.
1171 </li>
1172 <li>
1173 REOPENED - Someone has resolved a bug and you think the solution is not
1174 feasible or the problem still persists. At this point, you may re-open the
1175 bug. Please <b>do not abuse this</b>. If a developer closes the bug a
1176 second or third time, chances are that your bug is closed.
1177 </li>
1178 <li>
1179 RESOLVED - A firm decision has been taken on the bug. Usually goes onto
1180 FIXED to indicate the bug is solved and the matter closed although various
1181 other resolutions are possible. We'll look into those a little later.
1182 </li>
1183 <li>
1184 VERIFIED - The steps take to work the bug are correct. This is usually a QA
1185 thing.
1186 </li>
1187 <li>
1188 CLOSED - Basically means RIP for the bug and it's buried under the never
1189 ending flow of new bugs.
1190 </li>
1191 </ul>
1192
1193 <p>
1194 Now shortly afterward, we find the error in the strace log and fix the bug and
1195 mark it as RESOLVED FIXED and mention that there was a change in the location
1196 of configuration files, and that I will update the ebuild with a warning about
1197 it. The bug now becomes resolved, and you are shown the following.
1198 </p>
1199
1200 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-reso.png" caption="Resolved Bug"/>
1201
1202 <p>
1203 A little below, you'll see the following:
1204 </p>
1205
1206 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-options.png" caption="Bug Options"/>
1207
1208 <p>
1209 This gives you the option of Reopening the bug if you wish to (i.e. the
1210 developer thinks it's resolved but it's really not to your standards). Now our
1211 bug is fixed! However, different resolutions can occur. Here's a small list:
1212 </p>
1213
1214 <ul>
1215 <li>
1216 FIXED - The bug is fixed, follow the instructions to resolve your issue.
1217 </li>
1218 <li>
1219 INVALID - You did not do something specifically documented, causing the
1220 bug.
1221 </li>
1222 <li>DUPLICATE - You didn't use this guide and reported a duplicate bug.</li>
1223 <li>
1224 WORKSFORME - Developer/person assigned the bug cannot reproduce your error.
1225 </li>
1226 <li>
1227 CANTFIX - Somehow the bug cannot be solved because of certain
1228 circumstances. These circumstances will be noted by the person taking the
1229 bug.
1230 </li>
1231 <li>
1232 WONTFIX - This is usually applied to new ebuilds or feature requests.
1233 Basically the developer does not want to add a certain feature because it
1234 is not needed, a better alternative exists, or it's just plain broken.
1235 Sometimes you may be given a solution to get said issue resolved.
1236 </li>
1237 <li>
1238 UPSTREAM - The bug cannot be fixed by the Gentoo development team, and have
1239 requested you take the problem upstream (the people that actually made the
1240 program) for review. Upstream has a few ways of handling bugs. These
1241 include mailing lists, irc channels, and even bug reporting systems. If
1242 you're not sure how to contact them, ask in the bug and someone will point
1243 you to the right direction.
1244 </li>
1245 </ul>
1246
1247 <p>
1248 Sometimes, before the bug can be resolved, a developer may request that you
1249 test an updated ebulid. In the next chapter we'll take a look at testing
1250 ebuilds.
1251 </p>
1252
1253 </body>
1254 </section>
1255 </chapter>
1256
1257 <chapter>
1258 <title>Testing Ebuilds</title>
1259 <section>
1260 <title>Getting The Files</title>
1261 <body>
1262
1263 <p>
1264 Let's say that you reported a bug for the foobar2 compile fix from earlier. Now
1265 developers might find out what the problem is and might need you to test the
1266 ebuild for them to be sure it works for you as well:
1267 </p>
1268
1269 <figure link="/images/docs/bugzie-ebuild-request.png" caption="Ebuild Test Request"/>
1270
1271 <p>
1272 Some rather confusing vocabulary is used here. First off, let's see what an
1273 overlay is. An overlay is a special directory like <path>/usr/portage</path>,
1274 the difference being that when you <c>emerge sync</c>, files contained within it
1275 will not be deleted. Luckily, a special <path>/usr/local/portage</path>
1276 directory is created for that purpose. Let's go ahead and set our portage
1277 overlay in<path>/etc/make.conf</path>. Open make.conf up in your favorite editor
1278 and add this towards the end.
1279 </p>
1280
1281 <pre caption="Setting Up PORTDIR_OVERLAY">
1282 PORTDIR_OVERLAY="/usr/local/portage"
1283 </pre>
1284
1285 <p>
1286 Now we'll want to create the appropriate directories to put our test ebuild
1287 files in. In this case, we're supposed to put them in sys-apps/foobar2. You'll
1288 notice that the second comment asks for a files directory for the patch. The
1289 files directory holds the digests (md5sums of files for a particular version of
1290 a package) and any other required files that aren't included with the standard
1291 source archive (patches, init.d scripts, etc). This is a subdir in the package
1292 directory called files. Go ahead and create these directories:
1293 </p>
1294
1295 <pre caption="Setting Up The Category And Package Directories">
1296 # <i>mkdir -p /usr/local/portage/sys-apps/foobar2/files</i>
1297 </pre>
1298
1299 <note>
1300 The -p in mkdir creates not only the directory you want but also any missing
1301 parent directories as well (sys-apps and foobar2 in this case).
1302 </note>
1303
1304 <p>
1305 Ok now, we can go ahead and download the files. First, download the ebuild
1306 into <path>/usr/local/portage/sys-apps/foobar2</path>, and then add the patch
1307 to <path>/usr/local/portage/sys-apps/foobar2/files</path>. Now that we have the
1308 files, we can begin working on testing the ebuild.
1309 </p>
1310
1311 </body>
1312 </section>
1313 <section>
1314 <title>Testing The ebuild</title>
1315 <body>
1316
1317 <p>
1318 The process to create an ebuild that can be used by emerge is fairly simple. You
1319 must create a Manifest and a digest file for the ebuild. This can be done with
1320 the ebuild command. Run it as shown.
1321 </p>
1322
1323 <pre caption="Creating the Manifest and digest files">
1324 # <i>ebuild foobar2-1.0.ebuild digest</i>
1325 &gt;&gt;&gt; Generating digest file...
1326 &lt;&lt;&lt; foobar2-1.0.tar.bz2
1327 &gt;&gt;&gt; Generating manifest file...
1328 &lt;&lt;&lt; foobar2-1.0.ebuild
1329 &lt;&lt;&lt; files/digest-foobar2-1.0
1330 &lt;&lt;&lt; files/foobar2-1.0-Makefile.patch
1331 &gt;&gt;&gt; Computed message digests.
1332 </pre>
1333
1334 <p>
1335 Now let's test to see if it works as it should.
1336 </p>
1337
1338 <pre caption="Testing With emerge -pv">
1339 # <i>emerge -pv foobar2</i>
1340
1341 These are the packages that I would merge, in order:
1342
1343 Calculating dependencies ...done!
1344 [ebuild N ] sys-apps/foobar2-1.0 0 kB [1]
1345
1346 Total size of downloads: 0 kB
1347 Portage overlays:
1348 [1] /usr/local/portage
1349 </pre>
1350
1351 <p>
1352 It does seem to have worked! You'll notice the [1] next to the [ebuild] line.
1353 That points to <path>/usr/local/portage</path>, which is the overlay we created
1354 earlier. Now we go ahead and emerge the package.
1355 </p>
1356
1357 <pre caption="Emerge Result">
1358 # <i>emerge foobar2</i>
1359 Calculating dependencies ...done!
1360 <comment>(compile info snipped)</comment>
1361 >>> Unpacking foobar2-1.0.tar.bz2 to /var/tmp/portage/foobar2-1.0/work
1362 * Applying foobar2-1.0-Makefile.patch ... [ ok ]
1363 <comment>(compile info snipped)</comment>
1364 >>> Merging sys-apps/foobar2-1.0 to /
1365 >>> chris +sandbox(preinst)
1366 --- /usr/
1367 --- /usr/bin/
1368 >>> /usr/bin/foobar2
1369 </pre>
1370
1371 <p>
1372 In the first section we see that the emerge started off as it should. The second
1373 section shows our patch being applied successfully by the "[ ok ]" status
1374 message to the right. The last section tells us the program compiled ok. The
1375 patch works! Now we can go and let the developer know that their patch works
1376 fine, and that they can commit the fix to portage.
1377 </p>
1378
1379 </body>
1380 </section>
1381 <section>
1382 <title>Conclusion</title>
1383 <body>
1384
1385 <p>
1386 This concludes the howto on working with Bugzilla. I hope you find this useful.
1387 If you have any questions, comments, or ideas regarding this document, please
1388 send them to me at <mail>chriswhite@gentoo.org</mail>. Special thanks go to
1389 moreon for his notes on -g flags and compile errors, the people at #gentoo-bugs
1390 for helping out with bug-wrangling, Griffon26 for his notes on
1391 maintainer-needed, robbat2 for general suggestions and fox2mike for fixing up
1392 the doc and adding stuff as needed.
1393 </p>
1394
1395 </body>
1396 </section>
1397 </chapter>
1398 </guide>

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