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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/distcc.xml,v 1.36 2006/09/04 10:23:00 nightmorph Exp $ -->
4
5 <guide link="/doc/en/distcc.xml">
6
7 <title>Gentoo Distcc Documentation</title>
8
9 <author title="Author">
10 <mail link="lisa@gentoo.org">Lisa Seelye</mail>
11 </author>
12 <author title="Editor">
13 <mail link="vapier@gentoo.org">Mike Frysinger</mail>
14 </author>
15 <author title="Editor">
16 <mail link="erwin@gentoo.org">Erwin</mail>
17 </author>
18 <author title="Editor">
19 <mail link="sven.vermeulen@siphos.be">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
20 </author>
21 <author title="Editor">
22 <mail link="pylon@gentoo.org">Lars Weiler</mail>
23 </author>
24 <author title="Reviewer">
25 <mail link="blubber@gentoo.org">Tiemo Kieft</mail>
26 </author>
27
28 <abstract>
29 This document serves as a HOWTO for using distcc with Gentoo.
30 </abstract>
31
32 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
33 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
34 <license/>
35
36 <version>1.18</version>
37 <date>2006-11-28</date>
38
39 <chapter>
40 <title>Introduction</title>
41 <section>
42 <title>What is distcc?</title>
43 <body>
44
45 <p>
46 Distcc is a program designed to distribute compiling tasks across a network to
47 participating hosts. It is comprised of a server, <c>distccd</c>, and a client
48 program, <c>distcc</c>. Distcc can work transparently with <uri
49 link="http://ccache.samba.org">ccache</uri>, Portage, and Automake with a
50 little setup.
51 </p>
52
53 </body>
54 </section>
55 <section>
56 <title>Using distcc to bootstrap</title>
57 <body>
58
59 <p>
60 If you are planning on using distcc to help you bootstrap a Gentoo
61 installation, make sure you read the section <uri link="#bootstrapping">Using
62 distcc to Bootstrap</uri>, which is situated further down in this document.
63 </p>
64
65 </body>
66 </section>
67 </chapter>
68
69 <chapter>
70 <title>Setup</title>
71 <section>
72 <title>Dependencies</title>
73 <body>
74
75 <p>
76 In order to use Distcc, all of the computers on your network need to have the
77 same GCC versions. For example, mixing 3.3.x (where the x varies) is okay, but
78 mixing 3.3.x with 3.2.x <b>may</b> result in compilation errors or runtime
79 errors.
80 </p>
81
82 </body>
83 </section>
84 <section>
85 <title>Installing Distcc</title>
86 <body>
87
88 <p>
89 There are a couple of options you should be aware of before you start
90 installing distcc.
91 </p>
92
93 <p>
94 Distcc ships with a graphical monitor to monitor tasks that your computer is
95 sending away for compilation. If you use Gnome then put 'gnome' in your USE
96 flags. However, if you don't use Gnome and would still like to have the
97 monitor then you should put 'gtk' in your USE flags.
98 </p>
99
100 <pre caption="Installing distcc">
101 # <i>emerge distcc</i>
102 </pre>
103
104 <impo>
105 Remember, you must be sure to install distcc on all of your participating
106 machines.
107 </impo>
108
109 </body>
110 </section>
111 <section>
112 <title>Setting up Portage to use Distcc</title>
113 <body>
114
115 <p>
116 Setting up Portage to use distcc is easy. Execute the following steps on
117 each system that should participate in the distributed compiling:
118 </p>
119
120 <pre caption="Integrating Distcc and Portage">
121 # <i>emerge distcc</i>
122 # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
123 <comment>(Set N to a suitable number for your particular setup)</comment>
124 <comment>(A common strategy is setting N as twice the number of total CPUs + 1
125 available)</comment>
126 MAKEOPTS="-jN"
127 <comment>(Add distcc to your FEATURES)</comment>
128 FEATURES="distcc"
129 </pre>
130
131 </body>
132 </section>
133 <section>
134 <title>Specifying Participating Hosts</title>
135 <body>
136
137 <p>
138 Use the <c>distcc-config</c> command to set the list of hosts. Here is an
139 example of some hosts that might be in your list:
140 </p>
141
142 <pre caption="Examples of host definitions">
143 192.168.0.1 192.168.0.2 192.168.0.3
144 192.168.0.1/2 192.168.0.2 192.168.0.3/10
145 192.168.0.1:4000/2 192.168.0.2/1 192.168.0.3:3632/4
146 @192.168.0.1 @192.168.0.2:/usr/bin/distccd 192.168.0.3
147 <comment>(There are also several other methods of setting up hosts. See the
148 distcc manpage for more details.)</comment>
149 <comment>If you wish to compile on the local machine you should put 'localhost'
150 in the hosts list. Conversely if you do not wish to use the local machine to
151 compile (which is often the case) omit it from the hosts list. On a slow
152 machine using localhost may actually slow things down. Make sure to test your
153 settings for performance.</comment>
154 </pre>
155
156 <p>
157 It may all look complicated, but in most cases a variant of line 1 or 2 will
158 work.
159 </p>
160
161 <p>
162 Since most people won't be using lines 3 or 4, I'll <uri
163 link="http://distcc.samba.org/man/distcc_1.html">refer to</uri> the distcc
164 docs (man distcc) for more information.
165 </p>
166
167 <p>
168 For instance, to set the first line in the previous example:
169 </p>
170
171 <pre caption="Sample command to set the hosts">
172 # <i>/usr/bin/distcc-config --set-hosts "192.168.0.1 192.168.0.2 192.168.0.3"</i>
173 </pre>
174
175 <p>
176 Edit <path>/etc/conf.d/distccd</path> to your needs and be sure to set the
177 <c>--allow</c> directive to allow only hosts you trust. For added security,
178 you should also use the <c>--listen</c> directive to tell the distcc daemon
179 what IP to listen on (for multi-homed systems). More information on distcc
180 security can be found at <uri
181 link="http://distcc.samba.org/security.html">Distcc Security Design</uri>.
182 </p>
183
184 <impo>
185 It is important to use --allow and --listen. Please read the distccd manpage
186 or the above security document for more information.
187 </impo>
188
189
190 <p>
191 Now start the distcc daemon on all the participating computers:
192 </p>
193
194 <pre caption="Starting the distcc daemon">
195 <comment>(Add distccd to the default runlevel)</comment>
196 # <i>rc-update add distccd default</i>
197 <comment>(Start the distcc daemon)</comment>
198 # <i>/etc/init.d/distccd start</i>
199 </pre>
200
201 </body>
202 </section>
203 <section>
204 <title>Setting up Distcc to Work With Automake</title>
205 <body>
206
207 <p>
208 This is, in some cases, easier than the Portage setup. What you have to do is
209 update your <c>PATH</c> variable to include <path>/usr/lib/distcc/bin</path>
210 in front of the directory that contains <c>gcc</c> (<path>/usr/bin</path>).
211 However, there is a caveat. If you use ccache you have to put distcc after
212 the ccache part:
213 </p>
214
215 <pre caption="Setting your path">
216 # <i>export PATH="/usr/lib/ccache/bin:/usr/lib/distcc/bin:${PATH}"</i>
217 <comment>You can put this in your .bashrc or equivelant file to have the PATH
218 set every time you log in</comment>
219 </pre>
220
221 <p>
222 Then, as you would normally type <c>make</c>, you would type <c>make -jN</c>
223 (where N is an integer). The value of N depends on your network and the types
224 of computers you are using to compile. Test your own settings to find the
225 number that yields the best performance.
226 </p>
227
228 </body>
229 </section>
230 </chapter>
231
232 <chapter>
233 <title>Cross-Compiling</title>
234 <section>
235 <body>
236
237 <p>
238 Cross-compiling is using one architecture to build programs for another
239 architecture. This can be as simple as using an Athlon (i686) to build a
240 program for a K6-2 (i586), or using a Sparc to build a program for a ppc. This
241 is documented in our <uri link="/doc/en/cross-compiling-distcc.xml">DistCC
242 Cross-compiling Guide</uri>.
243 </p>
244
245 </body>
246 </section>
247 </chapter>
248
249 <chapter id="bootstrapping">
250 <title>Using Distcc to Bootstrap</title>
251 <section>
252 <title>Step 1: Configure Portage</title>
253 <body>
254 <!--
255 Note that this will need to become a link to the old 2005.1 networked handbooks
256 once the 2006.0 handbooks are released. Until then, the link can stay.
257 -->
258 <p>
259 Boot your new box with a Gentoo Linux LiveCD and follow the <uri
260 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=1">installation instructions</uri>
261 up until the bootstrapping part. (See the <uri
262 link="/doc/en/faq.xml#stage12">Gentoo FAQ</uri> for more information about
263 bootstrapping.) Then configure Portage to use distcc:
264 </p>
265
266 <pre caption="Preliminary Setup">
267 # <i>nano -w /etc/make.conf</i>
268 <comment>(Add distcc to the FEATURES</comment>
269 FEATURES="distcc"
270 <comment>(Modify MAKEOPTS to include -jN, where N is twice the number of CPUs
271 +1 available)</comment>
272 MAKEOPTS="-jN"
273 </pre>
274
275 <pre caption="Setting your path">
276 # <i>export PATH="/usr/lib/ccache/bin:/usr/lib/distcc/bin:${PATH}"</i>
277 </pre>
278
279 </body>
280 </section>
281 <section>
282 <title>Step 2: Getting Distcc</title>
283 <body>
284
285 <p>
286 Before the installation of distcc, a user called distcc must be added to the
287 <path>/etc/passwd</path>:
288 </p>
289
290 <pre caption="Create user distcc">
291 # <i>echo "distcc:x:240:2:distccd:/dev/null:/bin/false" &gt;&gt;/etc/passwd</i>
292 </pre>
293
294 <impo>
295 It is important to note that adding users like this is very bad. We only do
296 it here because there is no <c>useradd</c> utility (which you normally use for
297 adding users) yet at this stage of installation.
298 </impo>
299
300 <p>
301 Install distcc:
302 </p>
303
304 <pre caption="Getting Distcc on the new box">
305 # <i>USE='-*' emerge --nodeps sys-devel/distcc</i>
306 </pre>
307
308 </body>
309 </section>
310 <section>
311 <title>Step 3: Setting Up Distcc</title>
312 <body>
313
314 <p>
315 Run <c>distcc-config --install</c> to setup distcc:
316 </p>
317
318 <pre caption="Final distcc setup">
319 <comment>(Substitute host1, host2, ... with the IP number(s) of the
320 participating hosts)</comment>
321 # <i>/usr/bin/distcc-config --set-hosts "localhost host1 host2 host3 ..."</i>
322 <comment>An example: <i>/usr/bin/distcc-config --set-hosts "localhost
323 192.168.0.4 192.168.0.6"</i></comment>
324 </pre>
325
326 <p>
327 Distcc is now set up to bootstrap! Continue with the official installation
328 instructions and <e>do not forget</e> to re-emerge distcc after <c>emerge
329 system</c>. This is to make sure that all of the dependencies you want are
330 installed as well.
331 </p>
332
333 <note>
334 During bootstrap and <c>emerge system</c> distcc may not appear to be used.
335 This is expected as some ebuilds do not work well with distcc, so they
336 intentionally disable it.
337 </note>
338
339 </body>
340 </section>
341 </chapter>
342
343 <chapter>
344 <title>Troubleshooting</title>
345 <section>
346 <title>Some Packages Don't Use Distcc</title>
347 <body>
348
349 <p>
350 As you emerge various packages, you'll notice that some of them aren't being
351 distributed (and aren't being built in parallel). This may happen because the
352 package's Makefile doesn't support parallel operations or the maintainer of the
353 ebuild has explicitly disabled parallel operations due to a known problem.
354 </p>
355
356 <p>
357 Sometimes distcc might cause a package to fail to compile. If this happens
358 for you, please <uri link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">report</uri> it to us.
359 </p>
360
361 </body>
362 </section>
363 <section>
364 <title>Mixed GCC Versions</title>
365 <body>
366
367 <p>
368 If you have different GCC versions on your hosts, there will likely be very
369 weird problems. The solution is to make certain all hosts have the same GCC
370 version.
371 </p>
372
373 <p>
374 Recent Portage updates have made Portage use <c>${CHOST}-gcc</c> instead of
375 <c>gcc</c>. This means that if you're mixing i686 machines with other types
376 (i386, i586) you will run into problems. A workaround for this may be to
377 <c>export CC='gcc' CXX='c++'</c> or to put it in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>.
378 </p>
379
380 <impo>
381 Doing this explicitly redefines some behaviour of Portage and may have some
382 weird results in the future. Only do this if you're mixing CHOSTs.
383 </impo>
384
385
386 </body>
387 </section>
388 </chapter>
389
390 <chapter>
391 <title>Distcc Extras</title>
392 <section>
393 <title>Distcc Monitors</title>
394 <body>
395
396 <p>
397 Distcc ships with two monitors. The text-based one is always built and is
398 called <c>distccmon-text</c>. Running it for the first time can be a bit
399 confusing, but it is really quite easy to use. If you run the program with no
400 parameter it will run once. However, if you pass it a number it will update
401 every N seconds, where N is the argument you passed.
402 </p>
403
404 <p>
405 The other monitor is only turned on if you enabled <c>gtk</c> or <c>gnome</c>
406 in your <c>USE</c> flags. This one is GTK+ based, runs in an X environment
407 and it is quite lovely. For Gentoo the GUI monitor has been called
408 <c>distccmon-gui</c> for less confusion. Elsewhere it may be referred to as
409 <c>distccmon-gnome</c>.
410 </p>
411
412 <pre caption="Starting the monitors">
413 # <i>distccmon-text N</i>
414 <comment>(Or)</comment>
415 # <i>distccmon-gui</i>
416 <comment>To monitor Portage's distcc usage you can use:</comment>
417 # <i>DISTCC_DIR="/var/tmp/portage/.distcc/" distccmon-text N</i>
418 <comment>(Or)</comment>
419 # <i>DISTCC_DIR="/var/tmp/portage/.distcc/" distccmon-gui</i>
420 </pre>
421
422 <impo>
423 If your distcc directory is elsewhere, change the DISTCC_DIR variable
424 accordingly.
425 </impo>
426
427 </body>
428 </section>
429 </chapter>
430 </guide>

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