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1 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/dri-howto.xml,v 1.7 2003/12/20 19:55:17 swift Exp $ -->
3 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4
5 <guide link="/doc/en/dri-howto.xml">
6 <title>Hardware 3D Acceleration Guide</title>
7 <author title="Author">
8 <mail link="spyderous@gentoo.org">Donnie Berkholz</mail>
9 </author>
10 <author title="Editor">
11 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
12 </author>
13
14 <license/>
15
16 <abstract>
17 This document is a guide to getting 3D acceleration working using XFree-DRM
18 with XFree86 in Gentoo Linux.
19 </abstract>
20
21 <version>1.0.1</version>
22 <date>December 19 2003</date>
23
24 <chapter>
25 <title>Introduction</title>
26 <section>
27 <title>What is hardware 3D acceleration and why do I want it?</title>
28 <body>
29
30 <p>
31 With hardware 3D acceleration, three-dimensional rendering uses the graphics
32 processor on your video card instead of taking up valuable CPU resources
33 drawing 3D images. It's also referred to as "hardware acceleration" instead of
34 "software acceleration" because without this 3D acceleration your CPU is forced
35 to draw everything itself using the Mesa software rendering libraries, which
36 takes up quite a bit of processing power. While XFree86 typically supports 2D
37 hardware acceleration, it often lacks hardware 3D acceleration.
38 Three-dimensional hardware acceleration is valuable in situations requiring
39 rendering of 3D objects such as games, 3D CAD and modeling.
40 </p>
41
42 </body>
43 </section>
44 <section>
45 <title>How do I get hardware 3D acceleration?</title>
46 <body>
47
48 <p>
49 In many cases, both binary and open-source drivers exist. Open-source drivers
50 are preferable since we're using Linux and open source is one of its underlying
51 principles. Sometimes, binary drivers are the only option, like with nVidia's
52 cards. Binary drivers include media-video/nvidia-kernel and
53 media-video/nvidia-glx for nVidia cards, media-video/mgavideo for Matrox cards
54 and media-video/ati-drivers for ATI cards. Other open-source drivers include
55 media-video/kyro-kernel for KyroII cards and media-video/ati-gatos for ATI
56 cards, which aim to support ATI's video capabilities more fully.
57 </p>
58
59 </body>
60 </section>
61 <section>
62 <title>What is DRI?</title>
63 <body>
64
65 <p>
66 The Direct Rendering Infrastructure (<uri
67 link="http://dri.sourceforge.net">dri.sourceforge.net</uri>), also known as the
68 DRI, is a framework for allowing direct access to graphics hardware in a safe
69 and efficient manner. It includes changes to the X server, to several client
70 libraries and to the kernel. The first major use for the DRI is to create fast
71 OpenGL implementations.
72 </p>
73
74 </body>
75 </section>
76 <section>
77 <title>What is XFree-DRM and how does it relate to regular XFree86?</title>
78 <body>
79
80 <p>
81 XFree-DRM is an <e>enhancement</e> to XFree86 that adds 3D acceleration for
82 cards by adding the kernel module necessary for direct rendering.
83 </p>
84
85 </body>
86 </section>
87 <section>
88 <title>Purpose</title>
89 <body>
90
91 <p>
92 This guide is for people who can't get direct rendering working with just
93 XFree. XFree-DRM works for 3dfx, gamma, i8x0, matrox, rage128, radeon, mach64
94 (as of xfree-drm-4.3.0-r7) and sis300 series drivers. Since the 2.4 kernels'
95 Direct Rendering Manager (DRM) doesn't support XFree 4.3, the xfree-drm package
96 is needed. If you're using a 2.6 kernel, its DRM supports XFree 4.3; Gentoo's
97 XFree-DRM package is not yet working on 2.6 kernels. See the <uri
98 link="http://dri.sourceforge.net">DRI homepage</uri> for more info and
99 documentation.
100 </p>
101
102 </body>
103 </section>
104 <section>
105 <title>Feedback</title>
106 <body>
107
108 <p>
109 With suggestions, questions, etc., e-mail <mail
110 link="spyderous@gentoo.org">Donnie Berkholz</mail>.
111 </p>
112
113 </body>
114 </section>
115 </chapter>
116
117 <chapter>
118 <title>Install XFree86 and configure your kernel</title>
119 <section>
120 <title>Install XFree86</title>
121 <body>
122
123 <pre>
124 # <i>emerge x11-base/xfree</i>
125 </pre>
126
127 </body>
128 </section>
129 <section>
130 <title>Configure your kernel</title>
131 <body>
132
133 <p>
134 Probe for your chipset and enable just that one.
135 </p>
136
137 <pre>
138 # <i>emerge pciutils; lspci | grep AGP</i>
139 # <i>00:01.0 PCI bridge: Intel Corp. 440BX/ZX/DX - 82443BX/ZX/DX AGP bridge (rev 03)</i>
140 <codenote>Your output may not match the above due to different hardware.</codenote>
141 </pre>
142
143 <p>
144 Most, if not all, kernels should have these options. This was configured using
145 gentoo-sources-2.4.20-r5.
146 </p>
147
148 <pre>
149 # <i>ls -l /usr/src/linux </i>
150 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 22 May 29 18:20 /usr/src/linux -> linux-2.4.20-gentoo-r5
151 <codenote>Make sure <path>/usr/src/linux</path> links to your current kernel.</codenote>
152 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
153 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
154 </pre>
155
156 <pre>
157 Processor type and features ---&gt;
158 &lt;*&gt; MTRR (Memory Type Range Register) support
159 Character devices ---&gt;
160 &lt;*&gt; /dev/agpgart (AGP Support)
161 [M] Intel 440LX/BX/GX and I815/I820/I830M/I830MP/I840/I845/I850/I860 support
162 <codenote>Enable your chipset instead of the above.</codenote>
163 [ ] Direct Rendering Manager (XFree86 DRI support)
164 </pre>
165
166 <p>
167 Make sure the Direct Rendering Manager (DRM) is <e>off</e>. The XFree-DRM
168 package will provide its own. The 2.4 kernel's version is for XFree 4.2.
169 </p>
170
171 </body>
172 </section>
173 <section>
174 <title>Compile and install your kernel</title>
175 <body>
176
177 <pre>
178 # <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make clean bzImage modules modules_install</i>
179 # <i>mount /boot</i>
180 # <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</i>
181 </pre>
182
183 <p>
184 If you want your kernel to be named something other than bzImage, be sure to
185 copy to /boot/yourname instead. Don't forget to set up grub.conf or lilo.conf
186 and run /sbin/lilo if you use LILO.
187 </p>
188
189 </body>
190 </section>
191 </chapter>
192
193 <chapter>
194 <title>Install XFree-DRM and configure direct rendering</title>
195 <section>
196 <title>Install XFree-DRM</title>
197 <body>
198
199 <pre>
200 # <i>ACCEPT_KEYWORDS="~x86" emerge xfree-drm</i>
201 </pre>
202
203 </body>
204 </section>
205 <section>
206 <title>Configure XF86Config</title>
207 <body>
208
209 <p>
210 Open <path>/etc/X11/XF86Config</path> with your favorite text editor and edit
211 it to enable DRI and GLX.
212 </p>
213
214 <pre>
215 ...
216 Section "Module"
217 Load "dri"
218 Load "glx"
219 ...
220 EndSection
221 ...
222 Section "Device"
223 Driver "radeon"
224 ...
225 EndSection
226 ...
227 Section "dri"
228 Mode 0666
229 EndSection
230 </pre>
231
232 <p>
233 If you are using a different driver, replace "radeon" with yours.
234 </p>
235
236 </body>
237 </section>
238 </chapter>
239
240 <chapter>
241 <title>Test 3D acceleration</title>
242 <section>
243 <title>Reboot to the new kernel</title>
244 <body>
245
246 <p>
247 Reboot your computer to your new kernel. It's time to see if you have direct
248 rendering and how good it is.
249 </p>
250
251 <pre>
252 # <i>startx</i>
253 <codenote>No need to load modules for your driver or agpgart, if you compiled agpgart as a module.</codenote>
254 <codenote>They will be loaded automatically.</codenote>
255 # <i>glxinfo | grep rendering</i>
256 direct rendering: Yes
257 <codenote>If it says "No," you don't have 3D acceleration.</codenote>
258 # <i>glxgears</i>
259 <codenote>Test your frames per second (FPS) at the default size. The number should be significantly higher than before installing xfree-drm. Do this while the CPU is as idle as possible.</codenote>
260 </pre>
261
262 </body>
263 </section>
264 </chapter>
265
266 <chapter>
267 <title>Using the CVS sources</title>
268 <section>
269 <body>
270
271 <warn>
272 Don't do this if the package worked.
273 </warn>
274
275 <note>
276 By their nature, CVS sources are always changing. Your configuration may not
277 look exactly like the one below.
278 </note>
279
280 </body>
281 </section>
282 <section>
283 <title>Do you need the CVS?</title>
284 <body>
285
286 <p>
287 First you have to check whether the xfree-drm package works. If it doesn't and
288 you have checked your logs to verify it's not a configuration error, you might
289 want to consider the CVS sources. There are also daily driver snapshots
290 available if you do not wish to build the full CVS.
291 </p>
292
293 </body>
294 </section>
295 <section>
296 <title>Do the CVS sources support your card?</title>
297 <body>
298
299 <p>
300 Check the DRI <uri link="http://dri.sourceforge.net/dri_status.phtml">supported
301 cards list</uri> to see if the CVS supports your card. Even if it doesn't, but
302 it supports a similar card, try it.
303 </p>
304
305 <warn>
306 "Linux 2.4 doesn't support agp 8x, so I had to go find a backport. The backport
307 works .... it doesn't patch quite properly, and it requires 2.4.21 (I've only
308 gotten it to work with vanilla, straight from the tarball (not ebuild)). First
309 go get the 2.4.20-2.4.21 patch from kernel.org .... (then get the patch,) It
310 was on a mailing list somewhere. It doesn't patch cleanly -- one file fails,
311 the pci_ids.h file, but if you actually read the file and the reject list, it's
312 very easy to fix. But it does load, and it gives me 1600x1200 with video
313 (although a bit slow b/c of lack of dga) with xfree-drm." (SanityInAnarchy on
314 #gentoo)
315 </warn>
316
317 <impo>
318 The patch is a little tricky to work with but <uri
319 link="http://www.ussg.iu.edu/hypermail/linux/kernel/0302.2/att-1618/01-agp3.diff.bz2">here's
320 the link</uri>. If you can disable 8X AGP in your BIOS, change it to 4X and you
321 may not need the patch.
322 </impo>
323
324 </body>
325 </section>
326 <section>
327 <title>Install the CVS sources</title>
328 <body>
329
330 <p>
331 Follow this guide through "Compile and install your kernel." Then continue with
332 this guide, which tracks step 6 of the <uri
333 link="http://dri.sourceforge.net/doc/DRIcompile.html">DRI compilation
334 guide</uri> and follows it through step 8.3.
335 </p>
336
337 </body>
338 </section>
339 <section>
340 <title>Anonymous CVS download</title>
341 <body>
342
343 <p>
344 Create a directory to store the CVS files:
345 </p>
346
347 <pre>
348 # <i>cd ~</i>
349 # <i>mkdir DRI-CVS</i>
350 </pre>
351
352 <p>
353 Check out the CVS sources:
354 </p>
355
356 <pre>
357 # <i>cd ~/DRI-CVS</i>
358 # <i>cvs -d:pserver:anonymous@cvs.dri.sourceforge.net:/cvsroot/dri login</i>
359 <codenote>(hit ENTER when prompted for a password)</codenote>
360 # <i>cvs -z3 -d:pserver:anonymous@cvs.dri.sourceforge.net:/cvsroot/dri co xc</i>
361 <codenote>The -z3 flag causes compression to be used to reduce the download time.</codenote>
362 </pre>
363
364 </body>
365 </section>
366 <section>
367 <title>Updating your CVS sources</title>
368 <body>
369
370 <p>
371 In the future you'll want to occasionally update your local copy of the DRI
372 source code to get the latest changes. This can be done with:
373 </p>
374
375 <pre>
376 # <i>cd ~/DRI-CVS</i>
377 # <i>cvs -z3 update -dA xc</i>
378 <codenote>The -d flag causes any new subdirectories to be created.</codenote>
379 <codenote>The -A flag causes most recent trunk sources to be fetched, not branch sources.</codenote>
380 </pre>
381
382 </body>
383 </section>
384 <section>
385 <title>Make a build tree</title>
386 <body>
387
388 <p>
389 Rather than placing object files and library files right in the source tree,
390 they're instead put into a parallel <e>build</e> tree. The build tree is made
391 with the <c>lndir</c> command:
392 </p>
393
394 <pre>
395 # <i>cd ~/DRI-CVS</i>
396 # <i>ln -s xc XFree40</i>
397 # <i>mkdir build; cd build</i>
398 # <i>lndir -silent -ignorelinks ../XFree40</i>
399 </pre>
400
401 <p>
402 The build tree will be populated with symbolic links which point back into the
403 CVS source tree. Advanced users may have several build trees for compiling and
404 testing with different options.
405 </p>
406
407 </body>
408 </section>
409 <section>
410 <title>Edit the host.def file</title>
411 <body>
412
413 <p>
414 The <path>~/DRI-CVS/build/xc/config/cf/host.def</path> file is used to
415 configure the XFree86 build process. You can change it to customize your build
416 options or make adjustments for your particular system configuration. The
417 default host.def file will look something like this:
418 </p>
419
420 <pre>
421 #define DefaultCCOptions -Wall
422 <codenote>For i386:</codenote>
423 #define DefaultGcc2i386Opt -O2
424 <codenote>For Alpha:</codenote>
425 #define DefaultGcc2AxpOpt -O2 -mcpu=ev6 (or similar)
426 <codenote>For all architectures</codenote>
427 #define LibraryCDebugFlags -O2
428 #define BuildServersOnly YES
429 #define XF86CardDrivers vga tdfx mga ati i810
430 #define LinuxDistribution LinuxRedHat
431 #define DefaultCCOptions -ansi GccWarningOptions -pipe
432 #define BuildXF86DRI YES
433 /* Optionally turn these on for debugging */
434 /* #define GlxBuiltInTdfx YES */
435 /* #define GlxBuiltInMga YES */
436 /* #define GlxBuiltInR128 YES */
437 /* #define GlxBuiltInRadeon YES */
438 /* #define DoLoadableServer NO */
439 #define SharedLibFont NO
440 </pre>
441
442 <pre>
443 <codenote>Note the XF86CardDrivers line to be sure your card's driver is listed.</codenote>
444 <codenote>If you want to enable 3DNow! optimizations in Mesa and the DRI drivers, you should add the following:</codenote>
445 #define MesaUse3DNow YES
446 <codenote>You don't have to be using an AMD processor to enable this option.</codenote>
447 <codenote>The DRI will look for 3DNow! support at runtime and only enable it if applicable.</codenote>
448 </pre>
449
450 <p>
451 If you want to enable SSE optimizations in Mesa and the DRI drivers, you must
452 upgrade to a Linux 2.4.x kernel. Mesa will verify that SSE is supported by both
453 your processor and your operating system, but to build Mesa inside the DRI you
454 need to have the Linux 2.4.x kernel headers in <path>/usr/src/linux</path>. If
455 you enable SSE optimizations with an earlier version of the Linux kernel in
456 <path>/usr/src/linux</path>, Mesa will not compile. You have been warned. If
457 you do have a 2.4.x kernel, you should add the following:
458 </p>
459
460 <pre>
461 #define MesaUseKatmai YES
462 </pre>
463
464 </body>
465 </section>
466 <section>
467 <title>Compile the XFree86/DRI tree</title>
468 <body>
469
470 <p>
471 To compile the complete DRI tree:
472 </p>
473
474 <pre>
475 # <i>cd ~/DRI-CVS/build/xc/</i>
476 # <i>make World &gt;&amp; world.log</i>
477 </pre>
478
479 <p>
480 It may also be necessary to do the following, depending on what you placed in
481 host.def:
482 </p>
483
484 <pre>
485 # <i>cd ~/DRI-CVS/build/xc/programs/Xserver/hw/xfree86/os-support/linux/drm/kernel</i>
486 # <i>make -f Makefile.linux radeon.o</i>
487 <codenote>Replace radeon with your driver.</codenote>
488 </pre>
489
490 <p>
491 With the default compilation flags it's normal to get a lot of warnings during
492 compilation. Building will take some time so you may want to go check your
493 email or visit slashdot.
494 </p>
495
496 <warn>
497 Do not use the -j option with make (i.e., do not use distcc). It's reported that
498 it does not work with XFree86/DRI.
499 </warn>
500
501 <p>
502 Using your text editor, examine world.log for errors by searching for the
503 pattern ***.
504 </p>
505
506 </body>
507 </section>
508 <section>
509 <title>Install the CVS</title>
510 <body>
511
512 <p>
513 Verify that the DRI kernel module(s) for your system were built:
514 </p>
515
516 <pre>
517 # <i>cd ~/DRI-CVS/build/xc/programs/Xserver/hw/xfree86/os-support/linux/drm/kernel; ls</i>
518 </pre>
519
520 <p>
521 For the 3dfx Voodoo, you should see <path>tdfx.o</path>. For the Matrox
522 G200/G400, you should see <path>mga.o</path>. For the ATI Rage 128, you should
523 see <path>r128.o</path>. For the ATI Radeon, you should see
524 <path>radeon.o</path>. For the Intel i810, you should see <path>i810.o</path>.
525 If the DRI kernel module(s) failed to build, you should verify that you're
526 using the right version of the Linux kernel. The most recent kernels are not
527 always supported.
528 </p>
529
530 <p>
531 Install over your XFree86 installation. You may wish to back up xfree.
532 </p>
533
534 <pre>
535 # <i>quickpkg xfree</i>
536 <codenote>This backs up your XFree86 package.</codenote>
537 # <i>make install</i>
538 </pre>
539
540 <p>
541 Follow the "Configure XF86Config" section above.
542 </p>
543
544 <p>
545 To load the appropriate DRM module in your running kernel, copy the kernel
546 module to <path>/lib/modules/`uname -r`/kernel/drivers/char/drm/</path> then
547 run <c>modules-update</c> and restart your X server. If you're not running the
548 kernel you'll be using it in, instead of <c>`uname -r`,</c> use that kernel's
549 name.
550 </p>
551
552 <warn>
553 Make sure you first unload any older DRI kernel modules that might be already
554 loaded. Note that some DRM modules require that the agpgart module be loaded
555 first.
556 </warn>
557
558 </body>
559 </section>
560 </chapter>
561
562 <chapter>
563 <title>Tweak your performance</title>
564 <section>
565 <title>Get the most out of direct rendering</title>
566 <body>
567
568 <p>
569 A few options may increase performance by up to 30 percent (or more) over the
570 default. Set them in <path>/etc/X11/XF86Config</path>.
571 </p>
572
573 <pre>
574 Section "Device"
575 Option "AGPMode" "4"
576 <codenote>This increased FPS from 609 to 618.</codenote>
577 Option "AGPFastWrite" "True"
578 <codenote>This had no measurable effect, but it may increase instability of your computer.</codenote>
579 <codenote>You may also need to set it in your BIOS.</codenote>
580 Option "EnablePageFlip" "True"
581 <codenote>This improved FPS from 618 to 702. It also is "risky" but few people have reported problems.</codenote>
582 ...
583 EndSection
584 </pre>
585
586 <p>
587 If you want to set even more features, check out the <uri
588 link="http://dri.sourceforge.net/doc/dri_driver_features.phtml">features
589 listing</uri> on the DRI Web site.
590 </p>
591
592 </body>
593 </section>
594 </chapter>
595
596 <chapter>
597 <title>Troubleshooting</title>
598 <section>
599 <title>It doesn't work. I just recompiled my kernel or switched to a new one.</title>
600 <body>
601
602 <p>
603 Whenever you rebuild your kernel or switch to another kernel, you'll have to
604 rebuild the kernel module. Note that you don't need to remerge xfree, but you
605 will need to remerge xfree-drm.
606 </p>
607
608 </body>
609 </section>
610
611 <section>
612 <title>It doesn't work. I don't have rendering, and I can't tell why.</title>
613 <body>
614
615 <p>
616 Try <c>insmod radeon</c> before you start the X server. Also, try building
617 agpgart into the kernel instead of as a module.
618 </p>
619
620 </body>
621 </section>
622 <section>
623 <title>When I <c>startx</c>, I get this error: "[drm] failed to load kernel module agpgart"</title>
624 <body>
625
626 <p>
627 That's because you compiled agpgart into the kernel instead of as a module.
628 Ignore it unless you're having problems.
629 </p>
630
631 </body>
632 </section>
633 <section>
634 <title>Direct rendering doesn't work, and in <path>/var/log/XFree86.0.log</path> I have an error about driver version too low.</title>
635 <body>
636
637 <p>
638 You aren't using the xfree-drm driver. Check if you compiled DRM and the driver
639 into the kernel; you shouldn't have.
640 </p>
641
642 </body>
643 </section>
644 <section>
645 <title>I have a Radeon, and I want TV-Out.</title>
646 <body>
647
648 <p>
649 Check out ati-gatos drivers. <c>emerge -s gatos</c>.
650 </p>
651
652 </body>
653 </section>
654 <section>
655 <title>It doesn't work. My card is so incredibly new and cool that it isn't supported at all.</title>
656 <body>
657
658 <p>
659 Try out the binary drivers. For ati-drivers, a listing is at
660 <uri>http://www.schneider-digital.de/html/download_ati.html</uri>. If those
661 don't support it, use fbdev. It's slow, but it works.
662 </p>
663
664 </body>
665 </section>
666 <section>
667 <title>I have a PCI card and it doesn't work. Help!</title>
668 <body>
669
670 <p>
671 In section "Device" enable ForcePCIMode.
672 </p>
673
674 <pre>
675 Option "ForcePCIMode" "True"
676 </pre>
677
678 </body>
679 </section>
680 </chapter>
681
682 <chapter>
683 <title>Acknowledgments</title>
684 <section>
685 <body>
686
687 <ol>
688 <li>
689 Christopher Webber for suggesting a troubleshooting question about changing
690 or recompiling kernels
691 </li>
692 <li>
693 Steve, for suggesting consistency between the cases of dri and DRI in
694 XF86Config
695 </li>
696 </ol>
697
698 </body>
699 </section>
700 </chapter>
701
702 <chapter>
703 <title>References</title>
704 <section>
705 <body>
706
707 <ol>
708 <li>http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=46681</li>
709 <li>http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=29264</li>
710 <li>http://dri.sourceforge.net/</li>
711 <li>http://www.retinalburn.net/linux/dri_status.html</li>
712 </ol>
713
714 </body>
715 </section>
716 </chapter>
717 </guide>

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