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1 zhen 1.3 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 nightmorph 1.105 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml,v 1.104 2006/02/13 15:36:26 neysx Exp $ -->
3 drobbins 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4    
5 zhen 1.2 <guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
6 drobbins 1.1 <title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
7 neysx 1.85 <author title="Author">
8 swift 1.54 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
9     </author>
10     <author title="Reviewer">
11     Colin Morey
12     </author>
13     <author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
14     John P. Davis
15     </author>
16     <author title="Editor">
17     <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
18     </author>
19     <author title="Editor">
20     <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
21     </author>
22     <author title="Editor">
23     <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
24     </author>
25     <author title="Editor">
26     <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
27     </author>
28     <author title="Editor">
29 nightmorph 1.106 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
30 swift 1.54 </author>
31 bennyc 1.75 <author title="Editor">
32     <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
33     </author>
34 neysx 1.85 <author title="Editor">
35 swift 1.88 <mail link="smithj@gentoo.org">Jonathan Smith</mail>
36 neysx 1.85 </author>
37 swift 1.54
38 vapier 1.49 <abstract>
39 swift 1.54 This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev
40 neysx 1.85 mailing list and from IRC.
41 vapier 1.49 </abstract>
42 drobbins 1.1
43 neysx 1.85 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
44 swift 1.97 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
45 swift 1.42 <license/>
46    
47 neysx 1.104 <version>3.6</version>
48 nightmorph 1.106 <date>2006-02-13</date>
49 swift 1.36
50     <chapter>
51 neysx 1.85 <title>Questions:</title>
52 swift 1.36 <section>
53     <title>Getting Started</title>
54     <body>
55 swift 1.54
56 neysx 1.85 <p>
57     Please note that many of these questions are answered within the official
58 neysx 1.94 Gentoo documents and guides. This is simply a list of common questions. Please
59 neysx 1.85 read the documentation and/or man pages to gain a greater understanding of how
60     Gentoo and GNU/Linux works, and for answers to questions which may not be
61     answered here.
62     </p>
63    
64 swift 1.36 <ul>
65 swift 1.54 <li>
66 swift 1.61 <uri link="#pronunciation">How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it
67 swift 1.55 mean?</uri>
68 swift 1.54 </li>
69     <li>
70 swift 1.61 <uri link="#differences">What makes Gentoo different?</uri>
71 swift 1.54 </li>
72 swift 1.36 </ul>
73 swift 1.54
74 swift 1.36 </body>
75     </section>
76     <section>
77     <title>Installation</title>
78     <body>
79 swift 1.54
80 swift 1.36 <ul>
81 swift 1.54 <li>
82 neysx 1.85 <uri link="#optimizations">Things are really unstable and I'm using "-O9
83     -ffast-math -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?</uri>
84 swift 1.54 </li>
85     <li>
86 swift 1.61 <uri link="#password">How can I change the root (or any other user's)
87 swift 1.55 password?</uri>
88 swift 1.54 </li>
89     <li>
90 swift 1.61 <uri link="#useradd">How do I add a normal user?</uri>
91 swift 1.54 </li>
92     <li>
93 swift 1.61 <uri link="#su">Why can't a user su to root?</uri>
94 swift 1.54 </li>
95     <li>
96 swift 1.61 <uri link="#devfs">How do I disable devfs?</uri>
97 swift 1.54 </li>
98     <li>
99 swift 1.61 <uri link="#upgrade">Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to
100 swift 1.55 another without reinstalling?</uri>
101 swift 1.54 </li>
102     <li>
103 swift 1.61 <uri link="#bootrescue">My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should
104 swift 1.55 I do now?</uri>
105 swift 1.54 </li>
106     <li>
107 swift 1.61 <uri link="#proxy">My proxy requires authentication, what do I
108 swift 1.54 have to do?</uri>
109     </li>
110 swift 1.65 <li>
111     <uri link="#isoburning">How do I burn an ISO file?</uri>
112     </li>
113 swift 1.77 <li>
114     <uri link="#cpus">What CD/stage should I use for my CPU?</uri>
115     </li>
116 swift 1.97 <li>
117     <uri link="#dhcp">I can't get online after rebooting. What is wrong?</uri>
118     </li>
119 fox2mike 1.98 <li>
120     <uri link="#dualboot">I want to boot Windows from GRUB or LILO but it shows
121     only black screen. What should I do?</uri>
122     </li>
123 swift 1.99 <li>
124     <uri link="#stage12">How do I Install Gentoo Using a Stage1 or Stage2
125     Tarball?</uri>
126     </li>
127 swift 1.36 </ul>
128 swift 1.54
129 swift 1.36 </body>
130     </section>
131     <section>
132     <title>Package Management</title>
133     <body>
134 swift 1.54
135 swift 1.36 <ul>
136 swift 1.54 <li>
137 swift 1.61 <uri link="#ebuilds">In what format are the packages stored?</uri>
138 swift 1.54 </li>
139     <li>
140 swift 1.61 <uri link="#configure">I want to perform the ./configure step myself.
141 swift 1.54 Can I?</uri>
142     </li>
143     <li>
144 neysx 1.85 <uri link="#firewall">How do I use emerge from behind a
145     firewall?</uri>
146 swift 1.54 </li>
147     <li>
148 neysx 1.85 <uri link="#norsync">What if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri>
149 swift 1.54 </li>
150     <li>
151 swift 1.61 <uri link="#manualdownload">I have only slow modem connection at home. Can
152 swift 1.55 I download sources somewhere else and add them to my system?</uri>
153 swift 1.54 </li>
154     <li>
155 neysx 1.85 <uri link="#distfiles">Source tarballs are collecting in
156 smithj 1.90 /usr/portage/distfiles. Is it safe to delete these files?</uri>
157 swift 1.54 </li>
158     <li>
159 swift 1.61 <uri link="#tmpportage">What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to
160 swift 1.54 delete the files and directories in /var/tmp/portage?</uri>
161     </li>
162 swift 1.36 </ul>
163 swift 1.54
164 swift 1.36 </body>
165     </section>
166     <section>
167     <title>Usage</title>
168     <body>
169 swift 1.54
170 swift 1.36 <ul>
171 swift 1.54 <li>
172 swift 1.61 <uri link="#intkeyboard">How do I set up an International Keyboard
173 swift 1.54 Layout?</uri>
174     </li>
175     <li>
176 swift 1.61 <uri link="#rootdns">DNS name resolution works for root only.</uri>
177 swift 1.54 </li>
178     <li>
179 swift 1.61 <uri link="#crontab">Why can't my user use their own crontab?</uri>
180 swift 1.54 </li>
181     <li>
182 swift 1.61 <uri link="#numlock">How do I get numlock to start on boot?</uri>
183 swift 1.54 </li>
184     <li>
185 swift 1.61 <uri link="#clear">How do I have my terminal cleared when I log
186 swift 1.54 out?</uri>
187     </li>
188 swift 1.76 <li>
189     <uri link="#suinx">I'm not able to run X applications as root after
190     su'ing</uri>
191     </li>
192 swift 1.36 </ul>
193 swift 1.54
194 swift 1.36 </body>
195     </section>
196     <section>
197     <title>Maintenance</title>
198     <body>
199 swift 1.54
200 swift 1.36 <ul>
201 swift 1.54 <li>
202 swift 1.61 <uri link="#filecorruption">ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues --
203 neysx 1.94 how to fix them, etc.</uri>
204 swift 1.54 </li>
205 swift 1.36 </ul>
206 swift 1.54
207 swift 1.36 </body>
208     </section>
209     <section>
210     <title>Development</title>
211     <body>
212 swift 1.54
213 swift 1.36 <ul>
214 swift 1.54 <li>
215 swift 1.61 <uri link="#reportbugs">Where can I report bugs?</uri>
216 swift 1.54 </li>
217     <li>
218 swift 1.61 <uri link="#releases">How often are new releases made?</uri>
219 swift 1.54 </li>
220     <li>
221 neysx 1.85 <uri link="#beeping">My speaker beeps like crazy. How do I disable console
222     beeps?</uri>
223 swift 1.54 </li>
224 swift 1.36 </ul>
225 swift 1.54
226 swift 1.36 </body>
227     </section>
228     <section>
229     <title>Resources</title>
230     <body>
231 swift 1.54
232 swift 1.36 <ul>
233 swift 1.54 <li>
234 swift 1.61 <uri link="#resources">Where can I find more information about Gentoo
235 swift 1.55 Linux?</uri>
236 swift 1.54 </li>
237     <li>
238 swift 1.61 <uri link="#buycd">Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</uri>
239 swift 1.54 </li>
240     <li>
241 swift 1.61 <uri link="#help">This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I
242 swift 1.55 do now?</uri>
243 swift 1.54 </li>
244 swift 1.36 </ul>
245 swift 1.54
246 swift 1.36 </body>
247     </section>
248     </chapter>
249    
250 swift 1.54 <chapter>
251     <title>Getting Started</title>
252    
253 swift 1.61 <section id="pronunciation">
254 swift 1.54 <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
255     <body>
256    
257     <p>
258 swift 1.55 A <e>Gentoo</e> is a species of a small, fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (the
259 neysx 1.83 "g" in "Gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle"). The scientific name of the Gentoo
260 swift 1.55 penguin is <e>Pygoscelis papua</e>. The name <e>Gentoo</e> has been given to the
261 neysx 1.78 penguin by the inhabitants of the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas).
262 swift 1.54 </p>
263    
264     </body>
265     </section>
266 swift 1.61 <section id="differences">
267 swift 1.54 <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
268     <body>
269 drobbins 1.1
270 swift 1.54 <p>
271 swift 1.55 Gentoo uses a BSD ports-like system called <uri
272     link="/proj/en/portage">Portage</uri>. Portage is a package management system
273     that allows great flexibility while installing and maintaining software on a
274     Gentoo system. It provides compile-time option support (through <uri
275 neysx 1.73 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>),
276 yoswink 1.91 conditional dependencies, pre-package installation summary, safe installation
277     (through sandboxing) and uninstallation of software, system profiles, <uri
278 neysx 1.73 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=3&amp;chap=2#doc_chap3">configuration
279 swift 1.55 file protection</uri> amongst several other <uri
280 neysx 1.73 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">features</uri>.
281 swift 1.54 </p>
282 drobbins 1.1
283 swift 1.54 <p>
284 neysx 1.83 With Gentoo you can build your entire system from source, using your choice of
285     optimizations. You have complete control over what packages are or aren't
286 neysx 1.85 installed. Gentoo provides you with numerous choices, so you can install Gentoo
287     to your own preferences, which is why Gentoo is called a <e>meta-distribution</e>.
288 swift 1.54 </p>
289    
290     <p>
291 neysx 1.85 Gentoo is actively developed. The entire distribution uses a rapid pace
292     development style: patches to the packages are quickly integrated in the
293 neysx 1.94 mainline tree, documentation is updated on daily basis, Portage features are
294 neysx 1.85 added frequently, and official releases occur twice per year.
295 swift 1.54 </p>
296    
297     </body>
298     </section>
299 swift 1.55 </chapter>
300    
301     <chapter>
302     <title>Installation</title>
303 swift 1.61 <section id="optimizations">
304 swift 1.54 <title>
305 neysx 1.85 Things are really unstable and I'm using -O9 -ffast-math
306     -fomit-frame-pointer optimizations. What gives?
307 swift 1.54 </title>
308     <body>
309    
310     <p>
311 swift 1.60 Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't supported by
312 swift 1.54 current versions of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the
313     compiler to streamline the assembly code to the point where it doesn't quite
314 swift 1.55 do the same thing anymore.
315 swift 1.54 </p>
316    
317     <p>
318 neysx 1.85 Please try to compile with CFLAGS <c>-O2 -march=&lt;your_arch&gt;</c> before
319 neysx 1.83 reporting a bug.
320 swift 1.54 </p>
321    
322     </body>
323     </section>
324 swift 1.61 <section id="password">
325 neysx 1.85 <title>How do I change the root (or any other user's) password?</title>
326 swift 1.54 <body>
327    
328     <p>
329     You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged
330 neysx 1.85 into. As root, you can change any user password by issuing the command
331     <c>passwd username</c> For extra options and setting, please <c>man passwd</c>.
332 swift 1.54 </p>
333    
334     </body>
335     </section>
336 swift 1.61 <section id="useradd">
337 neysx 1.83 <title>How do I add a normal user?</title>
338 swift 1.54 <body>
339    
340     <p>
341 neysx 1.85 The command <c>adduser username</c> will add a user called "username". However,
342     this method does not give the user many of the rights you might want to grant
343     him, so the following command is preferred:
344 swift 1.54 </p>
345    
346     <pre caption="Using useradd">
347 neysx 1.85 # <i>useradd -m -G users,audio,wheel username</i>
348 swift 1.54 </pre>
349    
350     <p>
351 neysx 1.85 This will add a user named "username". The option <c>audio</c> adds them to the
352 fox2mike 1.87 <c>audio</c> group and allows the user to access sound devices. The option
353 neysx 1.85 <c>wheel</c> adds the user to the <c>wheel</c> group, which allows the user to
354     execute the command <c>su</c>, which in turn allows them to gain the
355     privileges of the <c>root</c> user.
356 swift 1.54 </p>
357    
358     </body>
359     </section>
360 swift 1.61 <section id="su">
361 swift 1.54 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
362     <body>
363    
364     <p>
365     For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
366 neysx 1.83 wheel group. To add a username to the wheel group, issue the following command
367     as root:
368 swift 1.54 </p>
369    
370     <pre caption="Adding a user to the wheel group">
371 swift 1.55 # <i>gpasswd -a username wheel</i>
372 swift 1.54 </pre>
373    
374     </body>
375     </section>
376 swift 1.61 <section id="devfs">
377 bennyc 1.75 <title>How do I disable devfs?</title>
378 swift 1.54 <body>
379    
380     <p>
381 swift 1.100 Gentoo can work with devfs kernel support, udev userland support or static
382     <path>/dev</path>. With the advent of the 2.6 kernel being stable on most
383 neysx 1.85 archs, udev is recommended. Please see the <uri
384     link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev guide</uri> for information on configuring
385     udev.
386 swift 1.54 </p>
387    
388 swift 1.100 <p>
389     If you want to use the static <path>/dev</path>, please set
390 neysx 1.101 <c>RC_DEVICES="static"</c> in <path>/etc/conf.d/rc</path>.
391 swift 1.100 </p>
392    
393 swift 1.54 </body>
394     </section>
395 swift 1.61 <section id="upgrade">
396 swift 1.54 <title>
397 swift 1.55 Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to another without reinstalling?
398 swift 1.54 </title>
399     <body>
400    
401     <p>
402 neysx 1.85 In fact, there is no difference between the various releases after they have
403     been installed. Gentoo 1.4 and later are <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based. As such,
404     running <c>emerge --sync &amp;&amp; emerge -uDN world</c> will bring your
405     entire system up to speed with the "latest Gentoo". The differences between
406     individual releases lie in the installation medium and pre-compiled packages.
407     See the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-upgrading.xml">Gentoo Upgrading Guide</uri>
408     for more information about profiles and their role in upgrading.
409 swift 1.62 </p>
410    
411 swift 1.54 </body>
412     </section>
413 swift 1.61 <section id="bootrescue">
414 neysx 1.85 <title>My kernel doesn't boot, what should I do now?</title>
415 swift 1.54 <body>
416    
417     <p>
418 neysx 1.85 You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but investigating the
419     kernel and all associated steps is necessary. Suppose you have installed Gentoo
420 swift 1.54 on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with
421     <path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space:
422     </p>
423    
424     <pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel">
425 neysx 1.85 <comment>Boot from the Install CD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment>
426 swift 1.37 <comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment>
427     # <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
428     # <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
429     # <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
430     # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
431     <comment>Then we chroot into our Gentoo environment and configure the kernel:</comment>
432     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
433     # <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
434     # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
435     # <i>make menuconfig</i>
436     <comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment>
437     <comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment>
438 neysx 1.85 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
439 swift 1.37 <comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment>
440 neysx 1.104 # <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot/&lt;kernel_name&gt;</i>
441 swift 1.37 <comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment>
442     # <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
443     <comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment>
444     # <i>exit</i>
445     # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
446     # <i>reboot</i>
447 swift 1.54 </pre>
448    
449     <p>
450 neysx 1.104 If, on the other hand, the problem lies with your bootloader configuration,
451 neysx 1.85 follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel, you
452 swift 1.54 should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary).
453     </p>
454    
455     </body>
456     </section>
457 swift 1.61 <section id="proxy">
458 swift 1.54 <title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title>
459     <body>
460    
461     <p>
462     To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in
463     <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
464     </p>
465    
466 swift 1.38 <pre caption = "/etc/make.conf">
467 neysx 1.85 HTTP_PROXY="http://username:password@yourproxybox.org:portnumber"
468     FTP_PROXY="ftp://username:password@yourproxybox.org:portnumber"
469     RSYNC_PROXY="rsync://username:password@yourproxybox.server:portnumber"
470 swift 1.80 </pre>
471    
472 swift 1.54 </body>
473     </section>
474 swift 1.65 <section id="isoburning">
475     <title>How do I burn an ISO file?</title>
476     <body>
477    
478     <p>
479 neysx 1.83 You need to burn the file in raw mode. This means that you should <e>not</e>
480     just place the file on the CD, but interpret the file as an entire CD.
481 swift 1.65 </p>
482    
483     <p>
484     There are lots of CD burning tools available; covering them all would be a
485 neysx 1.83 Sisyphean problem. However, describing a few popular tools never hurts:
486 swift 1.65 </p>
487    
488     <ul>
489     <li>
490     With EasyCD Creator you select <c>File</c>, <c>Record CD
491     from CD image</c>. Then you change the <c>Files of type</c> to <c>ISO image
492     file</c>. Then locate the ISO file and click <c>Open</c>. When you click on
493     <c>Start recording</c> the ISO image will be burned correctly onto the CD-R.
494     </li>
495     <li>
496     With Nero Burning ROM, cancel the wizard which automatically pops up and
497 neysx 1.69 select <c>Burn Image</c> from the <c>File</c> menu. Select the image you
498 swift 1.65 want to burn and click <c>Open</c>. Now hit the <c>Burn</c> button and watch
499     your brand new CD being burnt.
500     </li>
501     <li>
502     With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace
503     <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
504     by the path to the ISO file :)
505     </li>
506     <li>
507 neysx 1.85 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn CD Image</c>.
508     Then you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally
509     click <c>Start</c>.
510 swift 1.65 </li>
511 swift 1.66 <li>
512     With Mac OS X Panther, launch <c>Disk Utility</c> from
513     <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Open</c> from the
514     <c>Images</c> menu, select the mounted disk image in the main window and
515     select <c>Burn</c> in the <c>Images</c> menu.
516     </li>
517     <li>
518     With Mac OS X Jaguar, launch <c>Disk Copy</c> from
519     <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Burn Image</c> from the
520     <c>File</c> menu, select the ISO and click the <c>Burn</c> button.
521     </li>
522 swift 1.65 </ul>
523    
524    
525     </body>
526     </section>
527 swift 1.77 <section id="cpus">
528     <title>What CD/stage should I use for my CPU?</title>
529     <body>
530    
531     <p>
532     First you need to find our what CPU you use. Suppose it's a Pentium-M. Then you
533 neysx 1.83 need to find out what CPU it is, instruction-wise, compatible with. You may
534 neysx 1.95 need to consult the CPU's vendor website for this, although <uri
535 swift 1.77 link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri> is at least as efficient :-).
536     </p>
537    
538     <p>
539 neysx 1.85 If you are uncertain, take a "lower" CD/stage file, for instance a i686 or even
540     generic x86 (or the equivalent in your arch). This will ensure that your system
541     will work, but may not be as fast as further optimizations.
542 swift 1.77 </p>
543    
544     <p>
545 swift 1.99 Please note that many more options exist than those for which Gentoo builds
546     binary stages. Please see the <uri
547 neysx 1.85 link="http://gcc.gnu.org/onlinedocs/gcc-3.4.4/gcc/i386-and-x86_002d64-Options.html#i386-and-x86_002d64-Options">gcc
548     guide</uri> for setting <c>-march</c>.
549 swift 1.77 </p>
550    
551     </body>
552     </section>
553 swift 1.97 <section id="dhcp">
554     <title>I can't get online after rebooting. What is wrong?</title>
555     <body>
556    
557     <p>
558     First you need to check if your network card is discovered properly by the
559     kernel. Run <c>ifconfig&nbsp;-a</c> and look for eth0 or wlan0 (in case of
560     certain wireless network cards). You might need to load specific kernel modules
561     for the kernel to properly detect the network card. If that is the case, make
562     sure that these kernel modules are listed in
563     <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</path> (or <path>kernel-2.4</path> if
564     you are still using a 2.4 kernel).
565     </p>
566    
567     <p>
568     If you have forgotten to include support for your network card in your kernel,
569     you will need to reconfigure your kernel.
570     </p>
571    
572     <p>
573     If your network card is found by your kernel, but you have set your networking
574     configuration to use DHCP, you might have forgotten to
575     <c>emerge&nbsp;dhcpcd</c>. You will need to reboot with your installation CD to
576     install <c>dhcpcd</c>.
577     </p>
578    
579     <p>
580     Information on how to rescue your system using the installation CD is <uri
581     link="#bootrescue">available</uri> as well.
582     </p>
583    
584     </body>
585     </section>
586 fox2mike 1.98 <section id="dualboot">
587     <title>
588     I want to boot Windows from grub or lilo but it shows only black screen. What
589     should I do?
590     </title>
591     <body>
592    
593     <p>
594     This is a known problem. Windows refuses to boot when it isn't installed on the
595     first hard drive and shows a black/blank screen. To handle this, you will have
596     to "fool" Windows into believing that it is installed on the first hard drive
597     with a little tweak in your boot loader configuration. Please note that in the
598     below example, Gentoo is installed on <path>hda</path> (first disk) and Windows
599     on <path>hdb</path> (second one). Adjust your config as needed.
600     </p>
601    
602     <pre caption="Example dual boot entry for Windows in grub.conf">
603     title Windows XP
604     map (hd1) (hd0)
605     map (hd0) (hd1)
606     rootnoverify (hd1,0)
607     chainloader +1
608     </pre>
609    
610     <pre caption="Example dual boot entry for Windows in lilo.conf">
611     other=/dev/hdb1
612     label=WindowsXP
613     table=/dev/hdb
614     map-drive = 0x80
615     to = 0x81
616     map-drive = 0x81
617     to = 0x80
618     </pre>
619    
620     <p>
621     This will make Windows believe it is installed on the first hard drive and boot
622     without problems. More information can be found in the <uri
623     link="http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/manual/html_node/DOS_002fWindows.html">GRUB
624     documentation</uri> and in <c>man lilo.conf</c>, depending on the boot loader
625     you're using.
626     </p>
627    
628     </body>
629     </section>
630 swift 1.99 <section id="stage12">
631     <title>How do I Install Gentoo Using a Stage1 or Stage2 Tarball?</title>
632     <body>
633    
634     <p>
635     The Gentoo Handbook only describes a Gentoo installation using a stage3 tarball.
636     However, Gentoo still provides stage1 and stage2 tarballs. This is for
637     development purposes (the Release Engineering team starts from a stage1 tarball
638     to obtain a stage3) but shouldn't be used by users: a stage3 tarball can very
639     well be used to bootstrap the system. You do need a working Internet connection.
640     </p>
641    
642     <p>
643     Bootstrapping means building the toolchain (the C library and compiler) for
644     your system after which you install all core system packages. To bootstrap the
645     system, perform a stage3 installation. Before you start the chapter on
646     <e>Configuring the Kernel</e>, modify the <path>bootstrap.sh</path> script to
647     suit your needs and then run it:
648     </p>
649    
650     <pre caption="Bootstrapping the system">
651     # <i>cd /usr/portage/scripts</i>
652     # <i>vi bootstrap.sh</i>
653    
654     # <i>./bootstrap.sh</i>
655     </pre>
656    
657     <p>
658     Next, rebuild all core system packages with the newly built toolchain. We need
659     to rebuild them since the stage3 tarball already offers them:
660     </p>
661    
662     <pre caption="Rebuilding the core system packages">
663     # <i>emerge -e system</i>
664     </pre>
665    
666     <p>
667     Now you can continue with <e>Configuring the Kernel</e>. You can not use the
668     prebuilt GRP packages anymore though.
669     </p>
670    
671     </body>
672     </section>
673 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
674    
675     <chapter>
676 swift 1.54 <title>Package Management</title>
677 swift 1.61 <section id="ebuilds">
678 neysx 1.83 <title>In what form are the packages stored?</title>
679 swift 1.54 <body>
680    
681 swift 1.45 <p>
682 neysx 1.85 Packages aren't "stored" per se. Instead, Gentoo provides a set of scripts
683     which can resolve dependencies, fetch source code, and compile a version of the
684     package specifically for your needs. We generally only build binaries for
685     releases and snapshots. The <uri
686 neysx 1.83 link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Gentoo Ebuild
687 neysx 1.85 HOWTO</uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail.
688 swift 1.45 </p>
689    
690 swift 1.54 <p>
691 neysx 1.85 For full ISO releases, we create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced
692     <c>.tbz2</c> format, which is <c>.tar.bz2</c> compatible with meta-information
693     attached to the end of the file. These can be used to install a working (though
694     not fully optimized) version of the package quickly and efficiently.
695 swift 1.54 </p>
696    
697     <p>
698 neysx 1.85 It is possible to create RPMs (Redhat package manager files) using Gentoo's
699 neysx 1.94 Portage, but it is not currently possible to use already existing RPMs to
700 neysx 1.85 install packages.
701 swift 1.54 </p>
702    
703 neysx 1.85 </body>
704     </section>
705     <section id="configure">
706     <title>I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</title>
707     <body>
708 swift 1.54
709     <p>
710 neysx 1.85 Yes, but it is not trivial, nor is it recommended. Since the method to do this
711 neysx 1.94 requires a good understanding of Portage internals and commands, it is instead
712 neysx 1.85 recommended that you patch the ebuild to do whatever it is that you want and
713 neysx 1.94 place it in the Portage overlay (that's why it exists). This is <e>much</e>
714 neysx 1.85 better for maintainability, and usually easier. See the <uri
715     link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Ebuild
716     HOWTO</uri> for more information.
717 swift 1.54 </p>
718    
719     </body>
720     </section>
721 neysx 1.85 <section id="firewall">
722     <title>How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</title>
723 swift 1.54 <body>
724    
725     <p>
726 neysx 1.85 See the questions on <uri link="#proxy">proxies</uri>, <uri
727 swift 1.86 link="#norsync">rsync</uri>, and <uri link="#manualdownload">downloading source
728 neysx 1.85 files manually</uri>.
729 swift 1.54 </p>
730    
731     </body>
732     </section>
733 neysx 1.85 <section id="norsync">
734     <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
735 swift 1.54 <body>
736    
737     <p>
738 neysx 1.85 If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit rsync traffic, then you can use
739     <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch and install a Portage snapshot for you
740     through regular HTTP. See the <uri link="#proxy">proxy section</uri> of this
741 neysx 1.94 document for information on downloading source files and Portage snapshots via
742 neysx 1.85 a proxy.
743 swift 1.54 </p>
744    
745     </body>
746     </section>
747 swift 1.61 <section id="manualdownload">
748 swift 1.54 <title>
749     I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere
750     else and add them to my system?
751     </title>
752     <body>
753    
754     <p>
755     Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
756     are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where
757     to download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>. Download
758     sources and bring them on any media home. Put the sources into
759 neysx 1.85 <path>/usr/portage/distfiles/</path> and then simply run <c>emerge package</c>.
760     Be warned, however, that this is a tedious process.
761 swift 1.54 </p>
762    
763     </body>
764     </section>
765 swift 1.61 <section id="distfiles">
766 swift 1.54 <title>
767 neysx 1.85 Source tarballs are collecting in /usr/portage/distfiles/. Is it safe to
768 smithj 1.89 delete these files?
769 swift 1.54 </title>
770     <body>
771    
772     <p>
773 neysx 1.85 Deleting these files will have no negative impact on day-to-day performance.
774     However, it might be wise to keep the most recent version of the files; often
775     several ebuilds will be released for the same version of a specific piece of
776     software. If you have deleted the archive and you upgrade the software it will
777     be necessary to download them from the internet again. There are programs which
778     <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic-t-337074.html">users have
779     developed</uri> to clean out all but the most recent version of sourcefiles.
780     Note that while this seems to work, it is <e>not</e> officially maintained. Use
781     at your own risk.
782 swift 1.54 </p>
783    
784     </body>
785     </section>
786 swift 1.61 <section id="tmpportage">
787 swift 1.54 <title>
788 cam 1.58 What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to delete the files and
789     directories in /var/tmp/portage?
790 swift 1.54 </title>
791     <body>
792    
793     <p>
794     During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in
795 neysx 1.85 <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. These files and folder are usually deleted upon
796     a successful merge, but this sometimes fails. It is safe to clean out all
797     contents of this directory <e>if</e> emerge is not running. Just to be sure,
798     always <c>pgrep emerge</c> before cleaning out this directory.
799 swift 1.54 </p>
800    
801     </body>
802     </section>
803 yoswink 1.92 </chapter>
804    
805     <chapter>
806     <title>Usage</title>
807 swift 1.61 <section id="intkeyboard">
808 swift 1.54 <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
809     <body>
810    
811     <p>
812 flammie 1.102 Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>. To have
813     console working correctly with extended characters in your keymap you might
814     also need to set up variables <c>CONSOLETRANSLATION</c> and <c>CONSOLEFONT</c>
815     in your <path>/etc/conf.d/consolefont</path> (for further information on
816 yoswink 1.103 localising your environment, refer to <uri
817     link="/doc/en/guide-localization.xml">our localisation guide</uri>).
818 flammie 1.102 Then, either <c>reboot</c>, or restart the keymaps and consolefont scripts:
819 swift 1.54 </p>
820    
821 neysx 1.85 <pre caption="Restarting keymaps">
822     # <i>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</i>
823 flammie 1.102 # <i>/etc/init.d/consolefont restart</i>
824 neysx 1.85 </pre>
825    
826 swift 1.54 </body>
827     </section>
828 swift 1.61 <section id="rootdns">
829 neysx 1.85 <title>DNS name resolution works for root only</title>
830 swift 1.54 <body>
831    
832     <p>
833     <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as
834     follows:
835     </p>
836    
837     <pre caption="Changing permissions on /etc/resolv.conf">
838     # <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i>
839     </pre>
840    
841     </body>
842     </section>
843 swift 1.61 <section id="crontab">
844 swift 1.54 <title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
845     <body>
846    
847     <p>
848     You need to add that user to the <c>cron</c> group.
849     </p>
850    
851     </body>
852     </section>
853 swift 1.61 <section id="numlock">
854 swift 1.54 <title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
855     <body>
856    
857     <p>
858 neysx 1.85 If you work in command line, you only need to <c>rc-update add
859     numlock default &amp;&amp;/etc/init.d/numlock start</c>.
860 swift 1.54 </p>
861    
862     <p>
863 neysx 1.85 Each GUI provides different tools for this sort of thing; please check the help
864     section or online manuals for assistance.
865 swift 1.54 </p>
866    
867     </body>
868     </section>
869 swift 1.61 <section id="clear">
870 swift 1.54 <title>How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</title>
871     <body>
872    
873     <p>
874     To have your terminal cleared, add <c>clear</c> to your
875     <path>~/.bash_logout</path> script:
876     </p>
877    
878     <pre caption = "Clearing the terminal during logout">
879     $ <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; ~/.bash_logout</i>
880     </pre>
881    
882     <p>
883     If you want this to happen automatically when you add a new
884     user, do the same for the <path>/etc/skel/.bash_logout</path>:
885     </p>
886    
887     <pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout">
888     # <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre>
889     </body>
890    
891     </section>
892 swift 1.76 <section id="suinx">
893     <title>I'm not able to run X applications as root after su'ing</title>
894     <body>
895    
896     <p>
897     This issue seems only to occur when you log on graphically. <c>startx</c> users
898     don't have this behaviour. The problem is a <uri
899     link="http://bugs.gentoo.org/show_bug.cgi?id=14560">bug</uri> in Gentoo's PAM,
900     the solution however is quite simple: add the following line to
901     <path>/etc/profile</path>.
902     </p>
903    
904     <pre caption="Export the XAUTHORITY">
905     export XAUTHORITY="${HOME}/.Xauthority"
906     </pre>
907    
908     </body>
909     </section>
910 swift 1.54 </chapter>
911    
912     <chapter>
913     <title>Maintenance</title>
914 swift 1.61 <section id="filecorruption">
915 neysx 1.94 <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix them, etc</title>
916 swift 1.54 <body>
917    
918     <p>
919 neysx 1.85 If your ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo Install CD and
920     run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on the corrupted filesystem. This should
921     make the filesystem consistent again, although you may have lost some files or
922     directories due to the corruption.
923 swift 1.54 </p>
924    
925     </body>
926     </section>
927 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
928 yoswink 1.92
929 drobbins 1.1 <chapter>
930 swift 1.54 <title>Development</title>
931 swift 1.61 <section id="reportbugs">
932 swift 1.54 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
933     <body>
934    
935     <p>
936 neysx 1.85 Use our <uri link="https://bugs.gentoo.org">Bugzilla</uri>. If you are unsure if
937     your problem is an actual bug, you can visit <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri
938 swift 1.54 link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network.
939     </p>
940    
941     </body>
942     </section>
943 swift 1.61 <section id="releases">
944 swift 1.54 <title>How often are new releases made?</title>
945     <body>
946    
947     <p>
948 neysx 1.85 Gentoo's packages are usually updated shortly after the main authors release
949     new code. As for when Gentoo itself makes new stage/profile/ISO releases, check
950     our <uri link="/proj/en/releng">Release Engineering Project</uri> page. New
951     releases are announced on the <uri
952     link="/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri> mailing list. See the question
953     on <uri link="#upgrade">upgrading</uri> for more information.
954 swift 1.54 </p>
955    
956     </body>
957     </section>
958 swift 1.61 <section id="beeping">
959 swift 1.54 <title>
960 neysx 1.85 My speaker beeps like crazy. How do I disable console beeps?
961 swift 1.54 </title>
962     <body>
963    
964     <p>
965     Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this:
966     </p>
967    
968     <pre caption="Using setterm">
969     # <i>setterm -blength 0</i>
970     </pre>
971    
972     <p>
973 neysx 1.85 If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot, you need to put this
974     command in <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However, this only disables
975     beeps for the current terminal. To disable beeps for other terminals, pipe the
976     command output to the target terminal, like this: </p>
977 swift 1.54
978     <pre caption="Using setterm (bis)">
979     # <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i>
980     </pre>
981    
982     <p>
983     You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal you would like to disable
984     console beeps for.
985     </p>
986    
987     </body>
988     </section>
989 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
990    
991     <chapter>
992     <title>Resources</title>
993 swift 1.61 <section id="resources">
994 swift 1.54 <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
995     <body>
996    
997     <p>
998 neysx 1.85 The official Gentoo documentation can be found at
999 neysx 1.96 <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/</uri>.
1000 swift 1.54 </p>
1001    
1002     </body>
1003     </section>
1004 swift 1.61 <section id="buycd">
1005 erwin 1.52 <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
1006     <body>
1007    
1008 swift 1.54 <p>
1009 neysx 1.94 Install CDs for all supported architectures are available on our <uri
1010 neysx 1.85 link="http://www.cafepress.com/officialgentoo/">Gentoo Store</uri>. When you
1011     purchase a CD from our store, you are also supporting our development. So,
1012     please consider buying from our store if possible.
1013 erwin 1.52 </p>
1014    
1015     <p>
1016 swift 1.82 You can also find fresh CDs from various resellers listed on our <uri
1017     link="/main/en/where.xml">Get Gentoo!</uri> page.
1018 erwin 1.52 </p>
1019    
1020     </body>
1021     </section>
1022 swift 1.61 <section id="help">
1023 swift 1.54 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
1024     <body>
1025    
1026     <p>
1027 neysx 1.85 A good first step is to browse through the relevant <uri
1028     link="/doc/en/index.xml">documentation</uri>, failing that, the various Gentoo
1029     Linux mailing lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>.
1030     To search through the Gentoo mailing lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo"
1031     to search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want to hang out with
1032     Gentoo folks, visit us on irc: <c>#gentoo</c> on <c>irc.freenode.net</c>.
1033 swift 1.54 </p>
1034    
1035     </body>
1036     </section>
1037 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
1038 swift 1.54
1039 drobbins 1.1 </guide>

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