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1 zhen 1.3 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 drobbins 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3    
4 zhen 1.2 <guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
5 drobbins 1.1 <title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
6 neysx 1.85 <author title="Author">
7 swift 1.54 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
8     </author>
9     <author title="Reviewer">
10     Colin Morey
11     </author>
12     <author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
13     John P. Davis
14     </author>
15     <author title="Editor">
16     <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
17     </author>
18     <author title="Editor">
19     <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
20     </author>
21     <author title="Editor">
22     <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
23     </author>
24     <author title="Editor">
25     <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
26     </author>
27     <author title="Editor">
28 nightmorph 1.106 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
29 swift 1.54 </author>
30 bennyc 1.75 <author title="Editor">
31     <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
32     </author>
33 neysx 1.85 <author title="Editor">
34 swift 1.88 <mail link="smithj@gentoo.org">Jonathan Smith</mail>
35 neysx 1.85 </author>
36 swift 1.54
37 vapier 1.49 <abstract>
38 swift 1.54 This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev
39 neysx 1.85 mailing list and from IRC.
40 vapier 1.49 </abstract>
41 drobbins 1.1
42 neysx 1.85 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
43 swift 1.97 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
44 swift 1.42 <license/>
45    
46 neysx 1.104 <version>3.6</version>
47 nightmorph 1.106 <date>2006-02-13</date>
48 swift 1.36
49 neysx 1.107 <faqindex>
50     <title>Questions</title>
51 swift 1.36 <section>
52 neysx 1.107 <title>Introduction</title>
53 swift 1.36 <body>
54 swift 1.54
55 neysx 1.85 <p>
56     Please note that many of these questions are answered within the official
57 neysx 1.94 Gentoo documents and guides. This is simply a list of common questions. Please
58 neysx 1.85 read the documentation and/or man pages to gain a greater understanding of how
59     Gentoo and GNU/Linux works, and for answers to questions which may not be
60     answered here.
61     </p>
62    
63 swift 1.36 </body>
64     </section>
65 neysx 1.107 </faqindex>
66 swift 1.36
67 swift 1.54 <chapter>
68     <title>Getting Started</title>
69    
70 swift 1.61 <section id="pronunciation">
71 swift 1.54 <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
72     <body>
73    
74     <p>
75 swift 1.55 A <e>Gentoo</e> is a species of a small, fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (the
76 neysx 1.83 "g" in "Gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle"). The scientific name of the Gentoo
77 swift 1.55 penguin is <e>Pygoscelis papua</e>. The name <e>Gentoo</e> has been given to the
78 neysx 1.78 penguin by the inhabitants of the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas).
79 swift 1.54 </p>
80    
81     </body>
82     </section>
83 swift 1.61 <section id="differences">
84 swift 1.54 <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
85     <body>
86 drobbins 1.1
87 swift 1.54 <p>
88 swift 1.55 Gentoo uses a BSD ports-like system called <uri
89     link="/proj/en/portage">Portage</uri>. Portage is a package management system
90     that allows great flexibility while installing and maintaining software on a
91     Gentoo system. It provides compile-time option support (through <uri
92 neysx 1.73 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>),
93 yoswink 1.91 conditional dependencies, pre-package installation summary, safe installation
94     (through sandboxing) and uninstallation of software, system profiles, <uri
95 neysx 1.73 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=3&amp;chap=2#doc_chap3">configuration
96 swift 1.55 file protection</uri> amongst several other <uri
97 neysx 1.73 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">features</uri>.
98 swift 1.54 </p>
99 drobbins 1.1
100 swift 1.54 <p>
101 neysx 1.83 With Gentoo you can build your entire system from source, using your choice of
102     optimizations. You have complete control over what packages are or aren't
103 neysx 1.85 installed. Gentoo provides you with numerous choices, so you can install Gentoo
104     to your own preferences, which is why Gentoo is called a <e>meta-distribution</e>.
105 swift 1.54 </p>
106    
107     <p>
108 neysx 1.85 Gentoo is actively developed. The entire distribution uses a rapid pace
109     development style: patches to the packages are quickly integrated in the
110 neysx 1.94 mainline tree, documentation is updated on daily basis, Portage features are
111 neysx 1.85 added frequently, and official releases occur twice per year.
112 swift 1.54 </p>
113    
114     </body>
115     </section>
116 swift 1.55 </chapter>
117    
118     <chapter>
119     <title>Installation</title>
120 swift 1.61 <section id="optimizations">
121 swift 1.54 <title>
122 neysx 1.85 Things are really unstable and I'm using -O9 -ffast-math
123     -fomit-frame-pointer optimizations. What gives?
124 swift 1.54 </title>
125     <body>
126    
127     <p>
128 swift 1.60 Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't supported by
129 swift 1.54 current versions of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the
130     compiler to streamline the assembly code to the point where it doesn't quite
131 swift 1.55 do the same thing anymore.
132 swift 1.54 </p>
133    
134     <p>
135 neysx 1.85 Please try to compile with CFLAGS <c>-O2 -march=&lt;your_arch&gt;</c> before
136 neysx 1.83 reporting a bug.
137 swift 1.54 </p>
138    
139     </body>
140     </section>
141 swift 1.61 <section id="password">
142 neysx 1.85 <title>How do I change the root (or any other user's) password?</title>
143 swift 1.54 <body>
144    
145     <p>
146     You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged
147 neysx 1.85 into. As root, you can change any user password by issuing the command
148     <c>passwd username</c> For extra options and setting, please <c>man passwd</c>.
149 swift 1.54 </p>
150    
151     </body>
152     </section>
153 swift 1.61 <section id="useradd">
154 neysx 1.83 <title>How do I add a normal user?</title>
155 swift 1.54 <body>
156    
157     <p>
158 neysx 1.85 The command <c>adduser username</c> will add a user called "username". However,
159     this method does not give the user many of the rights you might want to grant
160     him, so the following command is preferred:
161 swift 1.54 </p>
162    
163     <pre caption="Using useradd">
164 neysx 1.85 # <i>useradd -m -G users,audio,wheel username</i>
165 swift 1.54 </pre>
166    
167     <p>
168 neysx 1.85 This will add a user named "username". The option <c>audio</c> adds them to the
169 fox2mike 1.87 <c>audio</c> group and allows the user to access sound devices. The option
170 neysx 1.85 <c>wheel</c> adds the user to the <c>wheel</c> group, which allows the user to
171     execute the command <c>su</c>, which in turn allows them to gain the
172     privileges of the <c>root</c> user.
173 swift 1.54 </p>
174    
175     </body>
176     </section>
177 swift 1.61 <section id="su">
178 swift 1.54 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
179     <body>
180    
181     <p>
182     For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
183 neysx 1.83 wheel group. To add a username to the wheel group, issue the following command
184     as root:
185 swift 1.54 </p>
186    
187     <pre caption="Adding a user to the wheel group">
188 swift 1.55 # <i>gpasswd -a username wheel</i>
189 swift 1.54 </pre>
190    
191     </body>
192     </section>
193 swift 1.61 <section id="devfs">
194 bennyc 1.75 <title>How do I disable devfs?</title>
195 swift 1.54 <body>
196    
197     <p>
198 swift 1.100 Gentoo can work with devfs kernel support, udev userland support or static
199     <path>/dev</path>. With the advent of the 2.6 kernel being stable on most
200 neysx 1.85 archs, udev is recommended. Please see the <uri
201     link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev guide</uri> for information on configuring
202     udev.
203 swift 1.54 </p>
204    
205 swift 1.100 <p>
206     If you want to use the static <path>/dev</path>, please set
207 neysx 1.101 <c>RC_DEVICES="static"</c> in <path>/etc/conf.d/rc</path>.
208 swift 1.100 </p>
209    
210 swift 1.54 </body>
211     </section>
212 swift 1.61 <section id="upgrade">
213 swift 1.54 <title>
214 swift 1.55 Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to another without reinstalling?
215 swift 1.54 </title>
216     <body>
217    
218     <p>
219 neysx 1.85 In fact, there is no difference between the various releases after they have
220     been installed. Gentoo 1.4 and later are <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based. As such,
221     running <c>emerge --sync &amp;&amp; emerge -uDN world</c> will bring your
222     entire system up to speed with the "latest Gentoo". The differences between
223     individual releases lie in the installation medium and pre-compiled packages.
224     See the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-upgrading.xml">Gentoo Upgrading Guide</uri>
225     for more information about profiles and their role in upgrading.
226 swift 1.62 </p>
227    
228 swift 1.54 </body>
229     </section>
230 swift 1.61 <section id="bootrescue">
231 neysx 1.85 <title>My kernel doesn't boot, what should I do now?</title>
232 swift 1.54 <body>
233    
234     <p>
235 neysx 1.85 You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but investigating the
236     kernel and all associated steps is necessary. Suppose you have installed Gentoo
237 swift 1.54 on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with
238     <path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space:
239     </p>
240    
241     <pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel">
242 neysx 1.85 <comment>Boot from the Install CD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment>
243 swift 1.37 <comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment>
244     # <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
245     # <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
246     # <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
247     # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
248     <comment>Then we chroot into our Gentoo environment and configure the kernel:</comment>
249     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
250     # <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
251     # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
252     # <i>make menuconfig</i>
253     <comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment>
254     <comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment>
255 neysx 1.85 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
256 swift 1.37 <comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment>
257 neysx 1.104 # <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot/&lt;kernel_name&gt;</i>
258 swift 1.37 <comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment>
259     # <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
260     <comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment>
261     # <i>exit</i>
262     # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
263     # <i>reboot</i>
264 swift 1.54 </pre>
265    
266     <p>
267 neysx 1.104 If, on the other hand, the problem lies with your bootloader configuration,
268 neysx 1.85 follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel, you
269 swift 1.54 should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary).
270     </p>
271    
272     </body>
273     </section>
274 swift 1.61 <section id="proxy">
275 swift 1.54 <title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title>
276     <body>
277    
278     <p>
279     To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in
280     <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
281     </p>
282    
283 swift 1.38 <pre caption = "/etc/make.conf">
284 neysx 1.85 HTTP_PROXY="http://username:password@yourproxybox.org:portnumber"
285     FTP_PROXY="ftp://username:password@yourproxybox.org:portnumber"
286     RSYNC_PROXY="rsync://username:password@yourproxybox.server:portnumber"
287 swift 1.80 </pre>
288    
289 swift 1.54 </body>
290     </section>
291 swift 1.65 <section id="isoburning">
292     <title>How do I burn an ISO file?</title>
293     <body>
294    
295     <p>
296 neysx 1.83 You need to burn the file in raw mode. This means that you should <e>not</e>
297     just place the file on the CD, but interpret the file as an entire CD.
298 swift 1.65 </p>
299    
300     <p>
301     There are lots of CD burning tools available; covering them all would be a
302 neysx 1.83 Sisyphean problem. However, describing a few popular tools never hurts:
303 swift 1.65 </p>
304    
305     <ul>
306     <li>
307     With EasyCD Creator you select <c>File</c>, <c>Record CD
308     from CD image</c>. Then you change the <c>Files of type</c> to <c>ISO image
309     file</c>. Then locate the ISO file and click <c>Open</c>. When you click on
310     <c>Start recording</c> the ISO image will be burned correctly onto the CD-R.
311     </li>
312     <li>
313     With Nero Burning ROM, cancel the wizard which automatically pops up and
314 neysx 1.69 select <c>Burn Image</c> from the <c>File</c> menu. Select the image you
315 swift 1.65 want to burn and click <c>Open</c>. Now hit the <c>Burn</c> button and watch
316     your brand new CD being burnt.
317     </li>
318     <li>
319     With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace
320     <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
321     by the path to the ISO file :)
322     </li>
323     <li>
324 neysx 1.85 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn CD Image</c>.
325     Then you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally
326     click <c>Start</c>.
327 swift 1.65 </li>
328 swift 1.66 <li>
329     With Mac OS X Panther, launch <c>Disk Utility</c> from
330     <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Open</c> from the
331     <c>Images</c> menu, select the mounted disk image in the main window and
332     select <c>Burn</c> in the <c>Images</c> menu.
333     </li>
334     <li>
335     With Mac OS X Jaguar, launch <c>Disk Copy</c> from
336     <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Burn Image</c> from the
337     <c>File</c> menu, select the ISO and click the <c>Burn</c> button.
338     </li>
339 swift 1.65 </ul>
340    
341    
342     </body>
343     </section>
344 swift 1.77 <section id="cpus">
345     <title>What CD/stage should I use for my CPU?</title>
346     <body>
347    
348     <p>
349     First you need to find our what CPU you use. Suppose it's a Pentium-M. Then you
350 neysx 1.83 need to find out what CPU it is, instruction-wise, compatible with. You may
351 neysx 1.95 need to consult the CPU's vendor website for this, although <uri
352 swift 1.77 link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri> is at least as efficient :-).
353     </p>
354    
355     <p>
356 neysx 1.85 If you are uncertain, take a "lower" CD/stage file, for instance a i686 or even
357     generic x86 (or the equivalent in your arch). This will ensure that your system
358     will work, but may not be as fast as further optimizations.
359 swift 1.77 </p>
360    
361     <p>
362 swift 1.99 Please note that many more options exist than those for which Gentoo builds
363     binary stages. Please see the <uri
364 neysx 1.85 link="http://gcc.gnu.org/onlinedocs/gcc-3.4.4/gcc/i386-and-x86_002d64-Options.html#i386-and-x86_002d64-Options">gcc
365     guide</uri> for setting <c>-march</c>.
366 swift 1.77 </p>
367    
368     </body>
369     </section>
370 swift 1.97 <section id="dhcp">
371     <title>I can't get online after rebooting. What is wrong?</title>
372     <body>
373    
374     <p>
375     First you need to check if your network card is discovered properly by the
376     kernel. Run <c>ifconfig&nbsp;-a</c> and look for eth0 or wlan0 (in case of
377     certain wireless network cards). You might need to load specific kernel modules
378     for the kernel to properly detect the network card. If that is the case, make
379     sure that these kernel modules are listed in
380     <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</path> (or <path>kernel-2.4</path> if
381     you are still using a 2.4 kernel).
382     </p>
383    
384     <p>
385     If you have forgotten to include support for your network card in your kernel,
386     you will need to reconfigure your kernel.
387     </p>
388    
389     <p>
390     If your network card is found by your kernel, but you have set your networking
391     configuration to use DHCP, you might have forgotten to
392     <c>emerge&nbsp;dhcpcd</c>. You will need to reboot with your installation CD to
393     install <c>dhcpcd</c>.
394     </p>
395    
396     <p>
397     Information on how to rescue your system using the installation CD is <uri
398     link="#bootrescue">available</uri> as well.
399     </p>
400    
401     </body>
402     </section>
403 fox2mike 1.98 <section id="dualboot">
404     <title>
405     I want to boot Windows from grub or lilo but it shows only black screen. What
406     should I do?
407     </title>
408     <body>
409    
410     <p>
411     This is a known problem. Windows refuses to boot when it isn't installed on the
412     first hard drive and shows a black/blank screen. To handle this, you will have
413     to "fool" Windows into believing that it is installed on the first hard drive
414     with a little tweak in your boot loader configuration. Please note that in the
415     below example, Gentoo is installed on <path>hda</path> (first disk) and Windows
416     on <path>hdb</path> (second one). Adjust your config as needed.
417     </p>
418    
419     <pre caption="Example dual boot entry for Windows in grub.conf">
420     title Windows XP
421     map (hd1) (hd0)
422     map (hd0) (hd1)
423     rootnoverify (hd1,0)
424     chainloader +1
425     </pre>
426    
427     <pre caption="Example dual boot entry for Windows in lilo.conf">
428     other=/dev/hdb1
429     label=WindowsXP
430     table=/dev/hdb
431     map-drive = 0x80
432     to = 0x81
433     map-drive = 0x81
434     to = 0x80
435     </pre>
436    
437     <p>
438     This will make Windows believe it is installed on the first hard drive and boot
439     without problems. More information can be found in the <uri
440     link="http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/manual/html_node/DOS_002fWindows.html">GRUB
441     documentation</uri> and in <c>man lilo.conf</c>, depending on the boot loader
442     you're using.
443     </p>
444    
445     </body>
446     </section>
447 swift 1.99 <section id="stage12">
448     <title>How do I Install Gentoo Using a Stage1 or Stage2 Tarball?</title>
449     <body>
450    
451     <p>
452     The Gentoo Handbook only describes a Gentoo installation using a stage3 tarball.
453     However, Gentoo still provides stage1 and stage2 tarballs. This is for
454     development purposes (the Release Engineering team starts from a stage1 tarball
455     to obtain a stage3) but shouldn't be used by users: a stage3 tarball can very
456     well be used to bootstrap the system. You do need a working Internet connection.
457     </p>
458    
459     <p>
460     Bootstrapping means building the toolchain (the C library and compiler) for
461     your system after which you install all core system packages. To bootstrap the
462     system, perform a stage3 installation. Before you start the chapter on
463     <e>Configuring the Kernel</e>, modify the <path>bootstrap.sh</path> script to
464     suit your needs and then run it:
465     </p>
466    
467     <pre caption="Bootstrapping the system">
468     # <i>cd /usr/portage/scripts</i>
469     # <i>vi bootstrap.sh</i>
470    
471     # <i>./bootstrap.sh</i>
472     </pre>
473    
474     <p>
475     Next, rebuild all core system packages with the newly built toolchain. We need
476     to rebuild them since the stage3 tarball already offers them:
477     </p>
478    
479     <pre caption="Rebuilding the core system packages">
480     # <i>emerge -e system</i>
481     </pre>
482    
483     <p>
484     Now you can continue with <e>Configuring the Kernel</e>. You can not use the
485     prebuilt GRP packages anymore though.
486     </p>
487    
488     </body>
489     </section>
490 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
491    
492     <chapter>
493 swift 1.54 <title>Package Management</title>
494 swift 1.61 <section id="ebuilds">
495 neysx 1.83 <title>In what form are the packages stored?</title>
496 swift 1.54 <body>
497    
498 swift 1.45 <p>
499 neysx 1.85 Packages aren't "stored" per se. Instead, Gentoo provides a set of scripts
500     which can resolve dependencies, fetch source code, and compile a version of the
501     package specifically for your needs. We generally only build binaries for
502     releases and snapshots. The <uri
503 neysx 1.83 link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Gentoo Ebuild
504 neysx 1.85 HOWTO</uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail.
505 swift 1.45 </p>
506    
507 swift 1.54 <p>
508 neysx 1.85 For full ISO releases, we create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced
509     <c>.tbz2</c> format, which is <c>.tar.bz2</c> compatible with meta-information
510     attached to the end of the file. These can be used to install a working (though
511     not fully optimized) version of the package quickly and efficiently.
512 swift 1.54 </p>
513    
514     <p>
515 neysx 1.85 It is possible to create RPMs (Redhat package manager files) using Gentoo's
516 neysx 1.94 Portage, but it is not currently possible to use already existing RPMs to
517 neysx 1.85 install packages.
518 swift 1.54 </p>
519    
520 neysx 1.85 </body>
521     </section>
522     <section id="configure">
523     <title>I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</title>
524     <body>
525 swift 1.54
526     <p>
527 neysx 1.85 Yes, but it is not trivial, nor is it recommended. Since the method to do this
528 neysx 1.94 requires a good understanding of Portage internals and commands, it is instead
529 neysx 1.85 recommended that you patch the ebuild to do whatever it is that you want and
530 neysx 1.94 place it in the Portage overlay (that's why it exists). This is <e>much</e>
531 neysx 1.85 better for maintainability, and usually easier. See the <uri
532     link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Ebuild
533     HOWTO</uri> for more information.
534 swift 1.54 </p>
535    
536     </body>
537     </section>
538 neysx 1.85 <section id="firewall">
539     <title>How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</title>
540 swift 1.54 <body>
541    
542     <p>
543 neysx 1.85 See the questions on <uri link="#proxy">proxies</uri>, <uri
544 swift 1.86 link="#norsync">rsync</uri>, and <uri link="#manualdownload">downloading source
545 neysx 1.85 files manually</uri>.
546 swift 1.54 </p>
547    
548     </body>
549     </section>
550 neysx 1.85 <section id="norsync">
551     <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
552 swift 1.54 <body>
553    
554     <p>
555 neysx 1.85 If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit rsync traffic, then you can use
556     <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch and install a Portage snapshot for you
557     through regular HTTP. See the <uri link="#proxy">proxy section</uri> of this
558 neysx 1.94 document for information on downloading source files and Portage snapshots via
559 neysx 1.85 a proxy.
560 swift 1.54 </p>
561    
562     </body>
563     </section>
564 swift 1.61 <section id="manualdownload">
565 swift 1.54 <title>
566     I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere
567     else and add them to my system?
568     </title>
569     <body>
570    
571     <p>
572     Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
573     are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where
574     to download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>. Download
575     sources and bring them on any media home. Put the sources into
576 neysx 1.85 <path>/usr/portage/distfiles/</path> and then simply run <c>emerge package</c>.
577     Be warned, however, that this is a tedious process.
578 swift 1.54 </p>
579    
580     </body>
581     </section>
582 swift 1.61 <section id="distfiles">
583 swift 1.54 <title>
584 neysx 1.85 Source tarballs are collecting in /usr/portage/distfiles/. Is it safe to
585 smithj 1.89 delete these files?
586 swift 1.54 </title>
587     <body>
588    
589     <p>
590 neysx 1.85 Deleting these files will have no negative impact on day-to-day performance.
591     However, it might be wise to keep the most recent version of the files; often
592     several ebuilds will be released for the same version of a specific piece of
593     software. If you have deleted the archive and you upgrade the software it will
594     be necessary to download them from the internet again. There are programs which
595     <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic-t-337074.html">users have
596     developed</uri> to clean out all but the most recent version of sourcefiles.
597     Note that while this seems to work, it is <e>not</e> officially maintained. Use
598     at your own risk.
599 swift 1.54 </p>
600    
601     </body>
602     </section>
603 swift 1.61 <section id="tmpportage">
604 swift 1.54 <title>
605 cam 1.58 What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to delete the files and
606     directories in /var/tmp/portage?
607 swift 1.54 </title>
608     <body>
609    
610     <p>
611     During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in
612 neysx 1.85 <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. These files and folder are usually deleted upon
613     a successful merge, but this sometimes fails. It is safe to clean out all
614     contents of this directory <e>if</e> emerge is not running. Just to be sure,
615     always <c>pgrep emerge</c> before cleaning out this directory.
616 swift 1.54 </p>
617    
618     </body>
619     </section>
620 yoswink 1.92 </chapter>
621    
622     <chapter>
623     <title>Usage</title>
624 swift 1.61 <section id="intkeyboard">
625 swift 1.54 <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
626     <body>
627    
628     <p>
629 flammie 1.102 Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>. To have
630     console working correctly with extended characters in your keymap you might
631     also need to set up variables <c>CONSOLETRANSLATION</c> and <c>CONSOLEFONT</c>
632     in your <path>/etc/conf.d/consolefont</path> (for further information on
633 yoswink 1.103 localising your environment, refer to <uri
634     link="/doc/en/guide-localization.xml">our localisation guide</uri>).
635 flammie 1.102 Then, either <c>reboot</c>, or restart the keymaps and consolefont scripts:
636 swift 1.54 </p>
637    
638 neysx 1.85 <pre caption="Restarting keymaps">
639     # <i>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</i>
640 flammie 1.102 # <i>/etc/init.d/consolefont restart</i>
641 neysx 1.85 </pre>
642    
643 swift 1.54 </body>
644     </section>
645 swift 1.61 <section id="rootdns">
646 neysx 1.85 <title>DNS name resolution works for root only</title>
647 swift 1.54 <body>
648    
649     <p>
650     <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as
651     follows:
652     </p>
653    
654     <pre caption="Changing permissions on /etc/resolv.conf">
655     # <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i>
656     </pre>
657    
658     </body>
659     </section>
660 swift 1.61 <section id="crontab">
661 swift 1.54 <title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
662     <body>
663    
664     <p>
665     You need to add that user to the <c>cron</c> group.
666     </p>
667    
668     </body>
669     </section>
670 swift 1.61 <section id="numlock">
671 swift 1.54 <title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
672     <body>
673    
674     <p>
675 neysx 1.85 If you work in command line, you only need to <c>rc-update add
676     numlock default &amp;&amp;/etc/init.d/numlock start</c>.
677 swift 1.54 </p>
678    
679     <p>
680 neysx 1.85 Each GUI provides different tools for this sort of thing; please check the help
681     section or online manuals for assistance.
682 swift 1.54 </p>
683    
684     </body>
685     </section>
686 swift 1.61 <section id="clear">
687 swift 1.54 <title>How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</title>
688     <body>
689    
690     <p>
691     To have your terminal cleared, add <c>clear</c> to your
692     <path>~/.bash_logout</path> script:
693     </p>
694    
695     <pre caption = "Clearing the terminal during logout">
696     $ <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; ~/.bash_logout</i>
697     </pre>
698    
699     <p>
700     If you want this to happen automatically when you add a new
701     user, do the same for the <path>/etc/skel/.bash_logout</path>:
702     </p>
703    
704     <pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout">
705     # <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre>
706     </body>
707    
708     </section>
709 swift 1.76 <section id="suinx">
710     <title>I'm not able to run X applications as root after su'ing</title>
711     <body>
712    
713     <p>
714     This issue seems only to occur when you log on graphically. <c>startx</c> users
715     don't have this behaviour. The problem is a <uri
716     link="http://bugs.gentoo.org/show_bug.cgi?id=14560">bug</uri> in Gentoo's PAM,
717     the solution however is quite simple: add the following line to
718     <path>/etc/profile</path>.
719     </p>
720    
721     <pre caption="Export the XAUTHORITY">
722     export XAUTHORITY="${HOME}/.Xauthority"
723     </pre>
724    
725     </body>
726     </section>
727 swift 1.54 </chapter>
728    
729     <chapter>
730     <title>Maintenance</title>
731 swift 1.61 <section id="filecorruption">
732 neysx 1.94 <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix them, etc</title>
733 swift 1.54 <body>
734    
735     <p>
736 neysx 1.85 If your ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo Install CD and
737     run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on the corrupted filesystem. This should
738     make the filesystem consistent again, although you may have lost some files or
739     directories due to the corruption.
740 swift 1.54 </p>
741    
742     </body>
743     </section>
744 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
745 yoswink 1.92
746 drobbins 1.1 <chapter>
747 swift 1.54 <title>Development</title>
748 swift 1.61 <section id="reportbugs">
749 swift 1.54 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
750     <body>
751    
752     <p>
753 neysx 1.85 Use our <uri link="https://bugs.gentoo.org">Bugzilla</uri>. If you are unsure if
754     your problem is an actual bug, you can visit <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri
755 swift 1.54 link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network.
756     </p>
757    
758     </body>
759     </section>
760 swift 1.61 <section id="releases">
761 swift 1.54 <title>How often are new releases made?</title>
762     <body>
763    
764     <p>
765 neysx 1.85 Gentoo's packages are usually updated shortly after the main authors release
766     new code. As for when Gentoo itself makes new stage/profile/ISO releases, check
767     our <uri link="/proj/en/releng">Release Engineering Project</uri> page. New
768     releases are announced on the <uri
769     link="/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri> mailing list. See the question
770     on <uri link="#upgrade">upgrading</uri> for more information.
771 swift 1.54 </p>
772    
773     </body>
774     </section>
775 swift 1.61 <section id="beeping">
776 swift 1.54 <title>
777 neysx 1.85 My speaker beeps like crazy. How do I disable console beeps?
778 swift 1.54 </title>
779     <body>
780    
781     <p>
782     Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this:
783     </p>
784    
785     <pre caption="Using setterm">
786     # <i>setterm -blength 0</i>
787     </pre>
788    
789     <p>
790 neysx 1.85 If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot, you need to put this
791     command in <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However, this only disables
792     beeps for the current terminal. To disable beeps for other terminals, pipe the
793     command output to the target terminal, like this: </p>
794 swift 1.54
795     <pre caption="Using setterm (bis)">
796     # <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i>
797     </pre>
798    
799     <p>
800     You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal you would like to disable
801     console beeps for.
802     </p>
803    
804     </body>
805     </section>
806 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
807    
808     <chapter>
809     <title>Resources</title>
810 swift 1.61 <section id="resources">
811 swift 1.54 <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
812     <body>
813    
814     <p>
815 neysx 1.85 The official Gentoo documentation can be found at
816 neysx 1.96 <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/</uri>.
817 swift 1.54 </p>
818    
819     </body>
820     </section>
821 swift 1.61 <section id="buycd">
822 erwin 1.52 <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
823     <body>
824    
825 swift 1.54 <p>
826 neysx 1.94 Install CDs for all supported architectures are available on our <uri
827 neysx 1.85 link="http://www.cafepress.com/officialgentoo/">Gentoo Store</uri>. When you
828     purchase a CD from our store, you are also supporting our development. So,
829     please consider buying from our store if possible.
830 erwin 1.52 </p>
831    
832     <p>
833 swift 1.82 You can also find fresh CDs from various resellers listed on our <uri
834     link="/main/en/where.xml">Get Gentoo!</uri> page.
835 erwin 1.52 </p>
836    
837     </body>
838     </section>
839 swift 1.61 <section id="help">
840 swift 1.54 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
841     <body>
842    
843     <p>
844 neysx 1.85 A good first step is to browse through the relevant <uri
845     link="/doc/en/index.xml">documentation</uri>, failing that, the various Gentoo
846     Linux mailing lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>.
847     To search through the Gentoo mailing lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo"
848     to search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want to hang out with
849     Gentoo folks, visit us on irc: <c>#gentoo</c> on <c>irc.freenode.net</c>.
850 swift 1.54 </p>
851    
852     </body>
853     </section>
854 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
855 swift 1.54
856 drobbins 1.1 </guide>

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