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1 zhen 1.3 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 drobbins 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3    
4 zhen 1.2 <guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
5 drobbins 1.1 <title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
6 neysx 1.85 <author title="Author">
7 swift 1.54 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
8     </author>
9     <author title="Reviewer">
10     Colin Morey
11     </author>
12     <author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
13     John P. Davis
14     </author>
15     <author title="Editor">
16     <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
17     </author>
18     <author title="Editor">
19     <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
20     </author>
21     <author title="Editor">
22     <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
23     </author>
24     <author title="Editor">
25     <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
26     </author>
27     <author title="Editor">
28 nightmorph 1.106 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
29 swift 1.54 </author>
30 bennyc 1.75 <author title="Editor">
31     <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
32     </author>
33 neysx 1.85 <author title="Editor">
34 swift 1.88 <mail link="smithj@gentoo.org">Jonathan Smith</mail>
35 neysx 1.85 </author>
36 swift 1.54
37 vapier 1.49 <abstract>
38 swift 1.54 This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev
39 neysx 1.85 mailing list and from IRC.
40 vapier 1.49 </abstract>
41 drobbins 1.1
42 neysx 1.85 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
43 swift 1.97 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
44 swift 1.42 <license/>
45    
46 neysx 1.108 <version>3.7</version>
47     <date>2007-10-15</date>
48 swift 1.36
49 neysx 1.107 <faqindex>
50     <title>Questions</title>
51 swift 1.36 <section>
52 neysx 1.107 <title>Introduction</title>
53 swift 1.36 <body>
54 swift 1.54
55 neysx 1.85 <p>
56     Please note that many of these questions are answered within the official
57 neysx 1.94 Gentoo documents and guides. This is simply a list of common questions. Please
58 neysx 1.85 read the documentation and/or man pages to gain a greater understanding of how
59     Gentoo and GNU/Linux works, and for answers to questions which may not be
60     answered here.
61     </p>
62    
63 swift 1.36 </body>
64     </section>
65 neysx 1.107 </faqindex>
66 swift 1.36
67 swift 1.54 <chapter>
68     <title>Getting Started</title>
69    
70 swift 1.61 <section id="pronunciation">
71 swift 1.54 <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
72     <body>
73    
74     <p>
75 neysx 1.108 <e>Gentoo</e> is pronounced "gen-too" (the "g" in "Gentoo" is a soft "g", as in
76     "gentle"). The scientific name of the <uri
77     link="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gentoo_penguin">Gentoo penguin</uri> is
78     <e>Pygoscelis papua</e>. The name <e>Gentoo</e> has been given to the penguin
79     by the inhabitants of the <uri
80     link="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Falkland_Islands">Falkland Islands</uri>.
81 swift 1.54 </p>
82    
83     </body>
84     </section>
85 swift 1.61 <section id="differences">
86 swift 1.54 <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
87     <body>
88 drobbins 1.1
89 swift 1.54 <p>
90 swift 1.55 Gentoo uses a BSD ports-like system called <uri
91     link="/proj/en/portage">Portage</uri>. Portage is a package management system
92     that allows great flexibility while installing and maintaining software on a
93     Gentoo system. It provides compile-time option support (through <uri
94 neysx 1.73 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>),
95 yoswink 1.91 conditional dependencies, pre-package installation summary, safe installation
96     (through sandboxing) and uninstallation of software, system profiles, <uri
97 neysx 1.73 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=3&amp;chap=2#doc_chap3">configuration
98 swift 1.55 file protection</uri> amongst several other <uri
99 neysx 1.73 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">features</uri>.
100 swift 1.54 </p>
101 drobbins 1.1
102 swift 1.54 <p>
103 neysx 1.83 With Gentoo you can build your entire system from source, using your choice of
104     optimizations. You have complete control over what packages are or aren't
105 neysx 1.85 installed. Gentoo provides you with numerous choices, so you can install Gentoo
106     to your own preferences, which is why Gentoo is called a <e>meta-distribution</e>.
107 swift 1.54 </p>
108    
109     <p>
110 neysx 1.85 Gentoo is actively developed. The entire distribution uses a rapid pace
111     development style: patches to the packages are quickly integrated in the
112 neysx 1.94 mainline tree, documentation is updated on daily basis, Portage features are
113 neysx 1.85 added frequently, and official releases occur twice per year.
114 swift 1.54 </p>
115    
116     </body>
117     </section>
118 swift 1.55 </chapter>
119    
120     <chapter>
121     <title>Installation</title>
122 swift 1.61 <section id="optimizations">
123 swift 1.54 <title>
124 neysx 1.85 Things are really unstable and I'm using -O9 -ffast-math
125     -fomit-frame-pointer optimizations. What gives?
126 swift 1.54 </title>
127     <body>
128    
129     <p>
130 swift 1.60 Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't supported by
131 swift 1.54 current versions of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the
132     compiler to streamline the assembly code to the point where it doesn't quite
133 swift 1.55 do the same thing anymore.
134 swift 1.54 </p>
135    
136     <p>
137 neysx 1.85 Please try to compile with CFLAGS <c>-O2 -march=&lt;your_arch&gt;</c> before
138 neysx 1.83 reporting a bug.
139 swift 1.54 </p>
140    
141     </body>
142     </section>
143 swift 1.61 <section id="password">
144 neysx 1.85 <title>How do I change the root (or any other user's) password?</title>
145 swift 1.54 <body>
146    
147     <p>
148     You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged
149 neysx 1.85 into. As root, you can change any user password by issuing the command
150     <c>passwd username</c> For extra options and setting, please <c>man passwd</c>.
151 swift 1.54 </p>
152    
153     </body>
154     </section>
155 swift 1.61 <section id="useradd">
156 neysx 1.83 <title>How do I add a normal user?</title>
157 swift 1.54 <body>
158    
159     <p>
160 neysx 1.85 The command <c>adduser username</c> will add a user called "username". However,
161     this method does not give the user many of the rights you might want to grant
162     him, so the following command is preferred:
163 swift 1.54 </p>
164    
165     <pre caption="Using useradd">
166 neysx 1.85 # <i>useradd -m -G users,audio,wheel username</i>
167 swift 1.54 </pre>
168    
169     <p>
170 neysx 1.85 This will add a user named "username". The option <c>audio</c> adds them to the
171 fox2mike 1.87 <c>audio</c> group and allows the user to access sound devices. The option
172 neysx 1.85 <c>wheel</c> adds the user to the <c>wheel</c> group, which allows the user to
173     execute the command <c>su</c>, which in turn allows them to gain the
174     privileges of the <c>root</c> user.
175 swift 1.54 </p>
176    
177     </body>
178     </section>
179 swift 1.61 <section id="su">
180 swift 1.54 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
181     <body>
182    
183     <p>
184     For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
185 neysx 1.83 wheel group. To add a username to the wheel group, issue the following command
186     as root:
187 swift 1.54 </p>
188    
189     <pre caption="Adding a user to the wheel group">
190 swift 1.55 # <i>gpasswd -a username wheel</i>
191 swift 1.54 </pre>
192    
193     </body>
194     </section>
195 swift 1.61 <section id="devfs">
196 bennyc 1.75 <title>How do I disable devfs?</title>
197 swift 1.54 <body>
198    
199     <p>
200 swift 1.100 Gentoo can work with devfs kernel support, udev userland support or static
201     <path>/dev</path>. With the advent of the 2.6 kernel being stable on most
202 neysx 1.85 archs, udev is recommended. Please see the <uri
203     link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev guide</uri> for information on configuring
204     udev.
205 swift 1.54 </p>
206    
207 swift 1.100 <p>
208     If you want to use the static <path>/dev</path>, please set
209 neysx 1.101 <c>RC_DEVICES="static"</c> in <path>/etc/conf.d/rc</path>.
210 swift 1.100 </p>
211    
212 swift 1.54 </body>
213     </section>
214 swift 1.61 <section id="upgrade">
215 swift 1.54 <title>
216 swift 1.55 Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to another without reinstalling?
217 swift 1.54 </title>
218     <body>
219    
220     <p>
221 neysx 1.85 In fact, there is no difference between the various releases after they have
222     been installed. Gentoo 1.4 and later are <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based. As such,
223     running <c>emerge --sync &amp;&amp; emerge -uDN world</c> will bring your
224     entire system up to speed with the "latest Gentoo". The differences between
225     individual releases lie in the installation medium and pre-compiled packages.
226     See the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-upgrading.xml">Gentoo Upgrading Guide</uri>
227     for more information about profiles and their role in upgrading.
228 swift 1.62 </p>
229    
230 swift 1.54 </body>
231     </section>
232 swift 1.61 <section id="bootrescue">
233 neysx 1.85 <title>My kernel doesn't boot, what should I do now?</title>
234 swift 1.54 <body>
235    
236     <p>
237 neysx 1.85 You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but investigating the
238     kernel and all associated steps is necessary. Suppose you have installed Gentoo
239 swift 1.54 on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with
240     <path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space:
241     </p>
242    
243     <pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel">
244 neysx 1.85 <comment>Boot from the Install CD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment>
245 swift 1.37 <comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment>
246     # <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
247     # <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
248     # <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
249     # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
250     <comment>Then we chroot into our Gentoo environment and configure the kernel:</comment>
251     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
252     # <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
253     # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
254     # <i>make menuconfig</i>
255     <comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment>
256     <comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment>
257 neysx 1.85 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
258 swift 1.37 <comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment>
259 neysx 1.104 # <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot/&lt;kernel_name&gt;</i>
260 swift 1.37 <comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment>
261     # <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
262     <comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment>
263     # <i>exit</i>
264     # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
265     # <i>reboot</i>
266 swift 1.54 </pre>
267    
268     <p>
269 neysx 1.104 If, on the other hand, the problem lies with your bootloader configuration,
270 neysx 1.85 follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel, you
271 swift 1.54 should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary).
272     </p>
273    
274     </body>
275     </section>
276 swift 1.61 <section id="proxy">
277 swift 1.54 <title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title>
278     <body>
279    
280     <p>
281     To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in
282     <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
283     </p>
284    
285 swift 1.38 <pre caption = "/etc/make.conf">
286 neysx 1.85 HTTP_PROXY="http://username:password@yourproxybox.org:portnumber"
287     FTP_PROXY="ftp://username:password@yourproxybox.org:portnumber"
288     RSYNC_PROXY="rsync://username:password@yourproxybox.server:portnumber"
289 swift 1.80 </pre>
290    
291 swift 1.54 </body>
292     </section>
293 swift 1.65 <section id="isoburning">
294     <title>How do I burn an ISO file?</title>
295     <body>
296    
297     <p>
298 neysx 1.83 You need to burn the file in raw mode. This means that you should <e>not</e>
299     just place the file on the CD, but interpret the file as an entire CD.
300 swift 1.65 </p>
301    
302     <p>
303     There are lots of CD burning tools available; covering them all would be a
304 neysx 1.83 Sisyphean problem. However, describing a few popular tools never hurts:
305 swift 1.65 </p>
306    
307     <ul>
308     <li>
309     With EasyCD Creator you select <c>File</c>, <c>Record CD
310     from CD image</c>. Then you change the <c>Files of type</c> to <c>ISO image
311     file</c>. Then locate the ISO file and click <c>Open</c>. When you click on
312     <c>Start recording</c> the ISO image will be burned correctly onto the CD-R.
313     </li>
314     <li>
315     With Nero Burning ROM, cancel the wizard which automatically pops up and
316 neysx 1.69 select <c>Burn Image</c> from the <c>File</c> menu. Select the image you
317 swift 1.65 want to burn and click <c>Open</c>. Now hit the <c>Burn</c> button and watch
318     your brand new CD being burnt.
319     </li>
320     <li>
321     With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace
322     <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
323     by the path to the ISO file :)
324     </li>
325     <li>
326 neysx 1.85 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn CD Image</c>.
327     Then you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally
328     click <c>Start</c>.
329 swift 1.65 </li>
330 swift 1.66 <li>
331     With Mac OS X Panther, launch <c>Disk Utility</c> from
332     <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Open</c> from the
333     <c>Images</c> menu, select the mounted disk image in the main window and
334     select <c>Burn</c> in the <c>Images</c> menu.
335     </li>
336     <li>
337     With Mac OS X Jaguar, launch <c>Disk Copy</c> from
338     <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Burn Image</c> from the
339     <c>File</c> menu, select the ISO and click the <c>Burn</c> button.
340     </li>
341 swift 1.65 </ul>
342    
343    
344     </body>
345     </section>
346 swift 1.77 <section id="cpus">
347     <title>What CD/stage should I use for my CPU?</title>
348     <body>
349    
350     <p>
351     First you need to find our what CPU you use. Suppose it's a Pentium-M. Then you
352 neysx 1.83 need to find out what CPU it is, instruction-wise, compatible with. You may
353 neysx 1.95 need to consult the CPU's vendor website for this, although <uri
354 swift 1.77 link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri> is at least as efficient :-).
355     </p>
356    
357     <p>
358 neysx 1.85 If you are uncertain, take a "lower" CD/stage file, for instance a i686 or even
359     generic x86 (or the equivalent in your arch). This will ensure that your system
360     will work, but may not be as fast as further optimizations.
361 swift 1.77 </p>
362    
363     <p>
364 swift 1.99 Please note that many more options exist than those for which Gentoo builds
365     binary stages. Please see the <uri
366 neysx 1.85 link="http://gcc.gnu.org/onlinedocs/gcc-3.4.4/gcc/i386-and-x86_002d64-Options.html#i386-and-x86_002d64-Options">gcc
367     guide</uri> for setting <c>-march</c>.
368 swift 1.77 </p>
369    
370     </body>
371     </section>
372 swift 1.97 <section id="dhcp">
373     <title>I can't get online after rebooting. What is wrong?</title>
374     <body>
375    
376     <p>
377     First you need to check if your network card is discovered properly by the
378     kernel. Run <c>ifconfig&nbsp;-a</c> and look for eth0 or wlan0 (in case of
379     certain wireless network cards). You might need to load specific kernel modules
380     for the kernel to properly detect the network card. If that is the case, make
381     sure that these kernel modules are listed in
382     <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</path> (or <path>kernel-2.4</path> if
383     you are still using a 2.4 kernel).
384     </p>
385    
386     <p>
387     If you have forgotten to include support for your network card in your kernel,
388     you will need to reconfigure your kernel.
389     </p>
390    
391     <p>
392     If your network card is found by your kernel, but you have set your networking
393     configuration to use DHCP, you might have forgotten to
394     <c>emerge&nbsp;dhcpcd</c>. You will need to reboot with your installation CD to
395     install <c>dhcpcd</c>.
396     </p>
397    
398     <p>
399     Information on how to rescue your system using the installation CD is <uri
400     link="#bootrescue">available</uri> as well.
401     </p>
402    
403     </body>
404     </section>
405 fox2mike 1.98 <section id="dualboot">
406     <title>
407     I want to boot Windows from grub or lilo but it shows only black screen. What
408     should I do?
409     </title>
410     <body>
411    
412     <p>
413     This is a known problem. Windows refuses to boot when it isn't installed on the
414     first hard drive and shows a black/blank screen. To handle this, you will have
415     to "fool" Windows into believing that it is installed on the first hard drive
416     with a little tweak in your boot loader configuration. Please note that in the
417     below example, Gentoo is installed on <path>hda</path> (first disk) and Windows
418     on <path>hdb</path> (second one). Adjust your config as needed.
419     </p>
420    
421     <pre caption="Example dual boot entry for Windows in grub.conf">
422     title Windows XP
423     map (hd1) (hd0)
424     map (hd0) (hd1)
425     rootnoverify (hd1,0)
426     chainloader +1
427     </pre>
428    
429     <pre caption="Example dual boot entry for Windows in lilo.conf">
430     other=/dev/hdb1
431     label=WindowsXP
432     table=/dev/hdb
433     map-drive = 0x80
434     to = 0x81
435     map-drive = 0x81
436     to = 0x80
437     </pre>
438    
439     <p>
440     This will make Windows believe it is installed on the first hard drive and boot
441     without problems. More information can be found in the <uri
442     link="http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/manual/html_node/DOS_002fWindows.html">GRUB
443     documentation</uri> and in <c>man lilo.conf</c>, depending on the boot loader
444     you're using.
445     </p>
446    
447     </body>
448     </section>
449 swift 1.99 <section id="stage12">
450     <title>How do I Install Gentoo Using a Stage1 or Stage2 Tarball?</title>
451     <body>
452    
453     <p>
454     The Gentoo Handbook only describes a Gentoo installation using a stage3 tarball.
455     However, Gentoo still provides stage1 and stage2 tarballs. This is for
456     development purposes (the Release Engineering team starts from a stage1 tarball
457     to obtain a stage3) but shouldn't be used by users: a stage3 tarball can very
458     well be used to bootstrap the system. You do need a working Internet connection.
459     </p>
460    
461     <p>
462     Bootstrapping means building the toolchain (the C library and compiler) for
463     your system after which you install all core system packages. To bootstrap the
464     system, perform a stage3 installation. Before you start the chapter on
465     <e>Configuring the Kernel</e>, modify the <path>bootstrap.sh</path> script to
466     suit your needs and then run it:
467     </p>
468    
469     <pre caption="Bootstrapping the system">
470     # <i>cd /usr/portage/scripts</i>
471     # <i>vi bootstrap.sh</i>
472    
473     # <i>./bootstrap.sh</i>
474     </pre>
475    
476     <p>
477     Next, rebuild all core system packages with the newly built toolchain. We need
478     to rebuild them since the stage3 tarball already offers them:
479     </p>
480    
481     <pre caption="Rebuilding the core system packages">
482     # <i>emerge -e system</i>
483     </pre>
484    
485     <p>
486     Now you can continue with <e>Configuring the Kernel</e>. You can not use the
487     prebuilt GRP packages anymore though.
488     </p>
489    
490     </body>
491     </section>
492 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
493    
494     <chapter>
495 swift 1.54 <title>Package Management</title>
496 swift 1.61 <section id="ebuilds">
497 neysx 1.83 <title>In what form are the packages stored?</title>
498 swift 1.54 <body>
499    
500 swift 1.45 <p>
501 neysx 1.85 Packages aren't "stored" per se. Instead, Gentoo provides a set of scripts
502     which can resolve dependencies, fetch source code, and compile a version of the
503     package specifically for your needs. We generally only build binaries for
504     releases and snapshots. The <uri
505 neysx 1.83 link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Gentoo Ebuild
506 neysx 1.85 HOWTO</uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail.
507 swift 1.45 </p>
508    
509 swift 1.54 <p>
510 neysx 1.85 For full ISO releases, we create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced
511     <c>.tbz2</c> format, which is <c>.tar.bz2</c> compatible with meta-information
512     attached to the end of the file. These can be used to install a working (though
513     not fully optimized) version of the package quickly and efficiently.
514 swift 1.54 </p>
515    
516     <p>
517 neysx 1.85 It is possible to create RPMs (Redhat package manager files) using Gentoo's
518 neysx 1.94 Portage, but it is not currently possible to use already existing RPMs to
519 neysx 1.85 install packages.
520 swift 1.54 </p>
521    
522 neysx 1.85 </body>
523     </section>
524     <section id="configure">
525     <title>I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</title>
526     <body>
527 swift 1.54
528     <p>
529 neysx 1.85 Yes, but it is not trivial, nor is it recommended. Since the method to do this
530 neysx 1.94 requires a good understanding of Portage internals and commands, it is instead
531 neysx 1.85 recommended that you patch the ebuild to do whatever it is that you want and
532 neysx 1.94 place it in the Portage overlay (that's why it exists). This is <e>much</e>
533 neysx 1.85 better for maintainability, and usually easier. See the <uri
534     link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Ebuild
535     HOWTO</uri> for more information.
536 swift 1.54 </p>
537    
538     </body>
539     </section>
540 neysx 1.85 <section id="firewall">
541     <title>How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</title>
542 swift 1.54 <body>
543    
544     <p>
545 neysx 1.85 See the questions on <uri link="#proxy">proxies</uri>, <uri
546 swift 1.86 link="#norsync">rsync</uri>, and <uri link="#manualdownload">downloading source
547 neysx 1.85 files manually</uri>.
548 swift 1.54 </p>
549    
550     </body>
551     </section>
552 neysx 1.85 <section id="norsync">
553     <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
554 swift 1.54 <body>
555    
556     <p>
557 neysx 1.85 If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit rsync traffic, then you can use
558     <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch and install a Portage snapshot for you
559     through regular HTTP. See the <uri link="#proxy">proxy section</uri> of this
560 neysx 1.94 document for information on downloading source files and Portage snapshots via
561 neysx 1.85 a proxy.
562 swift 1.54 </p>
563    
564     </body>
565     </section>
566 swift 1.61 <section id="manualdownload">
567 swift 1.54 <title>
568     I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere
569     else and add them to my system?
570     </title>
571     <body>
572    
573     <p>
574     Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
575     are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where
576     to download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>. Download
577     sources and bring them on any media home. Put the sources into
578 neysx 1.85 <path>/usr/portage/distfiles/</path> and then simply run <c>emerge package</c>.
579     Be warned, however, that this is a tedious process.
580 swift 1.54 </p>
581    
582     </body>
583     </section>
584 swift 1.61 <section id="distfiles">
585 swift 1.54 <title>
586 neysx 1.85 Source tarballs are collecting in /usr/portage/distfiles/. Is it safe to
587 smithj 1.89 delete these files?
588 swift 1.54 </title>
589     <body>
590    
591     <p>
592 neysx 1.85 Deleting these files will have no negative impact on day-to-day performance.
593     However, it might be wise to keep the most recent version of the files; often
594     several ebuilds will be released for the same version of a specific piece of
595     software. If you have deleted the archive and you upgrade the software it will
596     be necessary to download them from the internet again. There are programs which
597     <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic-t-337074.html">users have
598     developed</uri> to clean out all but the most recent version of sourcefiles.
599     Note that while this seems to work, it is <e>not</e> officially maintained. Use
600     at your own risk.
601 swift 1.54 </p>
602    
603     </body>
604     </section>
605 swift 1.61 <section id="tmpportage">
606 swift 1.54 <title>
607 cam 1.58 What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to delete the files and
608     directories in /var/tmp/portage?
609 swift 1.54 </title>
610     <body>
611    
612     <p>
613     During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in
614 neysx 1.85 <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. These files and folder are usually deleted upon
615     a successful merge, but this sometimes fails. It is safe to clean out all
616     contents of this directory <e>if</e> emerge is not running. Just to be sure,
617     always <c>pgrep emerge</c> before cleaning out this directory.
618 swift 1.54 </p>
619    
620     </body>
621     </section>
622 yoswink 1.92 </chapter>
623    
624     <chapter>
625     <title>Usage</title>
626 swift 1.61 <section id="intkeyboard">
627 swift 1.54 <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
628     <body>
629    
630     <p>
631 flammie 1.102 Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>. To have
632     console working correctly with extended characters in your keymap you might
633     also need to set up variables <c>CONSOLETRANSLATION</c> and <c>CONSOLEFONT</c>
634     in your <path>/etc/conf.d/consolefont</path> (for further information on
635 yoswink 1.103 localising your environment, refer to <uri
636     link="/doc/en/guide-localization.xml">our localisation guide</uri>).
637 flammie 1.102 Then, either <c>reboot</c>, or restart the keymaps and consolefont scripts:
638 swift 1.54 </p>
639    
640 neysx 1.85 <pre caption="Restarting keymaps">
641     # <i>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</i>
642 flammie 1.102 # <i>/etc/init.d/consolefont restart</i>
643 neysx 1.85 </pre>
644    
645 swift 1.54 </body>
646     </section>
647 swift 1.61 <section id="rootdns">
648 neysx 1.85 <title>DNS name resolution works for root only</title>
649 swift 1.54 <body>
650    
651     <p>
652     <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as
653     follows:
654     </p>
655    
656     <pre caption="Changing permissions on /etc/resolv.conf">
657     # <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i>
658     </pre>
659    
660     </body>
661     </section>
662 swift 1.61 <section id="crontab">
663 swift 1.54 <title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
664     <body>
665    
666     <p>
667     You need to add that user to the <c>cron</c> group.
668     </p>
669    
670     </body>
671     </section>
672 swift 1.61 <section id="numlock">
673 swift 1.54 <title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
674     <body>
675    
676     <p>
677 neysx 1.85 If you work in command line, you only need to <c>rc-update add
678     numlock default &amp;&amp;/etc/init.d/numlock start</c>.
679 swift 1.54 </p>
680    
681     <p>
682 neysx 1.85 Each GUI provides different tools for this sort of thing; please check the help
683     section or online manuals for assistance.
684 swift 1.54 </p>
685    
686     </body>
687     </section>
688 swift 1.61 <section id="clear">
689 swift 1.54 <title>How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</title>
690     <body>
691    
692     <p>
693     To have your terminal cleared, add <c>clear</c> to your
694     <path>~/.bash_logout</path> script:
695     </p>
696    
697     <pre caption = "Clearing the terminal during logout">
698     $ <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; ~/.bash_logout</i>
699     </pre>
700    
701     <p>
702     If you want this to happen automatically when you add a new
703     user, do the same for the <path>/etc/skel/.bash_logout</path>:
704     </p>
705    
706     <pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout">
707     # <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre>
708     </body>
709    
710     </section>
711 swift 1.76 <section id="suinx">
712     <title>I'm not able to run X applications as root after su'ing</title>
713     <body>
714    
715     <p>
716     This issue seems only to occur when you log on graphically. <c>startx</c> users
717     don't have this behaviour. The problem is a <uri
718     link="http://bugs.gentoo.org/show_bug.cgi?id=14560">bug</uri> in Gentoo's PAM,
719     the solution however is quite simple: add the following line to
720     <path>/etc/profile</path>.
721     </p>
722    
723     <pre caption="Export the XAUTHORITY">
724     export XAUTHORITY="${HOME}/.Xauthority"
725     </pre>
726    
727     </body>
728     </section>
729 swift 1.54 </chapter>
730    
731     <chapter>
732     <title>Maintenance</title>
733 swift 1.61 <section id="filecorruption">
734 neysx 1.94 <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix them, etc</title>
735 swift 1.54 <body>
736    
737     <p>
738 neysx 1.85 If your ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo Install CD and
739     run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on the corrupted filesystem. This should
740     make the filesystem consistent again, although you may have lost some files or
741     directories due to the corruption.
742 swift 1.54 </p>
743    
744     </body>
745     </section>
746 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
747 yoswink 1.92
748 drobbins 1.1 <chapter>
749 swift 1.54 <title>Development</title>
750 swift 1.61 <section id="reportbugs">
751 swift 1.54 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
752     <body>
753    
754     <p>
755 neysx 1.85 Use our <uri link="https://bugs.gentoo.org">Bugzilla</uri>. If you are unsure if
756     your problem is an actual bug, you can visit <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri
757 swift 1.54 link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network.
758     </p>
759    
760     </body>
761     </section>
762 swift 1.61 <section id="releases">
763 swift 1.54 <title>How often are new releases made?</title>
764     <body>
765    
766     <p>
767 neysx 1.85 Gentoo's packages are usually updated shortly after the main authors release
768     new code. As for when Gentoo itself makes new stage/profile/ISO releases, check
769     our <uri link="/proj/en/releng">Release Engineering Project</uri> page. New
770     releases are announced on the <uri
771     link="/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri> mailing list. See the question
772     on <uri link="#upgrade">upgrading</uri> for more information.
773 swift 1.54 </p>
774    
775     </body>
776     </section>
777 swift 1.61 <section id="beeping">
778 swift 1.54 <title>
779 neysx 1.85 My speaker beeps like crazy. How do I disable console beeps?
780 swift 1.54 </title>
781     <body>
782    
783     <p>
784     Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this:
785     </p>
786    
787     <pre caption="Using setterm">
788     # <i>setterm -blength 0</i>
789     </pre>
790    
791     <p>
792 neysx 1.85 If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot, you need to put this
793     command in <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However, this only disables
794     beeps for the current terminal. To disable beeps for other terminals, pipe the
795     command output to the target terminal, like this: </p>
796 swift 1.54
797     <pre caption="Using setterm (bis)">
798     # <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i>
799     </pre>
800    
801     <p>
802     You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal you would like to disable
803     console beeps for.
804     </p>
805    
806     </body>
807     </section>
808 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
809    
810     <chapter>
811     <title>Resources</title>
812 swift 1.61 <section id="resources">
813 swift 1.54 <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
814     <body>
815    
816     <p>
817 neysx 1.85 The official Gentoo documentation can be found at
818 neysx 1.96 <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/</uri>.
819 swift 1.54 </p>
820    
821     </body>
822     </section>
823 swift 1.61 <section id="buycd">
824 erwin 1.52 <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
825     <body>
826    
827 swift 1.54 <p>
828 neysx 1.94 Install CDs for all supported architectures are available on our <uri
829 neysx 1.85 link="http://www.cafepress.com/officialgentoo/">Gentoo Store</uri>. When you
830     purchase a CD from our store, you are also supporting our development. So,
831     please consider buying from our store if possible.
832 erwin 1.52 </p>
833    
834     <p>
835 swift 1.82 You can also find fresh CDs from various resellers listed on our <uri
836     link="/main/en/where.xml">Get Gentoo!</uri> page.
837 erwin 1.52 </p>
838    
839     </body>
840     </section>
841 swift 1.61 <section id="help">
842 swift 1.54 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
843     <body>
844    
845     <p>
846 neysx 1.85 A good first step is to browse through the relevant <uri
847     link="/doc/en/index.xml">documentation</uri>, failing that, the various Gentoo
848     Linux mailing lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>.
849     To search through the Gentoo mailing lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo"
850     to search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want to hang out with
851     Gentoo folks, visit us on irc: <c>#gentoo</c> on <c>irc.freenode.net</c>.
852 swift 1.54 </p>
853    
854     </body>
855     </section>
856 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
857 swift 1.54
858 drobbins 1.1 </guide>

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