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1 zhen 1.3 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 drobbins 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3    
4 zhen 1.2 <guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
5 drobbins 1.1 <title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
6 neysx 1.85 <author title="Author">
7 swift 1.54 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
8     </author>
9     <author title="Reviewer">
10     Colin Morey
11     </author>
12     <author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
13     John P. Davis
14     </author>
15     <author title="Editor">
16     <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
17     </author>
18     <author title="Editor">
19     <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
20     </author>
21     <author title="Editor">
22     <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
23     </author>
24     <author title="Editor">
25     <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
26     </author>
27     <author title="Editor">
28 nightmorph 1.106 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
29 swift 1.54 </author>
30 bennyc 1.75 <author title="Editor">
31     <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
32     </author>
33 neysx 1.85 <author title="Editor">
34 swift 1.88 <mail link="smithj@gentoo.org">Jonathan Smith</mail>
35 neysx 1.85 </author>
36 swift 1.54
37 vapier 1.49 <abstract>
38 swift 1.54 This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev
39 neysx 1.85 mailing list and from IRC.
40 vapier 1.49 </abstract>
41 drobbins 1.1
42 neysx 1.85 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
43 swift 1.97 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
44 swift 1.42 <license/>
45    
46 swift 1.109 <version>3.8</version>
47     <date>2008-02-19</date>
48 swift 1.36
49 neysx 1.107 <faqindex>
50     <title>Questions</title>
51 swift 1.36 <section>
52 neysx 1.107 <title>Introduction</title>
53 swift 1.36 <body>
54 swift 1.54
55 neysx 1.85 <p>
56     Please note that many of these questions are answered within the official
57 neysx 1.94 Gentoo documents and guides. This is simply a list of common questions. Please
58 neysx 1.85 read the documentation and/or man pages to gain a greater understanding of how
59     Gentoo and GNU/Linux works, and for answers to questions which may not be
60     answered here.
61     </p>
62    
63 swift 1.36 </body>
64     </section>
65 neysx 1.107 </faqindex>
66 swift 1.36
67 swift 1.54 <chapter>
68     <title>Getting Started</title>
69    
70 swift 1.61 <section id="pronunciation">
71 swift 1.54 <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
72     <body>
73    
74     <p>
75 neysx 1.108 <e>Gentoo</e> is pronounced "gen-too" (the "g" in "Gentoo" is a soft "g", as in
76     "gentle"). The scientific name of the <uri
77     link="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gentoo_penguin">Gentoo penguin</uri> is
78     <e>Pygoscelis papua</e>. The name <e>Gentoo</e> has been given to the penguin
79     by the inhabitants of the <uri
80     link="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Falkland_Islands">Falkland Islands</uri>.
81 swift 1.54 </p>
82    
83     </body>
84     </section>
85 swift 1.61 <section id="differences">
86 swift 1.54 <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
87     <body>
88 drobbins 1.1
89 swift 1.54 <p>
90 swift 1.55 Gentoo uses a BSD ports-like system called <uri
91     link="/proj/en/portage">Portage</uri>. Portage is a package management system
92     that allows great flexibility while installing and maintaining software on a
93     Gentoo system. It provides compile-time option support (through <uri
94 neysx 1.73 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>),
95 yoswink 1.91 conditional dependencies, pre-package installation summary, safe installation
96     (through sandboxing) and uninstallation of software, system profiles, <uri
97 neysx 1.73 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=3&amp;chap=2#doc_chap3">configuration
98 swift 1.55 file protection</uri> amongst several other <uri
99 neysx 1.73 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">features</uri>.
100 swift 1.54 </p>
101 drobbins 1.1
102 swift 1.54 <p>
103 neysx 1.83 With Gentoo you can build your entire system from source, using your choice of
104     optimizations. You have complete control over what packages are or aren't
105 neysx 1.85 installed. Gentoo provides you with numerous choices, so you can install Gentoo
106     to your own preferences, which is why Gentoo is called a <e>meta-distribution</e>.
107 swift 1.54 </p>
108    
109     <p>
110 neysx 1.85 Gentoo is actively developed. The entire distribution uses a rapid pace
111     development style: patches to the packages are quickly integrated in the
112 neysx 1.94 mainline tree, documentation is updated on daily basis, Portage features are
113 neysx 1.85 added frequently, and official releases occur twice per year.
114 swift 1.54 </p>
115    
116     </body>
117     </section>
118 swift 1.55 </chapter>
119    
120     <chapter>
121     <title>Installation</title>
122 swift 1.61 <section id="optimizations">
123 swift 1.54 <title>
124 neysx 1.85 Things are really unstable and I'm using -O9 -ffast-math
125     -fomit-frame-pointer optimizations. What gives?
126 swift 1.54 </title>
127     <body>
128    
129     <p>
130 swift 1.60 Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't supported by
131 swift 1.54 current versions of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the
132     compiler to streamline the assembly code to the point where it doesn't quite
133 swift 1.55 do the same thing anymore.
134 swift 1.54 </p>
135    
136     <p>
137 neysx 1.85 Please try to compile with CFLAGS <c>-O2 -march=&lt;your_arch&gt;</c> before
138 neysx 1.83 reporting a bug.
139 swift 1.54 </p>
140    
141     </body>
142     </section>
143 swift 1.61 <section id="password">
144 neysx 1.85 <title>How do I change the root (or any other user's) password?</title>
145 swift 1.54 <body>
146    
147     <p>
148     You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged
149 neysx 1.85 into. As root, you can change any user password by issuing the command
150     <c>passwd username</c> For extra options and setting, please <c>man passwd</c>.
151 swift 1.54 </p>
152    
153     </body>
154     </section>
155 swift 1.61 <section id="useradd">
156 neysx 1.83 <title>How do I add a normal user?</title>
157 swift 1.54 <body>
158    
159     <p>
160 neysx 1.85 The command <c>adduser username</c> will add a user called "username". However,
161     this method does not give the user many of the rights you might want to grant
162     him, so the following command is preferred:
163 swift 1.54 </p>
164    
165     <pre caption="Using useradd">
166 neysx 1.85 # <i>useradd -m -G users,audio,wheel username</i>
167 swift 1.54 </pre>
168    
169     <p>
170 neysx 1.85 This will add a user named "username". The option <c>audio</c> adds them to the
171 fox2mike 1.87 <c>audio</c> group and allows the user to access sound devices. The option
172 neysx 1.85 <c>wheel</c> adds the user to the <c>wheel</c> group, which allows the user to
173     execute the command <c>su</c>, which in turn allows them to gain the
174     privileges of the <c>root</c> user.
175 swift 1.54 </p>
176    
177     </body>
178     </section>
179 swift 1.61 <section id="su">
180 swift 1.54 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
181     <body>
182    
183     <p>
184     For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
185 neysx 1.83 wheel group. To add a username to the wheel group, issue the following command
186     as root:
187 swift 1.54 </p>
188    
189     <pre caption="Adding a user to the wheel group">
190 swift 1.55 # <i>gpasswd -a username wheel</i>
191 swift 1.54 </pre>
192    
193     </body>
194     </section>
195 swift 1.61 <section id="upgrade">
196 swift 1.54 <title>
197 swift 1.55 Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to another without reinstalling?
198 swift 1.54 </title>
199     <body>
200    
201     <p>
202 neysx 1.85 In fact, there is no difference between the various releases after they have
203     been installed. Gentoo 1.4 and later are <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based. As such,
204     running <c>emerge --sync &amp;&amp; emerge -uDN world</c> will bring your
205     entire system up to speed with the "latest Gentoo". The differences between
206     individual releases lie in the installation medium and pre-compiled packages.
207     See the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-upgrading.xml">Gentoo Upgrading Guide</uri>
208     for more information about profiles and their role in upgrading.
209 swift 1.62 </p>
210    
211 swift 1.54 </body>
212     </section>
213 swift 1.61 <section id="bootrescue">
214 neysx 1.85 <title>My kernel doesn't boot, what should I do now?</title>
215 swift 1.54 <body>
216    
217     <p>
218 neysx 1.85 You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but investigating the
219     kernel and all associated steps is necessary. Suppose you have installed Gentoo
220 swift 1.54 on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with
221     <path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space:
222     </p>
223    
224     <pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel">
225 neysx 1.85 <comment>Boot from the Install CD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment>
226 swift 1.37 <comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment>
227     # <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
228     # <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
229     # <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
230     # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
231     <comment>Then we chroot into our Gentoo environment and configure the kernel:</comment>
232     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
233     # <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
234     # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
235     # <i>make menuconfig</i>
236     <comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment>
237     <comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment>
238 neysx 1.85 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
239 swift 1.37 <comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment>
240 neysx 1.104 # <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot/&lt;kernel_name&gt;</i>
241 swift 1.37 <comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment>
242     # <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
243     <comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment>
244     # <i>exit</i>
245     # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
246     # <i>reboot</i>
247 swift 1.54 </pre>
248    
249     <p>
250 neysx 1.104 If, on the other hand, the problem lies with your bootloader configuration,
251 neysx 1.85 follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel, you
252 swift 1.54 should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary).
253     </p>
254    
255     </body>
256     </section>
257 swift 1.61 <section id="proxy">
258 swift 1.54 <title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title>
259     <body>
260    
261     <p>
262     To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in
263     <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
264     </p>
265    
266 swift 1.38 <pre caption = "/etc/make.conf">
267 neysx 1.85 HTTP_PROXY="http://username:password@yourproxybox.org:portnumber"
268     FTP_PROXY="ftp://username:password@yourproxybox.org:portnumber"
269     RSYNC_PROXY="rsync://username:password@yourproxybox.server:portnumber"
270 swift 1.80 </pre>
271    
272 swift 1.54 </body>
273     </section>
274 swift 1.65 <section id="isoburning">
275     <title>How do I burn an ISO file?</title>
276     <body>
277    
278     <p>
279 neysx 1.83 You need to burn the file in raw mode. This means that you should <e>not</e>
280     just place the file on the CD, but interpret the file as an entire CD.
281 swift 1.65 </p>
282    
283     <p>
284     There are lots of CD burning tools available; covering them all would be a
285 neysx 1.83 Sisyphean problem. However, describing a few popular tools never hurts:
286 swift 1.65 </p>
287    
288     <ul>
289     <li>
290     With EasyCD Creator you select <c>File</c>, <c>Record CD
291     from CD image</c>. Then you change the <c>Files of type</c> to <c>ISO image
292     file</c>. Then locate the ISO file and click <c>Open</c>. When you click on
293     <c>Start recording</c> the ISO image will be burned correctly onto the CD-R.
294     </li>
295     <li>
296     With Nero Burning ROM, cancel the wizard which automatically pops up and
297 neysx 1.69 select <c>Burn Image</c> from the <c>File</c> menu. Select the image you
298 swift 1.65 want to burn and click <c>Open</c>. Now hit the <c>Burn</c> button and watch
299     your brand new CD being burnt.
300     </li>
301     <li>
302     With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace
303     <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
304     by the path to the ISO file :)
305     </li>
306     <li>
307 neysx 1.85 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn CD Image</c>.
308     Then you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally
309     click <c>Start</c>.
310 swift 1.65 </li>
311 swift 1.66 <li>
312     With Mac OS X Panther, launch <c>Disk Utility</c> from
313     <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Open</c> from the
314     <c>Images</c> menu, select the mounted disk image in the main window and
315     select <c>Burn</c> in the <c>Images</c> menu.
316     </li>
317     <li>
318     With Mac OS X Jaguar, launch <c>Disk Copy</c> from
319     <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Burn Image</c> from the
320     <c>File</c> menu, select the ISO and click the <c>Burn</c> button.
321     </li>
322 swift 1.65 </ul>
323    
324    
325     </body>
326     </section>
327 swift 1.77 <section id="cpus">
328     <title>What CD/stage should I use for my CPU?</title>
329     <body>
330    
331     <p>
332     First you need to find our what CPU you use. Suppose it's a Pentium-M. Then you
333 neysx 1.83 need to find out what CPU it is, instruction-wise, compatible with. You may
334 neysx 1.95 need to consult the CPU's vendor website for this, although <uri
335 swift 1.77 link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri> is at least as efficient :-).
336     </p>
337    
338     <p>
339 neysx 1.85 If you are uncertain, take a "lower" CD/stage file, for instance a i686 or even
340     generic x86 (or the equivalent in your arch). This will ensure that your system
341     will work, but may not be as fast as further optimizations.
342 swift 1.77 </p>
343    
344     <p>
345 swift 1.99 Please note that many more options exist than those for which Gentoo builds
346     binary stages. Please see the <uri
347 neysx 1.85 link="http://gcc.gnu.org/onlinedocs/gcc-3.4.4/gcc/i386-and-x86_002d64-Options.html#i386-and-x86_002d64-Options">gcc
348     guide</uri> for setting <c>-march</c>.
349 swift 1.77 </p>
350    
351     </body>
352     </section>
353 swift 1.97 <section id="dhcp">
354     <title>I can't get online after rebooting. What is wrong?</title>
355     <body>
356    
357     <p>
358     First you need to check if your network card is discovered properly by the
359     kernel. Run <c>ifconfig&nbsp;-a</c> and look for eth0 or wlan0 (in case of
360     certain wireless network cards). You might need to load specific kernel modules
361     for the kernel to properly detect the network card. If that is the case, make
362     sure that these kernel modules are listed in
363     <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</path> (or <path>kernel-2.4</path> if
364     you are still using a 2.4 kernel).
365     </p>
366    
367     <p>
368     If you have forgotten to include support for your network card in your kernel,
369     you will need to reconfigure your kernel.
370     </p>
371    
372     <p>
373     If your network card is found by your kernel, but you have set your networking
374     configuration to use DHCP, you might have forgotten to
375     <c>emerge&nbsp;dhcpcd</c>. You will need to reboot with your installation CD to
376     install <c>dhcpcd</c>.
377     </p>
378    
379     <p>
380     Information on how to rescue your system using the installation CD is <uri
381     link="#bootrescue">available</uri> as well.
382     </p>
383    
384     </body>
385     </section>
386 fox2mike 1.98 <section id="dualboot">
387     <title>
388     I want to boot Windows from grub or lilo but it shows only black screen. What
389     should I do?
390     </title>
391     <body>
392    
393     <p>
394     This is a known problem. Windows refuses to boot when it isn't installed on the
395     first hard drive and shows a black/blank screen. To handle this, you will have
396     to "fool" Windows into believing that it is installed on the first hard drive
397     with a little tweak in your boot loader configuration. Please note that in the
398     below example, Gentoo is installed on <path>hda</path> (first disk) and Windows
399     on <path>hdb</path> (second one). Adjust your config as needed.
400     </p>
401    
402     <pre caption="Example dual boot entry for Windows in grub.conf">
403     title Windows XP
404     map (hd1) (hd0)
405     map (hd0) (hd1)
406     rootnoverify (hd1,0)
407     chainloader +1
408     </pre>
409    
410     <pre caption="Example dual boot entry for Windows in lilo.conf">
411     other=/dev/hdb1
412     label=WindowsXP
413     table=/dev/hdb
414     map-drive = 0x80
415     to = 0x81
416     map-drive = 0x81
417     to = 0x80
418     </pre>
419    
420     <p>
421     This will make Windows believe it is installed on the first hard drive and boot
422     without problems. More information can be found in the <uri
423     link="http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/manual/html_node/DOS_002fWindows.html">GRUB
424     documentation</uri> and in <c>man lilo.conf</c>, depending on the boot loader
425     you're using.
426     </p>
427    
428     </body>
429     </section>
430 swift 1.99 <section id="stage12">
431     <title>How do I Install Gentoo Using a Stage1 or Stage2 Tarball?</title>
432     <body>
433    
434     <p>
435     The Gentoo Handbook only describes a Gentoo installation using a stage3 tarball.
436     However, Gentoo still provides stage1 and stage2 tarballs. This is for
437     development purposes (the Release Engineering team starts from a stage1 tarball
438     to obtain a stage3) but shouldn't be used by users: a stage3 tarball can very
439     well be used to bootstrap the system. You do need a working Internet connection.
440     </p>
441    
442     <p>
443     Bootstrapping means building the toolchain (the C library and compiler) for
444     your system after which you install all core system packages. To bootstrap the
445     system, perform a stage3 installation. Before you start the chapter on
446     <e>Configuring the Kernel</e>, modify the <path>bootstrap.sh</path> script to
447     suit your needs and then run it:
448     </p>
449    
450     <pre caption="Bootstrapping the system">
451     # <i>cd /usr/portage/scripts</i>
452     # <i>vi bootstrap.sh</i>
453    
454     # <i>./bootstrap.sh</i>
455     </pre>
456    
457     <p>
458     Next, rebuild all core system packages with the newly built toolchain. We need
459     to rebuild them since the stage3 tarball already offers them:
460     </p>
461    
462     <pre caption="Rebuilding the core system packages">
463     # <i>emerge -e system</i>
464     </pre>
465    
466     <p>
467     Now you can continue with <e>Configuring the Kernel</e>. You can not use the
468     prebuilt GRP packages anymore though.
469     </p>
470    
471     </body>
472     </section>
473 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
474    
475     <chapter>
476 swift 1.54 <title>Package Management</title>
477 swift 1.61 <section id="ebuilds">
478 neysx 1.83 <title>In what form are the packages stored?</title>
479 swift 1.54 <body>
480    
481 swift 1.45 <p>
482 neysx 1.85 Packages aren't "stored" per se. Instead, Gentoo provides a set of scripts
483     which can resolve dependencies, fetch source code, and compile a version of the
484     package specifically for your needs. We generally only build binaries for
485     releases and snapshots. The <uri
486 neysx 1.83 link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Gentoo Ebuild
487 neysx 1.85 HOWTO</uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail.
488 swift 1.45 </p>
489    
490 swift 1.54 <p>
491 neysx 1.85 For full ISO releases, we create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced
492     <c>.tbz2</c> format, which is <c>.tar.bz2</c> compatible with meta-information
493     attached to the end of the file. These can be used to install a working (though
494     not fully optimized) version of the package quickly and efficiently.
495 swift 1.54 </p>
496    
497     <p>
498 neysx 1.85 It is possible to create RPMs (Redhat package manager files) using Gentoo's
499 neysx 1.94 Portage, but it is not currently possible to use already existing RPMs to
500 neysx 1.85 install packages.
501 swift 1.54 </p>
502    
503 neysx 1.85 </body>
504     </section>
505     <section id="configure">
506     <title>I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</title>
507     <body>
508 swift 1.54
509     <p>
510 neysx 1.85 Yes, but it is not trivial, nor is it recommended. Since the method to do this
511 neysx 1.94 requires a good understanding of Portage internals and commands, it is instead
512 neysx 1.85 recommended that you patch the ebuild to do whatever it is that you want and
513 neysx 1.94 place it in the Portage overlay (that's why it exists). This is <e>much</e>
514 neysx 1.85 better for maintainability, and usually easier. See the <uri
515     link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Ebuild
516     HOWTO</uri> for more information.
517 swift 1.54 </p>
518    
519     </body>
520     </section>
521 neysx 1.85 <section id="firewall">
522     <title>How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</title>
523 swift 1.54 <body>
524    
525     <p>
526 neysx 1.85 See the questions on <uri link="#proxy">proxies</uri>, <uri
527 swift 1.86 link="#norsync">rsync</uri>, and <uri link="#manualdownload">downloading source
528 neysx 1.85 files manually</uri>.
529 swift 1.54 </p>
530    
531     </body>
532     </section>
533 neysx 1.85 <section id="norsync">
534     <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
535 swift 1.54 <body>
536    
537     <p>
538 neysx 1.85 If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit rsync traffic, then you can use
539     <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch and install a Portage snapshot for you
540     through regular HTTP. See the <uri link="#proxy">proxy section</uri> of this
541 neysx 1.94 document for information on downloading source files and Portage snapshots via
542 neysx 1.85 a proxy.
543 swift 1.54 </p>
544    
545     </body>
546     </section>
547 swift 1.61 <section id="manualdownload">
548 swift 1.54 <title>
549     I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere
550     else and add them to my system?
551     </title>
552     <body>
553    
554     <p>
555     Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
556     are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where
557     to download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>. Download
558     sources and bring them on any media home. Put the sources into
559 neysx 1.85 <path>/usr/portage/distfiles/</path> and then simply run <c>emerge package</c>.
560     Be warned, however, that this is a tedious process.
561 swift 1.54 </p>
562    
563     </body>
564     </section>
565 swift 1.61 <section id="distfiles">
566 swift 1.54 <title>
567 neysx 1.85 Source tarballs are collecting in /usr/portage/distfiles/. Is it safe to
568 smithj 1.89 delete these files?
569 swift 1.54 </title>
570     <body>
571    
572     <p>
573 neysx 1.85 Deleting these files will have no negative impact on day-to-day performance.
574     However, it might be wise to keep the most recent version of the files; often
575     several ebuilds will be released for the same version of a specific piece of
576     software. If you have deleted the archive and you upgrade the software it will
577     be necessary to download them from the internet again. There are programs which
578     <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic-t-337074.html">users have
579     developed</uri> to clean out all but the most recent version of sourcefiles.
580     Note that while this seems to work, it is <e>not</e> officially maintained. Use
581     at your own risk.
582 swift 1.54 </p>
583    
584     </body>
585     </section>
586 swift 1.61 <section id="tmpportage">
587 swift 1.54 <title>
588 cam 1.58 What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to delete the files and
589     directories in /var/tmp/portage?
590 swift 1.54 </title>
591     <body>
592    
593     <p>
594     During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in
595 neysx 1.85 <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. These files and folder are usually deleted upon
596     a successful merge, but this sometimes fails. It is safe to clean out all
597     contents of this directory <e>if</e> emerge is not running. Just to be sure,
598     always <c>pgrep emerge</c> before cleaning out this directory.
599 swift 1.54 </p>
600    
601     </body>
602     </section>
603 yoswink 1.92 </chapter>
604    
605     <chapter>
606     <title>Usage</title>
607 swift 1.61 <section id="intkeyboard">
608 swift 1.54 <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
609     <body>
610    
611     <p>
612 flammie 1.102 Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>. To have
613     console working correctly with extended characters in your keymap you might
614     also need to set up variables <c>CONSOLETRANSLATION</c> and <c>CONSOLEFONT</c>
615     in your <path>/etc/conf.d/consolefont</path> (for further information on
616 yoswink 1.103 localising your environment, refer to <uri
617     link="/doc/en/guide-localization.xml">our localisation guide</uri>).
618 flammie 1.102 Then, either <c>reboot</c>, or restart the keymaps and consolefont scripts:
619 swift 1.54 </p>
620    
621 neysx 1.85 <pre caption="Restarting keymaps">
622     # <i>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</i>
623 flammie 1.102 # <i>/etc/init.d/consolefont restart</i>
624 neysx 1.85 </pre>
625    
626 swift 1.54 </body>
627     </section>
628 swift 1.61 <section id="rootdns">
629 neysx 1.85 <title>DNS name resolution works for root only</title>
630 swift 1.54 <body>
631    
632     <p>
633     <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as
634     follows:
635     </p>
636    
637     <pre caption="Changing permissions on /etc/resolv.conf">
638     # <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i>
639     </pre>
640    
641     </body>
642     </section>
643 swift 1.61 <section id="crontab">
644 swift 1.54 <title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
645     <body>
646    
647     <p>
648     You need to add that user to the <c>cron</c> group.
649     </p>
650    
651     </body>
652     </section>
653 swift 1.61 <section id="numlock">
654 swift 1.54 <title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
655     <body>
656    
657     <p>
658 neysx 1.85 If you work in command line, you only need to <c>rc-update add
659     numlock default &amp;&amp;/etc/init.d/numlock start</c>.
660 swift 1.54 </p>
661    
662     <p>
663 neysx 1.85 Each GUI provides different tools for this sort of thing; please check the help
664     section or online manuals for assistance.
665 swift 1.54 </p>
666    
667     </body>
668     </section>
669 swift 1.61 <section id="clear">
670 swift 1.54 <title>How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</title>
671     <body>
672    
673     <p>
674     To have your terminal cleared, add <c>clear</c> to your
675     <path>~/.bash_logout</path> script:
676     </p>
677    
678     <pre caption = "Clearing the terminal during logout">
679     $ <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; ~/.bash_logout</i>
680     </pre>
681    
682     <p>
683     If you want this to happen automatically when you add a new
684     user, do the same for the <path>/etc/skel/.bash_logout</path>:
685     </p>
686    
687     <pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout">
688     # <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre>
689     </body>
690    
691     </section>
692 swift 1.76 <section id="suinx">
693     <title>I'm not able to run X applications as root after su'ing</title>
694     <body>
695    
696     <p>
697     This issue seems only to occur when you log on graphically. <c>startx</c> users
698     don't have this behaviour. The problem is a <uri
699     link="http://bugs.gentoo.org/show_bug.cgi?id=14560">bug</uri> in Gentoo's PAM,
700     the solution however is quite simple: add the following line to
701     <path>/etc/profile</path>.
702     </p>
703    
704     <pre caption="Export the XAUTHORITY">
705     export XAUTHORITY="${HOME}/.Xauthority"
706     </pre>
707    
708     </body>
709     </section>
710 swift 1.54 </chapter>
711    
712     <chapter>
713     <title>Maintenance</title>
714 swift 1.61 <section id="filecorruption">
715 neysx 1.94 <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix them, etc</title>
716 swift 1.54 <body>
717    
718     <p>
719 neysx 1.85 If your ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo Install CD and
720     run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on the corrupted filesystem. This should
721     make the filesystem consistent again, although you may have lost some files or
722     directories due to the corruption.
723 swift 1.54 </p>
724    
725     </body>
726     </section>
727 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
728 yoswink 1.92
729 drobbins 1.1 <chapter>
730 swift 1.54 <title>Development</title>
731 swift 1.61 <section id="reportbugs">
732 swift 1.54 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
733     <body>
734    
735     <p>
736 neysx 1.85 Use our <uri link="https://bugs.gentoo.org">Bugzilla</uri>. If you are unsure if
737     your problem is an actual bug, you can visit <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri
738 swift 1.54 link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network.
739     </p>
740    
741     </body>
742     </section>
743 swift 1.61 <section id="releases">
744 swift 1.54 <title>How often are new releases made?</title>
745     <body>
746    
747     <p>
748 neysx 1.85 Gentoo's packages are usually updated shortly after the main authors release
749     new code. As for when Gentoo itself makes new stage/profile/ISO releases, check
750     our <uri link="/proj/en/releng">Release Engineering Project</uri> page. New
751     releases are announced on the <uri
752     link="/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri> mailing list. See the question
753     on <uri link="#upgrade">upgrading</uri> for more information.
754 swift 1.54 </p>
755    
756     </body>
757     </section>
758 swift 1.61 <section id="beeping">
759 swift 1.54 <title>
760 neysx 1.85 My speaker beeps like crazy. How do I disable console beeps?
761 swift 1.54 </title>
762     <body>
763    
764     <p>
765     Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this:
766     </p>
767    
768     <pre caption="Using setterm">
769     # <i>setterm -blength 0</i>
770     </pre>
771    
772     <p>
773 neysx 1.85 If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot, you need to put this
774     command in <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However, this only disables
775     beeps for the current terminal. To disable beeps for other terminals, pipe the
776     command output to the target terminal, like this: </p>
777 swift 1.54
778     <pre caption="Using setterm (bis)">
779     # <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i>
780     </pre>
781    
782     <p>
783     You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal you would like to disable
784     console beeps for.
785     </p>
786    
787     </body>
788     </section>
789 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
790    
791     <chapter>
792     <title>Resources</title>
793 swift 1.61 <section id="resources">
794 swift 1.54 <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
795     <body>
796    
797     <p>
798 neysx 1.85 The official Gentoo documentation can be found at
799 neysx 1.96 <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/</uri>.
800 swift 1.54 </p>
801    
802     </body>
803     </section>
804 swift 1.61 <section id="buycd">
805 erwin 1.52 <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
806     <body>
807    
808 swift 1.54 <p>
809 neysx 1.94 Install CDs for all supported architectures are available on our <uri
810 neysx 1.85 link="http://www.cafepress.com/officialgentoo/">Gentoo Store</uri>. When you
811     purchase a CD from our store, you are also supporting our development. So,
812     please consider buying from our store if possible.
813 erwin 1.52 </p>
814    
815     <p>
816 swift 1.82 You can also find fresh CDs from various resellers listed on our <uri
817     link="/main/en/where.xml">Get Gentoo!</uri> page.
818 erwin 1.52 </p>
819    
820     </body>
821     </section>
822 swift 1.61 <section id="help">
823 swift 1.54 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
824     <body>
825    
826     <p>
827 neysx 1.85 A good first step is to browse through the relevant <uri
828     link="/doc/en/index.xml">documentation</uri>, failing that, the various Gentoo
829     Linux mailing lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>.
830     To search through the Gentoo mailing lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo"
831     to search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want to hang out with
832     Gentoo folks, visit us on irc: <c>#gentoo</c> on <c>irc.freenode.net</c>.
833 swift 1.54 </p>
834    
835     </body>
836     </section>
837 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
838 swift 1.54
839 drobbins 1.1 </guide>

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