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1 zhen 1.3 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 drobbins 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3    
4 zhen 1.2 <guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
5 drobbins 1.1 <title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
6 neysx 1.85 <author title="Author">
7 swift 1.54 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
8     </author>
9     <author title="Reviewer">
10     Colin Morey
11     </author>
12     <author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
13     John P. Davis
14     </author>
15     <author title="Editor">
16     <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
17     </author>
18     <author title="Editor">
19     <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
20     </author>
21     <author title="Editor">
22     <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
23     </author>
24     <author title="Editor">
25     <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
26     </author>
27     <author title="Editor">
28 nightmorph 1.106 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
29 swift 1.54 </author>
30 bennyc 1.75 <author title="Editor">
31     <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
32     </author>
33 neysx 1.85 <author title="Editor">
34 swift 1.88 <mail link="smithj@gentoo.org">Jonathan Smith</mail>
35 neysx 1.85 </author>
36 nightmorph 1.114 <author title="Editor">
37     <mail link="nightmorph"/>
38     </author>
39 swift 1.54
40 vapier 1.49 <abstract>
41 swift 1.54 This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev
42 neysx 1.85 mailing list and from IRC.
43 vapier 1.49 </abstract>
44 drobbins 1.1
45 neysx 1.85 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
46 swift 1.97 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
47 swift 1.42 <license/>
48    
49 nightmorph 1.114 <version>3.12</version>
50     <date>2008-09-28</date>
51 swift 1.36
52 neysx 1.107 <faqindex>
53     <title>Questions</title>
54 swift 1.36 <section>
55 neysx 1.107 <title>Introduction</title>
56 swift 1.36 <body>
57 swift 1.54
58 neysx 1.85 <p>
59     Please note that many of these questions are answered within the official
60 neysx 1.94 Gentoo documents and guides. This is simply a list of common questions. Please
61 neysx 1.85 read the documentation and/or man pages to gain a greater understanding of how
62     Gentoo and GNU/Linux works, and for answers to questions which may not be
63     answered here.
64     </p>
65    
66 swift 1.36 </body>
67     </section>
68 neysx 1.107 </faqindex>
69 swift 1.36
70 swift 1.54 <chapter>
71     <title>Getting Started</title>
72    
73 swift 1.61 <section id="pronunciation">
74 swift 1.54 <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
75     <body>
76    
77     <p>
78 neysx 1.108 <e>Gentoo</e> is pronounced "gen-too" (the "g" in "Gentoo" is a soft "g", as in
79     "gentle"). The scientific name of the <uri
80     link="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gentoo_penguin">Gentoo penguin</uri> is
81     <e>Pygoscelis papua</e>. The name <e>Gentoo</e> has been given to the penguin
82     by the inhabitants of the <uri
83     link="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Falkland_Islands">Falkland Islands</uri>.
84 swift 1.54 </p>
85    
86     </body>
87     </section>
88 swift 1.61 <section id="differences">
89 swift 1.54 <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
90     <body>
91 drobbins 1.1
92 swift 1.54 <p>
93 swift 1.55 Gentoo uses a BSD ports-like system called <uri
94     link="/proj/en/portage">Portage</uri>. Portage is a package management system
95     that allows great flexibility while installing and maintaining software on a
96     Gentoo system. It provides compile-time option support (through <uri
97 neysx 1.73 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>),
98 yoswink 1.91 conditional dependencies, pre-package installation summary, safe installation
99     (through sandboxing) and uninstallation of software, system profiles, <uri
100 neysx 1.73 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=3&amp;chap=2#doc_chap3">configuration
101 swift 1.55 file protection</uri> amongst several other <uri
102 neysx 1.73 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">features</uri>.
103 swift 1.54 </p>
104 drobbins 1.1
105 swift 1.54 <p>
106 neysx 1.83 With Gentoo you can build your entire system from source, using your choice of
107     optimizations. You have complete control over what packages are or aren't
108 neysx 1.85 installed. Gentoo provides you with numerous choices, so you can install Gentoo
109     to your own preferences, which is why Gentoo is called a <e>meta-distribution</e>.
110 swift 1.54 </p>
111    
112     <p>
113 neysx 1.85 Gentoo is actively developed. The entire distribution uses a rapid pace
114     development style: patches to the packages are quickly integrated in the
115 neysx 1.94 mainline tree, documentation is updated on daily basis, Portage features are
116 neysx 1.85 added frequently, and official releases occur twice per year.
117 swift 1.54 </p>
118    
119     </body>
120     </section>
121 swift 1.55 </chapter>
122    
123     <chapter>
124     <title>Installation</title>
125 swift 1.61 <section id="optimizations">
126 swift 1.54 <title>
127 neysx 1.85 Things are really unstable and I'm using -O9 -ffast-math
128     -fomit-frame-pointer optimizations. What gives?
129 swift 1.54 </title>
130     <body>
131    
132     <p>
133 swift 1.60 Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't supported by
134 swift 1.54 current versions of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the
135     compiler to streamline the assembly code to the point where it doesn't quite
136 swift 1.55 do the same thing anymore.
137 swift 1.54 </p>
138    
139     <p>
140 neysx 1.85 Please try to compile with CFLAGS <c>-O2 -march=&lt;your_arch&gt;</c> before
141 neysx 1.83 reporting a bug.
142 swift 1.54 </p>
143    
144     </body>
145     </section>
146 swift 1.61 <section id="password">
147 neysx 1.85 <title>How do I change the root (or any other user's) password?</title>
148 swift 1.54 <body>
149    
150     <p>
151     You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged
152 neysx 1.85 into. As root, you can change any user password by issuing the command
153     <c>passwd username</c> For extra options and setting, please <c>man passwd</c>.
154 swift 1.54 </p>
155    
156     </body>
157     </section>
158 swift 1.61 <section id="useradd">
159 neysx 1.83 <title>How do I add a normal user?</title>
160 swift 1.54 <body>
161    
162     <p>
163 neysx 1.85 The command <c>adduser username</c> will add a user called "username". However,
164     this method does not give the user many of the rights you might want to grant
165     him, so the following command is preferred:
166 swift 1.54 </p>
167    
168     <pre caption="Using useradd">
169 neysx 1.85 # <i>useradd -m -G users,audio,wheel username</i>
170 swift 1.54 </pre>
171    
172     <p>
173 neysx 1.85 This will add a user named "username". The option <c>audio</c> adds them to the
174 fox2mike 1.87 <c>audio</c> group and allows the user to access sound devices. The option
175 neysx 1.85 <c>wheel</c> adds the user to the <c>wheel</c> group, which allows the user to
176     execute the command <c>su</c>, which in turn allows them to gain the
177     privileges of the <c>root</c> user.
178 swift 1.54 </p>
179    
180     </body>
181     </section>
182 swift 1.61 <section id="su">
183 swift 1.54 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
184     <body>
185    
186     <p>
187     For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
188 neysx 1.83 wheel group. To add a username to the wheel group, issue the following command
189     as root:
190 swift 1.54 </p>
191    
192     <pre caption="Adding a user to the wheel group">
193 swift 1.55 # <i>gpasswd -a username wheel</i>
194 swift 1.54 </pre>
195    
196     </body>
197     </section>
198 swift 1.61 <section id="upgrade">
199 swift 1.54 <title>
200 swift 1.55 Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to another without reinstalling?
201 swift 1.54 </title>
202     <body>
203    
204     <p>
205 neysx 1.85 In fact, there is no difference between the various releases after they have
206     been installed. Gentoo 1.4 and later are <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based. As such,
207     running <c>emerge --sync &amp;&amp; emerge -uDN world</c> will bring your
208     entire system up to speed with the "latest Gentoo". The differences between
209     individual releases lie in the installation medium and pre-compiled packages.
210     See the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-upgrading.xml">Gentoo Upgrading Guide</uri>
211     for more information about profiles and their role in upgrading.
212 swift 1.62 </p>
213    
214 swift 1.54 </body>
215     </section>
216 swift 1.61 <section id="bootrescue">
217 neysx 1.85 <title>My kernel doesn't boot, what should I do now?</title>
218 swift 1.54 <body>
219    
220     <p>
221 neysx 1.85 You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but investigating the
222     kernel and all associated steps is necessary. Suppose you have installed Gentoo
223 swift 1.54 on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with
224     <path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space:
225     </p>
226    
227     <pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel">
228 neysx 1.85 <comment>Boot from the Install CD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment>
229 swift 1.37 <comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment>
230     # <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
231     # <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
232     # <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
233     # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
234     <comment>Then we chroot into our Gentoo environment and configure the kernel:</comment>
235     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
236     # <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
237     # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
238     # <i>make menuconfig</i>
239     <comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment>
240     <comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment>
241 neysx 1.85 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
242 swift 1.37 <comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment>
243 neysx 1.104 # <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot/&lt;kernel_name&gt;</i>
244 swift 1.37 <comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment>
245     # <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
246     <comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment>
247     # <i>exit</i>
248     # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
249     # <i>reboot</i>
250 swift 1.54 </pre>
251    
252     <p>
253 neysx 1.104 If, on the other hand, the problem lies with your bootloader configuration,
254 neysx 1.85 follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel, you
255 swift 1.54 should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary).
256     </p>
257    
258     </body>
259     </section>
260 swift 1.61 <section id="proxy">
261 swift 1.54 <title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title>
262     <body>
263    
264     <p>
265     To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in
266     <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
267     </p>
268    
269 swift 1.38 <pre caption = "/etc/make.conf">
270 nightmorph 1.112 http_proxy="http://username:password@yourproxybox.org:portnumber"
271     ftp_proxy="ftp://username:password@yourproxybox.org:portnumber"
272 neysx 1.85 RSYNC_PROXY="rsync://username:password@yourproxybox.server:portnumber"
273 swift 1.80 </pre>
274    
275 swift 1.54 </body>
276     </section>
277 swift 1.65 <section id="isoburning">
278     <title>How do I burn an ISO file?</title>
279     <body>
280    
281     <p>
282 neysx 1.83 You need to burn the file in raw mode. This means that you should <e>not</e>
283     just place the file on the CD, but interpret the file as an entire CD.
284 swift 1.65 </p>
285    
286     <p>
287     There are lots of CD burning tools available; covering them all would be a
288 neysx 1.83 Sisyphean problem. However, describing a few popular tools never hurts:
289 swift 1.65 </p>
290    
291     <ul>
292     <li>
293     With EasyCD Creator you select <c>File</c>, <c>Record CD
294     from CD image</c>. Then you change the <c>Files of type</c> to <c>ISO image
295     file</c>. Then locate the ISO file and click <c>Open</c>. When you click on
296     <c>Start recording</c> the ISO image will be burned correctly onto the CD-R.
297     </li>
298     <li>
299     With Nero Burning ROM, cancel the wizard which automatically pops up and
300 neysx 1.69 select <c>Burn Image</c> from the <c>File</c> menu. Select the image you
301 swift 1.65 want to burn and click <c>Open</c>. Now hit the <c>Burn</c> button and watch
302     your brand new CD being burnt.
303     </li>
304     <li>
305     With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace
306     <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
307     by the path to the ISO file :)
308     </li>
309     <li>
310 neysx 1.85 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn CD Image</c>.
311     Then you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally
312     click <c>Start</c>.
313 swift 1.65 </li>
314 swift 1.66 <li>
315     With Mac OS X Panther, launch <c>Disk Utility</c> from
316     <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Open</c> from the
317     <c>Images</c> menu, select the mounted disk image in the main window and
318     select <c>Burn</c> in the <c>Images</c> menu.
319     </li>
320     <li>
321     With Mac OS X Jaguar, launch <c>Disk Copy</c> from
322     <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Burn Image</c> from the
323     <c>File</c> menu, select the ISO and click the <c>Burn</c> button.
324     </li>
325 swift 1.65 </ul>
326    
327    
328     </body>
329     </section>
330 swift 1.77 <section id="cpus">
331     <title>What CD/stage should I use for my CPU?</title>
332     <body>
333    
334     <p>
335 nightmorph 1.113 First you need to find out what CPU you use. Suppose it's a Pentium-M. Then you
336 neysx 1.83 need to find out what CPU it is, instruction-wise, compatible with. You may
337 neysx 1.95 need to consult the CPU's vendor website for this, although <uri
338 swift 1.77 link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri> is at least as efficient :-).
339     </p>
340    
341     <p>
342 neysx 1.85 If you are uncertain, take a "lower" CD/stage file, for instance a i686 or even
343     generic x86 (or the equivalent in your arch). This will ensure that your system
344     will work, but may not be as fast as further optimizations.
345 swift 1.77 </p>
346    
347     <p>
348 swift 1.99 Please note that many more options exist than those for which Gentoo builds
349     binary stages. Please see the <uri
350 neysx 1.85 link="http://gcc.gnu.org/onlinedocs/gcc-3.4.4/gcc/i386-and-x86_002d64-Options.html#i386-and-x86_002d64-Options">gcc
351     guide</uri> for setting <c>-march</c>.
352 swift 1.77 </p>
353    
354     </body>
355     </section>
356 swift 1.97 <section id="dhcp">
357     <title>I can't get online after rebooting. What is wrong?</title>
358     <body>
359    
360     <p>
361     First you need to check if your network card is discovered properly by the
362     kernel. Run <c>ifconfig&nbsp;-a</c> and look for eth0 or wlan0 (in case of
363     certain wireless network cards). You might need to load specific kernel modules
364     for the kernel to properly detect the network card. If that is the case, make
365     sure that these kernel modules are listed in
366     <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</path> (or <path>kernel-2.4</path> if
367     you are still using a 2.4 kernel).
368     </p>
369    
370     <p>
371     If you have forgotten to include support for your network card in your kernel,
372     you will need to reconfigure your kernel.
373     </p>
374    
375     <p>
376     If your network card is found by your kernel, but you have set your networking
377     configuration to use DHCP, you might have forgotten to
378     <c>emerge&nbsp;dhcpcd</c>. You will need to reboot with your installation CD to
379     install <c>dhcpcd</c>.
380     </p>
381    
382     <p>
383     Information on how to rescue your system using the installation CD is <uri
384     link="#bootrescue">available</uri> as well.
385     </p>
386    
387     </body>
388     </section>
389 fox2mike 1.98 <section id="dualboot">
390     <title>
391     I want to boot Windows from grub or lilo but it shows only black screen. What
392     should I do?
393     </title>
394     <body>
395    
396     <p>
397     This is a known problem. Windows refuses to boot when it isn't installed on the
398     first hard drive and shows a black/blank screen. To handle this, you will have
399     to "fool" Windows into believing that it is installed on the first hard drive
400     with a little tweak in your boot loader configuration. Please note that in the
401     below example, Gentoo is installed on <path>hda</path> (first disk) and Windows
402     on <path>hdb</path> (second one). Adjust your config as needed.
403     </p>
404    
405     <pre caption="Example dual boot entry for Windows in grub.conf">
406     title Windows XP
407     map (hd1) (hd0)
408     map (hd0) (hd1)
409     rootnoverify (hd1,0)
410     chainloader +1
411     </pre>
412    
413     <pre caption="Example dual boot entry for Windows in lilo.conf">
414     other=/dev/hdb1
415     label=WindowsXP
416     table=/dev/hdb
417     map-drive = 0x80
418     to = 0x81
419     map-drive = 0x81
420     to = 0x80
421     </pre>
422    
423     <p>
424     This will make Windows believe it is installed on the first hard drive and boot
425     without problems. More information can be found in the <uri
426     link="http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/manual/html_node/DOS_002fWindows.html">GRUB
427     documentation</uri> and in <c>man lilo.conf</c>, depending on the boot loader
428     you're using.
429     </p>
430    
431     </body>
432     </section>
433 swift 1.99 <section id="stage12">
434     <title>How do I Install Gentoo Using a Stage1 or Stage2 Tarball?</title>
435     <body>
436    
437     <p>
438     The Gentoo Handbook only describes a Gentoo installation using a stage3 tarball.
439     However, Gentoo still provides stage1 and stage2 tarballs. This is for
440     development purposes (the Release Engineering team starts from a stage1 tarball
441     to obtain a stage3) but shouldn't be used by users: a stage3 tarball can very
442     well be used to bootstrap the system. You do need a working Internet connection.
443     </p>
444    
445     <p>
446     Bootstrapping means building the toolchain (the C library and compiler) for
447     your system after which you install all core system packages. To bootstrap the
448     system, perform a stage3 installation. Before you start the chapter on
449     <e>Configuring the Kernel</e>, modify the <path>bootstrap.sh</path> script to
450     suit your needs and then run it:
451     </p>
452    
453     <pre caption="Bootstrapping the system">
454     # <i>cd /usr/portage/scripts</i>
455     # <i>vi bootstrap.sh</i>
456    
457     # <i>./bootstrap.sh</i>
458     </pre>
459    
460     <p>
461     Next, rebuild all core system packages with the newly built toolchain. We need
462     to rebuild them since the stage3 tarball already offers them:
463     </p>
464    
465     <pre caption="Rebuilding the core system packages">
466     # <i>emerge -e system</i>
467     </pre>
468    
469     <p>
470     Now you can continue with <e>Configuring the Kernel</e>. You can not use the
471     prebuilt GRP packages anymore though.
472     </p>
473    
474     </body>
475     </section>
476 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
477    
478     <chapter>
479 swift 1.54 <title>Package Management</title>
480 swift 1.61 <section id="ebuilds">
481 neysx 1.83 <title>In what form are the packages stored?</title>
482 swift 1.54 <body>
483    
484 swift 1.45 <p>
485 neysx 1.85 Packages aren't "stored" per se. Instead, Gentoo provides a set of scripts
486     which can resolve dependencies, fetch source code, and compile a version of the
487     package specifically for your needs. We generally only build binaries for
488     releases and snapshots. The <uri
489 neysx 1.83 link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Gentoo Ebuild
490 neysx 1.85 HOWTO</uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail.
491 swift 1.45 </p>
492    
493 swift 1.54 <p>
494 neysx 1.85 For full ISO releases, we create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced
495     <c>.tbz2</c> format, which is <c>.tar.bz2</c> compatible with meta-information
496     attached to the end of the file. These can be used to install a working (though
497     not fully optimized) version of the package quickly and efficiently.
498 swift 1.54 </p>
499    
500     <p>
501 neysx 1.85 It is possible to create RPMs (Redhat package manager files) using Gentoo's
502 neysx 1.94 Portage, but it is not currently possible to use already existing RPMs to
503 neysx 1.85 install packages.
504 swift 1.54 </p>
505    
506 neysx 1.85 </body>
507     </section>
508     <section id="configure">
509     <title>I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</title>
510     <body>
511 swift 1.54
512     <p>
513 neysx 1.85 Yes, but it is not trivial, nor is it recommended. Since the method to do this
514 neysx 1.94 requires a good understanding of Portage internals and commands, it is instead
515 neysx 1.85 recommended that you patch the ebuild to do whatever it is that you want and
516 swift 1.110 place it in a Portage overlay (that's why overlays exist). This is <e>much</e>
517 neysx 1.85 better for maintainability, and usually easier. See the <uri
518     link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Ebuild
519     HOWTO</uri> for more information.
520 swift 1.54 </p>
521    
522     </body>
523     </section>
524 neysx 1.85 <section id="firewall">
525     <title>How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</title>
526 swift 1.54 <body>
527    
528     <p>
529 neysx 1.85 See the questions on <uri link="#proxy">proxies</uri>, <uri
530 swift 1.86 link="#norsync">rsync</uri>, and <uri link="#manualdownload">downloading source
531 neysx 1.85 files manually</uri>.
532 swift 1.54 </p>
533    
534     </body>
535     </section>
536 neysx 1.85 <section id="norsync">
537     <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
538 swift 1.54 <body>
539    
540     <p>
541 neysx 1.85 If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit rsync traffic, then you can use
542     <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch and install a Portage snapshot for you
543     through regular HTTP. See the <uri link="#proxy">proxy section</uri> of this
544 neysx 1.94 document for information on downloading source files and Portage snapshots via
545 neysx 1.85 a proxy.
546 swift 1.54 </p>
547    
548     </body>
549     </section>
550 swift 1.61 <section id="manualdownload">
551 swift 1.54 <title>
552     I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere
553     else and add them to my system?
554     </title>
555     <body>
556    
557     <p>
558     Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
559     are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where
560     to download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>. Download
561     sources and bring them on any media home. Put the sources into
562 neysx 1.85 <path>/usr/portage/distfiles/</path> and then simply run <c>emerge package</c>.
563     Be warned, however, that this is a tedious process.
564 swift 1.54 </p>
565    
566     </body>
567     </section>
568 swift 1.61 <section id="distfiles">
569 swift 1.54 <title>
570 neysx 1.85 Source tarballs are collecting in /usr/portage/distfiles/. Is it safe to
571 smithj 1.89 delete these files?
572 swift 1.54 </title>
573     <body>
574    
575     <p>
576 neysx 1.85 Deleting these files will have no negative impact on day-to-day performance.
577     However, it might be wise to keep the most recent version of the files; often
578     several ebuilds will be released for the same version of a specific piece of
579     software. If you have deleted the archive and you upgrade the software it will
580     be necessary to download them from the internet again. There are programs which
581     <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic-t-337074.html">users have
582     developed</uri> to clean out all but the most recent version of sourcefiles.
583     Note that while this seems to work, it is <e>not</e> officially maintained. Use
584     at your own risk.
585 swift 1.54 </p>
586    
587     </body>
588     </section>
589 swift 1.61 <section id="tmpportage">
590 swift 1.54 <title>
591 cam 1.58 What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to delete the files and
592     directories in /var/tmp/portage?
593 swift 1.54 </title>
594     <body>
595    
596     <p>
597     During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in
598 neysx 1.85 <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. These files and folder are usually deleted upon
599     a successful merge, but this sometimes fails. It is safe to clean out all
600     contents of this directory <e>if</e> emerge is not running. Just to be sure,
601     always <c>pgrep emerge</c> before cleaning out this directory.
602 swift 1.54 </p>
603    
604     </body>
605     </section>
606 yoswink 1.92 </chapter>
607    
608     <chapter>
609     <title>Usage</title>
610 swift 1.61 <section id="intkeyboard">
611 swift 1.54 <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
612     <body>
613    
614     <p>
615 flammie 1.102 Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>. To have
616     console working correctly with extended characters in your keymap you might
617     also need to set up variables <c>CONSOLETRANSLATION</c> and <c>CONSOLEFONT</c>
618     in your <path>/etc/conf.d/consolefont</path> (for further information on
619 yoswink 1.103 localising your environment, refer to <uri
620     link="/doc/en/guide-localization.xml">our localisation guide</uri>).
621 flammie 1.102 Then, either <c>reboot</c>, or restart the keymaps and consolefont scripts:
622 swift 1.54 </p>
623    
624 neysx 1.85 <pre caption="Restarting keymaps">
625     # <i>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</i>
626 flammie 1.102 # <i>/etc/init.d/consolefont restart</i>
627 neysx 1.85 </pre>
628    
629 swift 1.54 </body>
630     </section>
631 swift 1.61 <section id="rootdns">
632 neysx 1.85 <title>DNS name resolution works for root only</title>
633 swift 1.54 <body>
634    
635     <p>
636     <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as
637     follows:
638     </p>
639    
640     <pre caption="Changing permissions on /etc/resolv.conf">
641     # <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i>
642     </pre>
643    
644     </body>
645     </section>
646 swift 1.61 <section id="crontab">
647 swift 1.54 <title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
648     <body>
649    
650     <p>
651     You need to add that user to the <c>cron</c> group.
652     </p>
653    
654     </body>
655     </section>
656 swift 1.61 <section id="numlock">
657 swift 1.54 <title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
658     <body>
659    
660     <p>
661 neysx 1.85 If you work in command line, you only need to <c>rc-update add
662     numlock default &amp;&amp;/etc/init.d/numlock start</c>.
663 swift 1.54 </p>
664    
665     <p>
666 neysx 1.85 Each GUI provides different tools for this sort of thing; please check the help
667     section or online manuals for assistance.
668 swift 1.54 </p>
669    
670     </body>
671     </section>
672 swift 1.61 <section id="clear">
673 swift 1.54 <title>How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</title>
674     <body>
675    
676     <p>
677     To have your terminal cleared, add <c>clear</c> to your
678     <path>~/.bash_logout</path> script:
679     </p>
680    
681     <pre caption = "Clearing the terminal during logout">
682     $ <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; ~/.bash_logout</i>
683     </pre>
684    
685     <p>
686     If you want this to happen automatically when you add a new
687     user, do the same for the <path>/etc/skel/.bash_logout</path>:
688     </p>
689    
690     <pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout">
691     # <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre>
692     </body>
693    
694     </section>
695     </chapter>
696    
697     <chapter>
698     <title>Maintenance</title>
699 swift 1.61 <section id="filecorruption">
700 neysx 1.94 <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix them, etc</title>
701 swift 1.54 <body>
702    
703     <p>
704 neysx 1.85 If your ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo Install CD and
705     run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on the corrupted filesystem. This should
706     make the filesystem consistent again, although you may have lost some files or
707     directories due to the corruption.
708 swift 1.54 </p>
709    
710     </body>
711     </section>
712 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
713 yoswink 1.92
714 drobbins 1.1 <chapter>
715 swift 1.54 <title>Development</title>
716 swift 1.61 <section id="reportbugs">
717 swift 1.54 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
718     <body>
719    
720     <p>
721 neysx 1.85 Use our <uri link="https://bugs.gentoo.org">Bugzilla</uri>. If you are unsure if
722 nightmorph 1.114 your problem is an actual bug, you can visit <uri
723     link="irc://irc.gentoo.org/gentoo">#gentoo</uri> on IRC.
724 swift 1.54 </p>
725    
726     </body>
727     </section>
728 swift 1.61 <section id="releases">
729 swift 1.54 <title>How often are new releases made?</title>
730     <body>
731    
732     <p>
733 neysx 1.85 Gentoo's packages are usually updated shortly after the main authors release
734     new code. As for when Gentoo itself makes new stage/profile/ISO releases, check
735     our <uri link="/proj/en/releng">Release Engineering Project</uri> page. New
736     releases are announced on the <uri
737     link="/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri> mailing list. See the question
738     on <uri link="#upgrade">upgrading</uri> for more information.
739 swift 1.54 </p>
740    
741     </body>
742     </section>
743 swift 1.61 <section id="beeping">
744 swift 1.54 <title>
745 neysx 1.85 My speaker beeps like crazy. How do I disable console beeps?
746 swift 1.54 </title>
747     <body>
748    
749     <p>
750     Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this:
751     </p>
752    
753     <pre caption="Using setterm">
754     # <i>setterm -blength 0</i>
755     </pre>
756    
757     <p>
758 neysx 1.85 If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot, you need to put this
759     command in <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However, this only disables
760     beeps for the current terminal. To disable beeps for other terminals, pipe the
761     command output to the target terminal, like this: </p>
762 swift 1.54
763     <pre caption="Using setterm (bis)">
764     # <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i>
765     </pre>
766    
767     <p>
768     You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal you would like to disable
769     console beeps for.
770     </p>
771    
772     </body>
773     </section>
774 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
775    
776     <chapter>
777     <title>Resources</title>
778 swift 1.61 <section id="resources">
779 swift 1.54 <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
780     <body>
781    
782     <p>
783 neysx 1.85 The official Gentoo documentation can be found at
784 neysx 1.96 <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/</uri>.
785 swift 1.54 </p>
786    
787     </body>
788     </section>
789 swift 1.61 <section id="buycd">
790 erwin 1.52 <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
791     <body>
792    
793 swift 1.54 <p>
794 neysx 1.94 Install CDs for all supported architectures are available on our <uri
795 neysx 1.85 link="http://www.cafepress.com/officialgentoo/">Gentoo Store</uri>. When you
796     purchase a CD from our store, you are also supporting our development. So,
797     please consider buying from our store if possible.
798 erwin 1.52 </p>
799    
800     <p>
801 swift 1.82 You can also find fresh CDs from various resellers listed on our <uri
802     link="/main/en/where.xml">Get Gentoo!</uri> page.
803 erwin 1.52 </p>
804    
805     </body>
806     </section>
807 swift 1.61 <section id="help">
808 swift 1.54 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
809     <body>
810    
811     <p>
812 neysx 1.85 A good first step is to browse through the relevant <uri
813     link="/doc/en/index.xml">documentation</uri>, failing that, the various Gentoo
814     Linux mailing lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>.
815 nightmorph 1.114 To search through the Gentoo mailing lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to
816     search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want to hang out with Gentoo
817     folks, visit us on irc: <uri link="irc://irc.gentoo.org/gentoo">#gentoo</uri>.
818 swift 1.54 </p>
819    
820     </body>
821     </section>
822 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
823     </guide>

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