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1 zhen 1.3 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 drobbins 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 nightmorph 1.118 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml,v 1.117 2010/10/03 18:47:51 nightmorph Exp $ -->
4 drobbins 1.1
5 nightmorph 1.116 <guide>
6 drobbins 1.1 <title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
7 neysx 1.85 <author title="Author">
8 swift 1.54 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
9     </author>
10     <author title="Reviewer">
11     Colin Morey
12     </author>
13     <author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
14     John P. Davis
15     </author>
16     <author title="Editor">
17     <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
18     </author>
19     <author title="Editor">
20     <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
21     </author>
22     <author title="Editor">
23     <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
24     </author>
25     <author title="Editor">
26     <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
27     </author>
28     <author title="Editor">
29 nightmorph 1.106 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
30 swift 1.54 </author>
31 bennyc 1.75 <author title="Editor">
32     <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
33     </author>
34 neysx 1.85 <author title="Editor">
35 swift 1.88 <mail link="smithj@gentoo.org">Jonathan Smith</mail>
36 neysx 1.85 </author>
37 nightmorph 1.114 <author title="Editor">
38     <mail link="nightmorph"/>
39     </author>
40 swift 1.54
41 vapier 1.49 <abstract>
42 swift 1.54 This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev
43 neysx 1.85 mailing list and from IRC.
44 vapier 1.49 </abstract>
45 drobbins 1.1
46 neysx 1.85 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
47 swift 1.97 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
48 swift 1.42 <license/>
49    
50 nightmorph 1.118 <version>5</version>
51     <date>2010-10-13</date>
52 swift 1.36
53 neysx 1.107 <faqindex>
54     <title>Questions</title>
55 swift 1.36 <section>
56 neysx 1.107 <title>Introduction</title>
57 swift 1.36 <body>
58 swift 1.54
59 neysx 1.85 <p>
60     Please note that many of these questions are answered within the official
61 neysx 1.94 Gentoo documents and guides. This is simply a list of common questions. Please
62 neysx 1.85 read the documentation and/or man pages to gain a greater understanding of how
63     Gentoo and GNU/Linux works, and for answers to questions which may not be
64     answered here.
65     </p>
66    
67 swift 1.36 </body>
68     </section>
69 neysx 1.107 </faqindex>
70 swift 1.36
71 swift 1.54 <chapter>
72     <title>Getting Started</title>
73    
74 swift 1.61 <section id="pronunciation">
75 swift 1.54 <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
76     <body>
77    
78     <p>
79 neysx 1.108 <e>Gentoo</e> is pronounced "gen-too" (the "g" in "Gentoo" is a soft "g", as in
80     "gentle"). The scientific name of the <uri
81     link="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gentoo_penguin">Gentoo penguin</uri> is
82     <e>Pygoscelis papua</e>. The name <e>Gentoo</e> has been given to the penguin
83     by the inhabitants of the <uri
84     link="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Falkland_Islands">Falkland Islands</uri>.
85 swift 1.54 </p>
86    
87     </body>
88     </section>
89 swift 1.61 <section id="differences">
90 swift 1.54 <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
91     <body>
92 drobbins 1.1
93 swift 1.54 <p>
94 swift 1.55 Gentoo uses a BSD ports-like system called <uri
95     link="/proj/en/portage">Portage</uri>. Portage is a package management system
96     that allows great flexibility while installing and maintaining software on a
97     Gentoo system. It provides compile-time option support (through <uri
98 neysx 1.73 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>),
99 yoswink 1.91 conditional dependencies, pre-package installation summary, safe installation
100     (through sandboxing) and uninstallation of software, system profiles, <uri
101 neysx 1.73 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=3&amp;chap=2#doc_chap3">configuration
102 swift 1.55 file protection</uri> amongst several other <uri
103 neysx 1.73 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">features</uri>.
104 swift 1.54 </p>
105 drobbins 1.1
106 swift 1.54 <p>
107 neysx 1.83 With Gentoo you can build your entire system from source, using your choice of
108     optimizations. You have complete control over what packages are or aren't
109 neysx 1.85 installed. Gentoo provides you with numerous choices, so you can install Gentoo
110     to your own preferences, which is why Gentoo is called a <e>meta-distribution</e>.
111 swift 1.54 </p>
112    
113     <p>
114 neysx 1.85 Gentoo is actively developed. The entire distribution uses a rapid pace
115     development style: patches to the packages are quickly integrated in the
116 neysx 1.94 mainline tree, documentation is updated on daily basis, Portage features are
117 neysx 1.85 added frequently, and official releases occur twice per year.
118 swift 1.54 </p>
119    
120     </body>
121     </section>
122 swift 1.55 </chapter>
123    
124     <chapter>
125     <title>Installation</title>
126 swift 1.61 <section id="optimizations">
127 swift 1.54 <title>
128 neysx 1.85 Things are really unstable and I'm using -O9 -ffast-math
129     -fomit-frame-pointer optimizations. What gives?
130 swift 1.54 </title>
131     <body>
132    
133     <p>
134 swift 1.60 Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't supported by
135 swift 1.54 current versions of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the
136     compiler to streamline the assembly code to the point where it doesn't quite
137 swift 1.55 do the same thing anymore.
138 swift 1.54 </p>
139    
140     <p>
141 neysx 1.85 Please try to compile with CFLAGS <c>-O2 -march=&lt;your_arch&gt;</c> before
142 neysx 1.83 reporting a bug.
143 swift 1.54 </p>
144    
145     </body>
146     </section>
147 swift 1.61 <section id="password">
148 neysx 1.85 <title>How do I change the root (or any other user's) password?</title>
149 swift 1.54 <body>
150    
151     <p>
152     You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged
153 neysx 1.85 into. As root, you can change any user password by issuing the command
154     <c>passwd username</c> For extra options and setting, please <c>man passwd</c>.
155 swift 1.54 </p>
156    
157     </body>
158     </section>
159 swift 1.61 <section id="useradd">
160 neysx 1.83 <title>How do I add a normal user?</title>
161 swift 1.54 <body>
162    
163     <p>
164 nightmorph 1.118 The command <c>useradd username</c> will add a user called "username". However,
165 neysx 1.85 this method does not give the user many of the rights you might want to grant
166     him, so the following command is preferred:
167 swift 1.54 </p>
168    
169     <pre caption="Using useradd">
170 neysx 1.85 # <i>useradd -m -G users,audio,wheel username</i>
171 swift 1.54 </pre>
172    
173     <p>
174 neysx 1.85 This will add a user named "username". The option <c>audio</c> adds them to the
175 fox2mike 1.87 <c>audio</c> group and allows the user to access sound devices. The option
176 neysx 1.85 <c>wheel</c> adds the user to the <c>wheel</c> group, which allows the user to
177     execute the command <c>su</c>, which in turn allows them to gain the
178     privileges of the <c>root</c> user.
179 swift 1.54 </p>
180    
181     </body>
182     </section>
183 swift 1.61 <section id="su">
184 swift 1.54 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
185     <body>
186    
187     <p>
188     For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
189 neysx 1.83 wheel group. To add a username to the wheel group, issue the following command
190     as root:
191 swift 1.54 </p>
192    
193     <pre caption="Adding a user to the wheel group">
194 swift 1.55 # <i>gpasswd -a username wheel</i>
195 swift 1.54 </pre>
196    
197     </body>
198     </section>
199 swift 1.61 <section id="upgrade">
200 swift 1.54 <title>
201 swift 1.55 Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to another without reinstalling?
202 swift 1.54 </title>
203     <body>
204    
205     <p>
206 neysx 1.85 In fact, there is no difference between the various releases after they have
207     been installed. Gentoo 1.4 and later are <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based. As such,
208     running <c>emerge --sync &amp;&amp; emerge -uDN world</c> will bring your
209     entire system up to speed with the "latest Gentoo". The differences between
210     individual releases lie in the installation medium and pre-compiled packages.
211     See the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-upgrading.xml">Gentoo Upgrading Guide</uri>
212     for more information about profiles and their role in upgrading.
213 swift 1.62 </p>
214    
215 swift 1.54 </body>
216     </section>
217 swift 1.61 <section id="bootrescue">
218 neysx 1.85 <title>My kernel doesn't boot, what should I do now?</title>
219 swift 1.54 <body>
220    
221     <p>
222 neysx 1.85 You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but investigating the
223     kernel and all associated steps is necessary. Suppose you have installed Gentoo
224 swift 1.54 on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with
225     <path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space:
226     </p>
227    
228     <pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel">
229 neysx 1.85 <comment>Boot from the Install CD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment>
230 swift 1.37 <comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment>
231     # <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
232     # <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
233     # <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
234     # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
235     <comment>Then we chroot into our Gentoo environment and configure the kernel:</comment>
236     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
237     # <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
238     # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
239     # <i>make menuconfig</i>
240     <comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment>
241     <comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment>
242 neysx 1.85 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
243 swift 1.37 <comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment>
244 neysx 1.104 # <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot/&lt;kernel_name&gt;</i>
245 swift 1.37 <comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment>
246     # <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
247     <comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment>
248     # <i>exit</i>
249     # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
250     # <i>reboot</i>
251 swift 1.54 </pre>
252    
253     <p>
254 neysx 1.104 If, on the other hand, the problem lies with your bootloader configuration,
255 neysx 1.85 follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel, you
256 swift 1.54 should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary).
257     </p>
258    
259     </body>
260     </section>
261 swift 1.61 <section id="proxy">
262 swift 1.54 <title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title>
263     <body>
264    
265     <p>
266     To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in
267     <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
268     </p>
269    
270 swift 1.38 <pre caption = "/etc/make.conf">
271 nightmorph 1.112 http_proxy="http://username:password@yourproxybox.org:portnumber"
272     ftp_proxy="ftp://username:password@yourproxybox.org:portnumber"
273 neysx 1.85 RSYNC_PROXY="rsync://username:password@yourproxybox.server:portnumber"
274 swift 1.80 </pre>
275    
276 swift 1.54 </body>
277     </section>
278 swift 1.65 <section id="isoburning">
279     <title>How do I burn an ISO file?</title>
280     <body>
281    
282     <p>
283 neysx 1.83 You need to burn the file in raw mode. This means that you should <e>not</e>
284     just place the file on the CD, but interpret the file as an entire CD.
285 swift 1.65 </p>
286    
287     <p>
288     There are lots of CD burning tools available; covering them all would be a
289 neysx 1.83 Sisyphean problem. However, describing a few popular tools never hurts:
290 swift 1.65 </p>
291    
292     <ul>
293     <li>
294     With EasyCD Creator you select <c>File</c>, <c>Record CD
295     from CD image</c>. Then you change the <c>Files of type</c> to <c>ISO image
296     file</c>. Then locate the ISO file and click <c>Open</c>. When you click on
297     <c>Start recording</c> the ISO image will be burned correctly onto the CD-R.
298     </li>
299     <li>
300     With Nero Burning ROM, cancel the wizard which automatically pops up and
301 neysx 1.69 select <c>Burn Image</c> from the <c>File</c> menu. Select the image you
302 swift 1.65 want to burn and click <c>Open</c>. Now hit the <c>Burn</c> button and watch
303     your brand new CD being burnt.
304     </li>
305     <li>
306     With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace
307     <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
308     by the path to the ISO file :)
309     </li>
310     <li>
311 neysx 1.85 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn CD Image</c>.
312     Then you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally
313     click <c>Start</c>.
314 swift 1.65 </li>
315 swift 1.66 <li>
316     With Mac OS X Panther, launch <c>Disk Utility</c> from
317     <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Open</c> from the
318     <c>Images</c> menu, select the mounted disk image in the main window and
319     select <c>Burn</c> in the <c>Images</c> menu.
320     </li>
321     <li>
322     With Mac OS X Jaguar, launch <c>Disk Copy</c> from
323     <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Burn Image</c> from the
324     <c>File</c> menu, select the ISO and click the <c>Burn</c> button.
325     </li>
326 swift 1.65 </ul>
327    
328    
329     </body>
330     </section>
331 swift 1.77 <section id="cpus">
332     <title>What CD/stage should I use for my CPU?</title>
333     <body>
334    
335     <p>
336 nightmorph 1.113 First you need to find out what CPU you use. Suppose it's a Pentium-M. Then you
337 neysx 1.83 need to find out what CPU it is, instruction-wise, compatible with. You may
338 neysx 1.95 need to consult the CPU's vendor website for this, although <uri
339 swift 1.77 link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri> is at least as efficient :-).
340     </p>
341    
342     <p>
343 neysx 1.85 If you are uncertain, take a "lower" CD/stage file, for instance a i686 or even
344     generic x86 (or the equivalent in your arch). This will ensure that your system
345     will work, but may not be as fast as further optimizations.
346 swift 1.77 </p>
347    
348     <p>
349 swift 1.99 Please note that many more options exist than those for which Gentoo builds
350     binary stages. Please see the <uri
351 nightmorph 1.116 link="http://gcc.gnu.org/onlinedocs/gcc-4.4.3/gcc/i386-and-x86_002d64-Options.html#i386-and-x86_002d64-Options">gcc
352 neysx 1.85 guide</uri> for setting <c>-march</c>.
353 swift 1.77 </p>
354    
355     </body>
356     </section>
357 swift 1.97 <section id="dhcp">
358     <title>I can't get online after rebooting. What is wrong?</title>
359     <body>
360    
361     <p>
362     First you need to check if your network card is discovered properly by the
363     kernel. Run <c>ifconfig&nbsp;-a</c> and look for eth0 or wlan0 (in case of
364     certain wireless network cards). You might need to load specific kernel modules
365     for the kernel to properly detect the network card. If that is the case, make
366     sure that these kernel modules are listed in
367     <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</path> (or <path>kernel-2.4</path> if
368     you are still using a 2.4 kernel).
369     </p>
370    
371     <p>
372     If you have forgotten to include support for your network card in your kernel,
373     you will need to reconfigure your kernel.
374     </p>
375    
376     <p>
377     If your network card is found by your kernel, but you have set your networking
378     configuration to use DHCP, you might have forgotten to
379     <c>emerge&nbsp;dhcpcd</c>. You will need to reboot with your installation CD to
380     install <c>dhcpcd</c>.
381     </p>
382    
383     <p>
384     Information on how to rescue your system using the installation CD is <uri
385     link="#bootrescue">available</uri> as well.
386     </p>
387    
388     </body>
389     </section>
390 fox2mike 1.98 <section id="dualboot">
391     <title>
392     I want to boot Windows from grub or lilo but it shows only black screen. What
393     should I do?
394     </title>
395     <body>
396    
397     <p>
398     This is a known problem. Windows refuses to boot when it isn't installed on the
399     first hard drive and shows a black/blank screen. To handle this, you will have
400     to "fool" Windows into believing that it is installed on the first hard drive
401     with a little tweak in your boot loader configuration. Please note that in the
402     below example, Gentoo is installed on <path>hda</path> (first disk) and Windows
403     on <path>hdb</path> (second one). Adjust your config as needed.
404     </p>
405    
406     <pre caption="Example dual boot entry for Windows in grub.conf">
407     title Windows XP
408     map (hd1) (hd0)
409     map (hd0) (hd1)
410     rootnoverify (hd1,0)
411     chainloader +1
412     </pre>
413    
414     <pre caption="Example dual boot entry for Windows in lilo.conf">
415     other=/dev/hdb1
416     label=WindowsXP
417     table=/dev/hdb
418     map-drive = 0x80
419     to = 0x81
420     map-drive = 0x81
421     to = 0x80
422     </pre>
423    
424     <p>
425     This will make Windows believe it is installed on the first hard drive and boot
426     without problems. More information can be found in the <uri
427 nightmorph 1.116 link="http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/">GRUB documentation</uri> and in <c>man
428     lilo.conf</c>, depending on the boot loader you're using.
429 fox2mike 1.98 </p>
430    
431     </body>
432     </section>
433 swift 1.99 <section id="stage12">
434     <title>How do I Install Gentoo Using a Stage1 or Stage2 Tarball?</title>
435     <body>
436    
437     <p>
438     The Gentoo Handbook only describes a Gentoo installation using a stage3 tarball.
439     However, Gentoo still provides stage1 and stage2 tarballs. This is for
440     development purposes (the Release Engineering team starts from a stage1 tarball
441     to obtain a stage3) but shouldn't be used by users: a stage3 tarball can very
442     well be used to bootstrap the system. You do need a working Internet connection.
443     </p>
444    
445     <p>
446     Bootstrapping means building the toolchain (the C library and compiler) for
447     your system after which you install all core system packages. To bootstrap the
448     system, perform a stage3 installation. Before you start the chapter on
449     <e>Configuring the Kernel</e>, modify the <path>bootstrap.sh</path> script to
450     suit your needs and then run it:
451     </p>
452    
453     <pre caption="Bootstrapping the system">
454     # <i>cd /usr/portage/scripts</i>
455     # <i>vi bootstrap.sh</i>
456    
457     # <i>./bootstrap.sh</i>
458     </pre>
459    
460     <p>
461     Next, rebuild all core system packages with the newly built toolchain. We need
462     to rebuild them since the stage3 tarball already offers them:
463     </p>
464    
465     <pre caption="Rebuilding the core system packages">
466     # <i>emerge -e system</i>
467     </pre>
468    
469     <p>
470     Now you can continue with <e>Configuring the Kernel</e>. You can not use the
471     prebuilt GRP packages anymore though.
472     </p>
473    
474     </body>
475     </section>
476 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
477    
478     <chapter>
479 swift 1.54 <title>Package Management</title>
480 swift 1.61 <section id="ebuilds">
481 neysx 1.83 <title>In what form are the packages stored?</title>
482 swift 1.54 <body>
483    
484 swift 1.45 <p>
485 neysx 1.85 Packages aren't "stored" per se. Instead, Gentoo provides a set of scripts
486     which can resolve dependencies, fetch source code, and compile a version of the
487     package specifically for your needs. We generally only build binaries for
488     releases and snapshots. The <uri
489 neysx 1.83 link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Gentoo Ebuild
490 neysx 1.85 HOWTO</uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail.
491 swift 1.45 </p>
492    
493 swift 1.54 <p>
494 neysx 1.85 For full ISO releases, we create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced
495     <c>.tbz2</c> format, which is <c>.tar.bz2</c> compatible with meta-information
496     attached to the end of the file. These can be used to install a working (though
497     not fully optimized) version of the package quickly and efficiently.
498 swift 1.54 </p>
499    
500     <p>
501 neysx 1.85 It is possible to create RPMs (Redhat package manager files) using Gentoo's
502 neysx 1.94 Portage, but it is not currently possible to use already existing RPMs to
503 neysx 1.85 install packages.
504 swift 1.54 </p>
505    
506 neysx 1.85 </body>
507     </section>
508     <section id="configure">
509     <title>I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</title>
510     <body>
511 swift 1.54
512     <p>
513 neysx 1.85 Yes, but it is not trivial, nor is it recommended. Since the method to do this
514 neysx 1.94 requires a good understanding of Portage internals and commands, it is instead
515 neysx 1.85 recommended that you patch the ebuild to do whatever it is that you want and
516 swift 1.110 place it in a Portage overlay (that's why overlays exist). This is <e>much</e>
517 neysx 1.85 better for maintainability, and usually easier. See the <uri
518     link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Ebuild
519     HOWTO</uri> for more information.
520 swift 1.54 </p>
521    
522     </body>
523     </section>
524 neysx 1.85 <section id="firewall">
525     <title>How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</title>
526 swift 1.54 <body>
527    
528     <p>
529 neysx 1.85 See the questions on <uri link="#proxy">proxies</uri>, <uri
530 swift 1.86 link="#norsync">rsync</uri>, and <uri link="#manualdownload">downloading source
531 neysx 1.85 files manually</uri>.
532 swift 1.54 </p>
533    
534     </body>
535     </section>
536 neysx 1.85 <section id="norsync">
537     <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
538 swift 1.54 <body>
539    
540     <p>
541 neysx 1.85 If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit rsync traffic, then you can use
542     <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch and install a Portage snapshot for you
543     through regular HTTP. See the <uri link="#proxy">proxy section</uri> of this
544 neysx 1.94 document for information on downloading source files and Portage snapshots via
545 neysx 1.85 a proxy.
546 swift 1.54 </p>
547    
548     </body>
549     </section>
550 swift 1.61 <section id="manualdownload">
551 swift 1.54 <title>
552     I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere
553     else and add them to my system?
554     </title>
555     <body>
556    
557     <p>
558     Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
559     are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where
560     to download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>. Download
561     sources and bring them on any media home. Put the sources into
562 neysx 1.85 <path>/usr/portage/distfiles/</path> and then simply run <c>emerge package</c>.
563     Be warned, however, that this is a tedious process.
564 swift 1.54 </p>
565    
566     </body>
567     </section>
568 swift 1.61 <section id="distfiles">
569 swift 1.54 <title>
570 neysx 1.85 Source tarballs are collecting in /usr/portage/distfiles/. Is it safe to
571 smithj 1.89 delete these files?
572 swift 1.54 </title>
573     <body>
574    
575     <p>
576 neysx 1.85 Deleting these files will have no negative impact on day-to-day performance.
577     However, it might be wise to keep the most recent version of the files; often
578     several ebuilds will be released for the same version of a specific piece of
579     software. If you have deleted the archive and you upgrade the software it will
580 nightmorph 1.115 be necessary to download them from the internet again.
581     </p>
582    
583     <p>
584     You can use the <c>eclean</c> script from <c>app-portage/gentoolkit</c> to
585     manage the contents of <path>/usr/portage/distfiles/</path> and a few other
586 nightmorph 1.117 locations. Please read <c>man eclean</c> to learn more about its usage, as well
587     as the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoolkit.xml">Gentoolkit Guide</uri>.
588 swift 1.54 </p>
589    
590     </body>
591     </section>
592 swift 1.61 <section id="tmpportage">
593 swift 1.54 <title>
594 cam 1.58 What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to delete the files and
595     directories in /var/tmp/portage?
596 swift 1.54 </title>
597     <body>
598    
599     <p>
600     During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in
601 neysx 1.85 <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. These files and folder are usually deleted upon
602     a successful merge, but this sometimes fails. It is safe to clean out all
603     contents of this directory <e>if</e> emerge is not running. Just to be sure,
604     always <c>pgrep emerge</c> before cleaning out this directory.
605 swift 1.54 </p>
606    
607     </body>
608     </section>
609 yoswink 1.92 </chapter>
610    
611     <chapter>
612     <title>Usage</title>
613 swift 1.61 <section id="intkeyboard">
614 swift 1.54 <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
615     <body>
616    
617     <p>
618 flammie 1.102 Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>. To have
619     console working correctly with extended characters in your keymap you might
620     also need to set up variables <c>CONSOLETRANSLATION</c> and <c>CONSOLEFONT</c>
621     in your <path>/etc/conf.d/consolefont</path> (for further information on
622 yoswink 1.103 localising your environment, refer to <uri
623     link="/doc/en/guide-localization.xml">our localisation guide</uri>).
624 flammie 1.102 Then, either <c>reboot</c>, or restart the keymaps and consolefont scripts:
625 swift 1.54 </p>
626    
627 neysx 1.85 <pre caption="Restarting keymaps">
628     # <i>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</i>
629 flammie 1.102 # <i>/etc/init.d/consolefont restart</i>
630 neysx 1.85 </pre>
631    
632 swift 1.54 </body>
633     </section>
634 swift 1.61 <section id="rootdns">
635 neysx 1.85 <title>DNS name resolution works for root only</title>
636 swift 1.54 <body>
637    
638     <p>
639     <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as
640     follows:
641     </p>
642    
643     <pre caption="Changing permissions on /etc/resolv.conf">
644     # <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i>
645     </pre>
646    
647     </body>
648     </section>
649 swift 1.61 <section id="crontab">
650 swift 1.54 <title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
651     <body>
652    
653     <p>
654     You need to add that user to the <c>cron</c> group.
655     </p>
656    
657     </body>
658     </section>
659 swift 1.61 <section id="numlock">
660 swift 1.54 <title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
661     <body>
662    
663     <p>
664 neysx 1.85 If you work in command line, you only need to <c>rc-update add
665     numlock default &amp;&amp;/etc/init.d/numlock start</c>.
666 swift 1.54 </p>
667    
668     <p>
669 neysx 1.85 Each GUI provides different tools for this sort of thing; please check the help
670     section or online manuals for assistance.
671 swift 1.54 </p>
672    
673     </body>
674     </section>
675 swift 1.61 <section id="clear">
676 swift 1.54 <title>How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</title>
677     <body>
678    
679     <p>
680     To have your terminal cleared, add <c>clear</c> to your
681     <path>~/.bash_logout</path> script:
682     </p>
683    
684     <pre caption = "Clearing the terminal during logout">
685     $ <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; ~/.bash_logout</i>
686     </pre>
687    
688     <p>
689     If you want this to happen automatically when you add a new
690     user, do the same for the <path>/etc/skel/.bash_logout</path>:
691     </p>
692    
693     <pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout">
694     # <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre>
695     </body>
696    
697     </section>
698     </chapter>
699    
700     <chapter>
701     <title>Maintenance</title>
702 swift 1.61 <section id="filecorruption">
703 neysx 1.94 <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix them, etc</title>
704 swift 1.54 <body>
705    
706     <p>
707 neysx 1.85 If your ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo Install CD and
708     run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on the corrupted filesystem. This should
709     make the filesystem consistent again, although you may have lost some files or
710     directories due to the corruption.
711 swift 1.54 </p>
712    
713     </body>
714     </section>
715 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
716 yoswink 1.92
717 drobbins 1.1 <chapter>
718 swift 1.54 <title>Development</title>
719 swift 1.61 <section id="reportbugs">
720 swift 1.54 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
721     <body>
722    
723     <p>
724 neysx 1.85 Use our <uri link="https://bugs.gentoo.org">Bugzilla</uri>. If you are unsure if
725 nightmorph 1.114 your problem is an actual bug, you can visit <uri
726     link="irc://irc.gentoo.org/gentoo">#gentoo</uri> on IRC.
727 swift 1.54 </p>
728    
729     </body>
730     </section>
731 swift 1.61 <section id="releases">
732 swift 1.54 <title>How often are new releases made?</title>
733     <body>
734    
735     <p>
736 neysx 1.85 Gentoo's packages are usually updated shortly after the main authors release
737     new code. As for when Gentoo itself makes new stage/profile/ISO releases, check
738     our <uri link="/proj/en/releng">Release Engineering Project</uri> page. New
739     releases are announced on the <uri
740     link="/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri> mailing list. See the question
741     on <uri link="#upgrade">upgrading</uri> for more information.
742 swift 1.54 </p>
743    
744     </body>
745     </section>
746 swift 1.61 <section id="beeping">
747 swift 1.54 <title>
748 neysx 1.85 My speaker beeps like crazy. How do I disable console beeps?
749 swift 1.54 </title>
750     <body>
751    
752     <p>
753     Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this:
754     </p>
755    
756     <pre caption="Using setterm">
757     # <i>setterm -blength 0</i>
758     </pre>
759    
760     <p>
761 neysx 1.85 If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot, you need to put this
762     command in <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However, this only disables
763     beeps for the current terminal. To disable beeps for other terminals, pipe the
764     command output to the target terminal, like this: </p>
765 swift 1.54
766     <pre caption="Using setterm (bis)">
767     # <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i>
768     </pre>
769    
770     <p>
771     You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal you would like to disable
772     console beeps for.
773     </p>
774    
775     </body>
776     </section>
777 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
778    
779     <chapter>
780     <title>Resources</title>
781 swift 1.61 <section id="resources">
782 swift 1.54 <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
783     <body>
784    
785     <p>
786 neysx 1.85 The official Gentoo documentation can be found at
787 neysx 1.96 <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/</uri>.
788 swift 1.54 </p>
789    
790     </body>
791     </section>
792 swift 1.61 <section id="buycd">
793 erwin 1.52 <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
794     <body>
795    
796 swift 1.54 <p>
797 neysx 1.94 Install CDs for all supported architectures are available on our <uri
798 neysx 1.85 link="http://www.cafepress.com/officialgentoo/">Gentoo Store</uri>. When you
799     purchase a CD from our store, you are also supporting our development. So,
800     please consider buying from our store if possible.
801 erwin 1.52 </p>
802    
803     <p>
804 swift 1.82 You can also find fresh CDs from various resellers listed on our <uri
805     link="/main/en/where.xml">Get Gentoo!</uri> page.
806 erwin 1.52 </p>
807    
808     </body>
809     </section>
810 swift 1.61 <section id="help">
811 swift 1.54 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
812     <body>
813    
814     <p>
815 neysx 1.85 A good first step is to browse through the relevant <uri
816     link="/doc/en/index.xml">documentation</uri>, failing that, the various Gentoo
817     Linux mailing lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>.
818 nightmorph 1.114 To search through the Gentoo mailing lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to
819     search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want to hang out with Gentoo
820     folks, visit us on irc: <uri link="irc://irc.gentoo.org/gentoo">#gentoo</uri>.
821 swift 1.54 </p>
822    
823     </body>
824     </section>
825 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
826     </guide>

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