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1 zhen 1.3 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 drobbins 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 swift 1.119 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml,v 1.118 2010/10/14 06:09:40 nightmorph Exp $ -->
4 drobbins 1.1
5 nightmorph 1.116 <guide>
6 drobbins 1.1 <title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
7 neysx 1.85 <author title="Author">
8 swift 1.54 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
9     </author>
10     <author title="Reviewer">
11     Colin Morey
12     </author>
13     <author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
14     John P. Davis
15     </author>
16     <author title="Editor">
17     <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
18     </author>
19     <author title="Editor">
20     <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
21     </author>
22     <author title="Editor">
23     <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
24     </author>
25     <author title="Editor">
26     <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
27     </author>
28     <author title="Editor">
29 nightmorph 1.106 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
30 swift 1.54 </author>
31 bennyc 1.75 <author title="Editor">
32     <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
33     </author>
34 neysx 1.85 <author title="Editor">
35 swift 1.88 <mail link="smithj@gentoo.org">Jonathan Smith</mail>
36 neysx 1.85 </author>
37 nightmorph 1.114 <author title="Editor">
38     <mail link="nightmorph"/>
39     </author>
40 swift 1.54
41 vapier 1.49 <abstract>
42 swift 1.54 This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev
43 neysx 1.85 mailing list and from IRC.
44 vapier 1.49 </abstract>
45 drobbins 1.1
46 neysx 1.85 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
47 swift 1.97 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
48 swift 1.42 <license/>
49    
50 swift 1.119 <version>6</version>
51     <date>2011-09-11</date>
52 swift 1.36
53 neysx 1.107 <faqindex>
54     <title>Questions</title>
55 swift 1.36 <section>
56 neysx 1.107 <title>Introduction</title>
57 swift 1.36 <body>
58 swift 1.54
59 neysx 1.85 <p>
60     Please note that many of these questions are answered within the official
61 neysx 1.94 Gentoo documents and guides. This is simply a list of common questions. Please
62 neysx 1.85 read the documentation and/or man pages to gain a greater understanding of how
63     Gentoo and GNU/Linux works, and for answers to questions which may not be
64     answered here.
65     </p>
66    
67 swift 1.36 </body>
68     </section>
69 neysx 1.107 </faqindex>
70 swift 1.36
71 swift 1.54 <chapter>
72     <title>Getting Started</title>
73    
74 swift 1.61 <section id="pronunciation">
75 swift 1.54 <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
76     <body>
77    
78     <p>
79 neysx 1.108 <e>Gentoo</e> is pronounced "gen-too" (the "g" in "Gentoo" is a soft "g", as in
80     "gentle"). The scientific name of the <uri
81     link="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gentoo_penguin">Gentoo penguin</uri> is
82     <e>Pygoscelis papua</e>. The name <e>Gentoo</e> has been given to the penguin
83     by the inhabitants of the <uri
84     link="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Falkland_Islands">Falkland Islands</uri>.
85 swift 1.54 </p>
86    
87     </body>
88     </section>
89 swift 1.61 <section id="differences">
90 swift 1.54 <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
91     <body>
92 drobbins 1.1
93 swift 1.54 <p>
94 swift 1.55 Gentoo uses a BSD ports-like system called <uri
95     link="/proj/en/portage">Portage</uri>. Portage is a package management system
96     that allows great flexibility while installing and maintaining software on a
97     Gentoo system. It provides compile-time option support (through <uri
98 neysx 1.73 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>),
99 yoswink 1.91 conditional dependencies, pre-package installation summary, safe installation
100     (through sandboxing) and uninstallation of software, system profiles, <uri
101 neysx 1.73 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=3&amp;chap=2#doc_chap3">configuration
102 swift 1.55 file protection</uri> amongst several other <uri
103 neysx 1.73 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">features</uri>.
104 swift 1.54 </p>
105 drobbins 1.1
106 swift 1.54 <p>
107 neysx 1.83 With Gentoo you can build your entire system from source, using your choice of
108     optimizations. You have complete control over what packages are or aren't
109 neysx 1.85 installed. Gentoo provides you with numerous choices, so you can install Gentoo
110     to your own preferences, which is why Gentoo is called a <e>meta-distribution</e>.
111 swift 1.54 </p>
112    
113     <p>
114 neysx 1.85 Gentoo is actively developed. The entire distribution uses a rapid pace
115     development style: patches to the packages are quickly integrated in the
116 neysx 1.94 mainline tree, documentation is updated on daily basis, Portage features are
117 neysx 1.85 added frequently, and official releases occur twice per year.
118 swift 1.54 </p>
119    
120     </body>
121     </section>
122 swift 1.55 </chapter>
123    
124     <chapter>
125     <title>Installation</title>
126 swift 1.61 <section id="optimizations">
127 swift 1.54 <title>
128 neysx 1.85 Things are really unstable and I'm using -O9 -ffast-math
129     -fomit-frame-pointer optimizations. What gives?
130 swift 1.54 </title>
131     <body>
132    
133     <p>
134 swift 1.60 Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't supported by
135 swift 1.54 current versions of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the
136     compiler to streamline the assembly code to the point where it doesn't quite
137 swift 1.55 do the same thing anymore.
138 swift 1.54 </p>
139    
140     <p>
141 neysx 1.85 Please try to compile with CFLAGS <c>-O2 -march=&lt;your_arch&gt;</c> before
142 neysx 1.83 reporting a bug.
143 swift 1.54 </p>
144    
145     </body>
146     </section>
147 swift 1.61 <section id="password">
148 neysx 1.85 <title>How do I change the root (or any other user's) password?</title>
149 swift 1.54 <body>
150    
151     <p>
152     You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged
153 neysx 1.85 into. As root, you can change any user password by issuing the command
154     <c>passwd username</c> For extra options and setting, please <c>man passwd</c>.
155 swift 1.54 </p>
156    
157     </body>
158     </section>
159 swift 1.61 <section id="useradd">
160 neysx 1.83 <title>How do I add a normal user?</title>
161 swift 1.54 <body>
162    
163     <p>
164 nightmorph 1.118 The command <c>useradd username</c> will add a user called "username". However,
165 neysx 1.85 this method does not give the user many of the rights you might want to grant
166     him, so the following command is preferred:
167 swift 1.54 </p>
168    
169     <pre caption="Using useradd">
170 neysx 1.85 # <i>useradd -m -G users,audio,wheel username</i>
171 swift 1.54 </pre>
172    
173     <p>
174 neysx 1.85 This will add a user named "username". The option <c>audio</c> adds them to the
175 fox2mike 1.87 <c>audio</c> group and allows the user to access sound devices. The option
176 neysx 1.85 <c>wheel</c> adds the user to the <c>wheel</c> group, which allows the user to
177     execute the command <c>su</c>, which in turn allows them to gain the
178     privileges of the <c>root</c> user.
179 swift 1.54 </p>
180    
181     </body>
182     </section>
183 swift 1.61 <section id="su">
184 swift 1.54 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
185     <body>
186    
187     <p>
188     For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
189 neysx 1.83 wheel group. To add a username to the wheel group, issue the following command
190     as root:
191 swift 1.54 </p>
192    
193     <pre caption="Adding a user to the wheel group">
194 swift 1.55 # <i>gpasswd -a username wheel</i>
195 swift 1.54 </pre>
196    
197     </body>
198     </section>
199 swift 1.61 <section id="upgrade">
200 swift 1.54 <title>
201 swift 1.55 Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to another without reinstalling?
202 swift 1.54 </title>
203     <body>
204    
205     <p>
206 neysx 1.85 In fact, there is no difference between the various releases after they have
207     been installed. Gentoo 1.4 and later are <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based. As such,
208     running <c>emerge --sync &amp;&amp; emerge -uDN world</c> will bring your
209     entire system up to speed with the "latest Gentoo". The differences between
210     individual releases lie in the installation medium and pre-compiled packages.
211     See the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-upgrading.xml">Gentoo Upgrading Guide</uri>
212     for more information about profiles and their role in upgrading.
213 swift 1.62 </p>
214    
215 swift 1.54 </body>
216     </section>
217 swift 1.61 <section id="bootrescue">
218 neysx 1.85 <title>My kernel doesn't boot, what should I do now?</title>
219 swift 1.54 <body>
220    
221     <p>
222 neysx 1.85 You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but investigating the
223     kernel and all associated steps is necessary. Suppose you have installed Gentoo
224 swift 1.54 on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with
225     <path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space:
226     </p>
227    
228     <pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel">
229 neysx 1.85 <comment>Boot from the Install CD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment>
230 swift 1.37 <comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment>
231     # <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
232     # <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
233     # <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
234     # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
235     <comment>Then we chroot into our Gentoo environment and configure the kernel:</comment>
236     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
237     # <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
238     # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
239     # <i>make menuconfig</i>
240     <comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment>
241     <comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment>
242 neysx 1.85 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
243 swift 1.37 <comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment>
244 neysx 1.104 # <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot/&lt;kernel_name&gt;</i>
245 swift 1.37 <comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment>
246     # <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
247     <comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment>
248     # <i>exit</i>
249     # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
250     # <i>reboot</i>
251 swift 1.54 </pre>
252    
253     <p>
254 neysx 1.104 If, on the other hand, the problem lies with your bootloader configuration,
255 neysx 1.85 follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel, you
256 swift 1.54 should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary).
257     </p>
258    
259     </body>
260     </section>
261 swift 1.61 <section id="proxy">
262 swift 1.54 <title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title>
263     <body>
264    
265     <p>
266     To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in
267     <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
268     </p>
269    
270 swift 1.38 <pre caption = "/etc/make.conf">
271 nightmorph 1.112 http_proxy="http://username:password@yourproxybox.org:portnumber"
272     ftp_proxy="ftp://username:password@yourproxybox.org:portnumber"
273 neysx 1.85 RSYNC_PROXY="rsync://username:password@yourproxybox.server:portnumber"
274 swift 1.80 </pre>
275    
276 swift 1.54 </body>
277     </section>
278 swift 1.65 <section id="isoburning">
279     <title>How do I burn an ISO file?</title>
280     <body>
281    
282     <p>
283 neysx 1.83 You need to burn the file in raw mode. This means that you should <e>not</e>
284     just place the file on the CD, but interpret the file as an entire CD.
285 swift 1.65 </p>
286    
287     <p>
288     There are lots of CD burning tools available; covering them all would be a
289 neysx 1.83 Sisyphean problem. However, describing a few popular tools never hurts:
290 swift 1.65 </p>
291    
292     <ul>
293     <li>
294     With EasyCD Creator you select <c>File</c>, <c>Record CD
295     from CD image</c>. Then you change the <c>Files of type</c> to <c>ISO image
296     file</c>. Then locate the ISO file and click <c>Open</c>. When you click on
297     <c>Start recording</c> the ISO image will be burned correctly onto the CD-R.
298     </li>
299     <li>
300     With Nero Burning ROM, cancel the wizard which automatically pops up and
301 neysx 1.69 select <c>Burn Image</c> from the <c>File</c> menu. Select the image you
302 swift 1.65 want to burn and click <c>Open</c>. Now hit the <c>Burn</c> button and watch
303     your brand new CD being burnt.
304     </li>
305     <li>
306     With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace
307     <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
308     by the path to the ISO file :)
309     </li>
310     <li>
311 neysx 1.85 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn CD Image</c>.
312     Then you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally
313     click <c>Start</c>.
314 swift 1.65 </li>
315 swift 1.66 <li>
316     With Mac OS X Panther, launch <c>Disk Utility</c> from
317     <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Open</c> from the
318     <c>Images</c> menu, select the mounted disk image in the main window and
319     select <c>Burn</c> in the <c>Images</c> menu.
320     </li>
321     <li>
322     With Mac OS X Jaguar, launch <c>Disk Copy</c> from
323     <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Burn Image</c> from the
324     <c>File</c> menu, select the ISO and click the <c>Burn</c> button.
325     </li>
326 swift 1.65 </ul>
327    
328    
329     </body>
330     </section>
331 swift 1.77 <section id="cpus">
332     <title>What CD/stage should I use for my CPU?</title>
333     <body>
334    
335     <p>
336 nightmorph 1.113 First you need to find out what CPU you use. Suppose it's a Pentium-M. Then you
337 neysx 1.83 need to find out what CPU it is, instruction-wise, compatible with. You may
338 neysx 1.95 need to consult the CPU's vendor website for this, although <uri
339 swift 1.77 link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri> is at least as efficient :-).
340     </p>
341    
342     <p>
343 neysx 1.85 If you are uncertain, take a "lower" CD/stage file, for instance a i686 or even
344     generic x86 (or the equivalent in your arch). This will ensure that your system
345     will work, but may not be as fast as further optimizations.
346 swift 1.77 </p>
347    
348     <p>
349 swift 1.99 Please note that many more options exist than those for which Gentoo builds
350     binary stages. Please see the <uri
351 nightmorph 1.116 link="http://gcc.gnu.org/onlinedocs/gcc-4.4.3/gcc/i386-and-x86_002d64-Options.html#i386-and-x86_002d64-Options">gcc
352 neysx 1.85 guide</uri> for setting <c>-march</c>.
353 swift 1.77 </p>
354    
355     </body>
356     </section>
357 swift 1.97 <section id="dhcp">
358     <title>I can't get online after rebooting. What is wrong?</title>
359     <body>
360    
361     <p>
362     First you need to check if your network card is discovered properly by the
363     kernel. Run <c>ifconfig&nbsp;-a</c> and look for eth0 or wlan0 (in case of
364     certain wireless network cards). You might need to load specific kernel modules
365     for the kernel to properly detect the network card. If that is the case, make
366     sure that these kernel modules are listed in
367 swift 1.119 <path>/etc/conf.d/modules</path>.
368 swift 1.97 </p>
369    
370     <p>
371     If you have forgotten to include support for your network card in your kernel,
372     you will need to reconfigure your kernel.
373     </p>
374    
375     <p>
376     If your network card is found by your kernel, but you have set your networking
377     configuration to use DHCP, you might have forgotten to
378     <c>emerge&nbsp;dhcpcd</c>. You will need to reboot with your installation CD to
379     install <c>dhcpcd</c>.
380     </p>
381    
382     <p>
383     Information on how to rescue your system using the installation CD is <uri
384     link="#bootrescue">available</uri> as well.
385     </p>
386    
387     </body>
388     </section>
389 fox2mike 1.98 <section id="dualboot">
390     <title>
391     I want to boot Windows from grub or lilo but it shows only black screen. What
392     should I do?
393     </title>
394     <body>
395    
396     <p>
397     This is a known problem. Windows refuses to boot when it isn't installed on the
398     first hard drive and shows a black/blank screen. To handle this, you will have
399     to "fool" Windows into believing that it is installed on the first hard drive
400     with a little tweak in your boot loader configuration. Please note that in the
401     below example, Gentoo is installed on <path>hda</path> (first disk) and Windows
402     on <path>hdb</path> (second one). Adjust your config as needed.
403     </p>
404    
405     <pre caption="Example dual boot entry for Windows in grub.conf">
406     title Windows XP
407     map (hd1) (hd0)
408     map (hd0) (hd1)
409     rootnoverify (hd1,0)
410     chainloader +1
411     </pre>
412    
413     <pre caption="Example dual boot entry for Windows in lilo.conf">
414     other=/dev/hdb1
415     label=WindowsXP
416     table=/dev/hdb
417     map-drive = 0x80
418     to = 0x81
419     map-drive = 0x81
420     to = 0x80
421     </pre>
422    
423     <p>
424     This will make Windows believe it is installed on the first hard drive and boot
425     without problems. More information can be found in the <uri
426 nightmorph 1.116 link="http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/">GRUB documentation</uri> and in <c>man
427     lilo.conf</c>, depending on the boot loader you're using.
428 fox2mike 1.98 </p>
429    
430     </body>
431     </section>
432 swift 1.99 <section id="stage12">
433     <title>How do I Install Gentoo Using a Stage1 or Stage2 Tarball?</title>
434     <body>
435    
436     <p>
437     The Gentoo Handbook only describes a Gentoo installation using a stage3 tarball.
438     However, Gentoo still provides stage1 and stage2 tarballs. This is for
439     development purposes (the Release Engineering team starts from a stage1 tarball
440     to obtain a stage3) but shouldn't be used by users: a stage3 tarball can very
441     well be used to bootstrap the system. You do need a working Internet connection.
442     </p>
443    
444     <p>
445     Bootstrapping means building the toolchain (the C library and compiler) for
446     your system after which you install all core system packages. To bootstrap the
447     system, perform a stage3 installation. Before you start the chapter on
448     <e>Configuring the Kernel</e>, modify the <path>bootstrap.sh</path> script to
449     suit your needs and then run it:
450     </p>
451    
452     <pre caption="Bootstrapping the system">
453     # <i>cd /usr/portage/scripts</i>
454     # <i>vi bootstrap.sh</i>
455    
456     # <i>./bootstrap.sh</i>
457     </pre>
458    
459     <p>
460     Next, rebuild all core system packages with the newly built toolchain. We need
461     to rebuild them since the stage3 tarball already offers them:
462     </p>
463    
464     <pre caption="Rebuilding the core system packages">
465     # <i>emerge -e system</i>
466     </pre>
467    
468     <p>
469     Now you can continue with <e>Configuring the Kernel</e>. You can not use the
470     prebuilt GRP packages anymore though.
471     </p>
472    
473     </body>
474     </section>
475 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
476    
477     <chapter>
478 swift 1.54 <title>Package Management</title>
479 swift 1.61 <section id="ebuilds">
480 neysx 1.83 <title>In what form are the packages stored?</title>
481 swift 1.54 <body>
482    
483 swift 1.45 <p>
484 neysx 1.85 Packages aren't "stored" per se. Instead, Gentoo provides a set of scripts
485     which can resolve dependencies, fetch source code, and compile a version of the
486     package specifically for your needs. We generally only build binaries for
487     releases and snapshots. The <uri
488 neysx 1.83 link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Gentoo Ebuild
489 neysx 1.85 HOWTO</uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail.
490 swift 1.45 </p>
491    
492 swift 1.54 <p>
493 neysx 1.85 For full ISO releases, we create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced
494     <c>.tbz2</c> format, which is <c>.tar.bz2</c> compatible with meta-information
495     attached to the end of the file. These can be used to install a working (though
496     not fully optimized) version of the package quickly and efficiently.
497 swift 1.54 </p>
498    
499     <p>
500 neysx 1.85 It is possible to create RPMs (Redhat package manager files) using Gentoo's
501 neysx 1.94 Portage, but it is not currently possible to use already existing RPMs to
502 neysx 1.85 install packages.
503 swift 1.54 </p>
504    
505 neysx 1.85 </body>
506     </section>
507     <section id="configure">
508     <title>I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</title>
509     <body>
510 swift 1.54
511     <p>
512 neysx 1.85 Yes, but it is not trivial, nor is it recommended. Since the method to do this
513 neysx 1.94 requires a good understanding of Portage internals and commands, it is instead
514 neysx 1.85 recommended that you patch the ebuild to do whatever it is that you want and
515 swift 1.110 place it in a Portage overlay (that's why overlays exist). This is <e>much</e>
516 neysx 1.85 better for maintainability, and usually easier. See the <uri
517     link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Ebuild
518     HOWTO</uri> for more information.
519 swift 1.54 </p>
520    
521     </body>
522     </section>
523 neysx 1.85 <section id="firewall">
524     <title>How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</title>
525 swift 1.54 <body>
526    
527     <p>
528 neysx 1.85 See the questions on <uri link="#proxy">proxies</uri>, <uri
529 swift 1.86 link="#norsync">rsync</uri>, and <uri link="#manualdownload">downloading source
530 neysx 1.85 files manually</uri>.
531 swift 1.54 </p>
532    
533     </body>
534     </section>
535 neysx 1.85 <section id="norsync">
536     <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
537 swift 1.54 <body>
538    
539     <p>
540 neysx 1.85 If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit rsync traffic, then you can use
541     <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch and install a Portage snapshot for you
542     through regular HTTP. See the <uri link="#proxy">proxy section</uri> of this
543 neysx 1.94 document for information on downloading source files and Portage snapshots via
544 neysx 1.85 a proxy.
545 swift 1.54 </p>
546    
547     </body>
548     </section>
549 swift 1.61 <section id="manualdownload">
550 swift 1.54 <title>
551     I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere
552     else and add them to my system?
553     </title>
554     <body>
555    
556     <p>
557     Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
558     are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where
559     to download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>. Download
560     sources and bring them on any media home. Put the sources into
561 neysx 1.85 <path>/usr/portage/distfiles/</path> and then simply run <c>emerge package</c>.
562     Be warned, however, that this is a tedious process.
563 swift 1.54 </p>
564    
565     </body>
566     </section>
567 swift 1.61 <section id="distfiles">
568 swift 1.54 <title>
569 neysx 1.85 Source tarballs are collecting in /usr/portage/distfiles/. Is it safe to
570 smithj 1.89 delete these files?
571 swift 1.54 </title>
572     <body>
573    
574     <p>
575 neysx 1.85 Deleting these files will have no negative impact on day-to-day performance.
576     However, it might be wise to keep the most recent version of the files; often
577     several ebuilds will be released for the same version of a specific piece of
578     software. If you have deleted the archive and you upgrade the software it will
579 nightmorph 1.115 be necessary to download them from the internet again.
580     </p>
581    
582     <p>
583     You can use the <c>eclean</c> script from <c>app-portage/gentoolkit</c> to
584     manage the contents of <path>/usr/portage/distfiles/</path> and a few other
585 nightmorph 1.117 locations. Please read <c>man eclean</c> to learn more about its usage, as well
586     as the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoolkit.xml">Gentoolkit Guide</uri>.
587 swift 1.54 </p>
588    
589     </body>
590     </section>
591 swift 1.61 <section id="tmpportage">
592 swift 1.54 <title>
593 cam 1.58 What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to delete the files and
594     directories in /var/tmp/portage?
595 swift 1.54 </title>
596     <body>
597    
598     <p>
599     During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in
600 neysx 1.85 <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. These files and folder are usually deleted upon
601     a successful merge, but this sometimes fails. It is safe to clean out all
602     contents of this directory <e>if</e> emerge is not running. Just to be sure,
603     always <c>pgrep emerge</c> before cleaning out this directory.
604 swift 1.54 </p>
605    
606     </body>
607     </section>
608 yoswink 1.92 </chapter>
609    
610     <chapter>
611     <title>Usage</title>
612 swift 1.61 <section id="intkeyboard">
613 swift 1.54 <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
614     <body>
615    
616     <p>
617 flammie 1.102 Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>. To have
618     console working correctly with extended characters in your keymap you might
619     also need to set up variables <c>CONSOLETRANSLATION</c> and <c>CONSOLEFONT</c>
620     in your <path>/etc/conf.d/consolefont</path> (for further information on
621 yoswink 1.103 localising your environment, refer to <uri
622     link="/doc/en/guide-localization.xml">our localisation guide</uri>).
623 flammie 1.102 Then, either <c>reboot</c>, or restart the keymaps and consolefont scripts:
624 swift 1.54 </p>
625    
626 neysx 1.85 <pre caption="Restarting keymaps">
627     # <i>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</i>
628 flammie 1.102 # <i>/etc/init.d/consolefont restart</i>
629 neysx 1.85 </pre>
630    
631 swift 1.54 </body>
632     </section>
633 swift 1.61 <section id="rootdns">
634 neysx 1.85 <title>DNS name resolution works for root only</title>
635 swift 1.54 <body>
636    
637     <p>
638     <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as
639     follows:
640     </p>
641    
642     <pre caption="Changing permissions on /etc/resolv.conf">
643     # <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i>
644     </pre>
645    
646     </body>
647     </section>
648 swift 1.61 <section id="crontab">
649 swift 1.54 <title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
650     <body>
651    
652     <p>
653     You need to add that user to the <c>cron</c> group.
654     </p>
655    
656     </body>
657     </section>
658 swift 1.61 <section id="numlock">
659 swift 1.54 <title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
660     <body>
661    
662     <p>
663 neysx 1.85 If you work in command line, you only need to <c>rc-update add
664     numlock default &amp;&amp;/etc/init.d/numlock start</c>.
665 swift 1.54 </p>
666    
667     <p>
668 neysx 1.85 Each GUI provides different tools for this sort of thing; please check the help
669     section or online manuals for assistance.
670 swift 1.54 </p>
671    
672     </body>
673     </section>
674 swift 1.61 <section id="clear">
675 swift 1.54 <title>How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</title>
676     <body>
677    
678     <p>
679     To have your terminal cleared, add <c>clear</c> to your
680     <path>~/.bash_logout</path> script:
681     </p>
682    
683     <pre caption = "Clearing the terminal during logout">
684     $ <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; ~/.bash_logout</i>
685     </pre>
686    
687     <p>
688     If you want this to happen automatically when you add a new
689     user, do the same for the <path>/etc/skel/.bash_logout</path>:
690     </p>
691    
692     <pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout">
693     # <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre>
694     </body>
695    
696     </section>
697     </chapter>
698    
699     <chapter>
700     <title>Maintenance</title>
701 swift 1.61 <section id="filecorruption">
702 neysx 1.94 <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix them, etc</title>
703 swift 1.54 <body>
704    
705     <p>
706 neysx 1.85 If your ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo Install CD and
707     run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on the corrupted filesystem. This should
708     make the filesystem consistent again, although you may have lost some files or
709     directories due to the corruption.
710 swift 1.54 </p>
711    
712     </body>
713     </section>
714 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
715 yoswink 1.92
716 drobbins 1.1 <chapter>
717 swift 1.54 <title>Development</title>
718 swift 1.61 <section id="reportbugs">
719 swift 1.54 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
720     <body>
721    
722     <p>
723 neysx 1.85 Use our <uri link="https://bugs.gentoo.org">Bugzilla</uri>. If you are unsure if
724 nightmorph 1.114 your problem is an actual bug, you can visit <uri
725     link="irc://irc.gentoo.org/gentoo">#gentoo</uri> on IRC.
726 swift 1.54 </p>
727    
728     </body>
729     </section>
730 swift 1.61 <section id="releases">
731 swift 1.54 <title>How often are new releases made?</title>
732     <body>
733    
734     <p>
735 neysx 1.85 Gentoo's packages are usually updated shortly after the main authors release
736     new code. As for when Gentoo itself makes new stage/profile/ISO releases, check
737     our <uri link="/proj/en/releng">Release Engineering Project</uri> page. New
738     releases are announced on the <uri
739     link="/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri> mailing list. See the question
740     on <uri link="#upgrade">upgrading</uri> for more information.
741 swift 1.54 </p>
742    
743     </body>
744     </section>
745 swift 1.61 <section id="beeping">
746 swift 1.54 <title>
747 neysx 1.85 My speaker beeps like crazy. How do I disable console beeps?
748 swift 1.54 </title>
749     <body>
750    
751     <p>
752     Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this:
753     </p>
754    
755     <pre caption="Using setterm">
756     # <i>setterm -blength 0</i>
757     </pre>
758    
759     <p>
760 neysx 1.85 If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot, you need to put this
761     command in <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However, this only disables
762     beeps for the current terminal. To disable beeps for other terminals, pipe the
763     command output to the target terminal, like this: </p>
764 swift 1.54
765     <pre caption="Using setterm (bis)">
766     # <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i>
767     </pre>
768    
769     <p>
770     You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal you would like to disable
771     console beeps for.
772     </p>
773    
774     </body>
775     </section>
776 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
777    
778     <chapter>
779     <title>Resources</title>
780 swift 1.61 <section id="resources">
781 swift 1.54 <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
782     <body>
783    
784     <p>
785 neysx 1.85 The official Gentoo documentation can be found at
786 neysx 1.96 <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/</uri>.
787 swift 1.54 </p>
788    
789     </body>
790     </section>
791 swift 1.61 <section id="buycd">
792 erwin 1.52 <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
793     <body>
794    
795 swift 1.54 <p>
796 neysx 1.94 Install CDs for all supported architectures are available on our <uri
797 neysx 1.85 link="http://www.cafepress.com/officialgentoo/">Gentoo Store</uri>. When you
798     purchase a CD from our store, you are also supporting our development. So,
799     please consider buying from our store if possible.
800 erwin 1.52 </p>
801    
802     <p>
803 swift 1.82 You can also find fresh CDs from various resellers listed on our <uri
804     link="/main/en/where.xml">Get Gentoo!</uri> page.
805 erwin 1.52 </p>
806    
807     </body>
808     </section>
809 swift 1.61 <section id="help">
810 swift 1.54 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
811     <body>
812    
813     <p>
814 neysx 1.85 A good first step is to browse through the relevant <uri
815     link="/doc/en/index.xml">documentation</uri>, failing that, the various Gentoo
816     Linux mailing lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>.
817 nightmorph 1.114 To search through the Gentoo mailing lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to
818     search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want to hang out with Gentoo
819     folks, visit us on irc: <uri link="irc://irc.gentoo.org/gentoo">#gentoo</uri>.
820 swift 1.54 </p>
821    
822     </body>
823     </section>
824 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
825     </guide>

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