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1 zhen 1.3 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 drobbins 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 swift 1.122 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml,v 1.121 2011/12/26 15:22:40 swift Exp $ -->
4 drobbins 1.1
5 nightmorph 1.116 <guide>
6 drobbins 1.1 <title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
7 neysx 1.85 <author title="Author">
8 swift 1.54 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
9     </author>
10     <author title="Reviewer">
11     Colin Morey
12     </author>
13     <author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
14     John P. Davis
15     </author>
16     <author title="Editor">
17     <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
18     </author>
19     <author title="Editor">
20     <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
21     </author>
22     <author title="Editor">
23     <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
24     </author>
25     <author title="Editor">
26     <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
27     </author>
28     <author title="Editor">
29 nightmorph 1.106 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
30 swift 1.54 </author>
31 bennyc 1.75 <author title="Editor">
32     <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
33     </author>
34 neysx 1.85 <author title="Editor">
35 swift 1.88 <mail link="smithj@gentoo.org">Jonathan Smith</mail>
36 neysx 1.85 </author>
37 nightmorph 1.114 <author title="Editor">
38     <mail link="nightmorph"/>
39     </author>
40 swift 1.54
41 vapier 1.49 <abstract>
42 swift 1.54 This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev
43 neysx 1.85 mailing list and from IRC.
44 vapier 1.49 </abstract>
45 drobbins 1.1
46 neysx 1.85 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
47 swift 1.97 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
48 swift 1.42 <license/>
49    
50 swift 1.122 <version>9</version>
51     <date>2012-07-24</date>
52 swift 1.36
53 neysx 1.107 <faqindex>
54     <title>Questions</title>
55 swift 1.36 <section>
56 neysx 1.107 <title>Introduction</title>
57 swift 1.36 <body>
58 swift 1.54
59 neysx 1.85 <p>
60     Please note that many of these questions are answered within the official
61 neysx 1.94 Gentoo documents and guides. This is simply a list of common questions. Please
62 neysx 1.85 read the documentation and/or man pages to gain a greater understanding of how
63     Gentoo and GNU/Linux works, and for answers to questions which may not be
64     answered here.
65     </p>
66    
67 swift 1.36 </body>
68     </section>
69 neysx 1.107 </faqindex>
70 swift 1.36
71 swift 1.54 <chapter>
72     <title>Getting Started</title>
73    
74 swift 1.61 <section id="pronunciation">
75 swift 1.54 <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
76     <body>
77    
78     <p>
79 neysx 1.108 <e>Gentoo</e> is pronounced "gen-too" (the "g" in "Gentoo" is a soft "g", as in
80     "gentle"). The scientific name of the <uri
81     link="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gentoo_penguin">Gentoo penguin</uri> is
82     <e>Pygoscelis papua</e>. The name <e>Gentoo</e> has been given to the penguin
83     by the inhabitants of the <uri
84     link="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Falkland_Islands">Falkland Islands</uri>.
85 swift 1.54 </p>
86    
87     </body>
88     </section>
89 swift 1.61 <section id="differences">
90 swift 1.54 <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
91     <body>
92 drobbins 1.1
93 swift 1.54 <p>
94 swift 1.55 Gentoo uses a BSD ports-like system called <uri
95     link="/proj/en/portage">Portage</uri>. Portage is a package management system
96     that allows great flexibility while installing and maintaining software on a
97     Gentoo system. It provides compile-time option support (through <uri
98 neysx 1.73 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>),
99 yoswink 1.91 conditional dependencies, pre-package installation summary, safe installation
100     (through sandboxing) and uninstallation of software, system profiles, <uri
101 neysx 1.73 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=3&amp;chap=2#doc_chap3">configuration
102 swift 1.55 file protection</uri> amongst several other <uri
103 neysx 1.73 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">features</uri>.
104 swift 1.54 </p>
105 drobbins 1.1
106 swift 1.54 <p>
107 neysx 1.83 With Gentoo you can build your entire system from source, using your choice of
108     optimizations. You have complete control over what packages are or aren't
109 neysx 1.85 installed. Gentoo provides you with numerous choices, so you can install Gentoo
110     to your own preferences, which is why Gentoo is called a <e>meta-distribution</e>.
111 swift 1.54 </p>
112    
113     <p>
114 neysx 1.85 Gentoo is actively developed. The entire distribution uses a rapid pace
115     development style: patches to the packages are quickly integrated in the
116 neysx 1.94 mainline tree, documentation is updated on daily basis, Portage features are
117 neysx 1.85 added frequently, and official releases occur twice per year.
118 swift 1.54 </p>
119    
120     </body>
121     </section>
122 swift 1.55 </chapter>
123    
124     <chapter>
125     <title>Installation</title>
126 swift 1.61 <section id="optimizations">
127 swift 1.54 <title>
128 neysx 1.85 Things are really unstable and I'm using -O9 -ffast-math
129     -fomit-frame-pointer optimizations. What gives?
130 swift 1.54 </title>
131     <body>
132    
133     <p>
134 swift 1.60 Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't supported by
135 swift 1.54 current versions of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the
136     compiler to streamline the assembly code to the point where it doesn't quite
137 swift 1.55 do the same thing anymore.
138 swift 1.54 </p>
139    
140     <p>
141 neysx 1.85 Please try to compile with CFLAGS <c>-O2 -march=&lt;your_arch&gt;</c> before
142 neysx 1.83 reporting a bug.
143 swift 1.54 </p>
144    
145     </body>
146     </section>
147 swift 1.61 <section id="password">
148 neysx 1.85 <title>How do I change the root (or any other user's) password?</title>
149 swift 1.54 <body>
150    
151     <p>
152     You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged
153 neysx 1.85 into. As root, you can change any user password by issuing the command
154     <c>passwd username</c> For extra options and setting, please <c>man passwd</c>.
155 swift 1.54 </p>
156    
157     </body>
158     </section>
159 swift 1.61 <section id="useradd">
160 neysx 1.83 <title>How do I add a normal user?</title>
161 swift 1.54 <body>
162    
163     <p>
164 nightmorph 1.118 The command <c>useradd username</c> will add a user called "username". However,
165 neysx 1.85 this method does not give the user many of the rights you might want to grant
166     him, so the following command is preferred:
167 swift 1.54 </p>
168    
169     <pre caption="Using useradd">
170 neysx 1.85 # <i>useradd -m -G users,audio,wheel username</i>
171 swift 1.54 </pre>
172    
173     <p>
174 neysx 1.85 This will add a user named "username". The option <c>audio</c> adds them to the
175 fox2mike 1.87 <c>audio</c> group and allows the user to access sound devices. The option
176 neysx 1.85 <c>wheel</c> adds the user to the <c>wheel</c> group, which allows the user to
177     execute the command <c>su</c>, which in turn allows them to gain the
178     privileges of the <c>root</c> user.
179 swift 1.54 </p>
180    
181     </body>
182     </section>
183 swift 1.61 <section id="su">
184 swift 1.54 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
185     <body>
186    
187     <p>
188     For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
189 neysx 1.83 wheel group. To add a username to the wheel group, issue the following command
190     as root:
191 swift 1.54 </p>
192    
193     <pre caption="Adding a user to the wheel group">
194 swift 1.55 # <i>gpasswd -a username wheel</i>
195 swift 1.54 </pre>
196    
197     </body>
198     </section>
199 swift 1.61 <section id="upgrade">
200 swift 1.54 <title>
201 swift 1.55 Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to another without reinstalling?
202 swift 1.54 </title>
203     <body>
204    
205     <p>
206 neysx 1.85 In fact, there is no difference between the various releases after they have
207 swift 1.120 been installed. Gentoo 1.4 and later are <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> (or higher) based.
208     As such, running <c>emerge --sync &amp;&amp; emerge -uDN world</c> will bring your
209 neysx 1.85 entire system up to speed with the "latest Gentoo". The differences between
210     individual releases lie in the installation medium and pre-compiled packages.
211     See the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-upgrading.xml">Gentoo Upgrading Guide</uri>
212     for more information about profiles and their role in upgrading.
213 swift 1.62 </p>
214    
215 swift 1.120 <p>
216     Also note that the <c>emerge -uDN world</c> command updates the packages you
217     have installed as well as its dependencies, but not the build-time dependencies
218     (packages needed during builds but not when the software is installed). To
219     update those as well, add the <c>--with-bdeps=y</c> option.
220     </p>
221    
222 swift 1.54 </body>
223     </section>
224 swift 1.61 <section id="bootrescue">
225 neysx 1.85 <title>My kernel doesn't boot, what should I do now?</title>
226 swift 1.54 <body>
227    
228     <p>
229 neysx 1.85 You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but investigating the
230     kernel and all associated steps is necessary. Suppose you have installed Gentoo
231 swift 1.121 on <path>/dev/sda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/sda3</path> (/) with
232     <path>/dev/sda2</path> being the swap space:
233 swift 1.54 </p>
234    
235     <pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel">
236 neysx 1.85 <comment>Boot from the Install CD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment>
237 swift 1.37 <comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment>
238 swift 1.121 # <i>mount /dev/sda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
239     # <i>mount /dev/sda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
240     # <i>swapon /dev/sda2</i>
241 swift 1.37 # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
242     <comment>Then we chroot into our Gentoo environment and configure the kernel:</comment>
243     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
244     # <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
245     # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
246     # <i>make menuconfig</i>
247     <comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment>
248     <comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment>
249 neysx 1.85 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
250 swift 1.37 <comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment>
251 neysx 1.104 # <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot/&lt;kernel_name&gt;</i>
252 swift 1.37 <comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment>
253     # <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
254     <comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment>
255     # <i>exit</i>
256     # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
257     # <i>reboot</i>
258 swift 1.54 </pre>
259    
260     <p>
261 neysx 1.104 If, on the other hand, the problem lies with your bootloader configuration,
262 neysx 1.85 follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel, you
263 swift 1.54 should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary).
264     </p>
265    
266     </body>
267     </section>
268 swift 1.61 <section id="proxy">
269 swift 1.54 <title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title>
270     <body>
271    
272     <p>
273     To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in
274 swift 1.122 <path>/etc/portage/make.conf</path>:
275 swift 1.54 </p>
276    
277 swift 1.122 <pre caption = "/etc/portage/make.conf">
278 nightmorph 1.112 http_proxy="http://username:password@yourproxybox.org:portnumber"
279     ftp_proxy="ftp://username:password@yourproxybox.org:portnumber"
280 neysx 1.85 RSYNC_PROXY="rsync://username:password@yourproxybox.server:portnumber"
281 swift 1.80 </pre>
282    
283 swift 1.54 </body>
284     </section>
285 swift 1.65 <section id="isoburning">
286     <title>How do I burn an ISO file?</title>
287     <body>
288    
289     <p>
290 neysx 1.83 You need to burn the file in raw mode. This means that you should <e>not</e>
291     just place the file on the CD, but interpret the file as an entire CD.
292 swift 1.65 </p>
293    
294     <p>
295     There are lots of CD burning tools available; covering them all would be a
296 neysx 1.83 Sisyphean problem. However, describing a few popular tools never hurts:
297 swift 1.65 </p>
298    
299     <ul>
300     <li>
301     With EasyCD Creator you select <c>File</c>, <c>Record CD
302     from CD image</c>. Then you change the <c>Files of type</c> to <c>ISO image
303     file</c>. Then locate the ISO file and click <c>Open</c>. When you click on
304     <c>Start recording</c> the ISO image will be burned correctly onto the CD-R.
305     </li>
306     <li>
307     With Nero Burning ROM, cancel the wizard which automatically pops up and
308 neysx 1.69 select <c>Burn Image</c> from the <c>File</c> menu. Select the image you
309 swift 1.65 want to burn and click <c>Open</c>. Now hit the <c>Burn</c> button and watch
310     your brand new CD being burnt.
311     </li>
312     <li>
313 swift 1.121 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/sdc</c> (replace
314     <path>/dev/sdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
315 swift 1.65 by the path to the ISO file :)
316     </li>
317     <li>
318 neysx 1.85 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn CD Image</c>.
319     Then you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally
320     click <c>Start</c>.
321 swift 1.65 </li>
322 swift 1.66 <li>
323     With Mac OS X Panther, launch <c>Disk Utility</c> from
324     <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Open</c> from the
325     <c>Images</c> menu, select the mounted disk image in the main window and
326     select <c>Burn</c> in the <c>Images</c> menu.
327     </li>
328     <li>
329     With Mac OS X Jaguar, launch <c>Disk Copy</c> from
330     <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Burn Image</c> from the
331     <c>File</c> menu, select the ISO and click the <c>Burn</c> button.
332     </li>
333 swift 1.65 </ul>
334    
335    
336     </body>
337     </section>
338 swift 1.77 <section id="cpus">
339     <title>What CD/stage should I use for my CPU?</title>
340     <body>
341    
342     <p>
343 nightmorph 1.113 First you need to find out what CPU you use. Suppose it's a Pentium-M. Then you
344 neysx 1.83 need to find out what CPU it is, instruction-wise, compatible with. You may
345 neysx 1.95 need to consult the CPU's vendor website for this, although <uri
346 swift 1.77 link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri> is at least as efficient :-).
347     </p>
348    
349     <p>
350 neysx 1.85 If you are uncertain, take a "lower" CD/stage file, for instance a i686 or even
351     generic x86 (or the equivalent in your arch). This will ensure that your system
352     will work, but may not be as fast as further optimizations.
353 swift 1.77 </p>
354    
355     <p>
356 swift 1.99 Please note that many more options exist than those for which Gentoo builds
357     binary stages. Please see the <uri
358 nightmorph 1.116 link="http://gcc.gnu.org/onlinedocs/gcc-4.4.3/gcc/i386-and-x86_002d64-Options.html#i386-and-x86_002d64-Options">gcc
359 neysx 1.85 guide</uri> for setting <c>-march</c>.
360 swift 1.77 </p>
361    
362     </body>
363     </section>
364 swift 1.97 <section id="dhcp">
365     <title>I can't get online after rebooting. What is wrong?</title>
366     <body>
367    
368     <p>
369     First you need to check if your network card is discovered properly by the
370     kernel. Run <c>ifconfig&nbsp;-a</c> and look for eth0 or wlan0 (in case of
371     certain wireless network cards). You might need to load specific kernel modules
372     for the kernel to properly detect the network card. If that is the case, make
373     sure that these kernel modules are listed in
374 swift 1.119 <path>/etc/conf.d/modules</path>.
375 swift 1.97 </p>
376    
377     <p>
378     If you have forgotten to include support for your network card in your kernel,
379     you will need to reconfigure your kernel.
380     </p>
381    
382     <p>
383     If your network card is found by your kernel, but you have set your networking
384     configuration to use DHCP, you might have forgotten to
385     <c>emerge&nbsp;dhcpcd</c>. You will need to reboot with your installation CD to
386     install <c>dhcpcd</c>.
387     </p>
388    
389     <p>
390     Information on how to rescue your system using the installation CD is <uri
391     link="#bootrescue">available</uri> as well.
392     </p>
393    
394     </body>
395     </section>
396 fox2mike 1.98 <section id="dualboot">
397     <title>
398     I want to boot Windows from grub or lilo but it shows only black screen. What
399     should I do?
400     </title>
401     <body>
402    
403     <p>
404     This is a known problem. Windows refuses to boot when it isn't installed on the
405     first hard drive and shows a black/blank screen. To handle this, you will have
406     to "fool" Windows into believing that it is installed on the first hard drive
407     with a little tweak in your boot loader configuration. Please note that in the
408 swift 1.121 below example, Gentoo is installed on <path>sda</path> (first disk) and Windows
409     on <path>sdb</path> (second one). Adjust your config as needed.
410 fox2mike 1.98 </p>
411    
412     <pre caption="Example dual boot entry for Windows in grub.conf">
413     title Windows XP
414     map (hd1) (hd0)
415     map (hd0) (hd1)
416     rootnoverify (hd1,0)
417     chainloader +1
418     </pre>
419    
420     <pre caption="Example dual boot entry for Windows in lilo.conf">
421 swift 1.121 other=/dev/sdb1
422 fox2mike 1.98 label=WindowsXP
423 swift 1.121 table=/dev/sdb
424 fox2mike 1.98 map-drive = 0x80
425     to = 0x81
426     map-drive = 0x81
427     to = 0x80
428     </pre>
429    
430     <p>
431     This will make Windows believe it is installed on the first hard drive and boot
432     without problems. More information can be found in the <uri
433 nightmorph 1.116 link="http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/">GRUB documentation</uri> and in <c>man
434     lilo.conf</c>, depending on the boot loader you're using.
435 fox2mike 1.98 </p>
436    
437     </body>
438     </section>
439 swift 1.99 <section id="stage12">
440     <title>How do I Install Gentoo Using a Stage1 or Stage2 Tarball?</title>
441     <body>
442    
443     <p>
444     The Gentoo Handbook only describes a Gentoo installation using a stage3 tarball.
445     However, Gentoo still provides stage1 and stage2 tarballs. This is for
446     development purposes (the Release Engineering team starts from a stage1 tarball
447     to obtain a stage3) but shouldn't be used by users: a stage3 tarball can very
448     well be used to bootstrap the system. You do need a working Internet connection.
449     </p>
450    
451     <p>
452     Bootstrapping means building the toolchain (the C library and compiler) for
453     your system after which you install all core system packages. To bootstrap the
454     system, perform a stage3 installation. Before you start the chapter on
455     <e>Configuring the Kernel</e>, modify the <path>bootstrap.sh</path> script to
456     suit your needs and then run it:
457     </p>
458    
459     <pre caption="Bootstrapping the system">
460     # <i>cd /usr/portage/scripts</i>
461     # <i>vi bootstrap.sh</i>
462    
463     # <i>./bootstrap.sh</i>
464     </pre>
465    
466     <p>
467     Next, rebuild all core system packages with the newly built toolchain. We need
468     to rebuild them since the stage3 tarball already offers them:
469     </p>
470    
471     <pre caption="Rebuilding the core system packages">
472     # <i>emerge -e system</i>
473     </pre>
474    
475     <p>
476     Now you can continue with <e>Configuring the Kernel</e>. You can not use the
477     prebuilt GRP packages anymore though.
478     </p>
479    
480     </body>
481     </section>
482 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
483    
484     <chapter>
485 swift 1.54 <title>Package Management</title>
486 swift 1.61 <section id="ebuilds">
487 neysx 1.83 <title>In what form are the packages stored?</title>
488 swift 1.54 <body>
489    
490 swift 1.45 <p>
491 neysx 1.85 Packages aren't "stored" per se. Instead, Gentoo provides a set of scripts
492     which can resolve dependencies, fetch source code, and compile a version of the
493     package specifically for your needs. We generally only build binaries for
494     releases and snapshots. The <uri
495 neysx 1.83 link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Gentoo Ebuild
496 neysx 1.85 HOWTO</uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail.
497 swift 1.45 </p>
498    
499 swift 1.54 <p>
500 neysx 1.85 For full ISO releases, we create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced
501     <c>.tbz2</c> format, which is <c>.tar.bz2</c> compatible with meta-information
502     attached to the end of the file. These can be used to install a working (though
503     not fully optimized) version of the package quickly and efficiently.
504 swift 1.54 </p>
505    
506     <p>
507 neysx 1.85 It is possible to create RPMs (Redhat package manager files) using Gentoo's
508 neysx 1.94 Portage, but it is not currently possible to use already existing RPMs to
509 neysx 1.85 install packages.
510 swift 1.54 </p>
511    
512 neysx 1.85 </body>
513     </section>
514     <section id="configure">
515     <title>I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</title>
516     <body>
517 swift 1.54
518     <p>
519 neysx 1.85 Yes, but it is not trivial, nor is it recommended. Since the method to do this
520 neysx 1.94 requires a good understanding of Portage internals and commands, it is instead
521 neysx 1.85 recommended that you patch the ebuild to do whatever it is that you want and
522 swift 1.110 place it in a Portage overlay (that's why overlays exist). This is <e>much</e>
523 neysx 1.85 better for maintainability, and usually easier. See the <uri
524     link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Ebuild
525     HOWTO</uri> for more information.
526 swift 1.54 </p>
527    
528     </body>
529     </section>
530 neysx 1.85 <section id="firewall">
531     <title>How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</title>
532 swift 1.54 <body>
533    
534     <p>
535 neysx 1.85 See the questions on <uri link="#proxy">proxies</uri>, <uri
536 swift 1.86 link="#norsync">rsync</uri>, and <uri link="#manualdownload">downloading source
537 neysx 1.85 files manually</uri>.
538 swift 1.54 </p>
539    
540     </body>
541     </section>
542 neysx 1.85 <section id="norsync">
543     <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
544 swift 1.54 <body>
545    
546     <p>
547 neysx 1.85 If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit rsync traffic, then you can use
548     <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch and install a Portage snapshot for you
549     through regular HTTP. See the <uri link="#proxy">proxy section</uri> of this
550 neysx 1.94 document for information on downloading source files and Portage snapshots via
551 neysx 1.85 a proxy.
552 swift 1.54 </p>
553    
554     </body>
555     </section>
556 swift 1.61 <section id="manualdownload">
557 swift 1.54 <title>
558     I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere
559     else and add them to my system?
560     </title>
561     <body>
562    
563     <p>
564     Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
565     are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where
566     to download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>. Download
567     sources and bring them on any media home. Put the sources into
568 neysx 1.85 <path>/usr/portage/distfiles/</path> and then simply run <c>emerge package</c>.
569     Be warned, however, that this is a tedious process.
570 swift 1.54 </p>
571    
572     </body>
573     </section>
574 swift 1.61 <section id="distfiles">
575 swift 1.54 <title>
576 neysx 1.85 Source tarballs are collecting in /usr/portage/distfiles/. Is it safe to
577 smithj 1.89 delete these files?
578 swift 1.54 </title>
579     <body>
580    
581     <p>
582 neysx 1.85 Deleting these files will have no negative impact on day-to-day performance.
583     However, it might be wise to keep the most recent version of the files; often
584     several ebuilds will be released for the same version of a specific piece of
585     software. If you have deleted the archive and you upgrade the software it will
586 nightmorph 1.115 be necessary to download them from the internet again.
587     </p>
588    
589     <p>
590     You can use the <c>eclean</c> script from <c>app-portage/gentoolkit</c> to
591     manage the contents of <path>/usr/portage/distfiles/</path> and a few other
592 nightmorph 1.117 locations. Please read <c>man eclean</c> to learn more about its usage, as well
593     as the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoolkit.xml">Gentoolkit Guide</uri>.
594 swift 1.54 </p>
595    
596     </body>
597     </section>
598 swift 1.61 <section id="tmpportage">
599 swift 1.54 <title>
600 cam 1.58 What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to delete the files and
601     directories in /var/tmp/portage?
602 swift 1.54 </title>
603     <body>
604    
605     <p>
606     During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in
607 neysx 1.85 <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. These files and folder are usually deleted upon
608     a successful merge, but this sometimes fails. It is safe to clean out all
609     contents of this directory <e>if</e> emerge is not running. Just to be sure,
610     always <c>pgrep emerge</c> before cleaning out this directory.
611 swift 1.54 </p>
612    
613     </body>
614     </section>
615 yoswink 1.92 </chapter>
616    
617     <chapter>
618     <title>Usage</title>
619 swift 1.61 <section id="intkeyboard">
620 swift 1.54 <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
621     <body>
622    
623     <p>
624 flammie 1.102 Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>. To have
625     console working correctly with extended characters in your keymap you might
626     also need to set up variables <c>CONSOLETRANSLATION</c> and <c>CONSOLEFONT</c>
627     in your <path>/etc/conf.d/consolefont</path> (for further information on
628 yoswink 1.103 localising your environment, refer to <uri
629     link="/doc/en/guide-localization.xml">our localisation guide</uri>).
630 flammie 1.102 Then, either <c>reboot</c>, or restart the keymaps and consolefont scripts:
631 swift 1.54 </p>
632    
633 neysx 1.85 <pre caption="Restarting keymaps">
634     # <i>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</i>
635 flammie 1.102 # <i>/etc/init.d/consolefont restart</i>
636 neysx 1.85 </pre>
637    
638 swift 1.54 </body>
639     </section>
640 swift 1.61 <section id="rootdns">
641 neysx 1.85 <title>DNS name resolution works for root only</title>
642 swift 1.54 <body>
643    
644     <p>
645     <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as
646     follows:
647     </p>
648    
649     <pre caption="Changing permissions on /etc/resolv.conf">
650     # <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i>
651     </pre>
652    
653     </body>
654     </section>
655 swift 1.61 <section id="crontab">
656 swift 1.54 <title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
657     <body>
658    
659     <p>
660     You need to add that user to the <c>cron</c> group.
661     </p>
662    
663     </body>
664     </section>
665 swift 1.61 <section id="numlock">
666 swift 1.54 <title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
667     <body>
668    
669     <p>
670 neysx 1.85 If you work in command line, you only need to <c>rc-update add
671     numlock default &amp;&amp;/etc/init.d/numlock start</c>.
672 swift 1.54 </p>
673    
674     <p>
675 neysx 1.85 Each GUI provides different tools for this sort of thing; please check the help
676     section or online manuals for assistance.
677 swift 1.54 </p>
678    
679     </body>
680     </section>
681 swift 1.61 <section id="clear">
682 swift 1.54 <title>How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</title>
683     <body>
684    
685     <p>
686     To have your terminal cleared, add <c>clear</c> to your
687     <path>~/.bash_logout</path> script:
688     </p>
689    
690     <pre caption = "Clearing the terminal during logout">
691     $ <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; ~/.bash_logout</i>
692     </pre>
693    
694     <p>
695     If you want this to happen automatically when you add a new
696     user, do the same for the <path>/etc/skel/.bash_logout</path>:
697     </p>
698    
699     <pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout">
700     # <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre>
701     </body>
702    
703     </section>
704     </chapter>
705    
706     <chapter>
707     <title>Maintenance</title>
708 swift 1.61 <section id="filecorruption">
709 neysx 1.94 <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix them, etc</title>
710 swift 1.54 <body>
711    
712     <p>
713 neysx 1.85 If your ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo Install CD and
714     run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on the corrupted filesystem. This should
715     make the filesystem consistent again, although you may have lost some files or
716     directories due to the corruption.
717 swift 1.54 </p>
718    
719     </body>
720     </section>
721 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
722 yoswink 1.92
723 drobbins 1.1 <chapter>
724 swift 1.54 <title>Development</title>
725 swift 1.61 <section id="reportbugs">
726 swift 1.54 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
727     <body>
728    
729     <p>
730 neysx 1.85 Use our <uri link="https://bugs.gentoo.org">Bugzilla</uri>. If you are unsure if
731 nightmorph 1.114 your problem is an actual bug, you can visit <uri
732     link="irc://irc.gentoo.org/gentoo">#gentoo</uri> on IRC.
733 swift 1.54 </p>
734    
735     </body>
736     </section>
737 swift 1.61 <section id="releases">
738 swift 1.54 <title>How often are new releases made?</title>
739     <body>
740    
741     <p>
742 neysx 1.85 Gentoo's packages are usually updated shortly after the main authors release
743     new code. As for when Gentoo itself makes new stage/profile/ISO releases, check
744     our <uri link="/proj/en/releng">Release Engineering Project</uri> page. New
745     releases are announced on the <uri
746     link="/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri> mailing list. See the question
747     on <uri link="#upgrade">upgrading</uri> for more information.
748 swift 1.54 </p>
749    
750     </body>
751     </section>
752 swift 1.61 <section id="beeping">
753 swift 1.54 <title>
754 neysx 1.85 My speaker beeps like crazy. How do I disable console beeps?
755 swift 1.54 </title>
756     <body>
757    
758     <p>
759     Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this:
760     </p>
761    
762     <pre caption="Using setterm">
763     # <i>setterm -blength 0</i>
764     </pre>
765    
766     <p>
767 neysx 1.85 If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot, you need to put this
768     command in <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However, this only disables
769     beeps for the current terminal. To disable beeps for other terminals, pipe the
770     command output to the target terminal, like this: </p>
771 swift 1.54
772     <pre caption="Using setterm (bis)">
773     # <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i>
774     </pre>
775    
776     <p>
777     You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal you would like to disable
778     console beeps for.
779     </p>
780    
781     </body>
782     </section>
783 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
784    
785     <chapter>
786     <title>Resources</title>
787 swift 1.61 <section id="resources">
788 swift 1.54 <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
789     <body>
790    
791     <p>
792 neysx 1.85 The official Gentoo documentation can be found at
793 neysx 1.96 <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/</uri>.
794 swift 1.54 </p>
795    
796     </body>
797     </section>
798 swift 1.61 <section id="buycd">
799 erwin 1.52 <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
800     <body>
801    
802 swift 1.54 <p>
803 neysx 1.94 Install CDs for all supported architectures are available on our <uri
804 neysx 1.85 link="http://www.cafepress.com/officialgentoo/">Gentoo Store</uri>. When you
805     purchase a CD from our store, you are also supporting our development. So,
806     please consider buying from our store if possible.
807 erwin 1.52 </p>
808    
809     <p>
810 swift 1.82 You can also find fresh CDs from various resellers listed on our <uri
811     link="/main/en/where.xml">Get Gentoo!</uri> page.
812 erwin 1.52 </p>
813    
814     </body>
815     </section>
816 swift 1.61 <section id="help">
817 swift 1.54 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
818     <body>
819    
820     <p>
821 neysx 1.85 A good first step is to browse through the relevant <uri
822     link="/doc/en/index.xml">documentation</uri>, failing that, the various Gentoo
823     Linux mailing lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>.
824 nightmorph 1.114 To search through the Gentoo mailing lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to
825     search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want to hang out with Gentoo
826     folks, visit us on irc: <uri link="irc://irc.gentoo.org/gentoo">#gentoo</uri>.
827 swift 1.54 </p>
828    
829     </body>
830     </section>
831 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
832     </guide>

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