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1 zhen 1.3 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 drobbins 1.1 <?xml-stylesheet href="/xsl/guide.xsl" type="text/xsl"?>
3    
4     <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
5    
6 zhen 1.2 <guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
7 drobbins 1.1 <title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
8     <author title="Chief Architect"><mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail></author>
9     <author title="Reviewer">Colin Morey</author>
10     <author title="Editor"><mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail></author>
11     <author title="Editor"><mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail></author>
12     <abstract>This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add, please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.</abstract>
13    
14     <version>1.1.2</version>
15 zhen 1.13 <date>30 December 2002</date>
16 drobbins 1.1
17     <chapter>
18     <title>Getting Started</title>
19    
20     <section>
21     <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
22 drobbins 1.11 <body><p>Gentoo is a species of small fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (The "g" in "gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle".)</p></body>
23 drobbins 1.1 </section>
24    
25     <section>
26     <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
27     <body>
28     <p>Gentoo Linux is a fast, modern distribution with a clean and flexible
29     design -- in this respect, Gentoo may appeal to
30     <uri link="http://www.slackware.com/">Slackware</uri>,
31     <uri link="http://www.linuxfromscratch.org">Linux From Scratch</uri> or
32     <uri link="http://www.bsd.org">BSD</uri> users. Unlike most Linux
33     distros, Gentoo has a package system reminiscent of BSD's ports,
34     meaning the packages are continually updated to the lastest
35     versions.
36 zhen 1.5 </p>
37     </body>
38     </section>
39     </chapter>
40 drobbins 1.1
41     <chapter>
42     <title>Installation</title>
43 zhen 1.6
44 zhen 1.9 <section>
45 drobbins 1.1
46 zhen 1.10 <warn>REPORT all bugs to <uri>bugs.gentoo.org</uri>! Do not report bugs to upstream (original)
47 zhen 1.9 authors. Report the bugs to Gentoo, and we will move them upstream if necessary.
48 zhen 1.10 </warn>
49 zhen 1.9
50 drobbins 1.1 <title>What is the difference between the .iso and .tbz2 files?</title>
51     <body><p>The build <e>.tbz2</e> file is a minimal set of system files
52     that is necessary for allowing a user to bootstrap and install
53     Gentoo Linux. The build <e>.iso</e> is a complete, bootable CD image that
54     contains a system kernel, a reasonably complete set of kernel modules,
55     necessary system tools such as <c>mkfs</c> and networking support,
56     as well as the <e>.tbz2</e> minimal-system tarball. Most users will install
57     Gentoo Linux by burning the .iso file onto a CD, booting off of the CD,
58     and installing from within the minimal linux environment provided by
59     the Gentoo boot CD. It is possible, however, for users to install
60     Gentoo Linux directly from an already-existing Linux distribution.
61     Such users need only download the .tbz2 file, install the contents
62     on a spare partition (making sure to use the <c>p</c> flag when
63     untarring the tarball!), chroot, and install in the usual fashion.</p>
64     </body>
65     </section>
66    
67     <section>
68     <title>Why do the build .iso and .tbz2 files sometimes have different -r (revision) numbers?</title>
69     <body><p>
70     The .tbz2 minimal-system tarball only needs to be revised when there have
71     been significant changes to the core Gentoo Linux system (such as baselayout
72     changes, or a new profile), and as such .tbz2 updates are relatively rare.
73     The .iso file tends to get updated whenever we discover that somebody has
74     hardware that won't boot from our .iso. Since new kernel modules and
75     patches are constantly being generated, this situation probably won't
76     stabilise anytime soon.
77     </p>
78     </body>
79     </section>
80    
81     <section>
82     <title>I have a Sony Super-Slim VAIO laptop, and the Gentoo Linux CD is having problems
83     finding my PCMCIA ATAPI CD-ROM.</title>
84     <body>
85     <p>Make sure the second IDE port is set to CDROM (it unsets itself if the device isn't
86     attached on boot) then do the following at the isolinux <c>boot:</c> prompt:</p>
87     <pre>
88     boot: <i>rescue ide2=0x180,0x386</i>
89     </pre>
90     <p>If you are using a 1.0_rc5 or earlier boot CD, apart from thinking about downloading the latest iso,
91     type <c>gentoo</c> instead of <c>rescue</c>, above.</p>
92     </body>
93    
94     </section>
95     <section>
96     <title>I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math
97     -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?</title>
98     <body>
99     <p>When you use any optimizations beyond <c>-O3</c>, you're really taking the risk of
100     having broken packages.
101     Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the compiler to streamline the assembly code
102     to the point where it doesn't quite do the same thing anymore. <e>Loc-Dog</e> (on IRC)
103     uses <c>-O3 -mcpu=i686 -march=i686 -fforce-addr -fomit-frame-pointer -funroll-loops
104     -frerun-cse-after-loop -frerun-loop-opt -malign-functions=4</c>, which is about
105     as much as I'd want to push global optimization settings. Beyond this, it's best to use
106     ultra-high optimizations only with specific packages where you really need that extra 2%,
107     (eg graphics and various multimedia programs), and where you can easily test the package
108     to ensure that it hasn't been optimized into oblivion.</p>
109 zhware 1.4 <p>Please try first to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march= -O2</c> before reporting a bug</p>
110 drobbins 1.1 </body>
111     </section>
112    
113     <section>
114     <title>What's the default root password after installation?</title>
115     <body><p>The default password is blank; hit enter.</p></body>
116     </section>
117    
118     <section>
119     <title>How can i change the root (or indeed any other user's) password?</title>
120     <body><p>You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged into.
121     for extra options and setting, please see <c>man passwd</c> once you've completed the install.
122     </p></body>
123     </section>
124     <section>
125     <title>How do i add a normal user?</title>
126     <body><p>Everyone seems to think that i shouldn't be using <e>root</e> for everyday use,
127     how can i add another user?</p>
128     <p>The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called gentoo. The next step is to give
129     this user a password and <c>passwd</c> will do exactly that.</p>
130 zhware 1.15 <p>Insteed of <c>adduser</c> you can also use:
131     <pre># <i>useradd gentoo -m -G users,audio,wheel -s /bin/bash</i></pre>
132     This will add a user gentoo, will make possible for him to use sound-related devices (<i>/dev/sound/*</i>), will make possible for him to switch to root (using <c>su</c>) and will make <i>/bin/bash</i> his login shell.
133     </p>
134 drobbins 1.1 </body>
135     </section>
136     <section>
137     <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
138     <body><p>For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
139     <e>wheel</e> group. To add a <i>username</i> to the <e>wheel</e> group, issue the following
140     command as root:</p>
141     <pre># <i>usermod -G users,wheel username</i></pre>
142     </body>
143     </section>
144     <section>
145     <title>How do I enable devfs?</title>
146     <body>
147     <p>
148     If you're using 1.0_rc5 or greater, you don't need to do anything special to get
149     devfs working; it's already active (you did make sure that devfs was built into the
150     kernel, didn't you?).
151     However, if you are using a version of Gentoo Linux <e>prior</e> to version 1.0_rc5, add
152     <c>devfs=mount</c> to your <c>GRUB</c> kernel boot options so that the line looks something
153     like <c>kernel /boot/boot/bzImage devfs=mount foo=bar</c> The kernel will then mount the
154     <path>/dev</path> <e>devfs</e> filesystem automatically at boot-time.
155     </p>
156     </body>
157     </section>
158     <section>
159     <title>How to I disable devfs?</title>
160     <body>
161     <p>Under Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc6 and later, you can disable devfs by passing the
162     <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> to the kernel.</p>
163     </body>
164     </section>
165     <section>
166     <title>How do I get a <path>/dev/mouse </path> that
167     doesn't go away when I reboot (when using devfs)?</title>
168     <body>
169     <p>
170     If you are using 1.0_rc6 or later, then you can just use <c>ln -s</c>
171     to make the usual symbolic link from <path>/dev/mouse</path>, and
172     it will be preserved between reboots.
173     </p>
174     <p>All other users need to edit <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path>
175     and add these lines:</p>
176     <pre>
177     REGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL symlink misc/psaux mouse
178     UNREGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL unlink mouse
179     </pre>
180     <p>If you are not using the devfs PS/2 mouse <path>/dev/misc/psaux</path> device,
181     adjust the <c>misc/psaux</c> strings above accoringly. You'll then want to
182     <c>killall -HUP devfsd</c>
183     to get devfsd to reread <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path>.</p>
184     </body>
185     </section>
186     <section>
187     <title>Grub can't find stage x.y?</title>
188     <body><p>
189     During installation the grub boot files are copied
190     to <path>/boot/grub</path> (<path>/boot/boot/grub</path> in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and
191     earlier.) Grub automatically looks in the <path>/boot/grub</path> directory on the boot
192     partition. (We strongly recommend having a separate no-auto boot partition mounted at
193     <path>/boot</path>, since that way it is much more difficult to clobber your kernel and boot
194     info by accident.) The above error generally arises from (a) not using a separate boot
195     partition, (b) forgetting to mount the boot partition at <path>/boot</path> before either
196     unpacking the build snapshot or running
197     <c>emerge --usepkg system</c>, or (c) forgetting the
198     <c>notail</c> option when mounting a ReiserFS <path>/boot</path> partition.
199     You can get more information on grub, including how to
200     debug grub from the grub prompt, by reading the
201     <uri link="http://www-105.ibm.com/developerworks/education.nsf/linux-onlinecourse-bytitle/0F1731DC664023B7862569D0005C44AF?OpenDocument">IBM developerWorks Grub tutorial</uri>.
202     </p>
203     </body>
204     </section>
205    
206     <section>
207     <title>My ASUS CUV4X-D won't boot and it freezes during various stages of kernel loading and hardware
208     detection. </title>
209     <body>
210     <p>Disable MPS 1.4 (multi-processor-system) in the BIOS or switch this
211     function to 1.1. By using this option you just switch the MPS version. The Multi-Processor-System
212     will still work properly. Make sure to boot Gentoo Linux with the following boot option, noapic. </p>
213     </body>
214     </section>
215    
216     </chapter>
217    
218     <chapter>
219     <title>Package Management</title>
220     <section>
221     <title>In what format are the packages stored?</title>
222     <body><p>They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; we are primarily
223     a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts (<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a
224     special system (Portage) so that you can build apps from sources. We generally only build
225     binaries for releases and snapshots. The <uri link="/doc/gentoo-howto.html">Development HOWTO
226     </uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we
227     create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format (<c>.tar.bz2</c>
228     compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the file.)</p>
229     </body>
230     </section>
231    
232     <section>
233     <title>Why write a new port system (Portage) instead of using BSD's version?</title>
234     <body>
235     <p>In one sentence, because Portage is much better in so many ways. One of the design
236     philosophies of the <c>.ebuild</c> syntax was to make it an analog of what you'd type to
237     install the program manually, thus making Portage very easy to learn and modify to your
238     needs. We also have OpenBSD-style "fake" installs, safe unmerging, system profiles,
239     package masking, a real dependency system, and lots of other good stuff.</p>
240     </body>
241     </section>
242    
243     <section>
244     <title>How does this differ from Debian's apt or BSD's ports?</title>
245     <body><p>Portage features the best of apt and ports; for example, USE options, a full
246     dependency system, safe installs and uninstalls, and a true package database. Think of
247     Portage as the best of both worlds; a ports system with the sensibilities and safety of a
248     Linux package management system built-in.</p></body>
249     </section>
250    
251     <section>
252     <title>How do I install and uninstall packages?</title>
253     <body>
254     <p>The <uri link="/doc/portage-user.html">Portage User Guide</uri> details how to install
255     and uninstall packages, and update Portage.</p>
256     </body>
257     </section>
258    
259     <section>
260     <title>How can I set a global configuration for compiling packages?</title>
261     <body><p><path>/etc/make.conf</path> should be modified to override global and
262     profile-specific default options used to compile and merge packages. The most common options
263     are as follows:</p>
264     <table>
265     <tr>
266     <th>Flag</th>
267     <th>Description</th>
268     </tr>
269     <tr>
270     <ti>CHOST</ti>
271     <ti>This sets the HOST variable for compiles, e.g. <c>i686-pc-linux-gnu</c></ti>
272     </tr>
273     <tr>
274     <ti>CFLAGS</ti>
275     <ti>The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C (*.c files)</ti>
276     </tr>
277     <tr>
278     <ti>CXXFLAGS</ti>
279     <ti>The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C++ (*.c,*.cpp etc.
280     files)</ti>
281     </tr>
282     <tr>
283     <ti>USE</ti>
284     <ti>This allows you to set what optional components you'd like compiled-in, if
285     available. For example, if you have <c>gnome</c> inside the USE string, then when
286     you compile <c>xchat</c>, it will include GNOME support. All our dependencies are
287     also USE-aware.</ti>
288     </tr>
289     <tr>
290     <ti>GENTOO_MIRRORS</ti>
291     <ti>A space separated list of URIs currently mirroring the Gentoo packages. Portage
292     will attempt download from a <c>GENTOO_MIRROR</c> first before trying the official
293     <c>SRC_URI</c>. To force Portage to skip mirrors, set this variable to "".</ti>
294     </tr>
295     </table>
296     </body>
297     </section>
298    
299     <section>
300     <title>What happened to <path>/etc/make.defaults</path>?</title>
301     <body>
302     <p>As of Portage 1.5 onwards, <path>/etc/make.defaults</path> is antiquated;
303     if you have portage-1.5-r1 or above installed then you can safely delete it.
304     This file has been replaced by <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>
305     (<path>/etc/make.profile</path> should actually be a symlink to,
306     <path>/usr/portage/profiles/default</path>),
307     which contains system profile-specific default settings. The priority order of
308     the various configuration files is as follows (highest first):
309     <ol>
310     <li>Environment variables</li>
311     <li><path>/etc/make.conf</path>, for your use</li>
312     <li><path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>, for profile-specific defaults</li>
313     <li><path>/etc/make.globals</path>, for global defaults (settings not specified in
314     any other place come from here)</li>
315     </ol></p></body>
316     </section>
317    
318     <section>
319     <title>Is there a way to upgrade all installed packages
320     e.g. <e>apt-get upgrade</e> or <e>make World</e>?</title>
321     <body><p><b>YES!</b> Type <c>emerge --update system</c> (use it with <c>--pretend</c> first) to
322     update all core system packages, and use <c>emerge --update world</c> (again, use it with
323     <c>--pretend</c> first) to do a complete system upgrade of all installed packages.
324    
325    
326     </p></body>
327     </section>
328    
329     <section>
330     <title>When updating a package using <c>emerge</c> or <c>ebuild</c>, how do I avoid
331     clobbering my config files?</title>
332     <body><p>
333     Portage now includes config file management support by default. Type
334     <c>emerge --help config</c> for more details. The (overly) simple answer is that if
335     a package installs <path>foo</path> somewhere under <path>/etc</path>, and
336     another <path>foo</path> already exists there, then the new <path>foo</path> will
337     instead be renamed to <path>._cfgxxxx_foo</path> in that directory. A useful
338     tool for examining and updating any protected config files is <c>etc-update</c>,
339     currently obtained by <c>emerge app-admin/gentoolkit</c>.
340     </p></body>
341     </section>
342    
343     <section>
344     <title>I want to perform the <c>./configure</c> step myself. Can I?</title>
345     <body><p>
346     Yes, but it is not trivial. First do <c>man ebuild</c> followed by
347     <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild unpack</c>. Then <c>cd</c> to
348     <path>/var/tmp/portage/foo-x.y.z/work</path>. You can manually perform
349     the <c>./configure</c> and <c>make</c> steps yourself (you'll have to do
350     both, since Portage does not separate the configure and build steps). To
351     have Portage finish the installation (so that you can easily remove it later,
352     should you desire to do so, and it will be registered in Portage as a possible
353     dependency) you first need to <c>touch /var/tmp/portage/foo-x.y.z/.compiled</c>
354     (tricking Portage into thinking that <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild compile</c> has
355     completed), followed by <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild merge</c>.
356     </p></body>
357     </section>
358    
359     <section>
360     <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
361     <body><p>
362     If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit
363     rsync traffic, then you can instead download the daily
364 seo 1.12 /usr/portage snapshots from
365     <uri>http://cvs.gentoo.org/snapshots/</uri>. Just unpack
366 drobbins 1.1 the tarball (using <c>tar xvjf portage-foo.tbz2</c>) in
367     the <path>/usr</path> directory.
368     </p></body>
369     </section>
370    
371     <section>
372     <title>How do I use <i>emerge</i> from behind a firewall?</title>
373     <body><p>
374     Edit the PROXY settings in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If that doesn't work,
375     edit <path>/etc/wget/wgetrc</path> and edit http_proxy and ftp_proxy
376     appropriately.
377     </p></body>
378     </section>
379    
380     <section>
381     <title>Can I rsync from another operating system?</title>
382     <body><p>There's a program called unison that works under both UNIX and Win32, available from
383     <uri>http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~bcpierce/unison/</uri>.</p></body>
384     </section>
385    
386     <section>
387     <title>I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere else and
388     add them to my system?</title>
389     <body><p>
390     Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
391     are going to be installed. Download sources and bring them on any media
392     home. Put the sources into <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run
393     <c>emerge package</c> to see it picking up the sources you just brought in!
394     </p></body>
395     </section>
396    
397     <section>
398     <title>.tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles/ using
399     valuable space. Is it safe to delete these files?</title>
400     <body><p>
401     Yes, you can safely delete these files. But if you are on a slow
402     connection, such as a modem, you might want to keep the archives if
403     possible; often several ebuilds will be released for the same version of
404     a specific piece of software - if you have deleted the archive and you
405     upgrade the software it will have to be downloaded from the internet
406     again.
407     </p></body>
408     </section>
409    
410     <section>
411     <title>How can I manage my own ebuilds without destroying them by (r)sync?</title>
412     <body>
413     <p>The simplest method is to use anonymous CVS instead of rsync, and
414     maintain your local
415     ebuilds in /usr/portage/local. Here's how to do it:</p>
416     <pre>
417     # <i>emerge cvs</i> <comment>(if necessary)</comment>
418     # <i>cd <path>/usr</path></i>
419     # <i>cvs -d :pserver:anonymous@gentoo.org:/home/anoncvs login</i> <comment>(hit &lt;enter&gt;)</comment>
420     # <i>cvs -d :pserver:anonymous@gentoo.org:/home/anoncvs get gentoo-x86</i>
421     # <i>cp /usr/portage/distfiles/* gentoo-x86/distfiles/</i>
422     # <i>cp -a /usr/portage/packages/* gentoo-x86/packages/</i>
423     # <i>mv portage portage.old</i>
424     # <i>ln -s gentoo-x86 portage</i>
425     # <i>mkdir /usr/portage/local</i>
426     # <i>echo local &gt;&gt; /usr/portage/profiles/categories</i>
427     # <i>cp /etc/make.conf /etc/make.conf.orig</i>
428     # <i>sed -e 's/#SYNC="cvs/SYNC="cvs/' /etc/make.conf.orig &gt; /etc/make.conf</i>
429     </pre>
430 zhen 1.5 </body>
431     </section>
432    
433     <section>
434     <title>I went to emerge blackdown-jdk and blackdown-jre, and afterwards
435     <c>java-config --list-available-vms</c> would only list blackdown-jre.
436     Openoffice would then refuse to emerge. What do I do? </title>
437    
438     <body>
439     <p>Solution: </p>
440     <pre caption = "Solution">
441     # <c>emerge unmerge blackdown-jre blackdown-jdk </c>
442     # <c>CONFIG_PROTECT="" emerge blackdown-jdk </c>
443     </pre>
444    
445 drobbins 1.1 </body>
446     </section>
447     </chapter>
448    
449     <chapter>
450     <title>Usage</title>
451     <section>
452     <title>I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal user
453     account doesn't work. </title>
454     <body>
455     <p>
456     This is most probably because your user account doesn't have a valid shell specified. Check
457     for your user entry in
458     <path>/etc/passwd</path> and see if it ends in /bin/bash (or any other shell). If it doesn't,
459     you must set a shell for the user. This is done using the usermod command, like this ;
460     </p>
461     <pre># <i>usermod -s /bin/bash myuser</i></pre>
462     </body>
463     </section>
464    
465     <section>
466     <title>I can start X applications as root only.</title>
467     <body><p>Your <path>/tmp</path> directory has the wrong permissions (it needs the sticky bit
468     set). Type the following as root:</p>
469     <pre># <i>chmod 1777 /tmp</i></pre>
470     </body>
471     </section>
472    
473     <section>
474     <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
475     <body><p>Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>.
476     Then either reboot or restart the keymaps script:
477     <c>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</c>.</p>
478     </body>
479     </section>
480    
481     <section>
482     <title>DNS name resolution works for root only.</title>
483     <body><p><path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as follows:
484     </p>
485     <pre># <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i></pre>
486     </body>
487     </section>
488    
489     <section>
490     <title>Why is KDE not reading <path>/etc/profile</path>?</title>
491     <body><p>You need to add <c>--login</c> to the first line in <path>/opt/kde2.1/bin/startkde
492     </path>, so that it reads as follows:</p>
493     <pre>#!/bin/sh --login</pre>
494     <p>This fix has been added to recent versions of KDE.</p>
495     </body>
496     </section>
497     </chapter>
498    
499     <chapter>
500     <title>Maintenance</title>
501     <section>
502     <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</title>
503     <body>
504     <p>
505     If your
506     ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo
507     Linux boot CD and run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on
508     the corrupted filesystem. This should make the filesystem consistent
509     again, although you may have lost some files or directories due
510     to the corruption.
511     </p>
512     </body>
513     </section>
514     <!-- is this still relevant? -cpm -->
515     <section>
516     <title>How to I view the timestamps in /var/log/syslog.d, etc. on a pre-1.0_rc5 Gentoo
517     system?</title>
518     <body>
519     <p>To view multilog (Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier) timestamps, you need to pipe the
520     current log through the <c>tai64nlocal</c>command:</p>
521    
522     <pre>
523 seo 1.14 # <i>tai64nlocal &lt; /var/log/syslog.d/current | less</i>
524 drobbins 1.1 </pre>
525    
526     <p>Or, alternatively, if you want to "tail" the log:</p>
527    
528     <pre>
529     # <i>tail -f /var/log/syslog.d/current | tai64nlocal</i>
530     </pre>
531    
532     </body>
533     </section>
534     </chapter>
535    
536     <chapter>
537     <title>Development</title>
538     <section>
539     <title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
540     <body><p>For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise, use our
541     Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can also visit us in
542     <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri link="http://www.openprojects.net">OpenProjects</uri> IRC network.
543     </p></body>
544     </section>
545    
546     <section>
547     <title>How often are new releases made?</title>
548 zhen 1.13 <body><p>New releases are announced on the <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri>
549 drobbins 1.1 mailing list<!-- TODO: approximatley every X months -->, In reality the packages themselves
550     are updated shortly after the main authors release new code. As for when new Cd images etc
551     are released, that tends to be whenever there are any major updates to the base code, or when
552     new modules get added.</p></body>
553     </section>
554    
555     <section>
556     <title>I would like a package to be added to Portage; how would I go about this?</title>
557     <body><p>Head over to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and submit a new bug of the type
558     "ebuild". Attach your ebuild to the bug report.</p></body>
559     </section>
560    
561     <section>
562     <title>How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</title>
563     <body><p>Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the
564     "Docs-user" product.</p></body>
565     </section>
566    
567     <section>
568     <title>make -f Makefile.cvs on a KDE app produces "invalid unused variable" errors</title>
569     <body><p>
570     Export <c>WANT_AUTOMAKE_1_4=1</c> for all KDE projects before running
571     <c>make -f Makefile.cvs</c>. Also, for KDE2 apps export <c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_1=1</c>,
572     and for KDE3 apps export <c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_5=1</c>.
573     </p></body>
574     </section>
575    
576    
577     <section>
578     <title>My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps?
579     </title>
580     <body>
581     <p>
582     Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this ;
583    
584     <pre># <i>setterm -blength 0</i></pre>
585    
586     If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot
587     you need to put this command in
588     <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However, this only
589     disables beeps for the current terminal. To disable
590     beeps for other terminals, pipe the command output to the
591     target terminal, like this ;
592    
593     <pre># <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i></pre>
594    
595     You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal
596     you would like to disable console beeps for.
597     </p>
598     </body>
599     </section>
600     </chapter>
601    
602     <chapter>
603     <title>Resources</title>
604     <section>
605     <title>Where can I find more about supervise used by default in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier?</title>
606     <body><p><!-- TODO: --><uri>http://cr.yp.to/daemontools.html</uri></p></body>
607     </section>
608    
609     <section>
610     <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
611     <body><p>The official Gentoo documentation can be found on <uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>; general Linux information is at <uri>http://www.linuxdoc.org</uri>.</p></body>
612     </section>
613    
614     <section>
615     <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
616     <body><p>Yes! Fresh CDRs are available for $5 USD apiece from
617     <uri link = "http://cart.cheapbytes.com/cgi-bin/cart/0070010805">Cheapbytes</uri>.
618     </p>
619     <p>There are also CDs for sale at <uri link = "http://www.tuxcds.com/section.php?section=42">
620     tuxcds</uri> for a very good price. These people also bounce back a portion of the profits
621     to the Gentoo project, so buy them while they are hot! </p>
622     </body>
623     </section>
624    
625     <section>
626     <title>Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer
627     only go to the original poster and not the entire list?</title>
628     <body>
629     <p>The mailing list administrators have decided to go with minimal munging
630     (altering of mail headers), which means that they have decided against
631     altering headers to have replies go to the mailing list. There are various
632     reasons for this. For example, if a subscriber has a full mailbox, the
633     entire list receives notice of this every time that something is posted.
634    
635     Most GUI based mailers have a "reply to all" function. This will ensure that
636     your reply goes to the mailing list as well as the original poster. Most
637     users of text based emailers already know the methods to use, but if you
638     don't, in Pine, there is a "reply to group" option. Setting Mutt to reply to
639     the list is covered in the unofficial documentation at
640     <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=1085">forums.gentoo.org</uri>.
641    
642     Some list members do not like this method, but it was very heavily
643     discussed when it went into effect, with arguments on both sides.
644     Eventually the list administrators decided to keep it this way. Discussing
645     it on the mailing list will sometimes bring a polite explanation and other
646     times a rather brusque comment to check the archives. Although the
647     administrators regret the inconvenience that it may cause some users, it is
648     felt that at present it is preferable to the alternative for several
649     reasons, many of these covered
650     <uri link="http://www.unicom.com/pw/reply-to-harmful.html">here</uri>.
651    
652     (There are other eloquent arguments in favor of munging, and yes, the list
653     administrators have seen them.) </p>
654     </body>
655     </section>
656    
657     <section>
658     <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
659     <body>
660     <p>A good first step is to browse through the relevant doumentation <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/index-docs.html">here</uri>,
661     failing that, the various Gentoo Linux mailing
662     lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo mailling lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want
663     to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc: <i>#gentoo</i>
664     on <i>irc.freenode.net</i>.
665     </p>
666     </body>
667     </section>
668     </chapter>
669     </guide>

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