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1 zhen 1.3 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 drobbins 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3    
4 zhen 1.2 <guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
5 drobbins 1.1 <title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
6     <author title="Chief Architect"><mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail></author>
7     <author title="Reviewer">Colin Morey</author>
8     <author title="Editor"><mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail></author>
9     <author title="Editor"><mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail></author>
10 zhware 1.16 <author title="Editor"><mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail></author>
11 drobbins 1.1 <abstract>This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add, please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.</abstract>
12    
13 zhen 1.17 <version>1.1.3</version>
14     <date>15 January 2003</date>
15 drobbins 1.1
16     <chapter>
17     <title>Getting Started</title>
18    
19     <section>
20     <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
21 drobbins 1.11 <body><p>Gentoo is a species of small fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (The "g" in "gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle".)</p></body>
22 drobbins 1.1 </section>
23    
24     <section>
25     <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
26     <body>
27     <p>Gentoo Linux is a fast, modern distribution with a clean and flexible
28     design -- in this respect, Gentoo may appeal to
29     <uri link="http://www.slackware.com/">Slackware</uri>,
30     <uri link="http://www.linuxfromscratch.org">Linux From Scratch</uri> or
31     <uri link="http://www.bsd.org">BSD</uri> users. Unlike most Linux
32     distros, Gentoo has a package system reminiscent of BSD's ports,
33     meaning the packages are continually updated to the lastest
34     versions.
35 zhen 1.5 </p>
36     </body>
37     </section>
38     </chapter>
39 drobbins 1.1
40     <chapter>
41     <title>Installation</title>
42 zhen 1.6
43 zhen 1.9 <section>
44 drobbins 1.1
45 zhen 1.10 <warn>REPORT all bugs to <uri>bugs.gentoo.org</uri>! Do not report bugs to upstream (original)
46 zhen 1.9 authors. Report the bugs to Gentoo, and we will move them upstream if necessary.
47 zhen 1.10 </warn>
48 zhen 1.9
49 drobbins 1.1 <title>What is the difference between the .iso and .tbz2 files?</title>
50     <body><p>The build <e>.tbz2</e> file is a minimal set of system files
51     that is necessary for allowing a user to bootstrap and install
52     Gentoo Linux. The build <e>.iso</e> is a complete, bootable CD image that
53     contains a system kernel, a reasonably complete set of kernel modules,
54     necessary system tools such as <c>mkfs</c> and networking support,
55     as well as the <e>.tbz2</e> minimal-system tarball. Most users will install
56     Gentoo Linux by burning the .iso file onto a CD, booting off of the CD,
57     and installing from within the minimal linux environment provided by
58     the Gentoo boot CD. It is possible, however, for users to install
59     Gentoo Linux directly from an already-existing Linux distribution.
60     Such users need only download the .tbz2 file, install the contents
61     on a spare partition (making sure to use the <c>p</c> flag when
62     untarring the tarball!), chroot, and install in the usual fashion.</p>
63     </body>
64     </section>
65    
66     <section>
67     <title>Why do the build .iso and .tbz2 files sometimes have different -r (revision) numbers?</title>
68     <body><p>
69     The .tbz2 minimal-system tarball only needs to be revised when there have
70     been significant changes to the core Gentoo Linux system (such as baselayout
71     changes, or a new profile), and as such .tbz2 updates are relatively rare.
72     The .iso file tends to get updated whenever we discover that somebody has
73     hardware that won't boot from our .iso. Since new kernel modules and
74     patches are constantly being generated, this situation probably won't
75     stabilise anytime soon.
76     </p>
77     </body>
78     </section>
79    
80     <section>
81     <title>I have a Sony Super-Slim VAIO laptop, and the Gentoo Linux CD is having problems
82     finding my PCMCIA ATAPI CD-ROM.</title>
83     <body>
84     <p>Make sure the second IDE port is set to CDROM (it unsets itself if the device isn't
85     attached on boot) then do the following at the isolinux <c>boot:</c> prompt:</p>
86     <pre>
87     boot: <i>rescue ide2=0x180,0x386</i>
88     </pre>
89     <p>If you are using a 1.0_rc5 or earlier boot CD, apart from thinking about downloading the latest iso,
90     type <c>gentoo</c> instead of <c>rescue</c>, above.</p>
91     </body>
92    
93     </section>
94     <section>
95     <title>I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math
96     -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?</title>
97     <body>
98     <p>When you use any optimizations beyond <c>-O3</c>, you're really taking the risk of
99     having broken packages.
100     Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the compiler to streamline the assembly code
101     to the point where it doesn't quite do the same thing anymore. <e>Loc-Dog</e> (on IRC)
102     uses <c>-O3 -mcpu=i686 -march=i686 -fforce-addr -fomit-frame-pointer -funroll-loops
103     -frerun-cse-after-loop -frerun-loop-opt -malign-functions=4</c>, which is about
104     as much as I'd want to push global optimization settings. Beyond this, it's best to use
105     ultra-high optimizations only with specific packages where you really need that extra 2%,
106     (eg graphics and various multimedia programs), and where you can easily test the package
107     to ensure that it hasn't been optimized into oblivion.</p>
108 zhware 1.4 <p>Please try first to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march= -O2</c> before reporting a bug</p>
109 drobbins 1.1 </body>
110     </section>
111    
112     <section>
113     <title>What's the default root password after installation?</title>
114     <body><p>The default password is blank; hit enter.</p></body>
115     </section>
116    
117     <section>
118     <title>How can i change the root (or indeed any other user's) password?</title>
119     <body><p>You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged into.
120     for extra options and setting, please see <c>man passwd</c> once you've completed the install.
121     </p></body>
122     </section>
123     <section>
124     <title>How do i add a normal user?</title>
125     <body><p>Everyone seems to think that i shouldn't be using <e>root</e> for everyday use,
126     how can i add another user?</p>
127     <p>The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called gentoo. The next step is to give
128     this user a password and <c>passwd</c> will do exactly that.</p>
129 zhware 1.15 <p>Insteed of <c>adduser</c> you can also use:
130     <pre># <i>useradd gentoo -m -G users,audio,wheel -s /bin/bash</i></pre>
131 zhware 1.16 This will add a user gentoo, will make possible for him to use sound-related devices (<path>/dev/sound/*</path>), will make possible for him to switch to root (using <c>su</c>) and will make <path>/bin/bash</path> his login shell.
132 zhware 1.15 </p>
133 drobbins 1.1 </body>
134     </section>
135     <section>
136     <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
137     <body><p>For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
138     <e>wheel</e> group. To add a <i>username</i> to the <e>wheel</e> group, issue the following
139     command as root:</p>
140     <pre># <i>usermod -G users,wheel username</i></pre>
141     </body>
142     </section>
143     <section>
144     <title>How do I enable devfs?</title>
145     <body>
146     <p>
147     If you're using 1.0_rc5 or greater, you don't need to do anything special to get
148     devfs working; it's already active (you did make sure that devfs was built into the
149     kernel, didn't you?).
150     However, if you are using a version of Gentoo Linux <e>prior</e> to version 1.0_rc5, add
151     <c>devfs=mount</c> to your <c>GRUB</c> kernel boot options so that the line looks something
152     like <c>kernel /boot/boot/bzImage devfs=mount foo=bar</c> The kernel will then mount the
153     <path>/dev</path> <e>devfs</e> filesystem automatically at boot-time.
154     </p>
155     </body>
156     </section>
157     <section>
158     <title>How to I disable devfs?</title>
159     <body>
160     <p>Under Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc6 and later, you can disable devfs by passing the
161     <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> to the kernel.</p>
162     </body>
163     </section>
164     <section>
165     <title>How do I get a <path>/dev/mouse </path> that
166     doesn't go away when I reboot (when using devfs)?</title>
167     <body>
168     <p>
169     If you are using 1.0_rc6 or later, then you can just use <c>ln -s</c>
170     to make the usual symbolic link from <path>/dev/mouse</path>, and
171     it will be preserved between reboots.
172     </p>
173     <p>All other users need to edit <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path>
174     and add these lines:</p>
175     <pre>
176     REGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL symlink misc/psaux mouse
177     UNREGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL unlink mouse
178     </pre>
179     <p>If you are not using the devfs PS/2 mouse <path>/dev/misc/psaux</path> device,
180     adjust the <c>misc/psaux</c> strings above accoringly. You'll then want to
181     <c>killall -HUP devfsd</c>
182     to get devfsd to reread <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path>.</p>
183     </body>
184     </section>
185     <section>
186     <title>Grub can't find stage x.y?</title>
187     <body><p>
188     During installation the grub boot files are copied
189     to <path>/boot/grub</path> (<path>/boot/boot/grub</path> in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and
190     earlier.) Grub automatically looks in the <path>/boot/grub</path> directory on the boot
191     partition. (We strongly recommend having a separate no-auto boot partition mounted at
192     <path>/boot</path>, since that way it is much more difficult to clobber your kernel and boot
193     info by accident.) The above error generally arises from (a) not using a separate boot
194     partition, (b) forgetting to mount the boot partition at <path>/boot</path> before either
195     unpacking the build snapshot or running
196     <c>emerge --usepkg system</c>, or (c) forgetting the
197     <c>notail</c> option when mounting a ReiserFS <path>/boot</path> partition.
198     You can get more information on grub, including how to
199     debug grub from the grub prompt, by reading the
200     <uri link="http://www-105.ibm.com/developerworks/education.nsf/linux-onlinecourse-bytitle/0F1731DC664023B7862569D0005C44AF?OpenDocument">IBM developerWorks Grub tutorial</uri>.
201     </p>
202     </body>
203     </section>
204    
205     <section>
206     <title>My ASUS CUV4X-D won't boot and it freezes during various stages of kernel loading and hardware
207     detection. </title>
208     <body>
209     <p>Disable MPS 1.4 (multi-processor-system) in the BIOS or switch this
210     function to 1.1. By using this option you just switch the MPS version. The Multi-Processor-System
211     will still work properly. Make sure to boot Gentoo Linux with the following boot option, noapic. </p>
212     </body>
213     </section>
214    
215     </chapter>
216    
217     <chapter>
218     <title>Package Management</title>
219     <section>
220     <title>In what format are the packages stored?</title>
221     <body><p>They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; we are primarily
222     a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts (<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a
223     special system (Portage) so that you can build apps from sources. We generally only build
224     binaries for releases and snapshots. The <uri link="/doc/gentoo-howto.html">Development HOWTO
225     </uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we
226     create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format (<c>.tar.bz2</c>
227     compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the file.)</p>
228     </body>
229     </section>
230    
231     <section>
232     <title>Why write a new port system (Portage) instead of using BSD's version?</title>
233     <body>
234     <p>In one sentence, because Portage is much better in so many ways. One of the design
235     philosophies of the <c>.ebuild</c> syntax was to make it an analog of what you'd type to
236     install the program manually, thus making Portage very easy to learn and modify to your
237     needs. We also have OpenBSD-style "fake" installs, safe unmerging, system profiles,
238     package masking, a real dependency system, and lots of other good stuff.</p>
239     </body>
240     </section>
241    
242     <section>
243     <title>How does this differ from Debian's apt or BSD's ports?</title>
244     <body><p>Portage features the best of apt and ports; for example, USE options, a full
245     dependency system, safe installs and uninstalls, and a true package database. Think of
246     Portage as the best of both worlds; a ports system with the sensibilities and safety of a
247     Linux package management system built-in.</p></body>
248     </section>
249    
250     <section>
251     <title>How do I install and uninstall packages?</title>
252     <body>
253     <p>The <uri link="/doc/portage-user.html">Portage User Guide</uri> details how to install
254     and uninstall packages, and update Portage.</p>
255     </body>
256     </section>
257    
258     <section>
259     <title>How can I set a global configuration for compiling packages?</title>
260     <body><p><path>/etc/make.conf</path> should be modified to override global and
261     profile-specific default options used to compile and merge packages. The most common options
262     are as follows:</p>
263     <table>
264     <tr>
265     <th>Flag</th>
266     <th>Description</th>
267     </tr>
268     <tr>
269     <ti>CHOST</ti>
270     <ti>This sets the HOST variable for compiles, e.g. <c>i686-pc-linux-gnu</c></ti>
271     </tr>
272     <tr>
273     <ti>CFLAGS</ti>
274     <ti>The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C (*.c files)</ti>
275     </tr>
276     <tr>
277     <ti>CXXFLAGS</ti>
278     <ti>The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C++ (*.c,*.cpp etc.
279     files)</ti>
280     </tr>
281     <tr>
282     <ti>USE</ti>
283     <ti>This allows you to set what optional components you'd like compiled-in, if
284     available. For example, if you have <c>gnome</c> inside the USE string, then when
285     you compile <c>xchat</c>, it will include GNOME support. All our dependencies are
286     also USE-aware.</ti>
287     </tr>
288     <tr>
289     <ti>GENTOO_MIRRORS</ti>
290     <ti>A space separated list of URIs currently mirroring the Gentoo packages. Portage
291     will attempt download from a <c>GENTOO_MIRROR</c> first before trying the official
292     <c>SRC_URI</c>. To force Portage to skip mirrors, set this variable to "".</ti>
293     </tr>
294     </table>
295     </body>
296     </section>
297    
298     <section>
299     <title>What happened to <path>/etc/make.defaults</path>?</title>
300     <body>
301     <p>As of Portage 1.5 onwards, <path>/etc/make.defaults</path> is antiquated;
302     if you have portage-1.5-r1 or above installed then you can safely delete it.
303     This file has been replaced by <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>
304     (<path>/etc/make.profile</path> should actually be a symlink to,
305     <path>/usr/portage/profiles/default</path>),
306     which contains system profile-specific default settings. The priority order of
307     the various configuration files is as follows (highest first):
308     <ol>
309     <li>Environment variables</li>
310     <li><path>/etc/make.conf</path>, for your use</li>
311     <li><path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>, for profile-specific defaults</li>
312     <li><path>/etc/make.globals</path>, for global defaults (settings not specified in
313     any other place come from here)</li>
314     </ol></p></body>
315     </section>
316    
317     <section>
318     <title>Is there a way to upgrade all installed packages
319     e.g. <e>apt-get upgrade</e> or <e>make World</e>?</title>
320     <body><p><b>YES!</b> Type <c>emerge --update system</c> (use it with <c>--pretend</c> first) to
321     update all core system packages, and use <c>emerge --update world</c> (again, use it with
322     <c>--pretend</c> first) to do a complete system upgrade of all installed packages.
323    
324    
325     </p></body>
326     </section>
327    
328     <section>
329     <title>When updating a package using <c>emerge</c> or <c>ebuild</c>, how do I avoid
330     clobbering my config files?</title>
331     <body><p>
332     Portage now includes config file management support by default. Type
333     <c>emerge --help config</c> for more details. The (overly) simple answer is that if
334     a package installs <path>foo</path> somewhere under <path>/etc</path>, and
335     another <path>foo</path> already exists there, then the new <path>foo</path> will
336     instead be renamed to <path>._cfgxxxx_foo</path> in that directory. A useful
337     tool for examining and updating any protected config files is <c>etc-update</c>,
338     currently obtained by <c>emerge app-admin/gentoolkit</c>.
339     </p></body>
340     </section>
341    
342     <section>
343     <title>I want to perform the <c>./configure</c> step myself. Can I?</title>
344     <body><p>
345     Yes, but it is not trivial. First do <c>man ebuild</c> followed by
346     <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild unpack</c>. Then <c>cd</c> to
347     <path>/var/tmp/portage/foo-x.y.z/work</path>. You can manually perform
348     the <c>./configure</c> and <c>make</c> steps yourself (you'll have to do
349     both, since Portage does not separate the configure and build steps). To
350     have Portage finish the installation (so that you can easily remove it later,
351     should you desire to do so, and it will be registered in Portage as a possible
352     dependency) you first need to <c>touch /var/tmp/portage/foo-x.y.z/.compiled</c>
353     (tricking Portage into thinking that <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild compile</c> has
354     completed), followed by <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild merge</c>.
355     </p></body>
356     </section>
357    
358     <section>
359     <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
360     <body><p>
361     If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit
362     rsync traffic, then you can instead download the daily
363 seo 1.12 /usr/portage snapshots from
364     <uri>http://cvs.gentoo.org/snapshots/</uri>. Just unpack
365 drobbins 1.1 the tarball (using <c>tar xvjf portage-foo.tbz2</c>) in
366     the <path>/usr</path> directory.
367     </p></body>
368     </section>
369    
370     <section>
371     <title>How do I use <i>emerge</i> from behind a firewall?</title>
372     <body><p>
373     Edit the PROXY settings in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If that doesn't work,
374     edit <path>/etc/wget/wgetrc</path> and edit http_proxy and ftp_proxy
375     appropriately.
376     </p></body>
377     </section>
378    
379     <section>
380     <title>Can I rsync from another operating system?</title>
381     <body><p>There's a program called unison that works under both UNIX and Win32, available from
382     <uri>http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~bcpierce/unison/</uri>.</p></body>
383     </section>
384    
385     <section>
386     <title>I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere else and
387     add them to my system?</title>
388     <body><p>
389     Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
390     are going to be installed. Download sources and bring them on any media
391     home. Put the sources into <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run
392     <c>emerge package</c> to see it picking up the sources you just brought in!
393     </p></body>
394     </section>
395    
396     <section>
397     <title>.tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles/ using
398     valuable space. Is it safe to delete these files?</title>
399     <body><p>
400     Yes, you can safely delete these files. But if you are on a slow
401     connection, such as a modem, you might want to keep the archives if
402     possible; often several ebuilds will be released for the same version of
403     a specific piece of software - if you have deleted the archive and you
404     upgrade the software it will have to be downloaded from the internet
405     again.
406     </p></body>
407     </section>
408    
409     <section>
410     <title>How can I manage my own ebuilds without destroying them by (r)sync?</title>
411     <body>
412     <p>The simplest method is to use anonymous CVS instead of rsync, and
413     maintain your local
414     ebuilds in /usr/portage/local. Here's how to do it:</p>
415     <pre>
416     # <i>emerge cvs</i> <comment>(if necessary)</comment>
417     # <i>cd <path>/usr</path></i>
418     # <i>cvs -d :pserver:anonymous@gentoo.org:/home/anoncvs login</i> <comment>(hit &lt;enter&gt;)</comment>
419     # <i>cvs -d :pserver:anonymous@gentoo.org:/home/anoncvs get gentoo-x86</i>
420     # <i>cp /usr/portage/distfiles/* gentoo-x86/distfiles/</i>
421     # <i>cp -a /usr/portage/packages/* gentoo-x86/packages/</i>
422     # <i>mv portage portage.old</i>
423     # <i>ln -s gentoo-x86 portage</i>
424     # <i>mkdir /usr/portage/local</i>
425     # <i>echo local &gt;&gt; /usr/portage/profiles/categories</i>
426     # <i>cp /etc/make.conf /etc/make.conf.orig</i>
427     # <i>sed -e 's/#SYNC="cvs/SYNC="cvs/' /etc/make.conf.orig &gt; /etc/make.conf</i>
428     </pre>
429 zhen 1.5 </body>
430     </section>
431    
432     <section>
433     <title>I went to emerge blackdown-jdk and blackdown-jre, and afterwards
434     <c>java-config --list-available-vms</c> would only list blackdown-jre.
435     Openoffice would then refuse to emerge. What do I do? </title>
436    
437     <body>
438     <p>Solution: </p>
439     <pre caption = "Solution">
440     # <c>emerge unmerge blackdown-jre blackdown-jdk </c>
441     # <c>CONFIG_PROTECT="" emerge blackdown-jdk </c>
442     </pre>
443    
444 drobbins 1.1 </body>
445     </section>
446     </chapter>
447    
448     <chapter>
449     <title>Usage</title>
450     <section>
451     <title>I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal user
452     account doesn't work. </title>
453     <body>
454     <p>
455     This is most probably because your user account doesn't have a valid shell specified. Check
456     for your user entry in
457     <path>/etc/passwd</path> and see if it ends in /bin/bash (or any other shell). If it doesn't,
458     you must set a shell for the user. This is done using the usermod command, like this ;
459     </p>
460     <pre># <i>usermod -s /bin/bash myuser</i></pre>
461     </body>
462     </section>
463    
464     <section>
465     <title>I can start X applications as root only.</title>
466     <body><p>Your <path>/tmp</path> directory has the wrong permissions (it needs the sticky bit
467     set). Type the following as root:</p>
468     <pre># <i>chmod 1777 /tmp</i></pre>
469     </body>
470     </section>
471    
472     <section>
473     <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
474     <body><p>Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>.
475     Then either reboot or restart the keymaps script:
476     <c>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</c>.</p>
477     </body>
478     </section>
479    
480     <section>
481     <title>DNS name resolution works for root only.</title>
482     <body><p><path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as follows:
483     </p>
484     <pre># <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i></pre>
485     </body>
486     </section>
487    
488     <section>
489     <title>Why is KDE not reading <path>/etc/profile</path>?</title>
490     <body><p>You need to add <c>--login</c> to the first line in <path>/opt/kde2.1/bin/startkde
491     </path>, so that it reads as follows:</p>
492     <pre>#!/bin/sh --login</pre>
493     <p>This fix has been added to recent versions of KDE.</p>
494 zhen 1.17 </body>
495     </section>
496    
497     <section>
498     <title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
499     <body><p>You need to add that user to the <i>cron</i> group.
500     </p>
501 drobbins 1.1 </body>
502     </section>
503     </chapter>
504    
505     <chapter>
506     <title>Maintenance</title>
507     <section>
508     <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</title>
509     <body>
510     <p>
511     If your
512     ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo
513     Linux boot CD and run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on
514     the corrupted filesystem. This should make the filesystem consistent
515     again, although you may have lost some files or directories due
516     to the corruption.
517     </p>
518     </body>
519     </section>
520     <!-- is this still relevant? -cpm -->
521     <section>
522     <title>How to I view the timestamps in /var/log/syslog.d, etc. on a pre-1.0_rc5 Gentoo
523     system?</title>
524     <body>
525     <p>To view multilog (Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier) timestamps, you need to pipe the
526     current log through the <c>tai64nlocal</c>command:</p>
527    
528     <pre>
529 seo 1.14 # <i>tai64nlocal &lt; /var/log/syslog.d/current | less</i>
530 drobbins 1.1 </pre>
531    
532     <p>Or, alternatively, if you want to "tail" the log:</p>
533    
534     <pre>
535     # <i>tail -f /var/log/syslog.d/current | tai64nlocal</i>
536     </pre>
537    
538     </body>
539     </section>
540     </chapter>
541    
542     <chapter>
543     <title>Development</title>
544     <section>
545     <title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
546     <body><p>For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise, use our
547     Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can also visit us in
548     <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri link="http://www.openprojects.net">OpenProjects</uri> IRC network.
549     </p></body>
550     </section>
551    
552     <section>
553     <title>How often are new releases made?</title>
554 zhen 1.13 <body><p>New releases are announced on the <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri>
555 drobbins 1.1 mailing list<!-- TODO: approximatley every X months -->, In reality the packages themselves
556     are updated shortly after the main authors release new code. As for when new Cd images etc
557     are released, that tends to be whenever there are any major updates to the base code, or when
558     new modules get added.</p></body>
559     </section>
560    
561     <section>
562     <title>I would like a package to be added to Portage; how would I go about this?</title>
563     <body><p>Head over to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and submit a new bug of the type
564     "ebuild". Attach your ebuild to the bug report.</p></body>
565     </section>
566    
567     <section>
568     <title>How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</title>
569     <body><p>Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the
570     "Docs-user" product.</p></body>
571     </section>
572    
573     <section>
574     <title>make -f Makefile.cvs on a KDE app produces "invalid unused variable" errors</title>
575     <body><p>
576     Export <c>WANT_AUTOMAKE_1_4=1</c> for all KDE projects before running
577     <c>make -f Makefile.cvs</c>. Also, for KDE2 apps export <c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_1=1</c>,
578     and for KDE3 apps export <c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_5=1</c>.
579     </p></body>
580     </section>
581    
582    
583     <section>
584     <title>My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps?
585     </title>
586     <body>
587     <p>
588     Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this ;
589    
590     <pre># <i>setterm -blength 0</i></pre>
591    
592     If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot
593     you need to put this command in
594     <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However, this only
595     disables beeps for the current terminal. To disable
596     beeps for other terminals, pipe the command output to the
597     target terminal, like this ;
598    
599     <pre># <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i></pre>
600    
601     You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal
602     you would like to disable console beeps for.
603     </p>
604     </body>
605     </section>
606     </chapter>
607    
608     <chapter>
609     <title>Resources</title>
610     <section>
611     <title>Where can I find more about supervise used by default in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier?</title>
612     <body><p><!-- TODO: --><uri>http://cr.yp.to/daemontools.html</uri></p></body>
613     </section>
614    
615     <section>
616     <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
617     <body><p>The official Gentoo documentation can be found on <uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>; general Linux information is at <uri>http://www.linuxdoc.org</uri>.</p></body>
618     </section>
619    
620     <section>
621     <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
622     <body><p>Yes! Fresh CDRs are available for $5 USD apiece from
623     <uri link = "http://cart.cheapbytes.com/cgi-bin/cart/0070010805">Cheapbytes</uri>.
624     </p>
625     <p>There are also CDs for sale at <uri link = "http://www.tuxcds.com/section.php?section=42">
626     tuxcds</uri> for a very good price. These people also bounce back a portion of the profits
627     to the Gentoo project, so buy them while they are hot! </p>
628     </body>
629     </section>
630    
631     <section>
632     <title>Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer
633     only go to the original poster and not the entire list?</title>
634     <body>
635     <p>The mailing list administrators have decided to go with minimal munging
636     (altering of mail headers), which means that they have decided against
637     altering headers to have replies go to the mailing list. There are various
638     reasons for this. For example, if a subscriber has a full mailbox, the
639     entire list receives notice of this every time that something is posted.
640    
641     Most GUI based mailers have a "reply to all" function. This will ensure that
642     your reply goes to the mailing list as well as the original poster. Most
643     users of text based emailers already know the methods to use, but if you
644     don't, in Pine, there is a "reply to group" option. Setting Mutt to reply to
645     the list is covered in the unofficial documentation at
646     <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=1085">forums.gentoo.org</uri>.
647    
648     Some list members do not like this method, but it was very heavily
649     discussed when it went into effect, with arguments on both sides.
650     Eventually the list administrators decided to keep it this way. Discussing
651     it on the mailing list will sometimes bring a polite explanation and other
652     times a rather brusque comment to check the archives. Although the
653     administrators regret the inconvenience that it may cause some users, it is
654     felt that at present it is preferable to the alternative for several
655     reasons, many of these covered
656     <uri link="http://www.unicom.com/pw/reply-to-harmful.html">here</uri>.
657    
658     (There are other eloquent arguments in favor of munging, and yes, the list
659     administrators have seen them.) </p>
660     </body>
661     </section>
662    
663     <section>
664     <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
665     <body>
666     <p>A good first step is to browse through the relevant doumentation <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/index-docs.html">here</uri>,
667     failing that, the various Gentoo Linux mailing
668     lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo mailling lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want
669     to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc: <i>#gentoo</i>
670     on <i>irc.freenode.net</i>.
671     </p>
672     </body>
673     </section>
674     </chapter>
675     </guide>

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