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fix bug 13096 - no need to reinstall between rcX releases

1 zhen 1.3 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 drobbins 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3    
4 zhen 1.2 <guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
5 drobbins 1.1 <title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
6     <author title="Chief Architect"><mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail></author>
7     <author title="Reviewer">Colin Morey</author>
8     <author title="Editor"><mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail></author>
9     <author title="Editor"><mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail></author>
10 zhware 1.16 <author title="Editor"><mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail></author>
11 drobbins 1.1 <abstract>This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add, please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.</abstract>
12    
13 zhen 1.17 <version>1.1.3</version>
14     <date>15 January 2003</date>
15 drobbins 1.1
16     <chapter>
17     <title>Getting Started</title>
18    
19     <section>
20     <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
21 drobbins 1.11 <body><p>Gentoo is a species of small fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (The "g" in "gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle".)</p></body>
22 drobbins 1.1 </section>
23    
24     <section>
25     <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
26     <body>
27     <p>Gentoo Linux is a fast, modern distribution with a clean and flexible
28     design -- in this respect, Gentoo may appeal to
29     <uri link="http://www.slackware.com/">Slackware</uri>,
30     <uri link="http://www.linuxfromscratch.org">Linux From Scratch</uri> or
31     <uri link="http://www.bsd.org">BSD</uri> users. Unlike most Linux
32     distros, Gentoo has a package system reminiscent of BSD's ports,
33     meaning the packages are continually updated to the lastest
34     versions.
35 zhen 1.5 </p>
36     </body>
37     </section>
38     </chapter>
39 drobbins 1.1
40     <chapter>
41     <title>Installation</title>
42 zhen 1.6
43 zhen 1.9 <section>
44 drobbins 1.1
45 zhen 1.10 <warn>REPORT all bugs to <uri>bugs.gentoo.org</uri>! Do not report bugs to upstream (original)
46 zhen 1.9 authors. Report the bugs to Gentoo, and we will move them upstream if necessary.
47 zhen 1.10 </warn>
48 zhen 1.9
49 drobbins 1.1 <title>What is the difference between the .iso and .tbz2 files?</title>
50     <body><p>The build <e>.tbz2</e> file is a minimal set of system files
51     that is necessary for allowing a user to bootstrap and install
52     Gentoo Linux. The build <e>.iso</e> is a complete, bootable CD image that
53     contains a system kernel, a reasonably complete set of kernel modules,
54     necessary system tools such as <c>mkfs</c> and networking support,
55     as well as the <e>.tbz2</e> minimal-system tarball. Most users will install
56     Gentoo Linux by burning the .iso file onto a CD, booting off of the CD,
57     and installing from within the minimal linux environment provided by
58     the Gentoo boot CD. It is possible, however, for users to install
59     Gentoo Linux directly from an already-existing Linux distribution.
60     Such users need only download the .tbz2 file, install the contents
61     on a spare partition (making sure to use the <c>p</c> flag when
62     untarring the tarball!), chroot, and install in the usual fashion.</p>
63     </body>
64     </section>
65    
66     <section>
67     <title>Why do the build .iso and .tbz2 files sometimes have different -r (revision) numbers?</title>
68     <body><p>
69     The .tbz2 minimal-system tarball only needs to be revised when there have
70     been significant changes to the core Gentoo Linux system (such as baselayout
71     changes, or a new profile), and as such .tbz2 updates are relatively rare.
72     The .iso file tends to get updated whenever we discover that somebody has
73     hardware that won't boot from our .iso. Since new kernel modules and
74     patches are constantly being generated, this situation probably won't
75     stabilise anytime soon.
76     </p>
77     </body>
78     </section>
79    
80     <section>
81     <title>I have a Sony Super-Slim VAIO laptop, and the Gentoo Linux CD is having problems
82     finding my PCMCIA ATAPI CD-ROM.</title>
83     <body>
84     <p>Make sure the second IDE port is set to CDROM (it unsets itself if the device isn't
85     attached on boot) then do the following at the isolinux <c>boot:</c> prompt:</p>
86     <pre>
87     boot: <i>rescue ide2=0x180,0x386</i>
88     </pre>
89     <p>If you are using a 1.0_rc5 or earlier boot CD, apart from thinking about downloading the latest iso,
90     type <c>gentoo</c> instead of <c>rescue</c>, above.</p>
91     </body>
92    
93     </section>
94     <section>
95     <title>I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math
96     -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?</title>
97     <body>
98     <p>When you use any optimizations beyond <c>-O3</c>, you're really taking the risk of
99     having broken packages.
100     Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the compiler to streamline the assembly code
101     to the point where it doesn't quite do the same thing anymore. <e>Loc-Dog</e> (on IRC)
102     uses <c>-O3 -mcpu=i686 -march=i686 -fforce-addr -fomit-frame-pointer -funroll-loops
103     -frerun-cse-after-loop -frerun-loop-opt -malign-functions=4</c>, which is about
104     as much as I'd want to push global optimization settings. Beyond this, it's best to use
105     ultra-high optimizations only with specific packages where you really need that extra 2%,
106     (eg graphics and various multimedia programs), and where you can easily test the package
107     to ensure that it hasn't been optimized into oblivion.</p>
108 zhware 1.4 <p>Please try first to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march= -O2</c> before reporting a bug</p>
109 drobbins 1.1 </body>
110     </section>
111    
112     <section>
113     <title>What's the default root password after installation?</title>
114     <body><p>The default password is blank; hit enter.</p></body>
115     </section>
116    
117     <section>
118     <title>How can i change the root (or indeed any other user's) password?</title>
119     <body><p>You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged into.
120     for extra options and setting, please see <c>man passwd</c> once you've completed the install.
121     </p></body>
122     </section>
123     <section>
124     <title>How do i add a normal user?</title>
125     <body><p>Everyone seems to think that i shouldn't be using <e>root</e> for everyday use,
126     how can i add another user?</p>
127     <p>The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called gentoo. The next step is to give
128     this user a password and <c>passwd</c> will do exactly that.</p>
129 zhware 1.15 <p>Insteed of <c>adduser</c> you can also use:
130     <pre># <i>useradd gentoo -m -G users,audio,wheel -s /bin/bash</i></pre>
131 zhware 1.16 This will add a user gentoo, will make possible for him to use sound-related devices (<path>/dev/sound/*</path>), will make possible for him to switch to root (using <c>su</c>) and will make <path>/bin/bash</path> his login shell.
132 zhware 1.15 </p>
133 drobbins 1.1 </body>
134     </section>
135     <section>
136     <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
137     <body><p>For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
138     <e>wheel</e> group. To add a <i>username</i> to the <e>wheel</e> group, issue the following
139     command as root:</p>
140     <pre># <i>usermod -G users,wheel username</i></pre>
141     </body>
142     </section>
143     <section>
144     <title>How do I enable devfs?</title>
145     <body>
146     <p>
147     If you're using 1.0_rc5 or greater, you don't need to do anything special to get
148     devfs working; it's already active (you did make sure that devfs was built into the
149     kernel, didn't you?).
150     However, if you are using a version of Gentoo Linux <e>prior</e> to version 1.0_rc5, add
151     <c>devfs=mount</c> to your <c>GRUB</c> kernel boot options so that the line looks something
152     like <c>kernel /boot/boot/bzImage devfs=mount foo=bar</c> The kernel will then mount the
153     <path>/dev</path> <e>devfs</e> filesystem automatically at boot-time.
154     </p>
155     </body>
156     </section>
157     <section>
158     <title>How to I disable devfs?</title>
159     <body>
160     <p>Under Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc6 and later, you can disable devfs by passing the
161     <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> to the kernel.</p>
162     </body>
163     </section>
164     <section>
165     <title>How do I get a <path>/dev/mouse </path> that
166     doesn't go away when I reboot (when using devfs)?</title>
167     <body>
168     <p>
169     If you are using 1.0_rc6 or later, then you can just use <c>ln -s</c>
170     to make the usual symbolic link from <path>/dev/mouse</path>, and
171     it will be preserved between reboots.
172     </p>
173     <p>All other users need to edit <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path>
174     and add these lines:</p>
175     <pre>
176     REGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL symlink misc/psaux mouse
177     UNREGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL unlink mouse
178     </pre>
179     <p>If you are not using the devfs PS/2 mouse <path>/dev/misc/psaux</path> device,
180     adjust the <c>misc/psaux</c> strings above accoringly. You'll then want to
181     <c>killall -HUP devfsd</c>
182     to get devfsd to reread <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path>.</p>
183     </body>
184     </section>
185     <section>
186     <title>Grub can't find stage x.y?</title>
187     <body><p>
188     During installation the grub boot files are copied
189     to <path>/boot/grub</path> (<path>/boot/boot/grub</path> in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and
190     earlier.) Grub automatically looks in the <path>/boot/grub</path> directory on the boot
191     partition. (We strongly recommend having a separate no-auto boot partition mounted at
192     <path>/boot</path>, since that way it is much more difficult to clobber your kernel and boot
193     info by accident.) The above error generally arises from (a) not using a separate boot
194     partition, (b) forgetting to mount the boot partition at <path>/boot</path> before either
195     unpacking the build snapshot or running
196     <c>emerge --usepkg system</c>, or (c) forgetting the
197     <c>notail</c> option when mounting a ReiserFS <path>/boot</path> partition.
198     You can get more information on grub, including how to
199     debug grub from the grub prompt, by reading the
200     <uri link="http://www-105.ibm.com/developerworks/education.nsf/linux-onlinecourse-bytitle/0F1731DC664023B7862569D0005C44AF?OpenDocument">IBM developerWorks Grub tutorial</uri>.
201     </p>
202     </body>
203     </section>
204    
205     <section>
206     <title>My ASUS CUV4X-D won't boot and it freezes during various stages of kernel loading and hardware
207     detection. </title>
208     <body>
209     <p>Disable MPS 1.4 (multi-processor-system) in the BIOS or switch this
210     function to 1.1. By using this option you just switch the MPS version. The Multi-Processor-System
211     will still work properly. Make sure to boot Gentoo Linux with the following boot option, noapic. </p>
212     </body>
213     </section>
214    
215 zhware 1.19 <section>
216     <title>If I have Gentoo 1.4_rc1 can I upgrade to 1.4_rc2, 1.4_final/_rc3 without reinstalling?</title>
217     <body>
218     In fact there is no difference between the 1.4 releases <b>after they&apos;ve installed</b>. Gentoo 1.4 and later are <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based.
219     As such 1.4rc1 machine for example, that does <c>emerge rsync; emerge -u world</c> is <b>exactly the same</b> as a machine with 1.4rc2 installed, after it does <c>emerge rsync; emerge -u world</c>. The true differences lie in the installer.
220     </body>
221     </section>
222 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
223    
224     <chapter>
225     <title>Package Management</title>
226     <section>
227     <title>In what format are the packages stored?</title>
228     <body><p>They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; we are primarily
229     a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts (<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a
230     special system (Portage) so that you can build apps from sources. We generally only build
231     binaries for releases and snapshots. The <uri link="/doc/gentoo-howto.html">Development HOWTO
232     </uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we
233     create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format (<c>.tar.bz2</c>
234     compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the file.)</p>
235     </body>
236     </section>
237    
238     <section>
239     <title>Why write a new port system (Portage) instead of using BSD's version?</title>
240     <body>
241     <p>In one sentence, because Portage is much better in so many ways. One of the design
242     philosophies of the <c>.ebuild</c> syntax was to make it an analog of what you'd type to
243     install the program manually, thus making Portage very easy to learn and modify to your
244     needs. We also have OpenBSD-style "fake" installs, safe unmerging, system profiles,
245     package masking, a real dependency system, and lots of other good stuff.</p>
246     </body>
247     </section>
248    
249     <section>
250     <title>How does this differ from Debian's apt or BSD's ports?</title>
251     <body><p>Portage features the best of apt and ports; for example, USE options, a full
252     dependency system, safe installs and uninstalls, and a true package database. Think of
253     Portage as the best of both worlds; a ports system with the sensibilities and safety of a
254     Linux package management system built-in.</p></body>
255     </section>
256    
257     <section>
258     <title>How do I install and uninstall packages?</title>
259     <body>
260     <p>The <uri link="/doc/portage-user.html">Portage User Guide</uri> details how to install
261     and uninstall packages, and update Portage.</p>
262     </body>
263     </section>
264    
265     <section>
266     <title>How can I set a global configuration for compiling packages?</title>
267     <body><p><path>/etc/make.conf</path> should be modified to override global and
268     profile-specific default options used to compile and merge packages. The most common options
269     are as follows:</p>
270     <table>
271     <tr>
272     <th>Flag</th>
273     <th>Description</th>
274     </tr>
275     <tr>
276     <ti>CHOST</ti>
277     <ti>This sets the HOST variable for compiles, e.g. <c>i686-pc-linux-gnu</c></ti>
278     </tr>
279     <tr>
280     <ti>CFLAGS</ti>
281     <ti>The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C (*.c files)</ti>
282     </tr>
283     <tr>
284     <ti>CXXFLAGS</ti>
285     <ti>The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C++ (*.c,*.cpp etc.
286     files)</ti>
287     </tr>
288     <tr>
289     <ti>USE</ti>
290     <ti>This allows you to set what optional components you'd like compiled-in, if
291     available. For example, if you have <c>gnome</c> inside the USE string, then when
292     you compile <c>xchat</c>, it will include GNOME support. All our dependencies are
293     also USE-aware.</ti>
294     </tr>
295     <tr>
296     <ti>GENTOO_MIRRORS</ti>
297     <ti>A space separated list of URIs currently mirroring the Gentoo packages. Portage
298     will attempt download from a <c>GENTOO_MIRROR</c> first before trying the official
299     <c>SRC_URI</c>. To force Portage to skip mirrors, set this variable to "".</ti>
300     </tr>
301     </table>
302     </body>
303     </section>
304    
305     <section>
306     <title>What happened to <path>/etc/make.defaults</path>?</title>
307     <body>
308     <p>As of Portage 1.5 onwards, <path>/etc/make.defaults</path> is antiquated;
309     if you have portage-1.5-r1 or above installed then you can safely delete it.
310     This file has been replaced by <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>
311     (<path>/etc/make.profile</path> should actually be a symlink to,
312     <path>/usr/portage/profiles/default</path>),
313     which contains system profile-specific default settings. The priority order of
314     the various configuration files is as follows (highest first):
315     <ol>
316     <li>Environment variables</li>
317     <li><path>/etc/make.conf</path>, for your use</li>
318     <li><path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>, for profile-specific defaults</li>
319     <li><path>/etc/make.globals</path>, for global defaults (settings not specified in
320     any other place come from here)</li>
321     </ol></p></body>
322     </section>
323    
324     <section>
325     <title>Is there a way to upgrade all installed packages
326     e.g. <e>apt-get upgrade</e> or <e>make World</e>?</title>
327     <body><p><b>YES!</b> Type <c>emerge --update system</c> (use it with <c>--pretend</c> first) to
328     update all core system packages, and use <c>emerge --update world</c> (again, use it with
329     <c>--pretend</c> first) to do a complete system upgrade of all installed packages.
330    
331    
332     </p></body>
333     </section>
334    
335     <section>
336     <title>When updating a package using <c>emerge</c> or <c>ebuild</c>, how do I avoid
337     clobbering my config files?</title>
338     <body><p>
339     Portage now includes config file management support by default. Type
340     <c>emerge --help config</c> for more details. The (overly) simple answer is that if
341     a package installs <path>foo</path> somewhere under <path>/etc</path>, and
342     another <path>foo</path> already exists there, then the new <path>foo</path> will
343     instead be renamed to <path>._cfgxxxx_foo</path> in that directory. A useful
344     tool for examining and updating any protected config files is <c>etc-update</c>,
345     currently obtained by <c>emerge app-admin/gentoolkit</c>.
346     </p></body>
347     </section>
348    
349     <section>
350     <title>I want to perform the <c>./configure</c> step myself. Can I?</title>
351     <body><p>
352     Yes, but it is not trivial. First do <c>man ebuild</c> followed by
353     <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild unpack</c>. Then <c>cd</c> to
354     <path>/var/tmp/portage/foo-x.y.z/work</path>. You can manually perform
355     the <c>./configure</c> and <c>make</c> steps yourself (you'll have to do
356     both, since Portage does not separate the configure and build steps). To
357     have Portage finish the installation (so that you can easily remove it later,
358     should you desire to do so, and it will be registered in Portage as a possible
359     dependency) you first need to <c>touch /var/tmp/portage/foo-x.y.z/.compiled</c>
360     (tricking Portage into thinking that <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild compile</c> has
361     completed), followed by <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild merge</c>.
362     </p></body>
363     </section>
364    
365     <section>
366     <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
367     <body><p>
368     If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit
369     rsync traffic, then you can instead download the daily
370 seo 1.12 /usr/portage snapshots from
371     <uri>http://cvs.gentoo.org/snapshots/</uri>. Just unpack
372 drobbins 1.1 the tarball (using <c>tar xvjf portage-foo.tbz2</c>) in
373     the <path>/usr</path> directory.
374     </p></body>
375     </section>
376    
377     <section>
378     <title>How do I use <i>emerge</i> from behind a firewall?</title>
379     <body><p>
380     Edit the PROXY settings in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If that doesn't work,
381     edit <path>/etc/wget/wgetrc</path> and edit http_proxy and ftp_proxy
382     appropriately.
383     </p></body>
384     </section>
385    
386     <section>
387     <title>Can I rsync from another operating system?</title>
388     <body><p>There's a program called unison that works under both UNIX and Win32, available from
389     <uri>http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~bcpierce/unison/</uri>.</p></body>
390     </section>
391    
392     <section>
393     <title>I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere else and
394     add them to my system?</title>
395     <body><p>
396     Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
397     are going to be installed. Download sources and bring them on any media
398     home. Put the sources into <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run
399     <c>emerge package</c> to see it picking up the sources you just brought in!
400     </p></body>
401     </section>
402    
403     <section>
404     <title>.tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles/ using
405     valuable space. Is it safe to delete these files?</title>
406     <body><p>
407     Yes, you can safely delete these files. But if you are on a slow
408     connection, such as a modem, you might want to keep the archives if
409     possible; often several ebuilds will be released for the same version of
410     a specific piece of software - if you have deleted the archive and you
411     upgrade the software it will have to be downloaded from the internet
412     again.
413     </p></body>
414     </section>
415    
416     <section>
417     <title>How can I manage my own ebuilds without destroying them by (r)sync?</title>
418     <body>
419     <p>The simplest method is to use anonymous CVS instead of rsync, and
420     maintain your local
421     ebuilds in /usr/portage/local. Here's how to do it:</p>
422     <pre>
423     # <i>emerge cvs</i> <comment>(if necessary)</comment>
424     # <i>cd <path>/usr</path></i>
425     # <i>cvs -d :pserver:anonymous@gentoo.org:/home/anoncvs login</i> <comment>(hit &lt;enter&gt;)</comment>
426     # <i>cvs -d :pserver:anonymous@gentoo.org:/home/anoncvs get gentoo-x86</i>
427     # <i>cp /usr/portage/distfiles/* gentoo-x86/distfiles/</i>
428     # <i>cp -a /usr/portage/packages/* gentoo-x86/packages/</i>
429     # <i>mv portage portage.old</i>
430     # <i>ln -s gentoo-x86 portage</i>
431     # <i>mkdir /usr/portage/local</i>
432     # <i>echo local &gt;&gt; /usr/portage/profiles/categories</i>
433     # <i>cp /etc/make.conf /etc/make.conf.orig</i>
434     # <i>sed -e 's/#SYNC="cvs/SYNC="cvs/' /etc/make.conf.orig &gt; /etc/make.conf</i>
435     </pre>
436 zhen 1.5 </body>
437     </section>
438    
439     <section>
440     <title>I went to emerge blackdown-jdk and blackdown-jre, and afterwards
441     <c>java-config --list-available-vms</c> would only list blackdown-jre.
442     Openoffice would then refuse to emerge. What do I do? </title>
443    
444     <body>
445     <p>Solution: </p>
446     <pre caption = "Solution">
447     # <c>emerge unmerge blackdown-jre blackdown-jdk </c>
448     # <c>CONFIG_PROTECT="" emerge blackdown-jdk </c>
449     </pre>
450    
451 drobbins 1.1 </body>
452     </section>
453 zhware 1.18 <section>
454     <title>What's in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>? Is it safe to delete the files and directories in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>?</title>
455     <body>
456     During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. It is safe to clean out all contents of this directory.
457     </body>
458     </section>
459 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
460    
461     <chapter>
462     <title>Usage</title>
463     <section>
464     <title>I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal user
465     account doesn't work. </title>
466     <body>
467     <p>
468     This is most probably because your user account doesn't have a valid shell specified. Check
469     for your user entry in
470     <path>/etc/passwd</path> and see if it ends in /bin/bash (or any other shell). If it doesn't,
471     you must set a shell for the user. This is done using the usermod command, like this ;
472     </p>
473     <pre># <i>usermod -s /bin/bash myuser</i></pre>
474     </body>
475     </section>
476    
477     <section>
478     <title>I can start X applications as root only.</title>
479     <body><p>Your <path>/tmp</path> directory has the wrong permissions (it needs the sticky bit
480     set). Type the following as root:</p>
481     <pre># <i>chmod 1777 /tmp</i></pre>
482     </body>
483     </section>
484    
485     <section>
486     <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
487     <body><p>Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>.
488     Then either reboot or restart the keymaps script:
489     <c>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</c>.</p>
490     </body>
491     </section>
492    
493     <section>
494     <title>DNS name resolution works for root only.</title>
495     <body><p><path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as follows:
496     </p>
497     <pre># <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i></pre>
498     </body>
499     </section>
500    
501     <section>
502     <title>Why is KDE not reading <path>/etc/profile</path>?</title>
503     <body><p>You need to add <c>--login</c> to the first line in <path>/opt/kde2.1/bin/startkde
504     </path>, so that it reads as follows:</p>
505     <pre>#!/bin/sh --login</pre>
506     <p>This fix has been added to recent versions of KDE.</p>
507 zhen 1.17 </body>
508     </section>
509    
510     <section>
511     <title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
512     <body><p>You need to add that user to the <i>cron</i> group.
513     </p>
514 drobbins 1.1 </body>
515     </section>
516     </chapter>
517    
518     <chapter>
519     <title>Maintenance</title>
520     <section>
521     <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</title>
522     <body>
523     <p>
524     If your
525     ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo
526     Linux boot CD and run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on
527     the corrupted filesystem. This should make the filesystem consistent
528     again, although you may have lost some files or directories due
529     to the corruption.
530     </p>
531     </body>
532     </section>
533     <!-- is this still relevant? -cpm -->
534     <section>
535     <title>How to I view the timestamps in /var/log/syslog.d, etc. on a pre-1.0_rc5 Gentoo
536     system?</title>
537     <body>
538     <p>To view multilog (Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier) timestamps, you need to pipe the
539     current log through the <c>tai64nlocal</c>command:</p>
540    
541     <pre>
542 seo 1.14 # <i>tai64nlocal &lt; /var/log/syslog.d/current | less</i>
543 drobbins 1.1 </pre>
544    
545     <p>Or, alternatively, if you want to "tail" the log:</p>
546    
547     <pre>
548     # <i>tail -f /var/log/syslog.d/current | tai64nlocal</i>
549     </pre>
550    
551     </body>
552     </section>
553     </chapter>
554    
555     <chapter>
556     <title>Development</title>
557     <section>
558     <title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
559     <body><p>For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise, use our
560     Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can also visit us in
561     <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri link="http://www.openprojects.net">OpenProjects</uri> IRC network.
562     </p></body>
563     </section>
564    
565     <section>
566     <title>How often are new releases made?</title>
567 zhen 1.13 <body><p>New releases are announced on the <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri>
568 drobbins 1.1 mailing list<!-- TODO: approximatley every X months -->, In reality the packages themselves
569     are updated shortly after the main authors release new code. As for when new Cd images etc
570     are released, that tends to be whenever there are any major updates to the base code, or when
571     new modules get added.</p></body>
572     </section>
573    
574     <section>
575     <title>I would like a package to be added to Portage; how would I go about this?</title>
576     <body><p>Head over to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and submit a new bug of the type
577     "ebuild". Attach your ebuild to the bug report.</p></body>
578     </section>
579    
580     <section>
581     <title>How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</title>
582     <body><p>Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the
583     "Docs-user" product.</p></body>
584     </section>
585    
586     <section>
587     <title>make -f Makefile.cvs on a KDE app produces "invalid unused variable" errors</title>
588     <body><p>
589     Export <c>WANT_AUTOMAKE_1_4=1</c> for all KDE projects before running
590     <c>make -f Makefile.cvs</c>. Also, for KDE2 apps export <c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_1=1</c>,
591     and for KDE3 apps export <c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_5=1</c>.
592     </p></body>
593     </section>
594    
595    
596     <section>
597     <title>My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps?
598     </title>
599     <body>
600     <p>
601     Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this ;
602    
603     <pre># <i>setterm -blength 0</i></pre>
604    
605     If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot
606     you need to put this command in
607     <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However, this only
608     disables beeps for the current terminal. To disable
609     beeps for other terminals, pipe the command output to the
610     target terminal, like this ;
611    
612     <pre># <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i></pre>
613    
614     You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal
615     you would like to disable console beeps for.
616     </p>
617     </body>
618     </section>
619     </chapter>
620    
621     <chapter>
622     <title>Resources</title>
623     <section>
624     <title>Where can I find more about supervise used by default in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier?</title>
625     <body><p><!-- TODO: --><uri>http://cr.yp.to/daemontools.html</uri></p></body>
626     </section>
627    
628     <section>
629     <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
630     <body><p>The official Gentoo documentation can be found on <uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>; general Linux information is at <uri>http://www.linuxdoc.org</uri>.</p></body>
631     </section>
632    
633     <section>
634     <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
635     <body><p>Yes! Fresh CDRs are available for $5 USD apiece from
636     <uri link = "http://cart.cheapbytes.com/cgi-bin/cart/0070010805">Cheapbytes</uri>.
637     </p>
638     <p>There are also CDs for sale at <uri link = "http://www.tuxcds.com/section.php?section=42">
639     tuxcds</uri> for a very good price. These people also bounce back a portion of the profits
640     to the Gentoo project, so buy them while they are hot! </p>
641     </body>
642     </section>
643    
644     <section>
645     <title>Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer
646     only go to the original poster and not the entire list?</title>
647     <body>
648     <p>The mailing list administrators have decided to go with minimal munging
649     (altering of mail headers), which means that they have decided against
650     altering headers to have replies go to the mailing list. There are various
651     reasons for this. For example, if a subscriber has a full mailbox, the
652     entire list receives notice of this every time that something is posted.
653    
654     Most GUI based mailers have a "reply to all" function. This will ensure that
655     your reply goes to the mailing list as well as the original poster. Most
656     users of text based emailers already know the methods to use, but if you
657     don't, in Pine, there is a "reply to group" option. Setting Mutt to reply to
658     the list is covered in the unofficial documentation at
659     <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=1085">forums.gentoo.org</uri>.
660    
661     Some list members do not like this method, but it was very heavily
662     discussed when it went into effect, with arguments on both sides.
663     Eventually the list administrators decided to keep it this way. Discussing
664     it on the mailing list will sometimes bring a polite explanation and other
665     times a rather brusque comment to check the archives. Although the
666     administrators regret the inconvenience that it may cause some users, it is
667     felt that at present it is preferable to the alternative for several
668     reasons, many of these covered
669     <uri link="http://www.unicom.com/pw/reply-to-harmful.html">here</uri>.
670    
671     (There are other eloquent arguments in favor of munging, and yes, the list
672     administrators have seen them.) </p>
673     </body>
674     </section>
675    
676     <section>
677     <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
678     <body>
679     <p>A good first step is to browse through the relevant doumentation <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/index-docs.html">here</uri>,
680     failing that, the various Gentoo Linux mailing
681     lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo mailling lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want
682     to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc: <i>#gentoo</i>
683     on <i>irc.freenode.net</i>.
684     </p>
685     </body>
686     </section>
687     </chapter>
688     </guide>

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