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1 zhen 1.3 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 drobbins 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3    
4 zhen 1.2 <guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
5 drobbins 1.1 <title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
6     <author title="Chief Architect"><mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail></author>
7     <author title="Reviewer">Colin Morey</author>
8     <author title="Editor"><mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail></author>
9     <author title="Editor"><mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail></author>
10 zhware 1.16 <author title="Editor"><mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail></author>
11 carl 1.20 <author title="Editor"><mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail></author>
12 peesh 1.26 <author title="Editor"><mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail></author>
13 swift 1.29 <author title="Editor"><mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail></author>
14 drobbins 1.1 <abstract>This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add, please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.</abstract>
15    
16 zhen 1.23 <version>1.1.4</version>
17 swift 1.30 <date>6 May 2003</date>
18 drobbins 1.1
19     <chapter>
20     <title>Getting Started</title>
21    
22     <section>
23     <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
24 drobbins 1.11 <body><p>Gentoo is a species of small fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (The "g" in "gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle".)</p></body>
25 drobbins 1.1 </section>
26    
27     <section>
28     <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
29     <body>
30     <p>Gentoo Linux is a fast, modern distribution with a clean and flexible
31     design -- in this respect, Gentoo may appeal to
32     <uri link="http://www.slackware.com/">Slackware</uri>,
33     <uri link="http://www.linuxfromscratch.org">Linux From Scratch</uri> or
34     <uri link="http://www.bsd.org">BSD</uri> users. Unlike most Linux
35     distros, Gentoo has a package system reminiscent of BSD's ports,
36     meaning the packages are continually updated to the lastest
37     versions.
38 zhen 1.5 </p>
39     </body>
40     </section>
41     </chapter>
42 drobbins 1.1
43     <chapter>
44     <title>Installation</title>
45 zhen 1.6
46 zhen 1.9 <section>
47 drobbins 1.1
48 zhen 1.10 <warn>REPORT all bugs to <uri>bugs.gentoo.org</uri>! Do not report bugs to upstream (original)
49 zhen 1.9 authors. Report the bugs to Gentoo, and we will move them upstream if necessary.
50 zhen 1.10 </warn>
51 zhen 1.9
52 drobbins 1.1 <title>What is the difference between the .iso and .tbz2 files?</title>
53     <body><p>The build <e>.tbz2</e> file is a minimal set of system files
54     that is necessary for allowing a user to bootstrap and install
55     Gentoo Linux. The build <e>.iso</e> is a complete, bootable CD image that
56     contains a system kernel, a reasonably complete set of kernel modules,
57     necessary system tools such as <c>mkfs</c> and networking support,
58     as well as the <e>.tbz2</e> minimal-system tarball. Most users will install
59     Gentoo Linux by burning the .iso file onto a CD, booting off of the CD,
60     and installing from within the minimal linux environment provided by
61     the Gentoo boot CD. It is possible, however, for users to install
62     Gentoo Linux directly from an already-existing Linux distribution.
63     Such users need only download the .tbz2 file, install the contents
64     on a spare partition (making sure to use the <c>p</c> flag when
65     untarring the tarball!), chroot, and install in the usual fashion.</p>
66     </body>
67     </section>
68    
69     <section>
70     <title>Why do the build .iso and .tbz2 files sometimes have different -r (revision) numbers?</title>
71     <body><p>
72     The .tbz2 minimal-system tarball only needs to be revised when there have
73     been significant changes to the core Gentoo Linux system (such as baselayout
74     changes, or a new profile), and as such .tbz2 updates are relatively rare.
75     The .iso file tends to get updated whenever we discover that somebody has
76     hardware that won't boot from our .iso. Since new kernel modules and
77     patches are constantly being generated, this situation probably won't
78     stabilise anytime soon.
79     </p>
80     </body>
81     </section>
82    
83     <section>
84     <title>I have a Sony Super-Slim VAIO laptop, and the Gentoo Linux CD is having problems
85     finding my PCMCIA ATAPI CD-ROM.</title>
86     <body>
87     <p>Make sure the second IDE port is set to CDROM (it unsets itself if the device isn't
88     attached on boot) then do the following at the isolinux <c>boot:</c> prompt:</p>
89     <pre>
90     boot: <i>rescue ide2=0x180,0x386</i>
91     </pre>
92     <p>If you are using a 1.0_rc5 or earlier boot CD, apart from thinking about downloading the latest iso,
93     type <c>gentoo</c> instead of <c>rescue</c>, above.</p>
94     </body>
95    
96     </section>
97     <section>
98     <title>I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math
99     -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?</title>
100     <body>
101     <p>When you use any optimizations beyond <c>-O3</c>, you're really taking the risk of
102     having broken packages.
103     Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the compiler to streamline the assembly code
104 swift 1.30 to the point where it doesn't quite do the same thing anymore. A possible setting based on <e>Loc-Dog</e> (on IRC)'s CFLAGS
105     is <c>-O3 -mcpu=i686 -march=i686 -fforce-addr -fomit-frame-pointer -funroll-loops
106     -frerun-cse-after-loop -frerun-loop-opt -falign-functions=4</c>, which is about
107 drobbins 1.1 as much as I'd want to push global optimization settings. Beyond this, it's best to use
108     ultra-high optimizations only with specific packages where you really need that extra 2%,
109     (eg graphics and various multimedia programs), and where you can easily test the package
110     to ensure that it hasn't been optimized into oblivion.</p>
111 zhware 1.4 <p>Please try first to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march= -O2</c> before reporting a bug</p>
112 drobbins 1.1 </body>
113     </section>
114    
115     <section>
116     <title>What's the default root password after installation?</title>
117     <body><p>The default password is blank; hit enter.</p></body>
118     </section>
119    
120     <section>
121     <title>How can i change the root (or indeed any other user's) password?</title>
122     <body><p>You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged into.
123     for extra options and setting, please see <c>man passwd</c> once you've completed the install.
124     </p></body>
125     </section>
126     <section>
127     <title>How do i add a normal user?</title>
128     <body><p>Everyone seems to think that i shouldn't be using <e>root</e> for everyday use,
129     how can i add another user?</p>
130     <p>The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called gentoo. The next step is to give
131     this user a password and <c>passwd</c> will do exactly that.</p>
132 zhware 1.15 <p>Insteed of <c>adduser</c> you can also use:
133     <pre># <i>useradd gentoo -m -G users,audio,wheel -s /bin/bash</i></pre>
134 zhware 1.16 This will add a user gentoo, will make possible for him to use sound-related devices (<path>/dev/sound/*</path>), will make possible for him to switch to root (using <c>su</c>) and will make <path>/bin/bash</path> his login shell.
135 zhware 1.15 </p>
136 drobbins 1.1 </body>
137     </section>
138     <section>
139     <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
140     <body><p>For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
141     <e>wheel</e> group. To add a <i>username</i> to the <e>wheel</e> group, issue the following
142     command as root:</p>
143     <pre># <i>usermod -G users,wheel username</i></pre>
144     </body>
145     </section>
146     <section>
147     <title>How do I enable devfs?</title>
148     <body>
149     <p>
150     If you're using 1.0_rc5 or greater, you don't need to do anything special to get
151     devfs working; it's already active (you did make sure that devfs was built into the
152     kernel, didn't you?).
153     However, if you are using a version of Gentoo Linux <e>prior</e> to version 1.0_rc5, add
154     <c>devfs=mount</c> to your <c>GRUB</c> kernel boot options so that the line looks something
155     like <c>kernel /boot/boot/bzImage devfs=mount foo=bar</c> The kernel will then mount the
156     <path>/dev</path> <e>devfs</e> filesystem automatically at boot-time.
157     </p>
158     </body>
159     </section>
160     <section>
161     <title>How to I disable devfs?</title>
162     <body>
163     <p>Under Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc6 and later, you can disable devfs by passing the
164     <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> to the kernel.</p>
165     </body>
166     </section>
167     <section>
168     <title>How do I get a <path>/dev/mouse </path> that
169     doesn't go away when I reboot (when using devfs)?</title>
170     <body>
171     <p>
172     If you are using 1.0_rc6 or later, then you can just use <c>ln -s</c>
173     to make the usual symbolic link from <path>/dev/mouse</path>, and
174     it will be preserved between reboots.
175     </p>
176     <p>All other users need to edit <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path>
177     and add these lines:</p>
178     <pre>
179     REGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL symlink misc/psaux mouse
180     UNREGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL unlink mouse
181     </pre>
182     <p>If you are not using the devfs PS/2 mouse <path>/dev/misc/psaux</path> device,
183     adjust the <c>misc/psaux</c> strings above accoringly. You'll then want to
184     <c>killall -HUP devfsd</c>
185     to get devfsd to reread <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path>.</p>
186     </body>
187     </section>
188     <section>
189     <title>Grub can't find stage x.y?</title>
190     <body><p>
191     During installation the grub boot files are copied
192     to <path>/boot/grub</path> (<path>/boot/boot/grub</path> in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and
193     earlier.) Grub automatically looks in the <path>/boot/grub</path> directory on the boot
194     partition. (We strongly recommend having a separate no-auto boot partition mounted at
195     <path>/boot</path>, since that way it is much more difficult to clobber your kernel and boot
196     info by accident.) The above error generally arises from (a) not using a separate boot
197     partition, (b) forgetting to mount the boot partition at <path>/boot</path> before either
198     unpacking the build snapshot or running
199     <c>emerge --usepkg system</c>, or (c) forgetting the
200     <c>notail</c> option when mounting a ReiserFS <path>/boot</path> partition.
201     You can get more information on grub, including how to
202     debug grub from the grub prompt, by reading the
203     <uri link="http://www-105.ibm.com/developerworks/education.nsf/linux-onlinecourse-bytitle/0F1731DC664023B7862569D0005C44AF?OpenDocument">IBM developerWorks Grub tutorial</uri>.
204     </p>
205     </body>
206     </section>
207    
208     <section>
209     <title>My ASUS CUV4X-D won't boot and it freezes during various stages of kernel loading and hardware
210     detection. </title>
211     <body>
212     <p>Disable MPS 1.4 (multi-processor-system) in the BIOS or switch this
213     function to 1.1. By using this option you just switch the MPS version. The Multi-Processor-System
214     will still work properly. Make sure to boot Gentoo Linux with the following boot option, noapic. </p>
215     </body>
216     </section>
217    
218 zhware 1.19 <section>
219     <title>If I have Gentoo 1.4_rc1 can I upgrade to 1.4_rc2, 1.4_final/_rc3 without reinstalling?</title>
220     <body>
221     In fact there is no difference between the 1.4 releases <b>after they&apos;ve installed</b>. Gentoo 1.4 and later are <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based.
222     As such 1.4rc1 machine for example, that does <c>emerge rsync; emerge -u world</c> is <b>exactly the same</b> as a machine with 1.4rc2 installed, after it does <c>emerge rsync; emerge -u world</c>. The true differences lie in the installer.
223     </body>
224     </section>
225 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
226    
227     <chapter>
228     <title>Package Management</title>
229     <section>
230     <title>In what format are the packages stored?</title>
231     <body><p>They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; we are primarily
232     a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts (<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a
233     special system (Portage) so that you can build apps from sources. We generally only build
234 swift 1.22 binaries for releases and snapshots. The <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-howto.xml">Development HOWTO
235 drobbins 1.1 </uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we
236     create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format (<c>.tar.bz2</c>
237     compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the file.)</p>
238     </body>
239     </section>
240    
241     <section>
242     <title>Why write a new port system (Portage) instead of using BSD's version?</title>
243     <body>
244     <p>In one sentence, because Portage is much better in so many ways. One of the design
245     philosophies of the <c>.ebuild</c> syntax was to make it an analog of what you'd type to
246     install the program manually, thus making Portage very easy to learn and modify to your
247     needs. We also have OpenBSD-style "fake" installs, safe unmerging, system profiles,
248     package masking, a real dependency system, and lots of other good stuff.</p>
249     </body>
250     </section>
251    
252     <section>
253     <title>How does this differ from Debian's apt or BSD's ports?</title>
254     <body><p>Portage features the best of apt and ports; for example, USE options, a full
255     dependency system, safe installs and uninstalls, and a true package database. Think of
256     Portage as the best of both worlds; a ports system with the sensibilities and safety of a
257     Linux package management system built-in.</p></body>
258     </section>
259    
260     <section>
261     <title>How do I install and uninstall packages?</title>
262     <body>
263 swift 1.22 <p>The <uri link="/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage User Guide</uri> details how to install
264 drobbins 1.1 and uninstall packages, and update Portage.</p>
265     </body>
266     </section>
267    
268     <section>
269     <title>How can I set a global configuration for compiling packages?</title>
270     <body><p><path>/etc/make.conf</path> should be modified to override global and
271     profile-specific default options used to compile and merge packages. The most common options
272     are as follows:</p>
273     <table>
274     <tr>
275     <th>Flag</th>
276     <th>Description</th>
277     </tr>
278     <tr>
279     <ti>CHOST</ti>
280     <ti>This sets the HOST variable for compiles, e.g. <c>i686-pc-linux-gnu</c></ti>
281     </tr>
282     <tr>
283     <ti>CFLAGS</ti>
284     <ti>The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C (*.c files)</ti>
285     </tr>
286     <tr>
287     <ti>CXXFLAGS</ti>
288     <ti>The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C++ (*.c,*.cpp etc.
289     files)</ti>
290     </tr>
291     <tr>
292     <ti>USE</ti>
293     <ti>This allows you to set what optional components you'd like compiled-in, if
294     available. For example, if you have <c>gnome</c> inside the USE string, then when
295     you compile <c>xchat</c>, it will include GNOME support. All our dependencies are
296     also USE-aware.</ti>
297     </tr>
298     <tr>
299     <ti>GENTOO_MIRRORS</ti>
300     <ti>A space separated list of URIs currently mirroring the Gentoo packages. Portage
301     will attempt download from a <c>GENTOO_MIRROR</c> first before trying the official
302     <c>SRC_URI</c>. To force Portage to skip mirrors, set this variable to "".</ti>
303     </tr>
304     </table>
305     </body>
306     </section>
307    
308     <section>
309     <title>What happened to <path>/etc/make.defaults</path>?</title>
310     <body>
311     <p>As of Portage 1.5 onwards, <path>/etc/make.defaults</path> is antiquated;
312     if you have portage-1.5-r1 or above installed then you can safely delete it.
313     This file has been replaced by <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>
314     (<path>/etc/make.profile</path> should actually be a symlink to,
315     <path>/usr/portage/profiles/default</path>),
316     which contains system profile-specific default settings. The priority order of
317     the various configuration files is as follows (highest first):
318     <ol>
319     <li>Environment variables</li>
320     <li><path>/etc/make.conf</path>, for your use</li>
321     <li><path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>, for profile-specific defaults</li>
322     <li><path>/etc/make.globals</path>, for global defaults (settings not specified in
323     any other place come from here)</li>
324     </ol></p></body>
325     </section>
326    
327     <section>
328     <title>Is there a way to upgrade all installed packages
329     e.g. <e>apt-get upgrade</e> or <e>make World</e>?</title>
330     <body><p><b>YES!</b> Type <c>emerge --update system</c> (use it with <c>--pretend</c> first) to
331     update all core system packages, and use <c>emerge --update world</c> (again, use it with
332     <c>--pretend</c> first) to do a complete system upgrade of all installed packages.
333    
334    
335     </p></body>
336     </section>
337    
338     <section>
339     <title>When updating a package using <c>emerge</c> or <c>ebuild</c>, how do I avoid
340     clobbering my config files?</title>
341     <body><p>
342     Portage now includes config file management support by default. Type
343     <c>emerge --help config</c> for more details. The (overly) simple answer is that if
344     a package installs <path>foo</path> somewhere under <path>/etc</path>, and
345     another <path>foo</path> already exists there, then the new <path>foo</path> will
346     instead be renamed to <path>._cfgxxxx_foo</path> in that directory. A useful
347     tool for examining and updating any protected config files is <c>etc-update</c>,
348 swift 1.27 which is now part of Portage.
349 drobbins 1.1 </p></body>
350     </section>
351    
352     <section>
353     <title>I want to perform the <c>./configure</c> step myself. Can I?</title>
354     <body><p>
355     Yes, but it is not trivial. First do <c>man ebuild</c> followed by
356     <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild unpack</c>. Then <c>cd</c> to
357     <path>/var/tmp/portage/foo-x.y.z/work</path>. You can manually perform
358     the <c>./configure</c> and <c>make</c> steps yourself (you'll have to do
359     both, since Portage does not separate the configure and build steps). To
360     have Portage finish the installation (so that you can easily remove it later,
361     should you desire to do so, and it will be registered in Portage as a possible
362     dependency) you first need to <c>touch /var/tmp/portage/foo-x.y.z/.compiled</c>
363     (tricking Portage into thinking that <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild compile</c> has
364     completed), followed by <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild merge</c>.
365     </p></body>
366     </section>
367    
368     <section>
369     <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
370     <body><p>
371     If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit
372 swift 1.29 rsync traffic, then you can use <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch
373     and install a Portage snapshot for you through regular HTTP.
374     <c>emerge-webrsync</c> uses <c>wget</c> to download, so proxy is fully
375     supported.
376     <pre caption="Using emerge-webrsync">
377     ~# <c>emerge-webrsync</c></pre>
378     If you cannot do this either, you can manually download a snapshot
379     from <uri>http://distro.ibiblio.org/pub/linux/distributions/gentoo/snapshots/</uri>.
380     In order to install the snapshot correctly, you first need to remove
381     your current <path>/usr/portage</path> so that outdated ebuilds don't
382     stay available on your system. However, you might want to put
383     <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> somewhere safe if you don't want to
384     lose all your sourcecode.
385     <pre caption="Manually installing the snapshots">
386     <codenote>(First download the snapshot and place it in /usr)</codenote>
387     ~# <c>cd /usr</c>
388     ~# <c>mv /usr/portage/distfiles /usr/distfiles-temp</c>
389     ~# <c>rm -rf /usr/portage</c>
390     ~# <c>tar xvjf portage-foo.tbz2</c>
391     ~# <c>mv /usr/distfiles-temp /usr/portage/distfiles</c></pre>
392 drobbins 1.1 </p></body>
393     </section>
394    
395     <section>
396     <title>How do I use <i>emerge</i> from behind a firewall?</title>
397     <body><p>
398     Edit the PROXY settings in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If that doesn't work,
399     edit <path>/etc/wget/wgetrc</path> and edit http_proxy and ftp_proxy
400     appropriately.
401     </p></body>
402     </section>
403    
404     <section>
405     <title>Can I rsync from another operating system?</title>
406     <body><p>There's a program called unison that works under both UNIX and Win32, available from
407     <uri>http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~bcpierce/unison/</uri>.</p></body>
408     </section>
409    
410     <section>
411     <title>I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere else and
412     add them to my system?</title>
413     <body><p>
414     Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
415 peesh 1.24 are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where to
416     download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>.
417     Download sources and bring them on any media
418 drobbins 1.1 home. Put the sources into <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run
419     <c>emerge package</c> to see it picking up the sources you just brought in!
420     </p></body>
421     </section>
422    
423     <section>
424     <title>.tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles/ using
425     valuable space. Is it safe to delete these files?</title>
426     <body><p>
427     Yes, you can safely delete these files. But if you are on a slow
428     connection, such as a modem, you might want to keep the archives if
429     possible; often several ebuilds will be released for the same version of
430     a specific piece of software - if you have deleted the archive and you
431     upgrade the software it will have to be downloaded from the internet
432     again.
433     </p></body>
434 zhen 1.5 </section>
435    
436     <section>
437     <title>I went to emerge blackdown-jdk and blackdown-jre, and afterwards
438     <c>java-config --list-available-vms</c> would only list blackdown-jre.
439     Openoffice would then refuse to emerge. What do I do? </title>
440    
441     <body>
442     <p>Solution: </p>
443     <pre caption = "Solution">
444     # <c>emerge unmerge blackdown-jre blackdown-jdk </c>
445     # <c>CONFIG_PROTECT="" emerge blackdown-jdk </c>
446     </pre>
447    
448 drobbins 1.1 </body>
449     </section>
450 zhware 1.18 <section>
451     <title>What's in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>? Is it safe to delete the files and directories in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>?</title>
452     <body>
453     During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. It is safe to clean out all contents of this directory.
454     </body>
455     </section>
456 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
457    
458     <chapter>
459     <title>Usage</title>
460     <section>
461     <title>I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal user
462     account doesn't work. </title>
463     <body>
464     <p>
465     This is most probably because your user account doesn't have a valid shell specified. Check
466     for your user entry in
467     <path>/etc/passwd</path> and see if it ends in /bin/bash (or any other shell). If it doesn't,
468     you must set a shell for the user. This is done using the usermod command, like this ;
469     </p>
470     <pre># <i>usermod -s /bin/bash myuser</i></pre>
471     </body>
472     </section>
473    
474     <section>
475     <title>I can start X applications as root only.</title>
476     <body><p>Your <path>/tmp</path> directory has the wrong permissions (it needs the sticky bit
477     set). Type the following as root:</p>
478     <pre># <i>chmod 1777 /tmp</i></pre>
479     </body>
480     </section>
481    
482     <section>
483     <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
484     <body><p>Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>.
485     Then either reboot or restart the keymaps script:
486     <c>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</c>.</p>
487     </body>
488     </section>
489    
490     <section>
491     <title>DNS name resolution works for root only.</title>
492     <body><p><path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as follows:
493     </p>
494     <pre># <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i></pre>
495     </body>
496     </section>
497    
498     <section>
499     <title>Why is KDE not reading <path>/etc/profile</path>?</title>
500     <body><p>You need to add <c>--login</c> to the first line in <path>/opt/kde2.1/bin/startkde
501     </path>, so that it reads as follows:</p>
502     <pre>#!/bin/sh --login</pre>
503     <p>This fix has been added to recent versions of KDE.</p>
504 zhen 1.17 </body>
505     </section>
506    
507     <section>
508     <title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
509     <body><p>You need to add that user to the <i>cron</i> group.
510     </p>
511 drobbins 1.1 </body>
512     </section>
513     </chapter>
514    
515     <chapter>
516     <title>Maintenance</title>
517     <section>
518     <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</title>
519     <body>
520     <p>
521     If your
522     ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo
523     Linux boot CD and run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on
524     the corrupted filesystem. This should make the filesystem consistent
525     again, although you may have lost some files or directories due
526     to the corruption.
527     </p>
528     </body>
529     </section>
530     <!-- is this still relevant? -cpm -->
531     <section>
532     <title>How to I view the timestamps in /var/log/syslog.d, etc. on a pre-1.0_rc5 Gentoo
533     system?</title>
534     <body>
535     <p>To view multilog (Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier) timestamps, you need to pipe the
536     current log through the <c>tai64nlocal</c>command:</p>
537    
538     <pre>
539 seo 1.14 # <i>tai64nlocal &lt; /var/log/syslog.d/current | less</i>
540 drobbins 1.1 </pre>
541    
542     <p>Or, alternatively, if you want to "tail" the log:</p>
543    
544     <pre>
545     # <i>tail -f /var/log/syslog.d/current | tai64nlocal</i>
546     </pre>
547    
548     </body>
549     </section>
550     </chapter>
551    
552     <chapter>
553     <title>Development</title>
554     <section>
555     <title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
556     <body><p>For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise, use our
557     Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can also visit us in
558 swift 1.27 <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network.
559 drobbins 1.1 </p></body>
560     </section>
561    
562     <section>
563     <title>How often are new releases made?</title>
564 zhen 1.13 <body><p>New releases are announced on the <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri>
565 drobbins 1.1 mailing list<!-- TODO: approximatley every X months -->, In reality the packages themselves
566     are updated shortly after the main authors release new code. As for when new Cd images etc
567     are released, that tends to be whenever there are any major updates to the base code, or when
568     new modules get added.</p></body>
569     </section>
570    
571     <section>
572     <title>I would like a package to be added to Portage; how would I go about this?</title>
573     <body><p>Head over to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and submit a new bug of the type
574     "ebuild". Attach your ebuild to the bug report.</p></body>
575     </section>
576    
577     <section>
578     <title>How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</title>
579     <body><p>Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the
580 swift 1.28 "Docs-user" product, "Gentoo Linux FAQ" component.</p></body>
581 drobbins 1.1 </section>
582    
583     <section>
584     <title>make -f Makefile.cvs on a KDE app produces "invalid unused variable" errors</title>
585     <body><p>
586     Export <c>WANT_AUTOMAKE_1_4=1</c> for all KDE projects before running
587     <c>make -f Makefile.cvs</c>. Also, for KDE2 apps export <c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_1=1</c>,
588     and for KDE3 apps export <c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_5=1</c>.
589     </p></body>
590     </section>
591    
592    
593     <section>
594     <title>My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps?
595     </title>
596     <body>
597     <p>
598     Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this ;
599    
600     <pre># <i>setterm -blength 0</i></pre>
601    
602     If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot
603     you need to put this command in
604     <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However, this only
605     disables beeps for the current terminal. To disable
606     beeps for other terminals, pipe the command output to the
607     target terminal, like this ;
608    
609     <pre># <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i></pre>
610    
611     You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal
612     you would like to disable console beeps for.
613     </p>
614     </body>
615     </section>
616     </chapter>
617    
618     <chapter>
619     <title>Resources</title>
620     <section>
621     <title>Where can I find more about supervise used by default in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier?</title>
622     <body><p><!-- TODO: --><uri>http://cr.yp.to/daemontools.html</uri></p></body>
623     </section>
624    
625     <section>
626     <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
627     <body><p>The official Gentoo documentation can be found on <uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>; general Linux information is at <uri>http://www.linuxdoc.org</uri>.</p></body>
628     </section>
629    
630     <section>
631     <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
632     <body><p>Yes! Fresh CDRs are available for $5 USD apiece from
633     <uri link = "http://cart.cheapbytes.com/cgi-bin/cart/0070010805">Cheapbytes</uri>.
634     </p>
635     <p>There are also CDs for sale at <uri link = "http://www.tuxcds.com/section.php?section=42">
636     tuxcds</uri> for a very good price. These people also bounce back a portion of the profits
637     to the Gentoo project, so buy them while they are hot! </p>
638     </body>
639     </section>
640    
641     <section>
642     <title>Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer
643     only go to the original poster and not the entire list?</title>
644     <body>
645     <p>The mailing list administrators have decided to go with minimal munging
646     (altering of mail headers), which means that they have decided against
647     altering headers to have replies go to the mailing list. There are various
648     reasons for this. For example, if a subscriber has a full mailbox, the
649     entire list receives notice of this every time that something is posted.
650    
651     Most GUI based mailers have a "reply to all" function. This will ensure that
652     your reply goes to the mailing list as well as the original poster. Most
653     users of text based emailers already know the methods to use, but if you
654     don't, in Pine, there is a "reply to group" option. Setting Mutt to reply to
655     the list is covered in the unofficial documentation at
656     <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=1085">forums.gentoo.org</uri>.
657    
658     Some list members do not like this method, but it was very heavily
659     discussed when it went into effect, with arguments on both sides.
660     Eventually the list administrators decided to keep it this way. Discussing
661     it on the mailing list will sometimes bring a polite explanation and other
662     times a rather brusque comment to check the archives. Although the
663     administrators regret the inconvenience that it may cause some users, it is
664     felt that at present it is preferable to the alternative for several
665     reasons, many of these covered
666     <uri link="http://www.unicom.com/pw/reply-to-harmful.html">here</uri>.
667    
668     (There are other eloquent arguments in favor of munging, and yes, the list
669     administrators have seen them.) </p>
670     </body>
671     </section>
672    
673     <section>
674     <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
675     <body>
676 zhen 1.23 <p>A good first step is to browse through the relevant doumentation <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/docs.xml">here</uri>,
677 drobbins 1.1 failing that, the various Gentoo Linux mailing
678 zhen 1.23 lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo mailling lists,
679     just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want
680 drobbins 1.1 to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc: <i>#gentoo</i>
681     on <i>irc.freenode.net</i>.
682     </p>
683     </body>
684     </section>
685     </chapter>
686     </guide>

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