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1 zhen 1.3 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 drobbins 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3    
4 zhen 1.2 <guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
5 drobbins 1.1 <title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
6     <author title="Chief Architect"><mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail></author>
7     <author title="Reviewer">Colin Morey</author>
8     <author title="Editor"><mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail></author>
9     <author title="Editor"><mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail></author>
10 zhware 1.16 <author title="Editor"><mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail></author>
11 carl 1.20 <author title="Editor"><mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail></author>
12 peesh 1.26 <author title="Editor"><mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail></author>
13 swift 1.29 <author title="Editor"><mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail></author>
14 drobbins 1.1 <abstract>This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add, please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.</abstract>
15    
16 zhen 1.23 <version>1.1.4</version>
17 swift 1.36 <date>29 June 2003</date>
18    
19     <chapter>
20     <title>Featured Questions</title>
21     <section>
22     <title>Getting Started</title>
23     <body>
24     <ul>
25     <li><uri link="#doc_chap2_sect1">How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean? </uri></li>
26     <li><uri link="#doc_chap2_sect2">What makes Gentoo different?</uri></li>
27     </ul>
28     </body>
29     </section>
30     <section>
31     <title>Installation</title>
32     <body>
33     <ul>
34     <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect1">What is the difference between the .iso and .tbz2 files?</uri></li>
35     <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect2">Why do the build .iso and .tbz2 files sometimes have different -r (revision) numbers?</uri></li>
36     <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect3">I have a Sony Super-Slim VAIO laptop, and the Gentoo Linux CD is having problems finding my PCMCIA ATAPI CD-ROM.</uri></li>
37     <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect4">I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?</uri></li>
38     <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect5">What's the default root password after installation?</uri></li>
39     <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect6">How can i change the root (or indeed any other user's) password?</uri></li>
40     <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect7">How do i add a normal user?</uri></li>
41     <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect8">Why can't a user su to root? </uri></li>
42     <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect9">How do I enable devfs?</uri></li>
43     <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect10">How to I disable devfs?</uri></li>
44     <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect11">How do I get a /dev/mouse that doesn't go away when I reboot (when using devfs)? </uri></li>
45     <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect12">Grub can't find stage x.y?</uri></li>
46     <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect13">My ASUS CUV4X-D won't boot and it freezes during various stages of kernel loading and hardware detection.</uri></li>
47     <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect14">If I have Gentoo 1.4_rc1 can I upgrade to 1.4_rc2, 1.4_final/_rc3 without reinstalling?</uri></li>
48     </ul>
49     </body>
50     </section>
51     <section>
52     <title>Package Management</title>
53     <body>
54     <ul>
55     <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect1">In what format are the packages stored?</uri></li>
56     <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect2">Why write a new port system (Portage) instead of using BSD's version?</uri></li>
57     <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect3">How does this differ from Debian's apt or BSD's ports?</uri></li>
58     <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect4">How do I install and uninstall packages?</uri></li>
59     <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect5">How can I set a global configuration for compiling packages?</uri></li>
60     <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect6">What happened to /etc/make.defaults?</uri></li>
61     <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect7">Is there a way to upgrade all installed packages e.g. apt-get upgrade or make World?</uri></li>
62     <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect8">When updating a package using emerge or ebuild, how do I avoid clobbering my config files?</uri></li>
63     <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect9">I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</uri></li>
64     <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect10">What if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri></li>
65     <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect11">How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</uri></li>
66     <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect12">Can I rsync from another operating system?</uri></li>
67     <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect13">I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere else and add them to my system?</uri></li>
68     <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect14">.tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles/ using valuable space. Is it safe to delete these files?</uri></li>
69     <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect15">I went to emerge blackdown-jdk and blackdown-jre, and afterwards java-config --list-available-vms would only list blackdown-jre. Openoffice would then refuse to emerge. What do I do? </uri></li>
70     <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect16">What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to delete the files and directories in /var/tmp/portage? </uri></li>
71     </ul>
72     </body>
73     </section>
74     <section>
75     <title>Usage</title>
76     <body>
77     <ul>
78     <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect1">I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal user account doesn't work.</uri></li>
79     <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect2">I can start X applications as root only. </uri></li>
80     <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect3">How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</uri></li>
81     <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect4">DNS name resolution works for root only. </uri></li>
82     <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect5">Why is KDE not reading /etc/profile? </uri></li>
83     <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect6">Why can't my user use their own crontab? </uri></li>
84     <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect7">How do I get numlock to start on boot?</uri></li>
85     </ul>
86     </body>
87     </section>
88     <section>
89     <title>Maintenance</title>
90     <body>
91     <ul>
92     <li><uri link="#doc_chap6_sect1">ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</uri></li>
93     <li><uri link="#doc_chap6_sect2">How to I view the timestamps in /var/log/syslog.d, etc. on a pre-1.0_rc5 Gentoo system? </uri></li>
94     </ul>
95     </body>
96     </section>
97     <section>
98     <title>Development</title>
99     <body>
100     <ul>
101     <li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect1">Where can I report bugs?</uri></li>
102     <li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect2">How often are new releases made? </uri></li>
103     <li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect3">I would like a package to be added to Portage; how would I go about this?</uri></li>
104     <li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect4">How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</uri></li>
105     <li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect5">make -f Makefile.cvs on a KDE app produces "invalid unused variable" errors </uri></li>
106     <li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect6">My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps? </uri></li>
107     </ul>
108     </body>
109     </section>
110     <section>
111     <title>Resources</title>
112     <body>
113     <ul>
114     <li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect1">Where can I find more about supervise used by default in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier? </uri></li>
115     <li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect2">Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux? </uri></li>
116     <li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect3">Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</uri></li>
117     <li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect4">Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer only go to the original poster and not the entire list?</uri></li>
118     <li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect5">This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now? </uri></li>
119     </ul>
120     </body>
121     </section>
122     </chapter>
123    
124 drobbins 1.1
125     <chapter>
126     <title>Getting Started</title>
127    
128     <section>
129     <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
130 drobbins 1.11 <body><p>Gentoo is a species of small fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (The "g" in "gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle".)</p></body>
131 drobbins 1.1 </section>
132    
133     <section>
134     <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
135     <body>
136     <p>Gentoo Linux is a fast, modern distribution with a clean and flexible
137     design -- in this respect, Gentoo may appeal to
138     <uri link="http://www.slackware.com/">Slackware</uri>,
139     <uri link="http://www.linuxfromscratch.org">Linux From Scratch</uri> or
140     <uri link="http://www.bsd.org">BSD</uri> users. Unlike most Linux
141     distros, Gentoo has a package system reminiscent of BSD's ports,
142     meaning the packages are continually updated to the lastest
143     versions.
144 zhen 1.5 </p>
145     </body>
146     </section>
147     </chapter>
148 drobbins 1.1
149     <chapter>
150     <title>Installation</title>
151 zhen 1.6
152 zhen 1.9 <section>
153 drobbins 1.1
154 zhen 1.10 <warn>REPORT all bugs to <uri>bugs.gentoo.org</uri>! Do not report bugs to upstream (original)
155 zhen 1.9 authors. Report the bugs to Gentoo, and we will move them upstream if necessary.
156 zhen 1.10 </warn>
157 zhen 1.9
158 drobbins 1.1 <title>What is the difference between the .iso and .tbz2 files?</title>
159     <body><p>The build <e>.tbz2</e> file is a minimal set of system files
160     that is necessary for allowing a user to bootstrap and install
161     Gentoo Linux. The build <e>.iso</e> is a complete, bootable CD image that
162     contains a system kernel, a reasonably complete set of kernel modules,
163     necessary system tools such as <c>mkfs</c> and networking support,
164     as well as the <e>.tbz2</e> minimal-system tarball. Most users will install
165     Gentoo Linux by burning the .iso file onto a CD, booting off of the CD,
166     and installing from within the minimal linux environment provided by
167     the Gentoo boot CD. It is possible, however, for users to install
168     Gentoo Linux directly from an already-existing Linux distribution.
169     Such users need only download the .tbz2 file, install the contents
170     on a spare partition (making sure to use the <c>p</c> flag when
171     untarring the tarball!), chroot, and install in the usual fashion.</p>
172     </body>
173     </section>
174    
175     <section>
176     <title>Why do the build .iso and .tbz2 files sometimes have different -r (revision) numbers?</title>
177     <body><p>
178     The .tbz2 minimal-system tarball only needs to be revised when there have
179     been significant changes to the core Gentoo Linux system (such as baselayout
180     changes, or a new profile), and as such .tbz2 updates are relatively rare.
181     The .iso file tends to get updated whenever we discover that somebody has
182     hardware that won't boot from our .iso. Since new kernel modules and
183     patches are constantly being generated, this situation probably won't
184     stabilise anytime soon.
185     </p>
186     </body>
187     </section>
188    
189     <section>
190     <title>I have a Sony Super-Slim VAIO laptop, and the Gentoo Linux CD is having problems
191     finding my PCMCIA ATAPI CD-ROM.</title>
192     <body>
193     <p>Make sure the second IDE port is set to CDROM (it unsets itself if the device isn't
194     attached on boot) then do the following at the isolinux <c>boot:</c> prompt:</p>
195     <pre>
196     boot: <i>rescue ide2=0x180,0x386</i>
197     </pre>
198     <p>If you are using a 1.0_rc5 or earlier boot CD, apart from thinking about downloading the latest iso,
199     type <c>gentoo</c> instead of <c>rescue</c>, above.</p>
200     </body>
201    
202     </section>
203     <section>
204     <title>I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math
205     -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?</title>
206     <body>
207 klieber 1.35 <p>Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't support by current versions
208 peesh 1.34 of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the compiler to streamline the assembly code
209 swift 1.30 to the point where it doesn't quite do the same thing anymore. A possible setting based on <e>Loc-Dog</e> (on IRC)'s CFLAGS
210     is <c>-O3 -mcpu=i686 -march=i686 -fforce-addr -fomit-frame-pointer -funroll-loops
211     -frerun-cse-after-loop -frerun-loop-opt -falign-functions=4</c>, which is about
212 drobbins 1.1 as much as I'd want to push global optimization settings. Beyond this, it's best to use
213     ultra-high optimizations only with specific packages where you really need that extra 2%,
214     (eg graphics and various multimedia programs), and where you can easily test the package
215     to ensure that it hasn't been optimized into oblivion.</p>
216 zhware 1.4 <p>Please try first to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march= -O2</c> before reporting a bug</p>
217 drobbins 1.1 </body>
218     </section>
219    
220     <section>
221     <title>What's the default root password after installation?</title>
222     <body><p>The default password is blank; hit enter.</p></body>
223     </section>
224    
225     <section>
226     <title>How can i change the root (or indeed any other user's) password?</title>
227     <body><p>You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged into.
228     for extra options and setting, please see <c>man passwd</c> once you've completed the install.
229     </p></body>
230     </section>
231     <section>
232     <title>How do i add a normal user?</title>
233 swift 1.36 <body>
234 drobbins 1.1 <p>The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called gentoo. The next step is to give
235     this user a password and <c>passwd</c> will do exactly that.</p>
236 swift 1.36 <p>Instead of <c>adduser</c> you can also use:
237 zhware 1.15 <pre># <i>useradd gentoo -m -G users,audio,wheel -s /bin/bash</i></pre>
238 zhware 1.16 This will add a user gentoo, will make possible for him to use sound-related devices (<path>/dev/sound/*</path>), will make possible for him to switch to root (using <c>su</c>) and will make <path>/bin/bash</path> his login shell.
239 zhware 1.15 </p>
240 swift 1.36 <p>You can also install <c>superadduser</c> using <c>emerge superadduser</c> and then issue <c>superadduser gentoo</c> to add a user called gentoo. Just follow the instructions given to you by <c>superadduser</c>.
241     </p>
242 drobbins 1.1 </body>
243     </section>
244     <section>
245     <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
246     <body><p>For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
247     <e>wheel</e> group. To add a <i>username</i> to the <e>wheel</e> group, issue the following
248     command as root:</p>
249     <pre># <i>usermod -G users,wheel username</i></pre>
250     </body>
251     </section>
252     <section>
253     <title>How do I enable devfs?</title>
254     <body>
255     <p>
256     If you're using 1.0_rc5 or greater, you don't need to do anything special to get
257     devfs working; it's already active (you did make sure that devfs was built into the
258     kernel, didn't you?).
259     However, if you are using a version of Gentoo Linux <e>prior</e> to version 1.0_rc5, add
260     <c>devfs=mount</c> to your <c>GRUB</c> kernel boot options so that the line looks something
261     like <c>kernel /boot/boot/bzImage devfs=mount foo=bar</c> The kernel will then mount the
262     <path>/dev</path> <e>devfs</e> filesystem automatically at boot-time.
263     </p>
264     </body>
265     </section>
266     <section>
267     <title>How to I disable devfs?</title>
268     <body>
269     <p>Under Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc6 and later, you can disable devfs by passing the
270     <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> to the kernel.</p>
271     </body>
272     </section>
273     <section>
274     <title>How do I get a <path>/dev/mouse </path> that
275     doesn't go away when I reboot (when using devfs)?</title>
276     <body>
277     <p>
278     If you are using 1.0_rc6 or later, then you can just use <c>ln -s</c>
279     to make the usual symbolic link from <path>/dev/mouse</path>, and
280     it will be preserved between reboots.
281     </p>
282     <p>All other users need to edit <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path>
283     and add these lines:</p>
284     <pre>
285     REGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL symlink misc/psaux mouse
286     UNREGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL unlink mouse
287     </pre>
288     <p>If you are not using the devfs PS/2 mouse <path>/dev/misc/psaux</path> device,
289     adjust the <c>misc/psaux</c> strings above accoringly. You'll then want to
290     <c>killall -HUP devfsd</c>
291     to get devfsd to reread <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path>.</p>
292     </body>
293     </section>
294     <section>
295     <title>Grub can't find stage x.y?</title>
296     <body><p>
297     During installation the grub boot files are copied
298     to <path>/boot/grub</path> (<path>/boot/boot/grub</path> in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and
299     earlier.) Grub automatically looks in the <path>/boot/grub</path> directory on the boot
300     partition. (We strongly recommend having a separate no-auto boot partition mounted at
301     <path>/boot</path>, since that way it is much more difficult to clobber your kernel and boot
302     info by accident.) The above error generally arises from (a) not using a separate boot
303     partition, (b) forgetting to mount the boot partition at <path>/boot</path> before either
304     unpacking the build snapshot or running
305     <c>emerge --usepkg system</c>, or (c) forgetting the
306     <c>notail</c> option when mounting a ReiserFS <path>/boot</path> partition.
307     You can get more information on grub, including how to
308     debug grub from the grub prompt, by reading the
309     <uri link="http://www-105.ibm.com/developerworks/education.nsf/linux-onlinecourse-bytitle/0F1731DC664023B7862569D0005C44AF?OpenDocument">IBM developerWorks Grub tutorial</uri>.
310     </p>
311     </body>
312     </section>
313    
314     <section>
315     <title>My ASUS CUV4X-D won't boot and it freezes during various stages of kernel loading and hardware
316     detection. </title>
317     <body>
318     <p>Disable MPS 1.4 (multi-processor-system) in the BIOS or switch this
319     function to 1.1. By using this option you just switch the MPS version. The Multi-Processor-System
320     will still work properly. Make sure to boot Gentoo Linux with the following boot option, noapic. </p>
321     </body>
322     </section>
323    
324 zhware 1.19 <section>
325     <title>If I have Gentoo 1.4_rc1 can I upgrade to 1.4_rc2, 1.4_final/_rc3 without reinstalling?</title>
326     <body>
327     In fact there is no difference between the 1.4 releases <b>after they&apos;ve installed</b>. Gentoo 1.4 and later are <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based.
328 swift 1.31 As such 1.4rc1 machine for example, that does <c>emerge sync; emerge -u world</c> is <b>exactly the same</b> as a machine with 1.4rc2 installed, after it does <c>emerge sync; emerge -u world</c>. The true differences lie in the installer.
329 zhware 1.19 </body>
330     </section>
331 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
332    
333     <chapter>
334     <title>Package Management</title>
335     <section>
336     <title>In what format are the packages stored?</title>
337     <body><p>They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; we are primarily
338     a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts (<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a
339     special system (Portage) so that you can build apps from sources. We generally only build
340 swift 1.22 binaries for releases and snapshots. The <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-howto.xml">Development HOWTO
341 drobbins 1.1 </uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we
342     create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format (<c>.tar.bz2</c>
343     compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the file.)</p>
344     </body>
345     </section>
346    
347     <section>
348     <title>Why write a new port system (Portage) instead of using BSD's version?</title>
349     <body>
350     <p>In one sentence, because Portage is much better in so many ways. One of the design
351     philosophies of the <c>.ebuild</c> syntax was to make it an analog of what you'd type to
352     install the program manually, thus making Portage very easy to learn and modify to your
353     needs. We also have OpenBSD-style "fake" installs, safe unmerging, system profiles,
354     package masking, a real dependency system, and lots of other good stuff.</p>
355     </body>
356     </section>
357    
358     <section>
359     <title>How does this differ from Debian's apt or BSD's ports?</title>
360     <body><p>Portage features the best of apt and ports; for example, USE options, a full
361     dependency system, safe installs and uninstalls, and a true package database. Think of
362     Portage as the best of both worlds; a ports system with the sensibilities and safety of a
363     Linux package management system built-in.</p></body>
364     </section>
365    
366     <section>
367     <title>How do I install and uninstall packages?</title>
368     <body>
369 swift 1.22 <p>The <uri link="/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage User Guide</uri> details how to install
370 drobbins 1.1 and uninstall packages, and update Portage.</p>
371     </body>
372     </section>
373    
374     <section>
375     <title>How can I set a global configuration for compiling packages?</title>
376     <body><p><path>/etc/make.conf</path> should be modified to override global and
377     profile-specific default options used to compile and merge packages. The most common options
378     are as follows:</p>
379     <table>
380     <tr>
381     <th>Flag</th>
382     <th>Description</th>
383     </tr>
384     <tr>
385     <ti>CHOST</ti>
386     <ti>This sets the HOST variable for compiles, e.g. <c>i686-pc-linux-gnu</c></ti>
387     </tr>
388     <tr>
389     <ti>CFLAGS</ti>
390     <ti>The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C (*.c files)</ti>
391     </tr>
392     <tr>
393     <ti>CXXFLAGS</ti>
394     <ti>The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C++ (*.c,*.cpp etc.
395     files)</ti>
396     </tr>
397     <tr>
398     <ti>USE</ti>
399     <ti>This allows you to set what optional components you'd like compiled-in, if
400     available. For example, if you have <c>gnome</c> inside the USE string, then when
401     you compile <c>xchat</c>, it will include GNOME support. All our dependencies are
402     also USE-aware.</ti>
403     </tr>
404     <tr>
405     <ti>GENTOO_MIRRORS</ti>
406     <ti>A space separated list of URIs currently mirroring the Gentoo packages. Portage
407     will attempt download from a <c>GENTOO_MIRROR</c> first before trying the official
408     <c>SRC_URI</c>. To force Portage to skip mirrors, set this variable to "".</ti>
409     </tr>
410     </table>
411     </body>
412     </section>
413    
414     <section>
415     <title>What happened to <path>/etc/make.defaults</path>?</title>
416     <body>
417     <p>As of Portage 1.5 onwards, <path>/etc/make.defaults</path> is antiquated;
418     if you have portage-1.5-r1 or above installed then you can safely delete it.
419     This file has been replaced by <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>
420     (<path>/etc/make.profile</path> should actually be a symlink to,
421     <path>/usr/portage/profiles/default</path>),
422     which contains system profile-specific default settings. The priority order of
423     the various configuration files is as follows (highest first):
424     <ol>
425     <li>Environment variables</li>
426     <li><path>/etc/make.conf</path>, for your use</li>
427     <li><path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>, for profile-specific defaults</li>
428     <li><path>/etc/make.globals</path>, for global defaults (settings not specified in
429     any other place come from here)</li>
430     </ol></p></body>
431     </section>
432    
433     <section>
434     <title>Is there a way to upgrade all installed packages
435     e.g. <e>apt-get upgrade</e> or <e>make World</e>?</title>
436     <body><p><b>YES!</b> Type <c>emerge --update system</c> (use it with <c>--pretend</c> first) to
437     update all core system packages, and use <c>emerge --update world</c> (again, use it with
438     <c>--pretend</c> first) to do a complete system upgrade of all installed packages.
439    
440    
441     </p></body>
442     </section>
443    
444     <section>
445     <title>When updating a package using <c>emerge</c> or <c>ebuild</c>, how do I avoid
446     clobbering my config files?</title>
447     <body><p>
448     Portage now includes config file management support by default. Type
449     <c>emerge --help config</c> for more details. The (overly) simple answer is that if
450     a package installs <path>foo</path> somewhere under <path>/etc</path>, and
451     another <path>foo</path> already exists there, then the new <path>foo</path> will
452     instead be renamed to <path>._cfgxxxx_foo</path> in that directory. A useful
453     tool for examining and updating any protected config files is <c>etc-update</c>,
454 swift 1.27 which is now part of Portage.
455 drobbins 1.1 </p></body>
456     </section>
457    
458     <section>
459     <title>I want to perform the <c>./configure</c> step myself. Can I?</title>
460     <body><p>
461     Yes, but it is not trivial. First do <c>man ebuild</c> followed by
462     <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild unpack</c>. Then <c>cd</c> to
463     <path>/var/tmp/portage/foo-x.y.z/work</path>. You can manually perform
464     the <c>./configure</c> and <c>make</c> steps yourself (you'll have to do
465     both, since Portage does not separate the configure and build steps). To
466     have Portage finish the installation (so that you can easily remove it later,
467     should you desire to do so, and it will be registered in Portage as a possible
468     dependency) you first need to <c>touch /var/tmp/portage/foo-x.y.z/.compiled</c>
469     (tricking Portage into thinking that <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild compile</c> has
470     completed), followed by <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild merge</c>.
471     </p></body>
472     </section>
473    
474     <section>
475     <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
476     <body><p>
477     If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit
478 swift 1.29 rsync traffic, then you can use <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch
479     and install a Portage snapshot for you through regular HTTP.
480     <c>emerge-webrsync</c> uses <c>wget</c> to download, so proxy is fully
481     supported.
482     <pre caption="Using emerge-webrsync">
483     ~# <c>emerge-webrsync</c></pre>
484     If you cannot do this either, you can manually download a snapshot
485     from <uri>http://distro.ibiblio.org/pub/linux/distributions/gentoo/snapshots/</uri>.
486     In order to install the snapshot correctly, you first need to remove
487     your current <path>/usr/portage</path> so that outdated ebuilds don't
488     stay available on your system. However, you might want to put
489     <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> somewhere safe if you don't want to
490     lose all your sourcecode.
491     <pre caption="Manually installing the snapshots">
492     <codenote>(First download the snapshot and place it in /usr)</codenote>
493     ~# <c>cd /usr</c>
494     ~# <c>mv /usr/portage/distfiles /usr/distfiles-temp</c>
495     ~# <c>rm -rf /usr/portage</c>
496     ~# <c>tar xvjf portage-foo.tbz2</c>
497     ~# <c>mv /usr/distfiles-temp /usr/portage/distfiles</c></pre>
498 drobbins 1.1 </p></body>
499     </section>
500    
501     <section>
502     <title>How do I use <i>emerge</i> from behind a firewall?</title>
503     <body><p>
504     Edit the PROXY settings in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If that doesn't work,
505     edit <path>/etc/wget/wgetrc</path> and edit http_proxy and ftp_proxy
506     appropriately.
507     </p></body>
508     </section>
509    
510     <section>
511     <title>Can I rsync from another operating system?</title>
512     <body><p>There's a program called unison that works under both UNIX and Win32, available from
513     <uri>http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~bcpierce/unison/</uri>.</p></body>
514     </section>
515    
516     <section>
517     <title>I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere else and
518     add them to my system?</title>
519     <body><p>
520     Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
521 peesh 1.24 are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where to
522     download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>.
523     Download sources and bring them on any media
524 drobbins 1.1 home. Put the sources into <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run
525     <c>emerge package</c> to see it picking up the sources you just brought in!
526     </p></body>
527     </section>
528    
529     <section>
530     <title>.tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles/ using
531     valuable space. Is it safe to delete these files?</title>
532     <body><p>
533     Yes, you can safely delete these files. But if you are on a slow
534     connection, such as a modem, you might want to keep the archives if
535     possible; often several ebuilds will be released for the same version of
536     a specific piece of software - if you have deleted the archive and you
537     upgrade the software it will have to be downloaded from the internet
538     again.
539     </p></body>
540 zhen 1.5 </section>
541    
542     <section>
543     <title>I went to emerge blackdown-jdk and blackdown-jre, and afterwards
544     <c>java-config --list-available-vms</c> would only list blackdown-jre.
545     Openoffice would then refuse to emerge. What do I do? </title>
546    
547     <body>
548     <p>Solution: </p>
549     <pre caption = "Solution">
550     # <c>emerge unmerge blackdown-jre blackdown-jdk </c>
551     # <c>CONFIG_PROTECT="" emerge blackdown-jdk </c>
552     </pre>
553    
554 drobbins 1.1 </body>
555     </section>
556 zhware 1.18 <section>
557     <title>What's in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>? Is it safe to delete the files and directories in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>?</title>
558     <body>
559     During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. It is safe to clean out all contents of this directory.
560     </body>
561     </section>
562 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
563    
564     <chapter>
565     <title>Usage</title>
566     <section>
567     <title>I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal user
568     account doesn't work. </title>
569     <body>
570     <p>
571     This is most probably because your user account doesn't have a valid shell specified. Check
572     for your user entry in
573     <path>/etc/passwd</path> and see if it ends in /bin/bash (or any other shell). If it doesn't,
574     you must set a shell for the user. This is done using the usermod command, like this ;
575     </p>
576     <pre># <i>usermod -s /bin/bash myuser</i></pre>
577     </body>
578     </section>
579    
580     <section>
581     <title>I can start X applications as root only.</title>
582     <body><p>Your <path>/tmp</path> directory has the wrong permissions (it needs the sticky bit
583     set). Type the following as root:</p>
584     <pre># <i>chmod 1777 /tmp</i></pre>
585     </body>
586     </section>
587    
588     <section>
589     <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
590     <body><p>Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>.
591     Then either reboot or restart the keymaps script:
592     <c>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</c>.</p>
593     </body>
594     </section>
595    
596     <section>
597     <title>DNS name resolution works for root only.</title>
598     <body><p><path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as follows:
599     </p>
600     <pre># <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i></pre>
601     </body>
602     </section>
603    
604     <section>
605     <title>Why is KDE not reading <path>/etc/profile</path>?</title>
606     <body><p>You need to add <c>--login</c> to the first line in <path>/opt/kde2.1/bin/startkde
607     </path>, so that it reads as follows:</p>
608     <pre>#!/bin/sh --login</pre>
609     <p>This fix has been added to recent versions of KDE.</p>
610 zhen 1.17 </body>
611     </section>
612    
613     <section>
614     <title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
615     <body><p>You need to add that user to the <i>cron</i> group.
616     </p>
617 drobbins 1.1 </body>
618     </section>
619 swift 1.32
620     <section>
621     <title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
622     <body>
623     <p>
624     If you log on graphically, or want numlock to be activated when
625 swift 1.33 you issue <c>startx</c>, then you must <c>emerge numlockx</c> and
626 swift 1.32 add <c>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</c> to
627     <path>/etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc</path> (for <c>startx</c>) or
628     <path>/etc/X11/xdm/Xsetup_0</path> (for any graphical login manager).
629     </p>
630     <p>
631     If you work in commandline, you only need to <c>rc-update add
632     numlock default</c> and numlock will be activated on the next
633     reboot.
634     </p>
635     </body>
636     </section>
637    
638 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
639    
640     <chapter>
641     <title>Maintenance</title>
642     <section>
643     <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</title>
644     <body>
645     <p>
646     If your
647     ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo
648     Linux boot CD and run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on
649     the corrupted filesystem. This should make the filesystem consistent
650     again, although you may have lost some files or directories due
651     to the corruption.
652     </p>
653     </body>
654     </section>
655     <!-- is this still relevant? -cpm -->
656     <section>
657     <title>How to I view the timestamps in /var/log/syslog.d, etc. on a pre-1.0_rc5 Gentoo
658     system?</title>
659     <body>
660     <p>To view multilog (Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier) timestamps, you need to pipe the
661     current log through the <c>tai64nlocal</c>command:</p>
662    
663     <pre>
664 seo 1.14 # <i>tai64nlocal &lt; /var/log/syslog.d/current | less</i>
665 drobbins 1.1 </pre>
666    
667     <p>Or, alternatively, if you want to "tail" the log:</p>
668    
669     <pre>
670     # <i>tail -f /var/log/syslog.d/current | tai64nlocal</i>
671     </pre>
672    
673     </body>
674     </section>
675     </chapter>
676    
677     <chapter>
678     <title>Development</title>
679     <section>
680     <title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
681     <body><p>For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise, use our
682     Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can also visit us in
683 swift 1.27 <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network.
684 drobbins 1.1 </p></body>
685     </section>
686    
687     <section>
688     <title>How often are new releases made?</title>
689 zhen 1.13 <body><p>New releases are announced on the <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri>
690 drobbins 1.1 mailing list<!-- TODO: approximatley every X months -->, In reality the packages themselves
691     are updated shortly after the main authors release new code. As for when new Cd images etc
692     are released, that tends to be whenever there are any major updates to the base code, or when
693     new modules get added.</p></body>
694     </section>
695    
696     <section>
697     <title>I would like a package to be added to Portage; how would I go about this?</title>
698     <body><p>Head over to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and submit a new bug of the type
699     "ebuild". Attach your ebuild to the bug report.</p></body>
700     </section>
701    
702     <section>
703     <title>How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</title>
704     <body><p>Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the
705 swift 1.28 "Docs-user" product, "Gentoo Linux FAQ" component.</p></body>
706 drobbins 1.1 </section>
707    
708     <section>
709     <title>make -f Makefile.cvs on a KDE app produces "invalid unused variable" errors</title>
710     <body><p>
711     Export <c>WANT_AUTOMAKE_1_4=1</c> for all KDE projects before running
712     <c>make -f Makefile.cvs</c>. Also, for KDE2 apps export <c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_1=1</c>,
713     and for KDE3 apps export <c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_5=1</c>.
714     </p></body>
715     </section>
716    
717    
718     <section>
719     <title>My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps?
720     </title>
721     <body>
722     <p>
723     Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this ;
724    
725     <pre># <i>setterm -blength 0</i></pre>
726    
727     If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot
728     you need to put this command in
729     <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However, this only
730     disables beeps for the current terminal. To disable
731     beeps for other terminals, pipe the command output to the
732     target terminal, like this ;
733    
734     <pre># <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i></pre>
735    
736     You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal
737     you would like to disable console beeps for.
738     </p>
739     </body>
740     </section>
741     </chapter>
742    
743     <chapter>
744     <title>Resources</title>
745     <section>
746     <title>Where can I find more about supervise used by default in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier?</title>
747     <body><p><!-- TODO: --><uri>http://cr.yp.to/daemontools.html</uri></p></body>
748     </section>
749    
750     <section>
751     <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
752     <body><p>The official Gentoo documentation can be found on <uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>; general Linux information is at <uri>http://www.linuxdoc.org</uri>.</p></body>
753     </section>
754    
755     <section>
756     <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
757     <body><p>Yes! Fresh CDRs are available for $5 USD apiece from
758     <uri link = "http://cart.cheapbytes.com/cgi-bin/cart/0070010805">Cheapbytes</uri>.
759     </p>
760     <p>There are also CDs for sale at <uri link = "http://www.tuxcds.com/section.php?section=42">
761     tuxcds</uri> for a very good price. These people also bounce back a portion of the profits
762     to the Gentoo project, so buy them while they are hot! </p>
763     </body>
764     </section>
765    
766     <section>
767     <title>Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer
768     only go to the original poster and not the entire list?</title>
769     <body>
770     <p>The mailing list administrators have decided to go with minimal munging
771     (altering of mail headers), which means that they have decided against
772     altering headers to have replies go to the mailing list. There are various
773     reasons for this. For example, if a subscriber has a full mailbox, the
774     entire list receives notice of this every time that something is posted.
775    
776     Most GUI based mailers have a "reply to all" function. This will ensure that
777     your reply goes to the mailing list as well as the original poster. Most
778     users of text based emailers already know the methods to use, but if you
779     don't, in Pine, there is a "reply to group" option. Setting Mutt to reply to
780     the list is covered in the unofficial documentation at
781     <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=1085">forums.gentoo.org</uri>.
782    
783     Some list members do not like this method, but it was very heavily
784     discussed when it went into effect, with arguments on both sides.
785     Eventually the list administrators decided to keep it this way. Discussing
786     it on the mailing list will sometimes bring a polite explanation and other
787     times a rather brusque comment to check the archives. Although the
788     administrators regret the inconvenience that it may cause some users, it is
789     felt that at present it is preferable to the alternative for several
790     reasons, many of these covered
791     <uri link="http://www.unicom.com/pw/reply-to-harmful.html">here</uri>.
792    
793     (There are other eloquent arguments in favor of munging, and yes, the list
794     administrators have seen them.) </p>
795     </body>
796     </section>
797    
798     <section>
799     <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
800     <body>
801 zhen 1.23 <p>A good first step is to browse through the relevant doumentation <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/docs.xml">here</uri>,
802 drobbins 1.1 failing that, the various Gentoo Linux mailing
803 zhen 1.23 lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo mailling lists,
804     just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want
805 drobbins 1.1 to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc: <i>#gentoo</i>
806     on <i>irc.freenode.net</i>.
807     </p>
808     </body>
809     </section>
810     </chapter>
811     </guide>

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