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1 zhen 1.3 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 drobbins 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3    
4 zhen 1.2 <guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
5 drobbins 1.1 <title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
6     <author title="Chief Architect"><mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail></author>
7     <author title="Reviewer">Colin Morey</author>
8 swift 1.43 <author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->John P. Davis</author>
9 drobbins 1.1 <author title="Editor"><mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail></author>
10 zhware 1.16 <author title="Editor"><mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail></author>
11 carl 1.20 <author title="Editor"><mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail></author>
12 peesh 1.26 <author title="Editor"><mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail></author>
13 swift 1.29 <author title="Editor"><mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail></author>
14 drobbins 1.1 <abstract>This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add, please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.</abstract>
15    
16 swift 1.42 <license/>
17    
18 swift 1.45 <version>1.1.10</version>
19     <date>November 7, 2003</date>
20 swift 1.36
21     <chapter>
22     <title>Featured Questions</title>
23     <section>
24     <title>Getting Started</title>
25     <body>
26     <ul>
27     <li><uri link="#doc_chap2_sect1">How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean? </uri></li>
28     <li><uri link="#doc_chap2_sect2">What makes Gentoo different?</uri></li>
29     </ul>
30     </body>
31     </section>
32     <section>
33     <title>Installation</title>
34     <body>
35     <ul>
36     <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect1">What is the difference between the .iso and .tbz2 files?</uri></li>
37     <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect2">Why do the build .iso and .tbz2 files sometimes have different -r (revision) numbers?</uri></li>
38 swift 1.38 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect3">I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?</uri></li>
39     <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect4">What's the default root password after installation?</uri></li>
40     <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect5">How can i change the root (or indeed any other user's) password?</uri></li>
41     <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect6">How do i add a normal user?</uri></li>
42     <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect7">Why can't a user su to root? </uri></li>
43     <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect8">How do I enable devfs?</uri></li>
44     <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect9">How to I disable devfs?</uri></li>
45     <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect10">How do I get a /dev/mouse that doesn't go away when I reboot (when using devfs)? </uri></li>
46     <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect11">Grub can't find stage x.y?</uri></li>
47     <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect12">My ASUS CUV4X-D won't boot and it freezes during various stages of kernel loading and hardware detection.</uri></li>
48     <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect13">If I have Gentoo 1.4_rc1 can I upgrade to 1.4_rc2, 1.4_final/_rc3 without reinstalling?</uri></li>
49     <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect14">My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should I do now?</uri></li>
50 bennyc 1.40 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect15">My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</uri></li>
51 swift 1.36 </ul>
52     </body>
53     </section>
54     <section>
55     <title>Package Management</title>
56     <body>
57     <ul>
58     <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect1">In what format are the packages stored?</uri></li>
59     <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect2">Why write a new port system (Portage) instead of using BSD's version?</uri></li>
60     <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect3">How does this differ from Debian's apt or BSD's ports?</uri></li>
61     <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect4">How do I install and uninstall packages?</uri></li>
62     <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect5">How can I set a global configuration for compiling packages?</uri></li>
63     <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect6">What happened to /etc/make.defaults?</uri></li>
64     <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect7">Is there a way to upgrade all installed packages e.g. apt-get upgrade or make World?</uri></li>
65     <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect8">When updating a package using emerge or ebuild, how do I avoid clobbering my config files?</uri></li>
66     <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect9">I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</uri></li>
67     <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect10">What if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri></li>
68     <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect11">How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</uri></li>
69     <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect12">Can I rsync from another operating system?</uri></li>
70     <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect13">I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere else and add them to my system?</uri></li>
71     <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect14">.tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles/ using valuable space. Is it safe to delete these files?</uri></li>
72     <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect15">I went to emerge blackdown-jdk and blackdown-jre, and afterwards java-config --list-available-vms would only list blackdown-jre. Openoffice would then refuse to emerge. What do I do? </uri></li>
73     <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect16">What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to delete the files and directories in /var/tmp/portage? </uri></li>
74     </ul>
75     </body>
76     </section>
77     <section>
78     <title>Usage</title>
79     <body>
80     <ul>
81     <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect1">I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal user account doesn't work.</uri></li>
82     <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect2">I can start X applications as root only. </uri></li>
83     <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect3">How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</uri></li>
84     <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect4">DNS name resolution works for root only. </uri></li>
85     <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect5">Why is KDE not reading /etc/profile? </uri></li>
86     <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect6">Why can't my user use their own crontab? </uri></li>
87     <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect7">How do I get numlock to start on boot?</uri></li>
88 swift 1.37 <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect8">How do I have my terminal cleared when
89     I log out?</uri></li>
90 swift 1.36 </ul>
91     </body>
92     </section>
93     <section>
94     <title>Maintenance</title>
95     <body>
96     <ul>
97     <li><uri link="#doc_chap6_sect1">ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</uri></li>
98     <li><uri link="#doc_chap6_sect2">How to I view the timestamps in /var/log/syslog.d, etc. on a pre-1.0_rc5 Gentoo system? </uri></li>
99 swift 1.41 <li><uri link="#doc_chap6_sect3">Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</uri></li>
100 swift 1.36 </ul>
101     </body>
102     </section>
103     <section>
104     <title>Development</title>
105     <body>
106     <ul>
107     <li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect1">Where can I report bugs?</uri></li>
108     <li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect2">How often are new releases made? </uri></li>
109     <li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect3">I would like a package to be added to Portage; how would I go about this?</uri></li>
110     <li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect4">How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</uri></li>
111     <li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect5">make -f Makefile.cvs on a KDE app produces "invalid unused variable" errors </uri></li>
112     <li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect6">My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps? </uri></li>
113     </ul>
114     </body>
115     </section>
116     <section>
117     <title>Resources</title>
118     <body>
119     <ul>
120     <li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect1">Where can I find more about supervise used by default in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier? </uri></li>
121     <li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect2">Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux? </uri></li>
122     <li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect3">Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</uri></li>
123     <li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect4">Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer only go to the original poster and not the entire list?</uri></li>
124     <li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect5">This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now? </uri></li>
125     </ul>
126     </body>
127     </section>
128     </chapter>
129    
130 drobbins 1.1
131     <chapter>
132     <title>Getting Started</title>
133    
134     <section>
135     <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
136 drobbins 1.11 <body><p>Gentoo is a species of small fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (The "g" in "gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle".)</p></body>
137 drobbins 1.1 </section>
138    
139     <section>
140     <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
141     <body>
142     <p>Gentoo Linux is a fast, modern distribution with a clean and flexible
143     design -- in this respect, Gentoo may appeal to
144     <uri link="http://www.slackware.com/">Slackware</uri>,
145     <uri link="http://www.linuxfromscratch.org">Linux From Scratch</uri> or
146     <uri link="http://www.bsd.org">BSD</uri> users. Unlike most Linux
147     distros, Gentoo has a package system reminiscent of BSD's ports,
148     meaning the packages are continually updated to the lastest
149     versions.
150 zhen 1.5 </p>
151     </body>
152     </section>
153     </chapter>
154 drobbins 1.1
155     <chapter>
156     <title>Installation</title>
157 zhen 1.6
158 zhen 1.9 <section>
159 drobbins 1.1
160 zhen 1.10 <warn>REPORT all bugs to <uri>bugs.gentoo.org</uri>! Do not report bugs to upstream (original)
161 zhen 1.9 authors. Report the bugs to Gentoo, and we will move them upstream if necessary.
162 zhen 1.10 </warn>
163 zhen 1.9
164 drobbins 1.1 <title>What is the difference between the .iso and .tbz2 files?</title>
165     <body><p>The build <e>.tbz2</e> file is a minimal set of system files
166     that is necessary for allowing a user to bootstrap and install
167     Gentoo Linux. The build <e>.iso</e> is a complete, bootable CD image that
168     contains a system kernel, a reasonably complete set of kernel modules,
169     necessary system tools such as <c>mkfs</c> and networking support,
170     as well as the <e>.tbz2</e> minimal-system tarball. Most users will install
171     Gentoo Linux by burning the .iso file onto a CD, booting off of the CD,
172     and installing from within the minimal linux environment provided by
173     the Gentoo boot CD. It is possible, however, for users to install
174     Gentoo Linux directly from an already-existing Linux distribution.
175     Such users need only download the .tbz2 file, install the contents
176     on a spare partition (making sure to use the <c>p</c> flag when
177     untarring the tarball!), chroot, and install in the usual fashion.</p>
178     </body>
179     </section>
180    
181     <section>
182     <title>Why do the build .iso and .tbz2 files sometimes have different -r (revision) numbers?</title>
183     <body><p>
184     The .tbz2 minimal-system tarball only needs to be revised when there have
185     been significant changes to the core Gentoo Linux system (such as baselayout
186     changes, or a new profile), and as such .tbz2 updates are relatively rare.
187     The .iso file tends to get updated whenever we discover that somebody has
188     hardware that won't boot from our .iso. Since new kernel modules and
189     patches are constantly being generated, this situation probably won't
190     stabilise anytime soon.
191     </p>
192     </body>
193     </section>
194    
195     <section>
196     <title>I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math
197     -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?</title>
198     <body>
199 klieber 1.35 <p>Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't support by current versions
200 peesh 1.34 of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the compiler to streamline the assembly code
201 swift 1.30 to the point where it doesn't quite do the same thing anymore. A possible setting based on <e>Loc-Dog</e> (on IRC)'s CFLAGS
202     is <c>-O3 -mcpu=i686 -march=i686 -fforce-addr -fomit-frame-pointer -funroll-loops
203     -frerun-cse-after-loop -frerun-loop-opt -falign-functions=4</c>, which is about
204 drobbins 1.1 as much as I'd want to push global optimization settings. Beyond this, it's best to use
205     ultra-high optimizations only with specific packages where you really need that extra 2%,
206     (eg graphics and various multimedia programs), and where you can easily test the package
207     to ensure that it hasn't been optimized into oblivion.</p>
208 zhware 1.4 <p>Please try first to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march= -O2</c> before reporting a bug</p>
209 drobbins 1.1 </body>
210     </section>
211    
212     <section>
213     <title>What's the default root password after installation?</title>
214     <body><p>The default password is blank; hit enter.</p></body>
215     </section>
216    
217     <section>
218     <title>How can i change the root (or indeed any other user's) password?</title>
219     <body><p>You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged into.
220     for extra options and setting, please see <c>man passwd</c> once you've completed the install.
221     </p></body>
222     </section>
223     <section>
224     <title>How do i add a normal user?</title>
225 swift 1.36 <body>
226 drobbins 1.1 <p>The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called gentoo. The next step is to give
227     this user a password and <c>passwd</c> will do exactly that.</p>
228 swift 1.36 <p>Instead of <c>adduser</c> you can also use:
229 zhware 1.15 <pre># <i>useradd gentoo -m -G users,audio,wheel -s /bin/bash</i></pre>
230 zhware 1.16 This will add a user gentoo, will make possible for him to use sound-related devices (<path>/dev/sound/*</path>), will make possible for him to switch to root (using <c>su</c>) and will make <path>/bin/bash</path> his login shell.
231 zhware 1.15 </p>
232 swift 1.36 <p>You can also install <c>superadduser</c> using <c>emerge superadduser</c> and then issue <c>superadduser gentoo</c> to add a user called gentoo. Just follow the instructions given to you by <c>superadduser</c>.
233     </p>
234 drobbins 1.1 </body>
235     </section>
236     <section>
237     <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
238     <body><p>For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
239     <e>wheel</e> group. To add a <i>username</i> to the <e>wheel</e> group, issue the following
240     command as root:</p>
241     <pre># <i>usermod -G users,wheel username</i></pre>
242     </body>
243     </section>
244     <section>
245     <title>How do I enable devfs?</title>
246     <body>
247     <p>
248     If you're using 1.0_rc5 or greater, you don't need to do anything special to get
249     devfs working; it's already active (you did make sure that devfs was built into the
250     kernel, didn't you?).
251     However, if you are using a version of Gentoo Linux <e>prior</e> to version 1.0_rc5, add
252     <c>devfs=mount</c> to your <c>GRUB</c> kernel boot options so that the line looks something
253     like <c>kernel /boot/boot/bzImage devfs=mount foo=bar</c> The kernel will then mount the
254     <path>/dev</path> <e>devfs</e> filesystem automatically at boot-time.
255     </p>
256     </body>
257     </section>
258     <section>
259     <title>How to I disable devfs?</title>
260     <body>
261     <p>Under Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc6 and later, you can disable devfs by passing the
262     <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> to the kernel.</p>
263     </body>
264     </section>
265     <section>
266     <title>How do I get a <path>/dev/mouse </path> that
267     doesn't go away when I reboot (when using devfs)?</title>
268     <body>
269     <p>
270     If you are using 1.0_rc6 or later, then you can just use <c>ln -s</c>
271     to make the usual symbolic link from <path>/dev/mouse</path>, and
272     it will be preserved between reboots.
273     </p>
274     <p>All other users need to edit <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path>
275     and add these lines:</p>
276     <pre>
277     REGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL symlink misc/psaux mouse
278     UNREGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL unlink mouse
279     </pre>
280     <p>If you are not using the devfs PS/2 mouse <path>/dev/misc/psaux</path> device,
281     adjust the <c>misc/psaux</c> strings above accoringly. You'll then want to
282     <c>killall -HUP devfsd</c>
283     to get devfsd to reread <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path>.</p>
284     </body>
285     </section>
286     <section>
287     <title>Grub can't find stage x.y?</title>
288     <body><p>
289     During installation the grub boot files are copied
290     to <path>/boot/grub</path> (<path>/boot/boot/grub</path> in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and
291     earlier.) Grub automatically looks in the <path>/boot/grub</path> directory on the boot
292     partition. (We strongly recommend having a separate no-auto boot partition mounted at
293     <path>/boot</path>, since that way it is much more difficult to clobber your kernel and boot
294     info by accident.) The above error generally arises from (a) not using a separate boot
295     partition, (b) forgetting to mount the boot partition at <path>/boot</path> before either
296     unpacking the build snapshot or running
297     <c>emerge --usepkg system</c>, or (c) forgetting the
298     <c>notail</c> option when mounting a ReiserFS <path>/boot</path> partition.
299     You can get more information on grub, including how to
300     debug grub from the grub prompt, by reading the
301     <uri link="http://www-105.ibm.com/developerworks/education.nsf/linux-onlinecourse-bytitle/0F1731DC664023B7862569D0005C44AF?OpenDocument">IBM developerWorks Grub tutorial</uri>.
302     </p>
303     </body>
304     </section>
305    
306     <section>
307     <title>My ASUS CUV4X-D won't boot and it freezes during various stages of kernel loading and hardware
308     detection. </title>
309     <body>
310     <p>Disable MPS 1.4 (multi-processor-system) in the BIOS or switch this
311     function to 1.1. By using this option you just switch the MPS version. The Multi-Processor-System
312     will still work properly. Make sure to boot Gentoo Linux with the following boot option, noapic. </p>
313     </body>
314     </section>
315    
316 zhware 1.19 <section>
317     <title>If I have Gentoo 1.4_rc1 can I upgrade to 1.4_rc2, 1.4_final/_rc3 without reinstalling?</title>
318     <body>
319     In fact there is no difference between the 1.4 releases <b>after they&apos;ve installed</b>. Gentoo 1.4 and later are <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based.
320 swift 1.31 As such 1.4rc1 machine for example, that does <c>emerge sync; emerge -u world</c> is <b>exactly the same</b> as a machine with 1.4rc2 installed, after it does <c>emerge sync; emerge -u world</c>. The true differences lie in the installer.
321 zhware 1.19 </body>
322     </section>
323 swift 1.37 <section>
324     <title>My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should I do now?</title>
325     <body>
326     <p>
327     You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but only the
328     kernel-stuff and all associated steps. Suppose you have installed Gentoo
329     on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with
330     <path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space:
331     </p>
332     <pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel">
333     <comment>Boot from the LiveCD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment>
334     <comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment>
335     # <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
336     # <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
337     # <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
338     # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
339     <comment>Then we chroot into our Gentoo environment and configure the kernel:</comment>
340     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
341     # <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
342     # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
343     # <i>make menuconfig</i>
344     <comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment>
345     <comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment>
346     # <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make bzImage modules modules_install</i>
347     <comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment>
348     # <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</i>
349     <comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment>
350     # <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
351     <comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment>
352     # <i>exit</i>
353     # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
354     # <i>reboot</i>
355     </pre>
356     <p>
357     If on the other hand the problem lays with your bootloader configuration,
358     follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel you
359     should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary).
360     </p>
361     </body>
362     </section>
363 swift 1.38 <section>
364 bennyc 1.40 <title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title>
365 swift 1.38 <body>
366    
367     <p>
368     When you have to download something using <c>wget</c>, use the
369     following syntax to authenticate yourself:
370     </p>
371 bennyc 1.40 <pre caption = "Proxy-authentication using wget">
372 swift 1.38 # <i>wget --proxy-user=</i><comment>username</comment><i> --proxy-passwd=</i><comment>password</comment><i> &lt;url&gt;</i>
373     </pre>
374     <p>
375     To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in
376     <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
377     </p>
378     <pre caption = "/etc/make.conf">
379     FETCHCOMMAND="wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
380     RESUMECOMMAND="/usr/bin/wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -c -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
381     </pre>
382     <p>
383     Sadly, <c>rsync</c> doesn't seem to support username/password
384 bennyc 1.40 authentication for proxies. See <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect10">What
385 swift 1.38 if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri> for more information on how to
386     handle this situation.
387     </p>
388    
389     </body>
390     </section>
391    
392 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
393    
394     <chapter>
395     <title>Package Management</title>
396     <section>
397     <title>In what format are the packages stored?</title>
398     <body><p>They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; we are primarily
399     a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts (<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a
400     special system (Portage) so that you can build apps from sources. We generally only build
401 swift 1.22 binaries for releases and snapshots. The <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-howto.xml">Development HOWTO
402 drobbins 1.1 </uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we
403     create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format (<c>.tar.bz2</c>
404     compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the file.)</p>
405     </body>
406     </section>
407    
408     <section>
409     <title>Why write a new port system (Portage) instead of using BSD's version?</title>
410     <body>
411     <p>In one sentence, because Portage is much better in so many ways. One of the design
412     philosophies of the <c>.ebuild</c> syntax was to make it an analog of what you'd type to
413     install the program manually, thus making Portage very easy to learn and modify to your
414     needs. We also have OpenBSD-style "fake" installs, safe unmerging, system profiles,
415     package masking, a real dependency system, and lots of other good stuff.</p>
416     </body>
417     </section>
418    
419     <section>
420     <title>How does this differ from Debian's apt or BSD's ports?</title>
421     <body><p>Portage features the best of apt and ports; for example, USE options, a full
422     dependency system, safe installs and uninstalls, and a true package database. Think of
423     Portage as the best of both worlds; a ports system with the sensibilities and safety of a
424     Linux package management system built-in.</p></body>
425     </section>
426    
427     <section>
428     <title>How do I install and uninstall packages?</title>
429     <body>
430 swift 1.22 <p>The <uri link="/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage User Guide</uri> details how to install
431 drobbins 1.1 and uninstall packages, and update Portage.</p>
432     </body>
433     </section>
434    
435     <section>
436     <title>How can I set a global configuration for compiling packages?</title>
437     <body><p><path>/etc/make.conf</path> should be modified to override global and
438     profile-specific default options used to compile and merge packages. The most common options
439     are as follows:</p>
440     <table>
441     <tr>
442     <th>Flag</th>
443     <th>Description</th>
444     </tr>
445     <tr>
446     <ti>CHOST</ti>
447     <ti>This sets the HOST variable for compiles, e.g. <c>i686-pc-linux-gnu</c></ti>
448     </tr>
449     <tr>
450     <ti>CFLAGS</ti>
451     <ti>The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C (*.c files)</ti>
452     </tr>
453     <tr>
454     <ti>CXXFLAGS</ti>
455     <ti>The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C++ (*.c,*.cpp etc.
456     files)</ti>
457     </tr>
458     <tr>
459     <ti>USE</ti>
460     <ti>This allows you to set what optional components you'd like compiled-in, if
461     available. For example, if you have <c>gnome</c> inside the USE string, then when
462     you compile <c>xchat</c>, it will include GNOME support. All our dependencies are
463     also USE-aware.</ti>
464     </tr>
465     <tr>
466     <ti>GENTOO_MIRRORS</ti>
467     <ti>A space separated list of URIs currently mirroring the Gentoo packages. Portage
468     will attempt download from a <c>GENTOO_MIRROR</c> first before trying the official
469     <c>SRC_URI</c>. To force Portage to skip mirrors, set this variable to "".</ti>
470     </tr>
471     </table>
472     </body>
473     </section>
474    
475     <section>
476     <title>What happened to <path>/etc/make.defaults</path>?</title>
477     <body>
478     <p>As of Portage 1.5 onwards, <path>/etc/make.defaults</path> is antiquated;
479     if you have portage-1.5-r1 or above installed then you can safely delete it.
480     This file has been replaced by <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>
481     (<path>/etc/make.profile</path> should actually be a symlink to,
482     <path>/usr/portage/profiles/default</path>),
483     which contains system profile-specific default settings. The priority order of
484     the various configuration files is as follows (highest first):
485     <ol>
486     <li>Environment variables</li>
487     <li><path>/etc/make.conf</path>, for your use</li>
488     <li><path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>, for profile-specific defaults</li>
489     <li><path>/etc/make.globals</path>, for global defaults (settings not specified in
490     any other place come from here)</li>
491     </ol></p></body>
492     </section>
493    
494     <section>
495     <title>Is there a way to upgrade all installed packages
496     e.g. <e>apt-get upgrade</e> or <e>make World</e>?</title>
497     <body><p><b>YES!</b> Type <c>emerge --update system</c> (use it with <c>--pretend</c> first) to
498     update all core system packages, and use <c>emerge --update world</c> (again, use it with
499     <c>--pretend</c> first) to do a complete system upgrade of all installed packages.
500    
501    
502     </p></body>
503     </section>
504    
505     <section>
506     <title>When updating a package using <c>emerge</c> or <c>ebuild</c>, how do I avoid
507     clobbering my config files?</title>
508     <body><p>
509     Portage now includes config file management support by default. Type
510     <c>emerge --help config</c> for more details. The (overly) simple answer is that if
511     a package installs <path>foo</path> somewhere under <path>/etc</path>, and
512     another <path>foo</path> already exists there, then the new <path>foo</path> will
513     instead be renamed to <path>._cfgxxxx_foo</path> in that directory. A useful
514     tool for examining and updating any protected config files is <c>etc-update</c>,
515 swift 1.27 which is now part of Portage.
516 drobbins 1.1 </p></body>
517     </section>
518    
519     <section>
520     <title>I want to perform the <c>./configure</c> step myself. Can I?</title>
521 swift 1.45 <body>
522     <p>
523     Yes, but it is not trivial, and the next method only works when it is a simple
524     ebuild (i.e. just <c>./configure</c> and <c>make &amp;&amp; make install</c>).
525     Be sure to read the ebuild itself to see how Gentoo handles it.
526     </p>
527    
528     <p>
529     Start with unpacking the ebuild: <c>ebuild
530     /usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt; unpack</c>.
531     </p>
532    
533     <p>
534     Next, go to <path>/var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/work</path>.
535     Inside it you'll find the unpacked sources. Execute the steps you need to
536     perform to configure and compile the package.
537     </p>
538    
539     <p>
540     When finished, execute <c>touch
541     /var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/.compiled</c> to trick Portage
542     into thinking it configured and compiled the package. Then finish up with
543     <c>ebuild /usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt;
544     merge</c>.
545     </p>
546    
547     </body>
548 drobbins 1.1 </section>
549    
550     <section>
551     <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
552     <body><p>
553     If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit
554 swift 1.29 rsync traffic, then you can use <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch
555     and install a Portage snapshot for you through regular HTTP.
556     <c>emerge-webrsync</c> uses <c>wget</c> to download, so proxy is fully
557     supported.
558     <pre caption="Using emerge-webrsync">
559     ~# <c>emerge-webrsync</c></pre>
560     If you cannot do this either, you can manually download a snapshot
561     from <uri>http://distro.ibiblio.org/pub/linux/distributions/gentoo/snapshots/</uri>.
562     In order to install the snapshot correctly, you first need to remove
563     your current <path>/usr/portage</path> so that outdated ebuilds don't
564     stay available on your system. However, you might want to put
565     <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> somewhere safe if you don't want to
566     lose all your sourcecode.
567     <pre caption="Manually installing the snapshots">
568     <codenote>(First download the snapshot and place it in /usr)</codenote>
569     ~# <c>cd /usr</c>
570     ~# <c>mv /usr/portage/distfiles /usr/distfiles-temp</c>
571     ~# <c>rm -rf /usr/portage</c>
572     ~# <c>tar xvjf portage-foo.tbz2</c>
573     ~# <c>mv /usr/distfiles-temp /usr/portage/distfiles</c></pre>
574 drobbins 1.1 </p></body>
575     </section>
576    
577     <section>
578     <title>How do I use <i>emerge</i> from behind a firewall?</title>
579     <body><p>
580     Edit the PROXY settings in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If that doesn't work,
581     edit <path>/etc/wget/wgetrc</path> and edit http_proxy and ftp_proxy
582     appropriately.
583     </p></body>
584     </section>
585    
586     <section>
587     <title>Can I rsync from another operating system?</title>
588     <body><p>There's a program called unison that works under both UNIX and Win32, available from
589     <uri>http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~bcpierce/unison/</uri>.</p></body>
590     </section>
591    
592     <section>
593     <title>I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere else and
594     add them to my system?</title>
595     <body><p>
596     Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
597 peesh 1.24 are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where to
598     download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>.
599     Download sources and bring them on any media
600 drobbins 1.1 home. Put the sources into <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run
601     <c>emerge package</c> to see it picking up the sources you just brought in!
602     </p></body>
603     </section>
604    
605     <section>
606     <title>.tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles/ using
607     valuable space. Is it safe to delete these files?</title>
608     <body><p>
609     Yes, you can safely delete these files. But if you are on a slow
610     connection, such as a modem, you might want to keep the archives if
611     possible; often several ebuilds will be released for the same version of
612     a specific piece of software - if you have deleted the archive and you
613     upgrade the software it will have to be downloaded from the internet
614     again.
615     </p></body>
616 zhen 1.5 </section>
617    
618     <section>
619     <title>I went to emerge blackdown-jdk and blackdown-jre, and afterwards
620     <c>java-config --list-available-vms</c> would only list blackdown-jre.
621     Openoffice would then refuse to emerge. What do I do? </title>
622    
623     <body>
624     <p>Solution: </p>
625     <pre caption = "Solution">
626     # <c>emerge unmerge blackdown-jre blackdown-jdk </c>
627     # <c>CONFIG_PROTECT="" emerge blackdown-jdk </c>
628     </pre>
629    
630 drobbins 1.1 </body>
631     </section>
632 zhware 1.18 <section>
633     <title>What's in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>? Is it safe to delete the files and directories in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>?</title>
634     <body>
635     During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. It is safe to clean out all contents of this directory.
636     </body>
637     </section>
638 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
639    
640     <chapter>
641     <title>Usage</title>
642     <section>
643     <title>I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal user
644     account doesn't work. </title>
645     <body>
646     <p>
647     This is most probably because your user account doesn't have a valid shell specified. Check
648     for your user entry in
649     <path>/etc/passwd</path> and see if it ends in /bin/bash (or any other shell). If it doesn't,
650     you must set a shell for the user. This is done using the usermod command, like this ;
651     </p>
652     <pre># <i>usermod -s /bin/bash myuser</i></pre>
653     </body>
654     </section>
655    
656     <section>
657     <title>I can start X applications as root only.</title>
658     <body><p>Your <path>/tmp</path> directory has the wrong permissions (it needs the sticky bit
659     set). Type the following as root:</p>
660     <pre># <i>chmod 1777 /tmp</i></pre>
661     </body>
662     </section>
663    
664     <section>
665     <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
666     <body><p>Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>.
667     Then either reboot or restart the keymaps script:
668     <c>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</c>.</p>
669     </body>
670     </section>
671    
672     <section>
673     <title>DNS name resolution works for root only.</title>
674     <body><p><path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as follows:
675     </p>
676     <pre># <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i></pre>
677     </body>
678     </section>
679    
680     <section>
681     <title>Why is KDE not reading <path>/etc/profile</path>?</title>
682     <body><p>You need to add <c>--login</c> to the first line in <path>/opt/kde2.1/bin/startkde
683     </path>, so that it reads as follows:</p>
684     <pre>#!/bin/sh --login</pre>
685     <p>This fix has been added to recent versions of KDE.</p>
686 zhen 1.17 </body>
687     </section>
688    
689     <section>
690     <title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
691     <body><p>You need to add that user to the <i>cron</i> group.
692     </p>
693 drobbins 1.1 </body>
694     </section>
695 swift 1.32
696     <section>
697     <title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
698     <body>
699     <p>
700     If you log on graphically, or want numlock to be activated when
701 swift 1.33 you issue <c>startx</c>, then you must <c>emerge numlockx</c> and
702 swift 1.32 add <c>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</c> to
703     <path>/etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc</path> (for <c>startx</c>) or
704 swift 1.39 <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path> (for any graphical login manager) such
705     as <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/Gnome</path> for GDM.
706 swift 1.32 </p>
707     <p>
708     If you work in commandline, you only need to <c>rc-update add
709     numlock default</c> and numlock will be activated on the next
710     reboot.
711     </p>
712     </body>
713     </section>
714 swift 1.37 <section>
715     <title>How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</title>
716     <body>
717     <p>
718     To have your terminal cleared, add <c>clear</c> to your
719     <path>~/.bash_logout</path> script:
720     </p>
721     <pre caption = "Clearing the terminal during logout">
722     $ <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; ~/.bash_logout</i></pre>
723     <p>
724     If you want this to happen automatically when you add a new
725     user, do the same for the <path>/etc/skel/.bash_logout</path>:
726     </p>
727     <pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout">
728     # <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre>
729     </body>
730     </section>
731 swift 1.38
732 swift 1.32
733 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
734    
735     <chapter>
736     <title>Maintenance</title>
737     <section>
738     <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</title>
739     <body>
740     <p>
741     If your
742     ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo
743     Linux boot CD and run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on
744     the corrupted filesystem. This should make the filesystem consistent
745     again, although you may have lost some files or directories due
746     to the corruption.
747     </p>
748     </body>
749     </section>
750     <!-- is this still relevant? -cpm -->
751     <section>
752     <title>How to I view the timestamps in /var/log/syslog.d, etc. on a pre-1.0_rc5 Gentoo
753     system?</title>
754     <body>
755     <p>To view multilog (Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier) timestamps, you need to pipe the
756     current log through the <c>tai64nlocal</c>command:</p>
757    
758     <pre>
759 seo 1.14 # <i>tai64nlocal &lt; /var/log/syslog.d/current | less</i>
760 drobbins 1.1 </pre>
761    
762     <p>Or, alternatively, if you want to "tail" the log:</p>
763    
764     <pre>
765     # <i>tail -f /var/log/syslog.d/current | tai64nlocal</i>
766     </pre>
767    
768     </body>
769     </section>
770 swift 1.41 <section>
771     <title>Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</title>
772     <body>
773    
774     <p>
775     Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately
776     recorded into the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this
777     performance-enhancing behavior is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux
778     system is up and running, you can send metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily
779     turn off this message buffering (meaning that <c>tail -f
780     <path>/var/log/everything/current</path></c> will now work in real time, as
781     expected) and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on again. If you want to
782     disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to
783     METALOG_OPTS="-B -s" in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>.
784     </p>
785    
786     <pre caption="Turning metalog buffering on/off">
787     <codenote>To turn the buffering off:</codenote>
788     # <i>killall -USR1 metalog</i>
789     <codenote>To turn the buffering back on:</codenote>
790     # <i>killall -USR2 metalog</i>
791     </pre>
792    
793     </body>
794     </section>
795 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
796    
797     <chapter>
798     <title>Development</title>
799     <section>
800     <title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
801     <body><p>For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise, use our
802     Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can also visit us in
803 swift 1.27 <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network.
804 drobbins 1.1 </p></body>
805     </section>
806    
807     <section>
808     <title>How often are new releases made?</title>
809 zhen 1.13 <body><p>New releases are announced on the <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri>
810 drobbins 1.1 mailing list<!-- TODO: approximatley every X months -->, In reality the packages themselves
811     are updated shortly after the main authors release new code. As for when new Cd images etc
812     are released, that tends to be whenever there are any major updates to the base code, or when
813     new modules get added.</p></body>
814     </section>
815    
816     <section>
817     <title>I would like a package to be added to Portage; how would I go about this?</title>
818     <body><p>Head over to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and submit a new bug of the type
819     "ebuild". Attach your ebuild to the bug report.</p></body>
820     </section>
821    
822     <section>
823     <title>How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</title>
824     <body><p>Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the
825 swift 1.28 "Docs-user" product, "Gentoo Linux FAQ" component.</p></body>
826 drobbins 1.1 </section>
827    
828     <section>
829     <title>make -f Makefile.cvs on a KDE app produces "invalid unused variable" errors</title>
830     <body><p>
831     Export <c>WANT_AUTOMAKE_1_4=1</c> for all KDE projects before running
832     <c>make -f Makefile.cvs</c>. Also, for KDE2 apps export <c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_1=1</c>,
833     and for KDE3 apps export <c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_5=1</c>.
834     </p></body>
835     </section>
836    
837    
838     <section>
839     <title>My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps?
840     </title>
841     <body>
842     <p>
843     Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this ;
844    
845     <pre># <i>setterm -blength 0</i></pre>
846    
847     If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot
848     you need to put this command in
849     <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However, this only
850     disables beeps for the current terminal. To disable
851     beeps for other terminals, pipe the command output to the
852     target terminal, like this ;
853    
854     <pre># <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i></pre>
855    
856     You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal
857     you would like to disable console beeps for.
858     </p>
859     </body>
860     </section>
861     </chapter>
862    
863     <chapter>
864     <title>Resources</title>
865     <section>
866     <title>Where can I find more about supervise used by default in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier?</title>
867     <body><p><!-- TODO: --><uri>http://cr.yp.to/daemontools.html</uri></p></body>
868     </section>
869    
870     <section>
871     <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
872 erwin 1.44 <body><p>The official Gentoo documentation can be found on <uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>; general Linux information is at <uri>http://www.tldp.org</uri>.</p></body>
873 drobbins 1.1 </section>
874    
875     <section>
876     <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
877     <body><p>Yes! Fresh CDRs are available for $5 USD apiece from
878     <uri link = "http://cart.cheapbytes.com/cgi-bin/cart/0070010805">Cheapbytes</uri>.
879     </p>
880     <p>There are also CDs for sale at <uri link = "http://www.tuxcds.com/section.php?section=42">
881     tuxcds</uri> for a very good price. These people also bounce back a portion of the profits
882     to the Gentoo project, so buy them while they are hot! </p>
883     </body>
884     </section>
885    
886     <section>
887     <title>Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer
888     only go to the original poster and not the entire list?</title>
889     <body>
890     <p>The mailing list administrators have decided to go with minimal munging
891     (altering of mail headers), which means that they have decided against
892     altering headers to have replies go to the mailing list. There are various
893     reasons for this. For example, if a subscriber has a full mailbox, the
894     entire list receives notice of this every time that something is posted.
895    
896     Most GUI based mailers have a "reply to all" function. This will ensure that
897     your reply goes to the mailing list as well as the original poster. Most
898     users of text based emailers already know the methods to use, but if you
899     don't, in Pine, there is a "reply to group" option. Setting Mutt to reply to
900     the list is covered in the unofficial documentation at
901     <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=1085">forums.gentoo.org</uri>.
902    
903     Some list members do not like this method, but it was very heavily
904     discussed when it went into effect, with arguments on both sides.
905     Eventually the list administrators decided to keep it this way. Discussing
906     it on the mailing list will sometimes bring a polite explanation and other
907     times a rather brusque comment to check the archives. Although the
908     administrators regret the inconvenience that it may cause some users, it is
909     felt that at present it is preferable to the alternative for several
910     reasons, many of these covered
911     <uri link="http://www.unicom.com/pw/reply-to-harmful.html">here</uri>.
912    
913     (There are other eloquent arguments in favor of munging, and yes, the list
914     administrators have seen them.) </p>
915     </body>
916     </section>
917    
918     <section>
919     <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
920     <body>
921 zhen 1.23 <p>A good first step is to browse through the relevant doumentation <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/docs.xml">here</uri>,
922 drobbins 1.1 failing that, the various Gentoo Linux mailing
923 zhen 1.23 lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo mailling lists,
924     just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want
925 drobbins 1.1 to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc: <i>#gentoo</i>
926     on <i>irc.freenode.net</i>.
927     </p>
928     </body>
929     </section>
930     </chapter>
931     </guide>

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