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1 zhen 1.3 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 swift 1.54 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml,v 1.53 2004/02/19 14:49:28 swift Exp $ -->
3 drobbins 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4    
5 zhen 1.2 <guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
6 drobbins 1.1 <title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
7 swift 1.54 <author title="Chief Architect">
8     <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
9     </author>
10     <author title="Reviewer">
11     Colin Morey
12     </author>
13     <author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
14     John P. Davis
15     </author>
16     <author title="Editor">
17     <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
18     </author>
19     <author title="Editor">
20     <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
21     </author>
22     <author title="Editor">
23     <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
24     </author>
25     <author title="Editor">
26     <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
27     </author>
28     <author title="Editor">
29     <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
30     </author>
31    
32 vapier 1.49 <abstract>
33 swift 1.54 This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev
34     mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add,
35     please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.
36 vapier 1.49 </abstract>
37 drobbins 1.1
38 swift 1.42 <license/>
39    
40 erwin 1.52 <version>1.1.12</version>
41     <date>January 27, 2004</date>
42 swift 1.36
43     <chapter>
44     <title>Featured Questions</title>
45     <section>
46     <title>Getting Started</title>
47     <body>
48 swift 1.54
49 swift 1.36 <ul>
50 swift 1.54 <li>
51     <uri link="#doc_chap2_sect1">How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean
52     ?</uri>
53     </li>
54     <li>
55     <uri link="#doc_chap2_sect2">What makes Gentoo different?</uri>
56     </li>
57 swift 1.36 </ul>
58 swift 1.54
59 swift 1.36 </body>
60     </section>
61     <section>
62     <title>Installation</title>
63     <body>
64 swift 1.54
65 swift 1.36 <ul>
66 swift 1.54 <li>
67     <uri link="#doc_chap3_sect1">What is the difference between the .iso and
68     .tbz2 files?</uri>
69     </li>
70     <li>
71     <uri link="#doc_chap3_sect2">Why do the build .iso and .tbz2 files sometimes
72     have different -r (revision) numbers?</uri>
73     </li>
74     <li>
75     <uri link="#doc_chap3_sect3">I'm finding things to be really unstable and
76     I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What
77     gives?</uri>
78     </li>
79     <li>
80     <uri link="#doc_chap3_sect4">What's the default root password after
81     installation?</uri>
82     </li>
83     <li>
84     <uri link="#doc_chap3_sect5">How can I change the root (or indeed any other
85     user's) password?</uri>
86     </li>
87     <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect6">How do I add a normal user?</uri></li>
88     <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect7">Why can't a user su to root?</uri></li>
89     <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect8">How do I enable devfs?</uri></li>
90     <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect9">How to I disable devfs?</uri></li>
91     <li>
92     <uri link="#doc_chap3_sect10">How do I get a /dev/mouse that doesn't go away
93     when I reboot (when using devfs)?</uri>
94     </li>
95     <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect11">Grub can't find stage x.y?</uri></li>
96     <li>
97     <uri link="#doc_chap3_sect12">My ASUS CUV4X-D won't boot and it freezes
98     during various stages of kernel loading and hardware detection.</uri>
99     </li>
100     <li>
101     <uri link="#doc_chap3_sect13">If I have Gentoo 1.4_rc1 can I upgrade to
102     1.4_rc2/rc3/final without reinstalling?</uri>
103     </li>
104     <li>
105     <uri link="#doc_chap3_sect14">My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what
106     should I do now?</uri>
107     </li>
108     <li>
109     <uri link="#doc_chap3_sect15">My proxy requires authentication, what do I
110     have to do?</uri>
111     </li>
112 swift 1.36 </ul>
113 swift 1.54
114 swift 1.36 </body>
115     </section>
116     <section>
117     <title>Package Management</title>
118     <body>
119 swift 1.54
120 swift 1.36 <ul>
121 swift 1.54 <li>
122     <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect1">In what format are the packages stored?</uri>
123     </li>
124     <li>
125     <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect2">Why write a new port system (Portage) instead
126     of using BSD's version?</uri>
127     </li>
128     <li>
129     <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect3">How does this differ from Debian's apt or
130     BSD's ports?</uri>
131     </li>
132     <li>
133     <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect4">How do I install and uninstall packages?</uri>
134     </li>
135     <li>
136     <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect5">How can I set a global configuration for
137     compiling packages?</uri>
138     </li>
139     <li>
140     <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect6">What happened to /etc/make.defaults?</uri>
141     </li>
142     <li>
143     <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect7">Is there a way to upgrade all installed
144     packages e.g. apt-get upgrade or make World?</uri>
145     </li>
146     <li>
147     <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect8">When updating a package using emerge or ebuild,
148     how do I avoid clobbering my config files?</uri>
149     </li>
150     <li>
151     <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect9">I want to perform the ./configure step myself.
152     Can I?</uri>
153     </li>
154     <li>
155     <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect10">What if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri>
156     </li>
157     <li>
158     <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect11">How do I use emerge from behind a
159     firewall?</uri>
160     </li>
161     <li>
162     <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect12">Can I rsync from another operating
163     system?</uri>
164     </li>
165     <li>
166     <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect13">I have only slow modem connection at home.
167     Can I download sources somewhere else and add them to my system?</uri>
168     </li>
169     <li>
170     <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect14">.tar.gz sources for installed software are
171     piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles/ using valuable space. Is it safe to
172     delete these files?</uri>
173     </li>
174     <li>
175     <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect15">I went to emerge blackdown-jdk and
176     blackdown-jre, and afterwards java-config --list-available-vms would only
177     list blackdown-jre. Openoffice then refuses to emerge. What do I do?</uri>
178     </li>
179     <li>
180     <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect16">What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to
181     delete the files and directories in /var/tmp/portage?</uri>
182     </li>
183 swift 1.36 </ul>
184 swift 1.54
185 swift 1.36 </body>
186     </section>
187     <section>
188     <title>Usage</title>
189     <body>
190 swift 1.54
191 swift 1.36 <ul>
192 swift 1.54 <li>
193     <uri link="#doc_chap5_sect1">I have installed openssh on my box, but can
194     only log in as root - my normal user account doesn't work.</uri>
195     </li>
196     <li>
197     <uri link="#doc_chap5_sect2">I can start X applications as root only.</uri>
198     </li>
199     <li>
200     <uri link="#doc_chap5_sect3">How do I set up an International Keyboard
201     Layout?</uri>
202     </li>
203     <li>
204     <uri link="#doc_chap5_sect4">DNS name resolution works for root only.</uri>
205     </li>
206     <li>
207     <uri link="#doc_chap5_sect5">Why is KDE not reading /etc/profile?</uri>
208     </li>
209     <li>
210     <uri link="#doc_chap5_sect6">Why can't my user use their own crontab?</uri>
211     </li>
212     <li>
213     <uri link="#doc_chap5_sect7">How do I get numlock to start on boot?</uri>
214     </li>
215     <li>
216     <uri link="#doc_chap5_sect8">How do I have my terminal cleared when I log
217     out?</uri>
218     </li>
219 swift 1.36 </ul>
220 swift 1.54
221 swift 1.36 </body>
222     </section>
223     <section>
224     <title>Maintenance</title>
225     <body>
226 swift 1.54
227 swift 1.36 <ul>
228 swift 1.54 <li>
229     <uri link="#doc_chap6_sect1">ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues --
230     how to fix'em, etc...</uri>
231     </li>
232     <li>
233     <uri link="#doc_chap6_sect2">How to I view the timestamps in
234     /var/log/syslog.d, etc. on a pre-1.0_rc5 Gentoo system?</uri>
235     </li>
236     <li>
237     <uri link="#doc_chap6_sect3">Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</uri>
238     </li>
239 swift 1.36 </ul>
240 swift 1.54
241 swift 1.36 </body>
242     </section>
243     <section>
244     <title>Development</title>
245     <body>
246 swift 1.54
247 swift 1.36 <ul>
248 swift 1.54 <li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect1">Where can I report bugs?</uri></li>
249     <li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect2">How often are new releases made?</uri></li>
250     <li>
251     <uri link="#doc_chap7_sect3">I would like a package to be added to Portage;
252     how would I go about this?</uri>
253     </li>
254     <li>
255     <uri link="#doc_chap7_sect4">How can I add a question or answer to this
256     FAQ?</uri>
257     </li>
258     <li>
259     <uri link="#doc_chap7_sect5">make -f Makefile.cvs on a KDE app produces
260     "invalid unused variable" errors. What gives?</uri>
261     </li>
262     <li>
263     <uri link="#doc_chap7_sect6">My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling
264     Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps?</uri>
265     </li>
266 swift 1.36 </ul>
267 swift 1.54
268 swift 1.36 </body>
269     </section>
270     <section>
271     <title>Resources</title>
272     <body>
273 swift 1.54
274 swift 1.36 <ul>
275 swift 1.54 <li>
276     <uri link="#doc_chap8_sect1">Where can I find more about supervise used by
277     default in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier?</uri>
278     </li>
279     <li>
280     <uri link="#doc_chap8_sect2">Where can I find more information about Gentoo
281     Linux?</uri>
282     </li>
283     <li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect3">Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</uri></li>
284     <li>
285     <uri link="#doc_chap8_sect4">Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo
286     mailing list, does my answer only go to the original poster and not the
287     entire list?</uri>
288     </li>
289     <li>
290     <uri link="#doc_chap8_sect5">This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do
291     I do now?</uri>
292     </li>
293 swift 1.36 </ul>
294 swift 1.54
295 swift 1.36 </body>
296     </section>
297     </chapter>
298    
299 swift 1.54 <chapter>
300     <title>Getting Started</title>
301    
302     <section>
303     <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
304     <body>
305    
306     <p>
307     Gentoo is a species of small fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (The "g" in
308     "gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle").
309     </p>
310    
311     </body>
312     </section>
313     <section>
314     <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
315     <body>
316 drobbins 1.1
317 swift 1.54 <p>
318     Gentoo Linux is a fast, modern distribution with a clean and flexible
319     design -- in this respect, Gentoo may appeal to
320     <uri link="http://www.slackware.com/">Slackware</uri>,
321     <uri link="http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/">Linux From Scratch</uri> or
322     <uri link="http://www.bsd.org/">BSD</uri> users. Unlike most Linux
323     distros, Gentoo has a package system reminiscent of BSD's ports,
324     meaning the packages are continually updated to the latest
325     versions.
326     </p>
327 drobbins 1.1
328 swift 1.54 </body>
329     </section>
330 zhen 1.5 </chapter>
331 drobbins 1.1
332     <chapter>
333 swift 1.54 <title>Installation</title>
334     <section>
335     <title>What is the difference between the .iso and .tbz2 files?</title>
336     <body>
337    
338     <p>
339     The build <e>.tbz2</e> file is a minimal set of system files
340     that is necessary for allowing a user to bootstrap and install
341     Gentoo Linux. The build <e>.iso</e> is a complete, bootable CD image that
342     contains a system kernel, a reasonably complete set of kernel modules,
343     necessary system tools such as <c>mkfs</c> and networking support,
344     as well as the <e>.tbz2</e> minimal-system tarball. Most users will install
345     Gentoo Linux by burning the .iso file onto a CD, booting off of the CD,
346     and installing from within the minimal linux environment provided by
347     the Gentoo boot CD. It is possible, however, for users to install
348     Gentoo Linux directly from an already-existing Linux distribution.
349     Such users need only download the .tbz2 file, install the contents
350     on a spare partition (making sure to use the <c>p</c> flag when
351     untarring the tarball!), chroot, and install in the usual fashion.
352     </p>
353    
354     </body>
355     </section>
356     <section>
357     <title>
358     Why do the build .iso and .tbz2 files sometimes have different -r (revision)
359     numbers?
360     </title>
361     <body>
362    
363     <p>
364     The .tbz2 minimal-system tarball only needs to be revised when there have
365     been significant changes to the core Gentoo Linux system (such as baselayout
366     changes, or a new profile), and as such .tbz2 updates are relatively rare.
367     The .iso file tends to get updated whenever we discover that somebody has
368     hardware that won't boot from our .iso. Since new kernel modules and
369     patches are constantly being generated, this situation probably won't
370     stabilise anytime soon.
371     </p>
372    
373     </body>
374     </section>
375     <section>
376     <title>
377     I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math
378     -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?
379     </title>
380     <body>
381    
382     <p>
383     Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't support by
384     current versions of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the
385     compiler to streamline the assembly code to the point where it doesn't quite
386     do the same thing anymore. A possible setting based on <e>Loc-Dog</e>
387     (on IRC)'s CFLAGS is <c>-O3 -mcpu=i686 -march=i686 -fforce-addr
388     -fomit-frame-pointer -funroll-loops -frerun-cse-after-loop -frerun-loop-opt
389     -falign-functions=4</c>, which is about as much as I'd want to push global
390     optimization settings. Beyond this, it's best to use ultra-high optimizations
391     only with specific packages where you really need that extra 2%, (eg graphics
392     and various multimedia programs), and where you can easily test the package
393     to ensure that it hasn't been optimized into oblivion.
394     </p>
395    
396     <p>
397     Please try first to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march= -O2</c> before reporting a
398     bug.
399     </p>
400    
401     </body>
402     </section>
403     <section>
404     <title>What's the default root password after installation?</title>
405     <body>
406    
407     <p>
408     The default password is blank; hit enter.
409     </p>
410    
411     </body>
412     </section>
413     <section>
414     <title>How can i change the root (or indeed any other user's) password?</title>
415     <body>
416    
417     <p>
418     You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged
419     into. For extra options and setting, please see <c>man passwd</c> once you've
420     completed the install.
421     </p>
422    
423     </body>
424     </section>
425     <section>
426     <title>How do i add a normal user?</title>
427     <body>
428    
429     <p>
430     The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called gentoo. The next step
431     is to give this user a password and <c>passwd</c> will do exactly that.
432     </p>
433    
434     <p>
435     Instead of <c>adduser</c> you can also use:
436     </p>
437    
438     <pre caption="Using useradd">
439     # <i>useradd gentoo -m -G users,audio,wheel -s /bin/bash</i>
440     </pre>
441    
442     <p>
443     This will add a user gentoo, will make possible for him to use sound-related
444     devices (<path>/dev/sound/*</path>), will make possible for him to switch to
445     root (using <c>su</c>) and will make <path>/bin/bash</path> his login shell.
446     </p>
447    
448     <p>
449     You can also install <c>superadduser</c> using <c>emerge superadduser</c> and
450     then issue <c>superadduser gentoo</c> to add a user called gentoo. Just follow
451     the instructions given to you by <c>superadduser</c>.
452     </p>
453    
454     </body>
455     </section>
456     <section>
457     <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
458     <body>
459    
460     <p>
461     For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
462     <e>wheel</e> group. To add a <i>username</i> to the <e>wheel</e> group, issue
463     the following command as root:
464     </p>
465    
466     <pre caption="Adding a user to the wheel group">
467     # <i>usermod -G users,wheel username</i>
468     </pre>
469    
470     </body>
471     </section>
472     <section>
473     <title>How do I enable devfs?</title>
474     <body>
475    
476     <p>
477     If you're using 1.0_rc5 or greater, you don't need to do anything special to
478     get devfs working; it's already active (you did make sure that devfs was built
479     into the kernel, didn't you?). However, if you are using a version of Gentoo
480     Linux <e>prior</e> to version 1.0_rc5, add <c>devfs=mount</c> to your
481     <c>GRUB</c> kernel boot options so that the line looks something like
482     <c>kernel /boot/boot/bzImage devfs=mount foo=bar</c> The kernel will then
483     mount the <path>/dev</path> <e>devfs</e> filesystem automatically at boot-time.
484     </p>
485    
486     </body>
487     </section>
488     <section>
489     <title>How to I disable devfs?</title>
490     <body>
491    
492     <p>
493     Under Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc6 and later, you can disable devfs by passing the
494     <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> to the kernel.
495     </p>
496    
497     </body>
498     </section>
499     <section>
500     <title>
501     How do I get a <path>/dev/mouse </path> that doesn't go away when I reboot
502     (when using devfs)?
503     </title>
504     <body>
505    
506     <p>
507     If you are using 1.0_rc6 or later, then you can just use <c>ln -s</c>
508     to make the usual symbolic link from <path>/dev/mouse</path>, and
509     it will be preserved between reboots.
510     </p>
511    
512     <p>
513     All other users need to edit <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path> and add these
514     lines:
515     </p>
516    
517     <pre caption="Adding lines to /etc/devfsd.conf">
518 drobbins 1.1 REGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL symlink misc/psaux mouse
519     UNREGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL unlink mouse
520     </pre>
521 swift 1.54
522     <p>
523     If you are not using the devfs PS/2 mouse <path>/dev/misc/psaux</path> device,
524     adjust the <c>misc/psaux</c> strings above accoringly. You'll then want to
525     <c>killall -HUP devfsd</c> to get devfsd to reread
526     <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path>.
527     </p>
528    
529     </body>
530     </section>
531     <section>
532     <title>Grub can't find stage x.y?</title>
533     <body>
534    
535     <p>
536     During installation the grub boot files are copied to <path>/boot/grub</path>
537     (<path>/boot/boot/grub</path> in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier.) Grub
538     automatically looks in the <path>/boot/grub</path> directory on the boot
539     partition. (We strongly recommend having a separate no-auto boot partition
540     mounted at <path>/boot</path>, since that way it is much more difficult to
541     clobber your kernel and boot info by accident.) The above error generally
542     arises from (a) not using a separate boot partition, (b) forgetting to mount
543     the boot partition at <path>/boot</path> before either unpacking the build
544     snapshot or running <c>emerge --usepkg system</c>, or (c) forgetting the
545     <c>notail</c> option when mounting a ReiserFS <path>/boot</path> partition.
546     You can get more information on grub, including how to debug grub from the
547     grub prompt, by reading the <uri
548     link="http://www-105.ibm.com/developerworks/education.nsf/linux-onlinecourse-bytitle/0F1731DC664023B7862569D0005C44AF?OpenDocument">IBM developerWorks Grub tutorial</uri>.
549     </p>
550    
551     </body>
552     </section>
553     <section>
554     <title>
555     My ASUS CUV4X-D won't boot and it freezes during various stages of kernel
556     loading and hardware detection.
557     </title>
558     <body>
559    
560     <p>
561     Disable MPS 1.4 (multi-processor-system) in the BIOS or switch this
562     function to 1.1. By using this option you just switch the MPS version. The
563     Multi-Processor-System will still work properly. Make sure to boot Gentoo
564     Linux with the following boot option, noapic.
565     </p>
566    
567     </body>
568     </section>
569     <section>
570     <title>
571     If I have Gentoo 1.4_rc1 can I upgrade to 1.4_rc2, 1.4_final/_rc3 without
572     reinstalling?
573     </title>
574     <body>
575    
576     <p>
577     In fact there is no difference between the 1.4 releases <b>after they&apos;ve
578     installed</b>. Gentoo 1.4 and later are <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based. As such
579     1.4rc1 machine for example, that does <c>emerge sync; emerge -u world</c> is
580     <b>exactly the same</b> as a machine with 1.4rc2 installed, after it does
581     <c>emerge sync; emerge -u world</c>. The true differences lie in the installer.
582     </p>
583    
584     </body>
585     </section>
586     <section>
587     <title>My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should I do now?</title>
588     <body>
589    
590     <p>
591     You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but only the
592     kernel-stuff and all associated steps. Suppose you have installed Gentoo
593     on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with
594     <path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space:
595     </p>
596    
597     <pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel">
598 swift 1.37 <comment>Boot from the LiveCD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment>
599     <comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment>
600     # <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
601     # <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
602     # <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
603     # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
604     <comment>Then we chroot into our Gentoo environment and configure the kernel:</comment>
605     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
606     # <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
607     # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
608     # <i>make menuconfig</i>
609     <comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment>
610     <comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment>
611     # <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make bzImage modules modules_install</i>
612     <comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment>
613     # <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</i>
614     <comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment>
615     # <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
616     <comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment>
617     # <i>exit</i>
618     # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
619     # <i>reboot</i>
620 swift 1.54 </pre>
621    
622     <p>
623     If on the other hand the problem lays with your bootloader configuration,
624     follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel you
625     should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary).
626     </p>
627    
628     </body>
629     </section>
630     <section>
631     <title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title>
632     <body>
633    
634     <p>
635     When you have to download something using <c>wget</c>, use the
636     following syntax to authenticate yourself:
637     </p>
638    
639 bennyc 1.40 <pre caption = "Proxy-authentication using wget">
640 swift 1.38 # <i>wget --proxy-user=</i><comment>username</comment><i> --proxy-passwd=</i><comment>password</comment><i> &lt;url&gt;</i>
641     </pre>
642 swift 1.54
643     <p>
644     To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in
645     <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
646     </p>
647    
648 swift 1.38 <pre caption = "/etc/make.conf">
649     FETCHCOMMAND="wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
650     RESUMECOMMAND="/usr/bin/wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -c -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
651     </pre>
652 swift 1.54
653     <p>
654     Sadly, <c>rsync</c> doesn't seem to support username/password
655     authentication for proxies. See <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect10">What
656     if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri> for more information on how to
657     handle this situation.
658     </p>
659    
660     </body>
661     </section>
662 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
663    
664     <chapter>
665 swift 1.54 <title>Package Management</title>
666     <section>
667     <title>In what format are the packages stored?</title>
668     <body>
669    
670 swift 1.45 <p>
671 swift 1.54 They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; we are
672     primarily a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts
673     (<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a special system (Portage) so that you can build
674     apps from sources. We generally only build binaries for releases and snapshots.
675     The <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-howto.xml">Development HOWTO</uri> covers the
676     contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we
677     create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format
678     (<c>.tar.bz2</c> compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the
679     file).
680 swift 1.45 </p>
681    
682 swift 1.54 </body>
683     </section>
684     <section>
685     <title>
686     Why write a new port system (Portage) instead of using BSD's version?
687     </title>
688     <body>
689    
690 swift 1.45 <p>
691 swift 1.54 In one sentence, because Portage is much better in so many ways. One of the
692     design philosophies of the <c>.ebuild</c> syntax was to make it an analog of
693     what you'd type to install the program manually, thus making Portage very easy
694     to learn and modify to your needs. We also have OpenBSD-style "fake" installs,
695     safe unmerging, system profiles, package masking, a real dependency system,
696     and lots of other good stuff.
697 swift 1.45 </p>
698    
699 swift 1.54 </body>
700     </section>
701     <section>
702     <title>How does this differ from Debian's apt or BSD's ports?</title>
703     <body>
704    
705 swift 1.45 <p>
706 swift 1.54 Portage features the best of apt and ports; for example, USE options, a full
707     dependency system, safe installs and uninstalls, and a true package database.
708     Think of Portage as the best of both worlds; a ports system with the
709     sensibilities and safety of a Linux package management system built-in.
710 swift 1.45 </p>
711    
712 swift 1.54 </body>
713     </section>
714     <section>
715     <title>How do I install and uninstall packages?</title>
716     <body>
717    
718 swift 1.45 <p>
719 swift 1.54 The <uri link="/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage User Guide</uri> details how
720     to install and uninstall packages, and update Portage.
721 swift 1.45 </p>
722    
723 swift 1.54 </body>
724     </section>
725     <section>
726     <title>How can I set a global configuration for compiling packages?</title>
727     <body>
728 drobbins 1.1
729 swift 1.54 <p>
730     <path>/etc/make.conf</path> should be modified to override global and
731     profile-specific default options used to compile and merge packages. The most
732     common options are as follows:
733     </p>
734 drobbins 1.1
735 swift 1.54 <table>
736     <tr>
737     <th>Flag</th>
738     <th>Description</th>
739     </tr>
740     <tr>
741     <ti>CHOST</ti>
742     <ti>
743     This sets the HOST variable for compiles, e.g. <c>i686-pc-linux-gnu</c>
744     </ti>
745     </tr>
746     <tr>
747     <ti>CFLAGS</ti>
748     <ti>
749     The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C (*.c files)
750     </ti>
751     </tr>
752     <tr>
753     <ti>CXXFLAGS</ti>
754     <ti>
755     The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C++ (*.c,
756     *.cpp etc. files)
757     </ti>
758     </tr>
759     <tr>
760     <ti>USE</ti>
761     <ti>
762     This allows you to set what optional components you'd like compiled-in, if
763     available. For example, if you have <c>gnome</c> inside the USE string,
764     then when you compile <c>xchat</c>, it will include GNOME support. All
765     our dependencies are also USE-aware.
766     </ti>
767     </tr>
768     <tr>
769     <ti>GENTOO_MIRRORS</ti>
770     <ti>
771     A space separated list of URIs currently mirroring the Gentoo packages.
772     Portage will attempt download from a <c>GENTOO_MIRROR</c> first before
773     trying the official <c>SRC_URI</c>. To force Portage to skip mirrors,
774     set this variable to "".
775     </ti>
776     </tr>
777     </table>
778 swift 1.32
779 swift 1.54 </body>
780     </section>
781     <section>
782     <title>What happened to <path>/etc/make.defaults</path>?</title>
783     <body>
784 drobbins 1.1
785 swift 1.54 <p>
786     As of Portage 1.5 onwards, <path>/etc/make.defaults</path> is antiquated;
787     if you have portage-1.5-r1 or above installed then you can safely delete it.
788     This file has been replaced by <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>
789     (<path>/etc/make.profile</path> should actually be a symlink to,
790     <path>/usr/portage/profiles/default</path>),
791     which contains system profile-specific default settings. The priority order of
792     the various configuration files is as follows (highest first):
793     </p>
794 drobbins 1.1
795 swift 1.54 <ol>
796     <li>Environment variables</li>
797     <li><path>/etc/make.conf</path>, for your use</li>
798     <li>
799     <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>, for profile-specific defaults
800     </li>
801     <li>
802     <path>/etc/make.globals</path>, for global defaults (settings not specified
803     in any other place come from here)
804     </li>
805     </ol>
806 drobbins 1.1
807 swift 1.54 </body>
808     </section>
809     <section>
810     <title>
811     Is there a way to upgrade all installed packages e.g. <e>apt-get upgrade</e>
812     or <e>make World</e>?
813     </title>
814     <body>
815 drobbins 1.1
816 swift 1.54 <p>
817     <b>YES!</b> Type <c>emerge --update system</c> (use it with <c>--pretend</c>
818     first) to update all core system packages, and use <c>emerge --update world</c>
819     (again, use it with <c>--pretend</c> first) to do a complete system upgrade of
820     all installed packages.
821     </p>
822 drobbins 1.1
823     </body>
824 swift 1.54 </section>
825     <section>
826     <title>
827     When updating a package using <c>emerge</c> or <c>ebuild</c>, how do I avoid
828     clobbering my config files?
829     </title>
830     <body>
831    
832     <p>
833     Portage now includes config file management support by default. Type
834     <c>emerge --help config</c> for more details. The (overly) simple answer is
835     that if a package installs <path>foo</path> somewhere under <path>/etc</path>,
836     and another <path>foo</path> already exists there, then the new <path>foo</path>
837     will instead be renamed to <path>._cfgxxxx_foo</path> in that directory. A
838     useful tool for examining and updating any protected config files is
839     <c>etc-update</c>, which is now part of Portage.
840     </p>
841    
842     </body>
843     </section>
844     <section>
845     <title>I want to perform the <c>./configure</c> step myself. Can I?</title>
846     <body>
847    
848     <p>
849     Yes, but it is not trivial, and the next method only works when it is a simple
850     ebuild (i.e. just <c>./configure</c> and <c>make &amp;&amp; make install</c>).
851     Be sure to read the ebuild itself to see how Gentoo handles it.
852     </p>
853    
854     <p>
855     Start with unpacking the ebuild: <c>ebuild
856     /usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt; unpack</c>.
857     </p>
858    
859     <p>
860     Next, go to <path>/var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/work</path>.
861     Inside it you'll find the unpacked sources. Execute the steps you need to
862     perform to configure and compile the package.
863     </p>
864    
865     <p>
866     When finished, execute <c>touch
867     /var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/.compiled</c> to trick Portage
868     into thinking it configured and compiled the package. Then finish up with
869     <c>ebuild /usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt;
870     merge</c>.
871     </p>
872    
873     </body>
874     </section>
875     <section>
876     <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
877     <body>
878    
879     <p>
880     If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit rsync traffic, then you can use
881     <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch and install a Portage snapshot for you
882     through regular HTTP. <c>emerge-webrsync</c> uses <c>wget</c> to download, so
883     proxy is fully supported.
884     </p>
885    
886     <pre caption="Using emerge-webrsync">
887     # <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
888     </pre>
889    
890     <p>
891     If you cannot do this either, you can manually download a snapshot
892     from <uri>http://distro.ibiblio.org/pub/linux/distributions/gentoo/snapshots/</uri>.
893     In order to install the snapshot correctly, you first need to remove
894     your current <path>/usr/portage</path> so that outdated ebuilds don't
895     stay available on your system. However, you might want to put
896     <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> somewhere safe if you don't want to
897     lose all your sourcecode.
898     </p>
899    
900     <pre caption="Manually installing the snapshots">
901     <codenote>(First download the snapshot and place it in /usr)</codenote>
902     # <i>cd /usr</i>
903     # <i>mv /usr/portage/distfiles /usr/distfiles-temp</i>
904     # <i>rm -rf /usr/portage</i>
905     # <i>tar xvjf portage-foo.tbz2</i>
906     # <i>mv /usr/distfiles-temp /usr/portage/distfiles</i>
907     </pre>
908    
909     </body>
910     </section>
911     <section>
912     <title>How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</title>
913     <body>
914    
915     <p>
916     Edit the PROXY settings in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If that doesn't work,
917     edit <path>/etc/wget/wgetrc</path> and edit http_proxy and ftp_proxy
918     appropriately.
919     </p>
920    
921     </body>
922     </section>
923     <section>
924     <title>Can I rsync from another operating system?</title>
925     <body>
926    
927     <p>
928     There's a program called unison that works under both UNIX and Win32, available
929     from <uri>http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~bcpierce/unison/</uri>.
930     </p>
931    
932     </body>
933     </section>
934     <section>
935     <title>
936     I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere
937     else and add them to my system?
938     </title>
939     <body>
940    
941     <p>
942     Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
943     are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where
944     to download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>. Download
945     sources and bring them on any media home. Put the sources into
946     <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run <c>emerge package</c> to see it
947     picking up the sources you just brought in!
948     </p>
949    
950     </body>
951     </section>
952     <section>
953     <title>
954     .tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in
955     /usr/portage/distfiles/ using valuable space. Is it safe to delete these
956     files?
957     </title>
958     <body>
959    
960     <p>
961     Yes, you can safely delete these files. But if you are on a slow
962     connection, such as a modem, you might want to keep the archives if
963     possible; often several ebuilds will be released for the same version of
964     a specific piece of software - if you have deleted the archive and you
965     upgrade the software it will have to be downloaded from the internet
966     again.
967     </p>
968    
969     </body>
970     </section>
971     <section>
972     <title>
973     I went to emerge blackdown-jdk and blackdown-jre, and afterwards
974     java-config --list-available-vms would only list blackdown-jre.
975     Openoffice would then refuse to emerge. What do I do?
976     </title>
977     <body>
978    
979     <p>
980     Solution:
981     </p>
982    
983     <pre caption = "Solution">
984     # <i>emerge unmerge blackdown-jre blackdown-jdk </i>
985     # <i>CONFIG_PROTECT="" emerge blackdown-jdk </i>
986     </pre>
987    
988     </body>
989     </section>
990     <section>
991     <title>
992     What's in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>? Is it safe to delete the files and
993     directories in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>?
994     </title>
995     <body>
996    
997     <p>
998     During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in
999     <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. It is safe to clean out all contents of this
1000     directory.
1001     </p>
1002    
1003     </body>
1004     </section>
1005     </chapter>
1006    
1007     <chapter>
1008     <title>Usage</title>
1009     <section>
1010     <title>
1011     I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal
1012     user account doesn't work.
1013     </title>
1014     <body>
1015    
1016     <p>
1017     This is most probably because your user account doesn't have a valid shell
1018     specified. Check for your user entry in <path>/etc/passwd</path> and see if it
1019     ends in /bin/bash (or any other shell). If it doesn't, you must set a shell for
1020     the user. This is done using the usermod command, like this:
1021     </p>
1022    
1023     <pre caption="Using usermod">
1024     # <i>usermod -s /bin/bash myuser</i>
1025     </pre>
1026    
1027     </body>
1028     </section>
1029     <section>
1030     <title>I can start X applications as root only.</title>
1031     <body>
1032    
1033     <p>
1034     Your <path>/tmp</path> directory has the wrong permissions (it needs the
1035     sticky bit set). Type the following as root:
1036     </p>
1037    
1038     <pre caption="Changing /tmp permissions">
1039     # <i>chmod 1777 /tmp</i>
1040     </pre>
1041    
1042     </body>
1043     </section>
1044     <section>
1045     <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
1046     <body>
1047    
1048     <p>
1049     Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>.
1050     Then either reboot or restart the keymaps script:
1051     <c>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</c>.
1052     </p>
1053    
1054     </body>
1055     </section>
1056     <section>
1057     <title>DNS name resolution works for root only.</title>
1058     <body>
1059    
1060     <p>
1061     <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as
1062     follows:
1063     </p>
1064    
1065     <pre caption="Changing permissions on /etc/resolv.conf">
1066     # <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i>
1067     </pre>
1068    
1069     </body>
1070     </section>
1071     <section>
1072     <title>Why is KDE not reading <path>/etc/profile</path>?</title>
1073     <body>
1074    
1075     <p>
1076     You need to add <c>--login</c> to the first line in
1077     <path>/opt/kde2.1/bin/startkde</path>, so that it reads as follows:
1078     </p>
1079    
1080     <pre caption="Adding --login to startkde">
1081     #!/bin/sh --login
1082     </pre>
1083    
1084     <p>
1085     This fix has been added to recent versions of KDE.
1086     </p>
1087    
1088     </body>
1089     </section>
1090     <section>
1091     <title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
1092     <body>
1093    
1094     <p>
1095     You need to add that user to the <c>cron</c> group.
1096     </p>
1097    
1098     </body>
1099     </section>
1100     <section>
1101     <title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
1102     <body>
1103    
1104     <p>
1105     If you log on graphically, or want numlock to be activated when
1106     you issue <c>startx</c>, then you must <c>emerge numlockx</c> and
1107     add <c>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</c> to
1108     <path>/etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc</path> (for <c>startx</c>) or
1109     <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path> (for any graphical login manager) such
1110     as <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/Gnome</path> for GDM.
1111     </p>
1112    
1113     <p>
1114     If you work in commandline, you only need to <c>rc-update add
1115     numlock default</c> and numlock will be activated on the next
1116     reboot.
1117     </p>
1118    
1119     </body>
1120     </section>
1121     <section>
1122     <title>How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</title>
1123     <body>
1124    
1125     <p>
1126     To have your terminal cleared, add <c>clear</c> to your
1127     <path>~/.bash_logout</path> script:
1128     </p>
1129    
1130     <pre caption = "Clearing the terminal during logout">
1131     $ <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; ~/.bash_logout</i>
1132     </pre>
1133    
1134     <p>
1135     If you want this to happen automatically when you add a new
1136     user, do the same for the <path>/etc/skel/.bash_logout</path>:
1137     </p>
1138    
1139     <pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout">
1140     # <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre>
1141     </body>
1142    
1143     </section>
1144     </chapter>
1145    
1146     <chapter>
1147     <title>Maintenance</title>
1148     <section>
1149     <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</title>
1150     <body>
1151    
1152     <p>
1153     If your ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo
1154     Linux boot CD and run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on
1155     the corrupted filesystem. This should make the filesystem consistent
1156     again, although you may have lost some files or directories due
1157     to the corruption.
1158     </p>
1159    
1160     </body>
1161     </section>
1162     <section>
1163     <title>
1164     How to I view the timestamps in /var/log/syslog.d, etc. on a pre-1.0_rc5
1165     Gentoo system?
1166     </title>
1167     <body>
1168    
1169     <p>
1170     To view multilog (Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier) timestamps, you need to
1171     pipe the current log through the <c>tai64nlocal</c>command:
1172     </p>
1173    
1174     <pre caption="Using tai64nlocal">
1175     # <i>tai64nlocal &lt; /var/log/syslog.d/current | less</i>
1176     </pre>
1177    
1178     <p>
1179     Or, alternatively, if you want to "tail" the log:
1180     </p>
1181    
1182     <pre caption="Using tai64nlocal (bis)">
1183     # <i>tail -f /var/log/syslog.d/current | tai64nlocal</i>
1184     </pre>
1185    
1186     </body>
1187     </section>
1188     <section>
1189     <title>Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</title>
1190     <body>
1191    
1192 swift 1.41 <p>
1193     Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately
1194     recorded into the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this
1195     performance-enhancing behavior is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux
1196     system is up and running, you can send metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily
1197     turn off this message buffering (meaning that <c>tail -f
1198     <path>/var/log/everything/current</path></c> will now work in real time, as
1199     expected) and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on again. If you want to
1200     disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to
1201     METALOG_OPTS="-B -s" in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>.
1202     </p>
1203    
1204     <pre caption="Turning metalog buffering on/off">
1205     <codenote>To turn the buffering off:</codenote>
1206     # <i>killall -USR1 metalog</i>
1207     <codenote>To turn the buffering back on:</codenote>
1208     # <i>killall -USR2 metalog</i>
1209     </pre>
1210    
1211 swift 1.54 </body>
1212     </section>
1213 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
1214    
1215     <chapter>
1216 swift 1.54 <title>Development</title>
1217     <section>
1218     <title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
1219     <body>
1220    
1221     <p>
1222     For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise,
1223     use our Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can
1224     also visit us in <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri
1225     link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network.
1226     </p>
1227    
1228     </body>
1229     </section>
1230     <section>
1231     <title>How often are new releases made?</title>
1232     <body>
1233    
1234     <p>
1235     New releases are announced on the <uri
1236     link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri>
1237     mailing list. In reality the packages themselves are updated shortly after the
1238     main authors release new code. As for when new Cd images etc are released, that
1239     tends to be whenever there are any major updates to the base code, or when
1240     new modules get added.
1241     </p>
1242    
1243     </body>
1244     </section>
1245     <section>
1246     <title>
1247     I would like a package to be added to Portage; how would I go about this?
1248     </title>
1249     <body>
1250    
1251     <p>
1252     Head over to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and submit a new bug of the type
1253     "ebuild". Attach your ebuild to the bug report.
1254     </p>
1255    
1256     </body>
1257     </section>
1258     <section>
1259     <title>How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</title>
1260     <body>
1261    
1262     <p>
1263     Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the
1264     "Docs-user" product, "Gentoo Linux FAQ" component.
1265     </p>
1266    
1267     </body>
1268     </section>
1269     <section>
1270     <title>
1271     make -f Makefile.cvs on a KDE app produces "invalid unused variable" errors
1272     </title>
1273     <body>
1274    
1275     <p>
1276     Export <c>WANT_AUTOMAKE_1_4=1</c> for all KDE projects before running
1277     <c>make -f Makefile.cvs</c>. Also, for KDE2 apps export
1278     <c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_1=1</c>, and for KDE3 apps export <c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_5=1</c>.
1279     </p>
1280    
1281     </body>
1282     </section>
1283     <section>
1284     <title>
1285     My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console
1286     beeps?
1287     </title>
1288     <body>
1289    
1290     <p>
1291     Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this:
1292     </p>
1293    
1294     <pre caption="Using setterm">
1295     # <i>setterm -blength 0</i>
1296     </pre>
1297    
1298     <p>
1299     If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot
1300     you need to put this command in <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However,
1301     this only disables beeps for the current terminal. To disable
1302     beeps for other terminals, pipe the command output to the
1303     target terminal, like this:
1304     </p>
1305    
1306     <pre caption="Using setterm (bis)">
1307     # <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i>
1308     </pre>
1309    
1310     <p>
1311     You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal you would like to disable
1312     console beeps for.
1313     </p>
1314    
1315     </body>
1316     </section>
1317 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
1318    
1319     <chapter>
1320     <title>Resources</title>
1321 swift 1.54 <section>
1322     <title>
1323     Where can I find more about supervise used by default in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5
1324     and earlier?
1325     </title>
1326     <body>
1327 drobbins 1.1
1328 swift 1.54 <p>
1329     <uri>http://cr.yp.to/daemontools.html</uri>
1330     </p>
1331    
1332     </body>
1333     </section>
1334     <section>
1335     <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
1336     <body>
1337    
1338     <p>
1339     The official Gentoo documentation can be found on
1340     <uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>; general Linux information is at
1341     <uri>http://www.tldp.org</uri>.
1342     </p>
1343    
1344     </body>
1345     </section>
1346 erwin 1.52 <section>
1347     <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
1348     <body>
1349    
1350 swift 1.54 <p>
1351     Yes! LiveCDs for all supported architecture are available on
1352 erwin 1.52 our <uri link="http://store.gentoo.org/">Gentoo Store</uri>. When you
1353     purchase a CD from our store, you are also supporting our development.
1354     So, please consider buying from our store if possible :-)
1355     </p>
1356    
1357     <p>
1358     You can also find fresh CDs from
1359     <uri link = "http://cart.cheapbytes.com/cgi-bin/cart/0070010933">Cheapbytes
1360     </uri> and <uri link = "http://www.tuxcds.com/section.php?section=42">
1361     tuxcds</uri> for a very good price. These people also bounce back a
1362     portion of the profits to the Gentoo project, so buy them while they are hot!
1363     </p>
1364    
1365     </body>
1366     </section>
1367 swift 1.54 <section>
1368     <title>
1369     Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer
1370     only go to the original poster and not the entire list?
1371     </title>
1372     <body>
1373 drobbins 1.1
1374 swift 1.54 <p>
1375     The mailing list administrators have decided to go with minimal munging
1376     (altering of mail headers), which means that they have decided against
1377     altering headers to have replies go to the mailing list. There are various
1378     reasons for this. For example, if a subscriber has a full mailbox, the
1379     entire list receives notice of this every time that something is posted.
1380     </p>
1381    
1382     <p>
1383     Most GUI based mailers have a "reply to all" function. This will ensure that
1384     your reply goes to the mailing list as well as the original poster. Most
1385     users of text based emailers already know the methods to use, but if you
1386     don't, in Pine, there is a "reply to group" option. Setting Mutt to reply to
1387     the list is covered in the unofficial documentation at
1388     <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=1085">forums.gentoo.org</uri>.
1389     </p>
1390    
1391     <p>
1392     Some list members do not like this method, but it was very heavily
1393     discussed when it went into effect, with arguments on both sides.
1394     Eventually the list administrators decided to keep it this way. Discussing
1395     it on the mailing list will sometimes bring a polite explanation and other
1396     times a rather brusque comment to check the archives. Although the
1397     administrators regret the inconvenience that it may cause some users, it is
1398     felt that at present it is preferable to the alternative for several
1399     reasons, many of these covered
1400     <uri link="http://www.unicom.com/pw/reply-to-harmful.html">here</uri>.
1401     </p>
1402    
1403     <p>
1404     (There are other eloquent arguments in favor of munging, and yes, the list
1405     administrators have seen them).
1406     </p>
1407    
1408     </body>
1409     </section>
1410     <section>
1411     <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
1412     <body>
1413    
1414     <p>
1415     A good first step is to browse through the relevant <uri
1416     link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/index.xml">documentation</uri>, failing that,
1417     the various Gentoo Linux mailing lists listed on <uri
1418     link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo
1419     mailing lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all
1420     else fails, or you just want to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc:
1421     <c>#gentoo</c> on <c>irc.freenode.net</c>.
1422     </p>
1423    
1424     </body>
1425     </section>
1426 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
1427 swift 1.54
1428 drobbins 1.1 </guide>

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