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1 zhen 1.3 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 swift 1.61 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml,v 1.60 2004/04/19 17:36:45 swift Exp $ -->
3 drobbins 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4    
5 zhen 1.2 <guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
6 drobbins 1.1 <title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
7 swift 1.54 <author title="Chief Architect">
8     <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
9     </author>
10     <author title="Reviewer">
11     Colin Morey
12     </author>
13     <author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
14     John P. Davis
15     </author>
16     <author title="Editor">
17     <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
18     </author>
19     <author title="Editor">
20     <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
21     </author>
22     <author title="Editor">
23     <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
24     </author>
25     <author title="Editor">
26     <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
27     </author>
28     <author title="Editor">
29     <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
30     </author>
31    
32 vapier 1.49 <abstract>
33 swift 1.54 This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev
34     mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add,
35     please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.
36 vapier 1.49 </abstract>
37 drobbins 1.1
38 swift 1.42 <license/>
39    
40 swift 1.61 <version>2.3</version>
41     <date>April 28, 2004</date>
42 swift 1.36
43     <chapter>
44     <title>Featured Questions</title>
45     <section>
46     <title>Getting Started</title>
47     <body>
48 swift 1.54
49 swift 1.36 <ul>
50 swift 1.54 <li>
51 swift 1.61 <uri link="#pronunciation">How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it
52 swift 1.55 mean?</uri>
53 swift 1.54 </li>
54     <li>
55 swift 1.61 <uri link="#differences">What makes Gentoo different?</uri>
56 swift 1.54 </li>
57 swift 1.36 </ul>
58 swift 1.54
59 swift 1.36 </body>
60     </section>
61     <section>
62     <title>Installation</title>
63     <body>
64 swift 1.54
65 swift 1.36 <ul>
66 swift 1.54 <li>
67 swift 1.61 <uri link="#optimizations">I'm finding things to be really unstable and
68 swift 1.55 I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What
69 swift 1.54 gives?</uri>
70     </li>
71     <li>
72 swift 1.61 <uri link="#password">How can I change the root (or any other user's)
73 swift 1.55 password?</uri>
74 swift 1.54 </li>
75     <li>
76 swift 1.61 <uri link="#useradd">How do I add a normal user?</uri>
77 swift 1.54 </li>
78     <li>
79 swift 1.61 <uri link="#su">Why can't a user su to root?</uri>
80 swift 1.54 </li>
81     <li>
82 swift 1.61 <uri link="#devfs">How do I disable devfs?</uri>
83 swift 1.54 </li>
84     <li>
85 swift 1.61 <uri link="#upgrade">Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to
86 swift 1.55 another without reinstalling?</uri>
87 swift 1.54 </li>
88     <li>
89 swift 1.61 <uri link="#bootrescue">My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should
90 swift 1.55 I do now?</uri>
91 swift 1.54 </li>
92     <li>
93 swift 1.61 <uri link="#proxy">My proxy requires authentication, what do I
94 swift 1.54 have to do?</uri>
95     </li>
96 swift 1.36 </ul>
97 swift 1.54
98 swift 1.36 </body>
99     </section>
100     <section>
101     <title>Package Management</title>
102     <body>
103 swift 1.54
104 swift 1.36 <ul>
105 swift 1.54 <li>
106 swift 1.61 <uri link="#ebuilds">In what format are the packages stored?</uri>
107 swift 1.54 </li>
108     <li>
109 swift 1.61 <uri link="#configure">I want to perform the ./configure step myself.
110 swift 1.54 Can I?</uri>
111     </li>
112     <li>
113 swift 1.61 <uri link="#norsync">What if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri>
114 swift 1.54 </li>
115     <li>
116 swift 1.61 <uri link="#firewall">How do I use emerge from behind a
117 swift 1.54 firewall?</uri>
118     </li>
119     <li>
120 swift 1.61 <uri link="#unison">Can I rsync from another operating
121 swift 1.54 system?</uri>
122     </li>
123     <li>
124 swift 1.61 <uri link="#manualdownload">I have only slow modem connection at home. Can
125 swift 1.55 I download sources somewhere else and add them to my system?</uri>
126 swift 1.54 </li>
127     <li>
128 swift 1.61 <uri link="#distfiles">.tar.gz sources for installed software are
129 neysx 1.56 piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles using valuable space. Is it safe to
130 swift 1.55 delete there files?</uri>
131 swift 1.54 </li>
132     <li>
133 swift 1.61 <uri link="#tmpportage">What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to
134 swift 1.54 delete the files and directories in /var/tmp/portage?</uri>
135     </li>
136 swift 1.36 </ul>
137 swift 1.54
138 swift 1.36 </body>
139     </section>
140     <section>
141     <title>Usage</title>
142     <body>
143 swift 1.54
144 swift 1.36 <ul>
145 swift 1.54 <li>
146 swift 1.61 <uri link="#rootssh">I have installed openssh on my box, but can
147 swift 1.54 only log in as root - my normal user account doesn't work.</uri>
148     </li>
149     <li>
150 swift 1.61 <uri link="#rootX">I can start X applications as root only</uri>
151 swift 1.54 </li>
152     <li>
153 swift 1.61 <uri link="#intkeyboard">How do I set up an International Keyboard
154 swift 1.54 Layout?</uri>
155     </li>
156     <li>
157 swift 1.61 <uri link="#rootdns">DNS name resolution works for root only.</uri>
158 swift 1.54 </li>
159     <li>
160 swift 1.61 <uri link="#crontab">Why can't my user use their own crontab?</uri>
161 swift 1.54 </li>
162     <li>
163 swift 1.61 <uri link="#numlock">How do I get numlock to start on boot?</uri>
164 swift 1.54 </li>
165     <li>
166 swift 1.61 <uri link="#clear">How do I have my terminal cleared when I log
167 swift 1.54 out?</uri>
168     </li>
169 swift 1.36 </ul>
170 swift 1.54
171 swift 1.36 </body>
172     </section>
173     <section>
174     <title>Maintenance</title>
175     <body>
176 swift 1.54
177 swift 1.36 <ul>
178 swift 1.54 <li>
179 swift 1.61 <uri link="#filecorruption">ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues --
180 swift 1.55 how to fix'em, etc.</uri>
181 swift 1.54 </li>
182     <li>
183 swift 1.61 <uri link="#metalogd">Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</uri>
184 swift 1.54 </li>
185 swift 1.36 </ul>
186 swift 1.54
187 swift 1.36 </body>
188     </section>
189     <section>
190     <title>Development</title>
191     <body>
192 swift 1.54
193 swift 1.36 <ul>
194 swift 1.54 <li>
195 swift 1.61 <uri link="#reportbugs">Where can I report bugs?</uri>
196 swift 1.54 </li>
197     <li>
198 swift 1.61 <uri link="#releases">How often are new releases made?</uri>
199 swift 1.54 </li>
200     <li>
201 swift 1.61 <uri link="#addfaq">How can I add a question or answer to this
202 swift 1.55 FAQ?</uri>
203 swift 1.54 </li>
204     <li>
205 swift 1.61 <uri link="#beeping">My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling
206 swift 1.55 Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps?</uri>
207 swift 1.54 </li>
208 swift 1.36 </ul>
209 swift 1.54
210 swift 1.36 </body>
211     </section>
212     <section>
213     <title>Resources</title>
214     <body>
215 swift 1.54
216 swift 1.36 <ul>
217 swift 1.54 <li>
218 swift 1.61 <uri link="#resources">Where can I find more information about Gentoo
219 swift 1.55 Linux?</uri>
220 swift 1.54 </li>
221     <li>
222 swift 1.61 <uri link="#buycd">Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</uri>
223 swift 1.54 </li>
224     <li>
225 swift 1.61 <uri link="#mailinglist">Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo
226 swift 1.55 mailinglist, does my answer only go to the original poster and not the
227 swift 1.54 entire list?</uri>
228     </li>
229     <li>
230 swift 1.61 <uri link="#help">This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I
231 swift 1.55 do now?</uri>
232 swift 1.54 </li>
233 swift 1.36 </ul>
234 swift 1.54
235 swift 1.36 </body>
236     </section>
237     </chapter>
238    
239 swift 1.54 <chapter>
240     <title>Getting Started</title>
241    
242 swift 1.61 <section id="pronunciation">
243 swift 1.54 <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
244     <body>
245    
246     <p>
247 swift 1.55 A <e>Gentoo</e> is a species of a small, fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (the
248     "g" in "gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle"). The latin name of the Gentoo
249     penguin is <e>Pygoscelis papua</e>. The name <e>Gentoo</e> has been given to the
250     penguin by the inhabitants of the Falkland Islands.
251 swift 1.54 </p>
252    
253     </body>
254     </section>
255 swift 1.61 <section id="differences">
256 swift 1.54 <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
257     <body>
258 drobbins 1.1
259 swift 1.54 <p>
260 swift 1.55 Gentoo uses a BSD ports-like system called <uri
261     link="/proj/en/portage">Portage</uri>. Portage is a package management system
262     that allows great flexibility while installing and maintaining software on a
263     Gentoo system. It provides compile-time option support (through <uri
264 neysx 1.57 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">USE flags</uri>),
265 swift 1.55 conditional dependencies, "fake" installs, safe installation (through
266     sandboxing) and uninstallation of software, system profiles, <uri
267 neysx 1.57 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=4#doc_chap1">configuration
268 swift 1.55 file protection</uri> amongst several other <uri
269 neysx 1.57 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=3">features</uri>.
270 swift 1.54 </p>
271 drobbins 1.1
272 swift 1.54 <p>
273 swift 1.55 With Gentoo you can build your entire system from source completely using your
274     choice of optimizations. You have complete control over what packages are or
275     aren't installed. Gentoo provides you with numerous choices so you can install
276     Gentoo to your own taste. This is why Gentoo is called a
277     <e>meta-distribution</e>.
278 swift 1.54 </p>
279    
280     <p>
281 swift 1.55 Gentoo is very actively developed. Not only the <e>ebuilds</e> themselves (the
282     package format Gentoo uses) but the entire distribution uses a rapid pace
283     development style. Patches to the packages are quickly integrated in the
284     mainline tree, documentation is updated on daily basis, portage features are
285     added frequently, releases succeed each other quickly, ...
286 swift 1.54 </p>
287    
288     </body>
289     </section>
290 swift 1.55 </chapter>
291    
292     <chapter>
293     <title>Installation</title>
294 swift 1.61 <section id="optimizations">
295 swift 1.54 <title>
296     I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math
297     -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?
298     </title>
299     <body>
300    
301     <p>
302 swift 1.60 Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't supported by
303 swift 1.54 current versions of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the
304     compiler to streamline the assembly code to the point where it doesn't quite
305 swift 1.55 do the same thing anymore.
306 swift 1.54 </p>
307    
308     <p>
309 swift 1.55 Please try to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march= -O2</c> first before reporting a
310 swift 1.54 bug.
311     </p>
312    
313     </body>
314     </section>
315 swift 1.61 <section id="password">
316 swift 1.55 <title>How can i change the root (or any other user's) password?</title>
317 swift 1.54 <body>
318    
319     <p>
320     You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged
321     into. For extra options and setting, please see <c>man passwd</c> once you've
322     completed the install.
323     </p>
324    
325     </body>
326     </section>
327 swift 1.61 <section id="useradd">
328 swift 1.54 <title>How do i add a normal user?</title>
329     <body>
330    
331     <p>
332     The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called gentoo. The next step
333     is to give this user a password and <c>passwd</c> will do exactly that.
334     </p>
335    
336     <p>
337     Instead of <c>adduser</c> you can also use:
338     </p>
339    
340     <pre caption="Using useradd">
341     # <i>useradd gentoo -m -G users,audio,wheel -s /bin/bash</i>
342     </pre>
343    
344     <p>
345 swift 1.59 This will add a user gentoo, will make possible for him/her to use sound-related
346     devices (<path>/dev/sound/*</path>), will make possible for him/her to switch to
347     root (using <c>su</c>) and will make <path>/bin/bash</path> his/her login shell.
348 swift 1.54 </p>
349    
350     <p>
351     You can also install <c>superadduser</c> using <c>emerge superadduser</c> and
352     then issue <c>superadduser gentoo</c> to add a user called gentoo. Just follow
353     the instructions given to you by <c>superadduser</c>.
354     </p>
355    
356     </body>
357     </section>
358 swift 1.61 <section id="su">
359 swift 1.54 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
360     <body>
361    
362     <p>
363     For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
364 cam 1.58 <e>wheel</e> group. To add a <e>username</e> to the <e>wheel</e> group, issue
365 swift 1.54 the following command as root:
366     </p>
367    
368     <pre caption="Adding a user to the wheel group">
369 swift 1.55 # <i>gpasswd -a username wheel</i>
370 swift 1.54 </pre>
371    
372     </body>
373     </section>
374 swift 1.61 <section id="devfs">
375 swift 1.54 <title>How to I disable devfs?</title>
376     <body>
377    
378     <p>
379 swift 1.55 If you plan on using Gentoo with the "old-style" <path>/dev</path> approach, you
380     can disable devfs by passing the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> to the kernel. If on the
381     other hand you want to use <uri link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev</uri> (2.6
382     kernels only), you can disable devfs by passing the <c>devfs=nomount</c> option
383     to the kernel. Don't forget to read up on our <uri
384     link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev guide</uri> too.
385 swift 1.54 </p>
386    
387     </body>
388     </section>
389 swift 1.61 <section id="upgrade">
390 swift 1.54 <title>
391 swift 1.55 Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to another without reinstalling?
392 swift 1.54 </title>
393     <body>
394    
395     <p>
396 swift 1.55 In fact there is no difference between the various releases
397     <b>after they have been installed</b>. Gentoo 1.4 and later are
398     <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based. As such running <c>emerge sync; emerge -u world</c>
399     will bring your entire system up to speed with the "latest Gentoo".
400     The true differences between individual releases lie in the installation.
401 swift 1.54 </p>
402    
403     </body>
404     </section>
405 swift 1.61 <section id="bootrescue">
406 swift 1.54 <title>My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should I do now?</title>
407     <body>
408    
409     <p>
410     You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but only the
411     kernel-stuff and all associated steps. Suppose you have installed Gentoo
412     on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with
413     <path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space:
414     </p>
415    
416     <pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel">
417 swift 1.37 <comment>Boot from the LiveCD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment>
418     <comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment>
419     # <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
420     # <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
421     # <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
422     # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
423     <comment>Then we chroot into our Gentoo environment and configure the kernel:</comment>
424     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
425     # <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
426     # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
427     # <i>make menuconfig</i>
428     <comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment>
429     <comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment>
430     # <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make bzImage modules modules_install</i>
431     <comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment>
432     # <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</i>
433     <comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment>
434     # <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
435     <comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment>
436     # <i>exit</i>
437     # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
438     # <i>reboot</i>
439 swift 1.54 </pre>
440    
441     <p>
442     If on the other hand the problem lays with your bootloader configuration,
443     follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel you
444     should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary).
445     </p>
446    
447     </body>
448     </section>
449 swift 1.61 <section id="proxy">
450 swift 1.54 <title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title>
451     <body>
452    
453     <p>
454     When you have to download something using <c>wget</c>, use the
455     following syntax to authenticate yourself:
456     </p>
457    
458 bennyc 1.40 <pre caption = "Proxy-authentication using wget">
459 swift 1.38 # <i>wget --proxy-user=</i><comment>username</comment><i> --proxy-passwd=</i><comment>password</comment><i> &lt;url&gt;</i>
460     </pre>
461 swift 1.54
462     <p>
463     To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in
464     <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
465     </p>
466    
467 swift 1.38 <pre caption = "/etc/make.conf">
468     FETCHCOMMAND="wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
469     RESUMECOMMAND="/usr/bin/wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -c -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
470     </pre>
471 swift 1.54
472     <p>
473     Sadly, <c>rsync</c> doesn't seem to support username/password
474 neysx 1.56 authentication for proxies. See <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect3">What
475 swift 1.54 if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri> for more information on how to
476     handle this situation.
477     </p>
478    
479     </body>
480     </section>
481 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
482    
483     <chapter>
484 swift 1.54 <title>Package Management</title>
485 swift 1.61 <section id="ebuilds">
486 swift 1.54 <title>In what format are the packages stored?</title>
487     <body>
488    
489 swift 1.45 <p>
490 swift 1.55 They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; Gentoo is
491 swift 1.54 primarily a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts
492     (<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a special system (Portage) so that you can build
493     apps from sources. We generally only build binaries for releases and snapshots.
494     The <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-howto.xml">Development HOWTO</uri> covers the
495     contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we
496     create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format
497     (<c>.tar.bz2</c> compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the
498     file).
499 swift 1.45 </p>
500    
501 swift 1.54 </body>
502     </section>
503 swift 1.61 <section id="configure">
504 cam 1.58 <title>I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</title>
505 swift 1.54 <body>
506    
507     <p>
508     Yes, but it is not trivial, and the next method only works when it is a simple
509     ebuild (i.e. just <c>./configure</c> and <c>make &amp;&amp; make install</c>).
510     Be sure to read the ebuild itself to see how Gentoo handles it.
511     </p>
512    
513     <p>
514     Start with unpacking the ebuild: <c>ebuild
515     /usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt; unpack</c>.
516     </p>
517    
518     <p>
519     Next, go to <path>/var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/work</path>.
520     Inside it you'll find the unpacked sources. Execute the steps you need to
521     perform to configure and compile the package.
522     </p>
523    
524     <p>
525     When finished, execute <c>touch
526     /var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/.compiled</c> to trick Portage
527     into thinking it configured and compiled the package. Then finish up with
528     <c>ebuild /usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt;
529     merge</c>.
530     </p>
531    
532     </body>
533     </section>
534 swift 1.61 <section id="norync">
535 swift 1.54 <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
536     <body>
537    
538     <p>
539     If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit rsync traffic, then you can use
540     <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch and install a Portage snapshot for you
541     through regular HTTP. <c>emerge-webrsync</c> uses <c>wget</c> to download, so
542     proxy is fully supported.
543     </p>
544    
545     <pre caption="Using emerge-webrsync">
546     # <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
547     </pre>
548    
549     </body>
550     </section>
551 swift 1.61 <section id="firewall">
552 swift 1.54 <title>How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</title>
553     <body>
554    
555     <p>
556     Edit the PROXY settings in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If that doesn't work,
557     edit <path>/etc/wget/wgetrc</path> and edit http_proxy and ftp_proxy
558     appropriately.
559     </p>
560    
561     </body>
562     </section>
563 swift 1.61 <section id="unison">
564 swift 1.54 <title>Can I rsync from another operating system?</title>
565     <body>
566    
567     <p>
568     There's a program called unison that works under both UNIX and Win32, available
569     from <uri>http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~bcpierce/unison/</uri>.
570     </p>
571    
572     </body>
573     </section>
574 swift 1.61 <section id="manualdownload">
575 swift 1.54 <title>
576     I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere
577     else and add them to my system?
578     </title>
579     <body>
580    
581     <p>
582     Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
583     are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where
584     to download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>. Download
585     sources and bring them on any media home. Put the sources into
586     <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run <c>emerge package</c> to see it
587     picking up the sources you just brought in!
588     </p>
589    
590     </body>
591     </section>
592 swift 1.61 <section id="distfiles">
593 swift 1.54 <title>
594     .tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in
595     /usr/portage/distfiles/ using valuable space. Is it safe to delete these
596     files?
597     </title>
598     <body>
599    
600     <p>
601     Yes, you can safely delete these files. But if you are on a slow
602     connection, such as a modem, you might want to keep the archives if
603     possible; often several ebuilds will be released for the same version of
604     a specific piece of software - if you have deleted the archive and you
605     upgrade the software it will have to be downloaded from the internet
606     again.
607     </p>
608    
609     </body>
610     </section>
611 swift 1.61 <section id="tmpportage">
612 swift 1.54 <title>
613 cam 1.58 What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to delete the files and
614     directories in /var/tmp/portage?
615 swift 1.54 </title>
616     <body>
617    
618     <p>
619     During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in
620     <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. It is safe to clean out all contents of this
621     directory.
622     </p>
623    
624     </body>
625     </section>
626     </chapter>
627    
628     <chapter>
629     <title>Usage</title>
630 swift 1.61 <section id="rootssh">
631 swift 1.54 <title>
632     I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal
633     user account doesn't work.
634     </title>
635     <body>
636    
637     <p>
638     This is most probably because your user account doesn't have a valid shell
639     specified. Check for your user entry in <path>/etc/passwd</path> and see if it
640     ends in /bin/bash (or any other shell). If it doesn't, you must set a shell for
641     the user. This is done using the usermod command, like this:
642     </p>
643    
644     <pre caption="Using usermod">
645     # <i>usermod -s /bin/bash myuser</i>
646     </pre>
647    
648     </body>
649     </section>
650 swift 1.61 <section id="rootX">
651 swift 1.54 <title>I can start X applications as root only.</title>
652     <body>
653    
654     <p>
655     Your <path>/tmp</path> directory has the wrong permissions (it needs the
656     sticky bit set). Type the following as root:
657     </p>
658    
659     <pre caption="Changing /tmp permissions">
660     # <i>chmod 1777 /tmp</i>
661     </pre>
662    
663     </body>
664     </section>
665 swift 1.61 <section id="intkeyboard">
666 swift 1.54 <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
667     <body>
668    
669     <p>
670     Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>.
671     Then either reboot or restart the keymaps script:
672     <c>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</c>.
673     </p>
674    
675     </body>
676     </section>
677 swift 1.61 <section id="rootdns">
678 swift 1.54 <title>DNS name resolution works for root only.</title>
679     <body>
680    
681     <p>
682     <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as
683     follows:
684     </p>
685    
686     <pre caption="Changing permissions on /etc/resolv.conf">
687     # <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i>
688     </pre>
689    
690     </body>
691     </section>
692 swift 1.61 <section id="crontab">
693 swift 1.54 <title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
694     <body>
695    
696     <p>
697     You need to add that user to the <c>cron</c> group.
698     </p>
699    
700     </body>
701     </section>
702 swift 1.61 <section id="numlock">
703 swift 1.54 <title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
704     <body>
705    
706     <p>
707     If you log on graphically, or want numlock to be activated when
708     you issue <c>startx</c>, then you must <c>emerge numlockx</c> and
709     add <c>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</c> to
710     <path>/etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc</path> (for <c>startx</c>) or
711     <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path> (for any graphical login manager) such
712     as <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/Gnome</path> for GDM.
713     </p>
714    
715     <p>
716     If you work in commandline, you only need to <c>rc-update add
717     numlock default</c> and numlock will be activated on the next
718     reboot.
719     </p>
720    
721     </body>
722     </section>
723 swift 1.61 <section id="clear">
724 swift 1.54 <title>How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</title>
725     <body>
726    
727     <p>
728     To have your terminal cleared, add <c>clear</c> to your
729     <path>~/.bash_logout</path> script:
730     </p>
731    
732     <pre caption = "Clearing the terminal during logout">
733     $ <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; ~/.bash_logout</i>
734     </pre>
735    
736     <p>
737     If you want this to happen automatically when you add a new
738     user, do the same for the <path>/etc/skel/.bash_logout</path>:
739     </p>
740    
741     <pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout">
742     # <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre>
743     </body>
744    
745     </section>
746     </chapter>
747    
748     <chapter>
749     <title>Maintenance</title>
750 swift 1.61 <section id="filecorruption">
751 swift 1.54 <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</title>
752     <body>
753    
754     <p>
755     If your ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo
756     Linux boot CD and run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on
757     the corrupted filesystem. This should make the filesystem consistent
758     again, although you may have lost some files or directories due
759     to the corruption.
760     </p>
761    
762     </body>
763     </section>
764 swift 1.61 <section id="metalogd">
765 swift 1.54 <title>Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</title>
766     <body>
767    
768 swift 1.41 <p>
769     Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately
770     recorded into the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this
771     performance-enhancing behavior is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux
772     system is up and running, you can send metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily
773     turn off this message buffering (meaning that <c>tail -f
774     <path>/var/log/everything/current</path></c> will now work in real time, as
775     expected) and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on again. If you want to
776     disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to
777     METALOG_OPTS="-B -s" in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>.
778     </p>
779    
780     <pre caption="Turning metalog buffering on/off">
781     <codenote>To turn the buffering off:</codenote>
782     # <i>killall -USR1 metalog</i>
783     <codenote>To turn the buffering back on:</codenote>
784     # <i>killall -USR2 metalog</i>
785     </pre>
786    
787 swift 1.54 </body>
788     </section>
789 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
790    
791     <chapter>
792 swift 1.54 <title>Development</title>
793 swift 1.61 <section id="reportbugs">
794 swift 1.54 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
795     <body>
796    
797     <p>
798     For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise,
799     use our Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can
800     also visit us in <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri
801     link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network.
802     </p>
803    
804     </body>
805     </section>
806 swift 1.61 <section id="releases">
807 swift 1.54 <title>How often are new releases made?</title>
808     <body>
809    
810     <p>
811     New releases are announced on the <uri
812     link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri>
813     mailing list. In reality the packages themselves are updated shortly after the
814 swift 1.55 main authors release new code. As for when Gentoo makes new releases, check our
815     <uri link="/proj/en/releng">Release Engineering Project</uri> page.
816 swift 1.54 </p>
817    
818     </body>
819     </section>
820 swift 1.61 <section id="addfaq">
821 swift 1.54 <title>How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</title>
822     <body>
823    
824     <p>
825     Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the
826     "Docs-user" product, "Gentoo Linux FAQ" component.
827     </p>
828    
829     </body>
830     </section>
831 swift 1.61 <section id="beeping">
832 swift 1.54 <title>
833     My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console
834     beeps?
835     </title>
836     <body>
837    
838     <p>
839     Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this:
840     </p>
841    
842     <pre caption="Using setterm">
843     # <i>setterm -blength 0</i>
844     </pre>
845    
846     <p>
847     If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot
848     you need to put this command in <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However,
849     this only disables beeps for the current terminal. To disable
850     beeps for other terminals, pipe the command output to the
851     target terminal, like this:
852     </p>
853    
854     <pre caption="Using setterm (bis)">
855     # <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i>
856     </pre>
857    
858     <p>
859     You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal you would like to disable
860     console beeps for.
861     </p>
862    
863     </body>
864     </section>
865 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
866    
867     <chapter>
868     <title>Resources</title>
869 swift 1.61 <section id="resources">
870 swift 1.54 <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
871     <body>
872    
873     <p>
874     The official Gentoo documentation can be found on
875     <uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>; general Linux information is at
876     <uri>http://www.tldp.org</uri>.
877     </p>
878    
879     </body>
880     </section>
881 swift 1.61 <section id="buycd">
882 erwin 1.52 <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
883     <body>
884    
885 swift 1.54 <p>
886     Yes! LiveCDs for all supported architecture are available on
887 erwin 1.52 our <uri link="http://store.gentoo.org/">Gentoo Store</uri>. When you
888     purchase a CD from our store, you are also supporting our development.
889     So, please consider buying from our store if possible :-)
890     </p>
891    
892     <p>
893     You can also find fresh CDs from
894     <uri link = "http://cart.cheapbytes.com/cgi-bin/cart/0070010933">Cheapbytes
895     </uri> and <uri link = "http://www.tuxcds.com/section.php?section=42">
896     tuxcds</uri> for a very good price. These people also bounce back a
897     portion of the profits to the Gentoo project, so buy them while they are hot!
898     </p>
899    
900     </body>
901     </section>
902 swift 1.61 <section id="mailinglist">
903 swift 1.54 <title>
904     Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer
905     only go to the original poster and not the entire list?
906     </title>
907     <body>
908 drobbins 1.1
909 swift 1.54 <p>
910     The mailing list administrators have decided to go with minimal munging
911     (altering of mail headers), which means that they have decided against
912     altering headers to have replies go to the mailing list. There are various
913     reasons for this. For example, if a subscriber has a full mailbox, the
914     entire list receives notice of this every time that something is posted.
915     </p>
916    
917     <p>
918     Most GUI based mailers have a "reply to all" function. This will ensure that
919     your reply goes to the mailing list as well as the original poster. Most
920     users of text based emailers already know the methods to use, but if you
921     don't, in Pine, there is a "reply to group" option. Setting Mutt to reply to
922     the list is covered in the unofficial documentation at
923     <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=1085">forums.gentoo.org</uri>.
924     </p>
925    
926     <p>
927     Some list members do not like this method, but it was very heavily
928     discussed when it went into effect, with arguments on both sides.
929     Eventually the list administrators decided to keep it this way. Discussing
930     it on the mailing list will sometimes bring a polite explanation and other
931     times a rather brusque comment to check the archives. Although the
932     administrators regret the inconvenience that it may cause some users, it is
933     felt that at present it is preferable to the alternative for several
934     reasons, many of these covered
935     <uri link="http://www.unicom.com/pw/reply-to-harmful.html">here</uri>.
936     </p>
937    
938     <p>
939     (There are other eloquent arguments in favor of munging, and yes, the list
940     administrators have seen them).
941     </p>
942    
943     </body>
944     </section>
945 swift 1.61 <section id="help">
946 swift 1.54 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
947     <body>
948    
949     <p>
950     A good first step is to browse through the relevant <uri
951     link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/index.xml">documentation</uri>, failing that,
952     the various Gentoo Linux mailing lists listed on <uri
953     link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo
954     mailing lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all
955     else fails, or you just want to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc:
956     <c>#gentoo</c> on <c>irc.freenode.net</c>.
957     </p>
958    
959     </body>
960     </section>
961 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
962 swift 1.54
963 drobbins 1.1 </guide>

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