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1 zhen 1.3 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 swift 1.64 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml,v 1.63 2004/05/25 08:06:04 swift Exp $ -->
3 drobbins 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4    
5 zhen 1.2 <guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
6 drobbins 1.1 <title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
7 swift 1.54 <author title="Chief Architect">
8     <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
9     </author>
10     <author title="Reviewer">
11     Colin Morey
12     </author>
13     <author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
14     John P. Davis
15     </author>
16     <author title="Editor">
17     <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
18     </author>
19     <author title="Editor">
20     <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
21     </author>
22     <author title="Editor">
23     <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
24     </author>
25     <author title="Editor">
26     <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
27     </author>
28     <author title="Editor">
29     <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
30     </author>
31    
32 vapier 1.49 <abstract>
33 swift 1.54 This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev
34     mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add,
35     please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.
36 vapier 1.49 </abstract>
37 drobbins 1.1
38 swift 1.42 <license/>
39    
40 swift 1.63 <version>2.5</version>
41     <date>May 25, 2004</date>
42 swift 1.36
43     <chapter>
44     <title>Featured Questions</title>
45     <section>
46     <title>Getting Started</title>
47     <body>
48 swift 1.54
49 swift 1.36 <ul>
50 swift 1.54 <li>
51 swift 1.61 <uri link="#pronunciation">How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it
52 swift 1.55 mean?</uri>
53 swift 1.54 </li>
54     <li>
55 swift 1.61 <uri link="#differences">What makes Gentoo different?</uri>
56 swift 1.54 </li>
57 swift 1.36 </ul>
58 swift 1.54
59 swift 1.36 </body>
60     </section>
61     <section>
62     <title>Installation</title>
63     <body>
64 swift 1.54
65 swift 1.36 <ul>
66 swift 1.54 <li>
67 swift 1.61 <uri link="#optimizations">I'm finding things to be really unstable and
68 swift 1.55 I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What
69 swift 1.54 gives?</uri>
70     </li>
71     <li>
72 swift 1.61 <uri link="#password">How can I change the root (or any other user's)
73 swift 1.55 password?</uri>
74 swift 1.54 </li>
75     <li>
76 swift 1.61 <uri link="#useradd">How do I add a normal user?</uri>
77 swift 1.54 </li>
78     <li>
79 swift 1.61 <uri link="#su">Why can't a user su to root?</uri>
80 swift 1.54 </li>
81     <li>
82 swift 1.61 <uri link="#devfs">How do I disable devfs?</uri>
83 swift 1.54 </li>
84     <li>
85 swift 1.61 <uri link="#upgrade">Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to
86 swift 1.55 another without reinstalling?</uri>
87 swift 1.54 </li>
88     <li>
89 swift 1.61 <uri link="#bootrescue">My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should
90 swift 1.55 I do now?</uri>
91 swift 1.54 </li>
92     <li>
93 swift 1.61 <uri link="#proxy">My proxy requires authentication, what do I
94 swift 1.54 have to do?</uri>
95     </li>
96 swift 1.36 </ul>
97 swift 1.54
98 swift 1.36 </body>
99     </section>
100     <section>
101     <title>Package Management</title>
102     <body>
103 swift 1.54
104 swift 1.36 <ul>
105 swift 1.54 <li>
106 swift 1.61 <uri link="#ebuilds">In what format are the packages stored?</uri>
107 swift 1.54 </li>
108     <li>
109 swift 1.61 <uri link="#configure">I want to perform the ./configure step myself.
110 swift 1.54 Can I?</uri>
111     </li>
112     <li>
113 swift 1.61 <uri link="#norsync">What if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri>
114 swift 1.54 </li>
115     <li>
116 swift 1.61 <uri link="#firewall">How do I use emerge from behind a
117 swift 1.54 firewall?</uri>
118     </li>
119     <li>
120 swift 1.61 <uri link="#unison">Can I rsync from another operating
121 swift 1.54 system?</uri>
122     </li>
123     <li>
124 swift 1.61 <uri link="#manualdownload">I have only slow modem connection at home. Can
125 swift 1.55 I download sources somewhere else and add them to my system?</uri>
126 swift 1.54 </li>
127     <li>
128 swift 1.61 <uri link="#distfiles">.tar.gz sources for installed software are
129 neysx 1.56 piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles using valuable space. Is it safe to
130 swift 1.55 delete there files?</uri>
131 swift 1.54 </li>
132     <li>
133 swift 1.61 <uri link="#tmpportage">What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to
134 swift 1.54 delete the files and directories in /var/tmp/portage?</uri>
135     </li>
136 swift 1.36 </ul>
137 swift 1.54
138 swift 1.36 </body>
139     </section>
140     <section>
141     <title>Usage</title>
142     <body>
143 swift 1.54
144 swift 1.36 <ul>
145 swift 1.54 <li>
146 swift 1.61 <uri link="#rootssh">I have installed openssh on my box, but can
147 swift 1.54 only log in as root - my normal user account doesn't work.</uri>
148     </li>
149     <li>
150 swift 1.61 <uri link="#rootX">I can start X applications as root only</uri>
151 swift 1.54 </li>
152     <li>
153 swift 1.61 <uri link="#intkeyboard">How do I set up an International Keyboard
154 swift 1.54 Layout?</uri>
155     </li>
156     <li>
157 swift 1.61 <uri link="#rootdns">DNS name resolution works for root only.</uri>
158 swift 1.54 </li>
159     <li>
160 swift 1.61 <uri link="#crontab">Why can't my user use their own crontab?</uri>
161 swift 1.54 </li>
162     <li>
163 swift 1.61 <uri link="#numlock">How do I get numlock to start on boot?</uri>
164 swift 1.54 </li>
165     <li>
166 swift 1.61 <uri link="#clear">How do I have my terminal cleared when I log
167 swift 1.54 out?</uri>
168     </li>
169 swift 1.36 </ul>
170 swift 1.54
171 swift 1.36 </body>
172     </section>
173     <section>
174     <title>Maintenance</title>
175     <body>
176 swift 1.54
177 swift 1.36 <ul>
178 swift 1.54 <li>
179 swift 1.61 <uri link="#filecorruption">ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues --
180 swift 1.55 how to fix'em, etc.</uri>
181 swift 1.54 </li>
182     <li>
183 swift 1.61 <uri link="#metalogd">Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</uri>
184 swift 1.54 </li>
185 swift 1.36 </ul>
186 swift 1.54
187 swift 1.36 </body>
188     </section>
189     <section>
190     <title>Development</title>
191     <body>
192 swift 1.54
193 swift 1.36 <ul>
194 swift 1.54 <li>
195 swift 1.61 <uri link="#reportbugs">Where can I report bugs?</uri>
196 swift 1.54 </li>
197     <li>
198 swift 1.61 <uri link="#releases">How often are new releases made?</uri>
199 swift 1.54 </li>
200     <li>
201 swift 1.61 <uri link="#addfaq">How can I add a question or answer to this
202 swift 1.55 FAQ?</uri>
203 swift 1.54 </li>
204     <li>
205 swift 1.61 <uri link="#beeping">My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling
206 swift 1.55 Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps?</uri>
207 swift 1.54 </li>
208 swift 1.36 </ul>
209 swift 1.54
210 swift 1.36 </body>
211     </section>
212     <section>
213     <title>Resources</title>
214     <body>
215 swift 1.54
216 swift 1.36 <ul>
217 swift 1.54 <li>
218 swift 1.61 <uri link="#resources">Where can I find more information about Gentoo
219 swift 1.55 Linux?</uri>
220 swift 1.54 </li>
221     <li>
222 swift 1.61 <uri link="#buycd">Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</uri>
223 swift 1.54 </li>
224     <li>
225 swift 1.61 <uri link="#mailinglist">Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo
226 swift 1.55 mailinglist, does my answer only go to the original poster and not the
227 swift 1.54 entire list?</uri>
228     </li>
229     <li>
230 swift 1.61 <uri link="#help">This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I
231 swift 1.55 do now?</uri>
232 swift 1.54 </li>
233 swift 1.36 </ul>
234 swift 1.54
235 swift 1.36 </body>
236     </section>
237     </chapter>
238    
239 swift 1.54 <chapter>
240     <title>Getting Started</title>
241    
242 swift 1.61 <section id="pronunciation">
243 swift 1.54 <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
244     <body>
245    
246     <p>
247 swift 1.55 A <e>Gentoo</e> is a species of a small, fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (the
248     "g" in "gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle"). The latin name of the Gentoo
249     penguin is <e>Pygoscelis papua</e>. The name <e>Gentoo</e> has been given to the
250     penguin by the inhabitants of the Falkland Islands.
251 swift 1.54 </p>
252    
253     </body>
254     </section>
255 swift 1.61 <section id="differences">
256 swift 1.54 <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
257     <body>
258 drobbins 1.1
259 swift 1.54 <p>
260 swift 1.55 Gentoo uses a BSD ports-like system called <uri
261     link="/proj/en/portage">Portage</uri>. Portage is a package management system
262     that allows great flexibility while installing and maintaining software on a
263     Gentoo system. It provides compile-time option support (through <uri
264 neysx 1.57 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">USE flags</uri>),
265 swift 1.55 conditional dependencies, "fake" installs, safe installation (through
266     sandboxing) and uninstallation of software, system profiles, <uri
267 neysx 1.57 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=4#doc_chap1">configuration
268 swift 1.55 file protection</uri> amongst several other <uri
269 neysx 1.57 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=3">features</uri>.
270 swift 1.54 </p>
271 drobbins 1.1
272 swift 1.54 <p>
273 swift 1.55 With Gentoo you can build your entire system from source completely using your
274     choice of optimizations. You have complete control over what packages are or
275     aren't installed. Gentoo provides you with numerous choices so you can install
276     Gentoo to your own taste. This is why Gentoo is called a
277     <e>meta-distribution</e>.
278 swift 1.54 </p>
279    
280     <p>
281 swift 1.55 Gentoo is very actively developed. Not only the <e>ebuilds</e> themselves (the
282     package format Gentoo uses) but the entire distribution uses a rapid pace
283     development style. Patches to the packages are quickly integrated in the
284     mainline tree, documentation is updated on daily basis, portage features are
285     added frequently, releases succeed each other quickly, ...
286 swift 1.54 </p>
287    
288     </body>
289     </section>
290 swift 1.55 </chapter>
291    
292     <chapter>
293     <title>Installation</title>
294 swift 1.61 <section id="optimizations">
295 swift 1.54 <title>
296     I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math
297     -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?
298     </title>
299     <body>
300    
301     <p>
302 swift 1.60 Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't supported by
303 swift 1.54 current versions of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the
304     compiler to streamline the assembly code to the point where it doesn't quite
305 swift 1.55 do the same thing anymore.
306 swift 1.54 </p>
307    
308     <p>
309 swift 1.55 Please try to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march= -O2</c> first before reporting a
310 swift 1.54 bug.
311     </p>
312    
313     </body>
314     </section>
315 swift 1.61 <section id="password">
316 swift 1.55 <title>How can i change the root (or any other user's) password?</title>
317 swift 1.54 <body>
318    
319     <p>
320     You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged
321     into. For extra options and setting, please see <c>man passwd</c> once you've
322     completed the install.
323     </p>
324    
325     </body>
326     </section>
327 swift 1.61 <section id="useradd">
328 swift 1.54 <title>How do i add a normal user?</title>
329     <body>
330    
331     <p>
332     The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called gentoo. The next step
333     is to give this user a password and <c>passwd</c> will do exactly that.
334     </p>
335    
336     <p>
337     Instead of <c>adduser</c> you can also use:
338     </p>
339    
340     <pre caption="Using useradd">
341     # <i>useradd gentoo -m -G users,audio,wheel -s /bin/bash</i>
342     </pre>
343    
344     <p>
345 swift 1.59 This will add a user gentoo, will make possible for him/her to use sound-related
346     devices (<path>/dev/sound/*</path>), will make possible for him/her to switch to
347     root (using <c>su</c>) and will make <path>/bin/bash</path> his/her login shell.
348 swift 1.54 </p>
349    
350     <p>
351     You can also install <c>superadduser</c> using <c>emerge superadduser</c> and
352     then issue <c>superadduser gentoo</c> to add a user called gentoo. Just follow
353     the instructions given to you by <c>superadduser</c>.
354     </p>
355    
356     </body>
357     </section>
358 swift 1.61 <section id="su">
359 swift 1.54 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
360     <body>
361    
362     <p>
363     For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
364 cam 1.58 <e>wheel</e> group. To add a <e>username</e> to the <e>wheel</e> group, issue
365 swift 1.54 the following command as root:
366     </p>
367    
368     <pre caption="Adding a user to the wheel group">
369 swift 1.55 # <i>gpasswd -a username wheel</i>
370 swift 1.54 </pre>
371    
372     </body>
373     </section>
374 swift 1.61 <section id="devfs">
375 swift 1.54 <title>How to I disable devfs?</title>
376     <body>
377    
378     <p>
379 swift 1.55 If you plan on using Gentoo with the "old-style" <path>/dev</path> approach, you
380     can disable devfs by passing the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> to the kernel. If on the
381     other hand you want to use <uri link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev</uri> (2.6
382     kernels only), you can disable devfs by passing the <c>devfs=nomount</c> option
383     to the kernel. Don't forget to read up on our <uri
384     link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev guide</uri> too.
385 swift 1.54 </p>
386    
387     </body>
388     </section>
389 swift 1.61 <section id="upgrade">
390 swift 1.54 <title>
391 swift 1.55 Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to another without reinstalling?
392 swift 1.54 </title>
393     <body>
394    
395     <p>
396 swift 1.55 In fact there is no difference between the various releases
397     <b>after they have been installed</b>. Gentoo 1.4 and later are
398     <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based. As such running <c>emerge sync; emerge -u world</c>
399     will bring your entire system up to speed with the "latest Gentoo".
400     The true differences between individual releases lie in the installation.
401 swift 1.54 </p>
402    
403 swift 1.62 <p>
404     More information can be found in our <uri link="gentoo-upgrading.xml">Gentoo
405     Upgrading Guide</uri>.
406     </p>
407    
408 swift 1.54 </body>
409     </section>
410 swift 1.61 <section id="bootrescue">
411 swift 1.54 <title>My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should I do now?</title>
412     <body>
413    
414     <p>
415     You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but only the
416     kernel-stuff and all associated steps. Suppose you have installed Gentoo
417     on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with
418     <path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space:
419     </p>
420    
421     <pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel">
422 swift 1.37 <comment>Boot from the LiveCD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment>
423     <comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment>
424     # <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
425     # <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
426     # <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
427     # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
428     <comment>Then we chroot into our Gentoo environment and configure the kernel:</comment>
429     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
430     # <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
431     # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
432     # <i>make menuconfig</i>
433     <comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment>
434     <comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment>
435     # <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make bzImage modules modules_install</i>
436     <comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment>
437     # <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</i>
438     <comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment>
439     # <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
440     <comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment>
441     # <i>exit</i>
442     # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
443     # <i>reboot</i>
444 swift 1.54 </pre>
445    
446     <p>
447     If on the other hand the problem lays with your bootloader configuration,
448     follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel you
449     should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary).
450     </p>
451    
452     </body>
453     </section>
454 swift 1.61 <section id="proxy">
455 swift 1.54 <title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title>
456     <body>
457    
458     <p>
459     When you have to download something using <c>wget</c>, use the
460     following syntax to authenticate yourself:
461     </p>
462    
463 bennyc 1.40 <pre caption = "Proxy-authentication using wget">
464 swift 1.38 # <i>wget --proxy-user=</i><comment>username</comment><i> --proxy-passwd=</i><comment>password</comment><i> &lt;url&gt;</i>
465     </pre>
466 swift 1.54
467     <p>
468     To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in
469     <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
470     </p>
471    
472 swift 1.38 <pre caption = "/etc/make.conf">
473     FETCHCOMMAND="wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
474     RESUMECOMMAND="/usr/bin/wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -c -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
475     </pre>
476 swift 1.54
477     <p>
478     Sadly, <c>rsync</c> doesn't seem to support username/password
479 neysx 1.56 authentication for proxies. See <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect3">What
480 swift 1.54 if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri> for more information on how to
481     handle this situation.
482     </p>
483    
484     </body>
485     </section>
486 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
487    
488     <chapter>
489 swift 1.54 <title>Package Management</title>
490 swift 1.61 <section id="ebuilds">
491 swift 1.54 <title>In what format are the packages stored?</title>
492     <body>
493    
494 swift 1.45 <p>
495 swift 1.55 They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; Gentoo is
496 swift 1.54 primarily a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts
497     (<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a special system (Portage) so that you can build
498     apps from sources. We generally only build binaries for releases and snapshots.
499     The <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-howto.xml">Development HOWTO</uri> covers the
500     contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we
501     create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format
502     (<c>.tar.bz2</c> compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the
503     file).
504 swift 1.45 </p>
505    
506 swift 1.54 </body>
507     </section>
508 swift 1.61 <section id="configure">
509 cam 1.58 <title>I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</title>
510 swift 1.54 <body>
511    
512     <p>
513     Yes, but it is not trivial, and the next method only works when it is a simple
514     ebuild (i.e. just <c>./configure</c> and <c>make &amp;&amp; make install</c>).
515     Be sure to read the ebuild itself to see how Gentoo handles it.
516     </p>
517    
518     <p>
519     Start with unpacking the ebuild: <c>ebuild
520     /usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt; unpack</c>.
521     </p>
522    
523     <p>
524     Next, go to <path>/var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/work</path>.
525     Inside it you'll find the unpacked sources. Execute the steps you need to
526     perform to configure and compile the package.
527     </p>
528    
529     <p>
530     When finished, execute <c>touch
531     /var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/.compiled</c> to trick Portage
532     into thinking it configured and compiled the package. Then finish up with
533     <c>ebuild /usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt;
534     merge</c>.
535     </p>
536    
537     </body>
538     </section>
539 swift 1.64 <section id="norsync">
540 swift 1.54 <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
541     <body>
542    
543     <p>
544     If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit rsync traffic, then you can use
545     <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch and install a Portage snapshot for you
546     through regular HTTP. <c>emerge-webrsync</c> uses <c>wget</c> to download, so
547     proxy is fully supported.
548     </p>
549    
550     <pre caption="Using emerge-webrsync">
551     # <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
552     </pre>
553    
554     </body>
555     </section>
556 swift 1.61 <section id="firewall">
557 swift 1.54 <title>How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</title>
558     <body>
559    
560     <p>
561     Edit the PROXY settings in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If that doesn't work,
562     edit <path>/etc/wget/wgetrc</path> and edit http_proxy and ftp_proxy
563     appropriately.
564     </p>
565    
566     </body>
567     </section>
568 swift 1.61 <section id="unison">
569 swift 1.54 <title>Can I rsync from another operating system?</title>
570     <body>
571    
572     <p>
573     There's a program called unison that works under both UNIX and Win32, available
574     from <uri>http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~bcpierce/unison/</uri>.
575     </p>
576    
577     </body>
578     </section>
579 swift 1.61 <section id="manualdownload">
580 swift 1.54 <title>
581     I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere
582     else and add them to my system?
583     </title>
584     <body>
585    
586     <p>
587     Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
588     are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where
589     to download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>. Download
590     sources and bring them on any media home. Put the sources into
591     <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run <c>emerge package</c> to see it
592     picking up the sources you just brought in!
593     </p>
594    
595     </body>
596     </section>
597 swift 1.61 <section id="distfiles">
598 swift 1.54 <title>
599     .tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in
600     /usr/portage/distfiles/ using valuable space. Is it safe to delete these
601     files?
602     </title>
603     <body>
604    
605     <p>
606     Yes, you can safely delete these files. But if you are on a slow
607     connection, such as a modem, you might want to keep the archives if
608     possible; often several ebuilds will be released for the same version of
609     a specific piece of software - if you have deleted the archive and you
610     upgrade the software it will have to be downloaded from the internet
611     again.
612     </p>
613    
614     </body>
615     </section>
616 swift 1.61 <section id="tmpportage">
617 swift 1.54 <title>
618 cam 1.58 What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to delete the files and
619     directories in /var/tmp/portage?
620 swift 1.54 </title>
621     <body>
622    
623     <p>
624     During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in
625     <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. It is safe to clean out all contents of this
626     directory.
627     </p>
628    
629     </body>
630     </section>
631     </chapter>
632    
633     <chapter>
634     <title>Usage</title>
635 swift 1.61 <section id="rootssh">
636 swift 1.54 <title>
637     I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal
638     user account doesn't work.
639     </title>
640     <body>
641    
642     <p>
643     This is most probably because your user account doesn't have a valid shell
644     specified. Check for your user entry in <path>/etc/passwd</path> and see if it
645     ends in /bin/bash (or any other shell). If it doesn't, you must set a shell for
646     the user. This is done using the usermod command, like this:
647     </p>
648    
649     <pre caption="Using usermod">
650     # <i>usermod -s /bin/bash myuser</i>
651     </pre>
652    
653     </body>
654     </section>
655 swift 1.61 <section id="rootX">
656 swift 1.54 <title>I can start X applications as root only.</title>
657     <body>
658    
659     <p>
660     Your <path>/tmp</path> directory has the wrong permissions (it needs the
661     sticky bit set). Type the following as root:
662     </p>
663    
664     <pre caption="Changing /tmp permissions">
665     # <i>chmod 1777 /tmp</i>
666     </pre>
667    
668     </body>
669     </section>
670 swift 1.61 <section id="intkeyboard">
671 swift 1.54 <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
672     <body>
673    
674     <p>
675     Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>.
676     Then either reboot or restart the keymaps script:
677     <c>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</c>.
678     </p>
679    
680     </body>
681     </section>
682 swift 1.61 <section id="rootdns">
683 swift 1.54 <title>DNS name resolution works for root only.</title>
684     <body>
685    
686     <p>
687     <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as
688     follows:
689     </p>
690    
691     <pre caption="Changing permissions on /etc/resolv.conf">
692     # <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i>
693     </pre>
694    
695     </body>
696     </section>
697 swift 1.61 <section id="crontab">
698 swift 1.54 <title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
699     <body>
700    
701     <p>
702     You need to add that user to the <c>cron</c> group.
703     </p>
704    
705     </body>
706     </section>
707 swift 1.61 <section id="numlock">
708 swift 1.54 <title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
709     <body>
710    
711     <p>
712     If you log on graphically, or want numlock to be activated when
713     you issue <c>startx</c>, then you must <c>emerge numlockx</c> and
714     add <c>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</c> to
715     <path>/etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc</path> (for <c>startx</c>) or
716     <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path> (for any graphical login manager) such
717     as <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/Gnome</path> for GDM.
718     </p>
719    
720     <p>
721     If you work in commandline, you only need to <c>rc-update add
722     numlock default</c> and numlock will be activated on the next
723     reboot.
724     </p>
725    
726     </body>
727     </section>
728 swift 1.61 <section id="clear">
729 swift 1.54 <title>How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</title>
730     <body>
731    
732     <p>
733     To have your terminal cleared, add <c>clear</c> to your
734     <path>~/.bash_logout</path> script:
735     </p>
736    
737     <pre caption = "Clearing the terminal during logout">
738     $ <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; ~/.bash_logout</i>
739     </pre>
740    
741     <p>
742     If you want this to happen automatically when you add a new
743     user, do the same for the <path>/etc/skel/.bash_logout</path>:
744     </p>
745    
746     <pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout">
747     # <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre>
748     </body>
749    
750     </section>
751     </chapter>
752    
753     <chapter>
754     <title>Maintenance</title>
755 swift 1.61 <section id="filecorruption">
756 swift 1.54 <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</title>
757     <body>
758    
759     <p>
760     If your ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo
761     Linux boot CD and run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on
762     the corrupted filesystem. This should make the filesystem consistent
763     again, although you may have lost some files or directories due
764     to the corruption.
765     </p>
766    
767     </body>
768     </section>
769 swift 1.61 <section id="metalogd">
770 swift 1.54 <title>Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</title>
771     <body>
772    
773 swift 1.41 <p>
774     Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately
775     recorded into the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this
776     performance-enhancing behavior is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux
777     system is up and running, you can send metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily
778     turn off this message buffering (meaning that <c>tail -f
779     <path>/var/log/everything/current</path></c> will now work in real time, as
780     expected) and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on again. If you want to
781     disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to
782     METALOG_OPTS="-B -s" in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>.
783     </p>
784    
785     <pre caption="Turning metalog buffering on/off">
786     <codenote>To turn the buffering off:</codenote>
787     # <i>killall -USR1 metalog</i>
788     <codenote>To turn the buffering back on:</codenote>
789     # <i>killall -USR2 metalog</i>
790     </pre>
791    
792 swift 1.54 </body>
793     </section>
794 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
795    
796     <chapter>
797 swift 1.54 <title>Development</title>
798 swift 1.61 <section id="reportbugs">
799 swift 1.54 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
800     <body>
801    
802     <p>
803     For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise,
804     use our Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can
805     also visit us in <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri
806     link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network.
807     </p>
808    
809     </body>
810     </section>
811 swift 1.61 <section id="releases">
812 swift 1.54 <title>How often are new releases made?</title>
813     <body>
814    
815     <p>
816     New releases are announced on the <uri
817     link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri>
818     mailing list. In reality the packages themselves are updated shortly after the
819 swift 1.55 main authors release new code. As for when Gentoo makes new releases, check our
820     <uri link="/proj/en/releng">Release Engineering Project</uri> page.
821 swift 1.54 </p>
822    
823     </body>
824     </section>
825 swift 1.61 <section id="addfaq">
826 swift 1.54 <title>How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</title>
827     <body>
828    
829     <p>
830     Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the
831     "Docs-user" product, "Gentoo Linux FAQ" component.
832     </p>
833    
834     </body>
835     </section>
836 swift 1.61 <section id="beeping">
837 swift 1.54 <title>
838     My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console
839     beeps?
840     </title>
841     <body>
842    
843     <p>
844     Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this:
845     </p>
846    
847     <pre caption="Using setterm">
848     # <i>setterm -blength 0</i>
849     </pre>
850    
851     <p>
852     If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot
853     you need to put this command in <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However,
854     this only disables beeps for the current terminal. To disable
855     beeps for other terminals, pipe the command output to the
856     target terminal, like this:
857     </p>
858    
859     <pre caption="Using setterm (bis)">
860     # <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i>
861     </pre>
862    
863     <p>
864     You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal you would like to disable
865     console beeps for.
866     </p>
867    
868     </body>
869     </section>
870 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
871    
872     <chapter>
873     <title>Resources</title>
874 swift 1.61 <section id="resources">
875 swift 1.54 <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
876     <body>
877    
878     <p>
879     The official Gentoo documentation can be found on
880     <uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>; general Linux information is at
881     <uri>http://www.tldp.org</uri>.
882     </p>
883    
884     </body>
885     </section>
886 swift 1.61 <section id="buycd">
887 erwin 1.52 <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
888     <body>
889    
890 swift 1.54 <p>
891     Yes! LiveCDs for all supported architecture are available on
892 erwin 1.52 our <uri link="http://store.gentoo.org/">Gentoo Store</uri>. When you
893     purchase a CD from our store, you are also supporting our development.
894     So, please consider buying from our store if possible :-)
895     </p>
896    
897     <p>
898     You can also find fresh CDs from
899 swift 1.63 <uri link = "http://www.tuxcds.com/section.php?section=42">
900 erwin 1.52 tuxcds</uri> for a very good price. These people also bounce back a
901     portion of the profits to the Gentoo project, so buy them while they are hot!
902     </p>
903    
904     </body>
905     </section>
906 swift 1.61 <section id="mailinglist">
907 swift 1.54 <title>
908     Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer
909     only go to the original poster and not the entire list?
910     </title>
911     <body>
912 drobbins 1.1
913 swift 1.54 <p>
914     The mailing list administrators have decided to go with minimal munging
915     (altering of mail headers), which means that they have decided against
916     altering headers to have replies go to the mailing list. There are various
917     reasons for this. For example, if a subscriber has a full mailbox, the
918     entire list receives notice of this every time that something is posted.
919     </p>
920    
921     <p>
922     Most GUI based mailers have a "reply to all" function. This will ensure that
923     your reply goes to the mailing list as well as the original poster. Most
924     users of text based emailers already know the methods to use, but if you
925     don't, in Pine, there is a "reply to group" option. Setting Mutt to reply to
926     the list is covered in the unofficial documentation at
927     <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=1085">forums.gentoo.org</uri>.
928     </p>
929    
930     <p>
931     Some list members do not like this method, but it was very heavily
932     discussed when it went into effect, with arguments on both sides.
933     Eventually the list administrators decided to keep it this way. Discussing
934     it on the mailing list will sometimes bring a polite explanation and other
935     times a rather brusque comment to check the archives. Although the
936     administrators regret the inconvenience that it may cause some users, it is
937     felt that at present it is preferable to the alternative for several
938     reasons, many of these covered
939     <uri link="http://www.unicom.com/pw/reply-to-harmful.html">here</uri>.
940     </p>
941    
942     <p>
943     (There are other eloquent arguments in favor of munging, and yes, the list
944     administrators have seen them).
945     </p>
946    
947     </body>
948     </section>
949 swift 1.61 <section id="help">
950 swift 1.54 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
951     <body>
952    
953     <p>
954     A good first step is to browse through the relevant <uri
955     link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/index.xml">documentation</uri>, failing that,
956     the various Gentoo Linux mailing lists listed on <uri
957     link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo
958     mailing lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all
959     else fails, or you just want to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc:
960     <c>#gentoo</c> on <c>irc.freenode.net</c>.
961     </p>
962    
963     </body>
964     </section>
965 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
966 swift 1.54
967 drobbins 1.1 </guide>

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