/[gentoo]/xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml
Gentoo

Contents of /xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml

Parent Directory Parent Directory | Revision Log Revision Log


Revision 1.65 - (hide annotations) (download) (as text)
Sat Jul 3 09:00:06 2004 UTC (10 years, 1 month ago) by swift
Branch: MAIN
Changes since 1.64: +49 -3 lines
File MIME type: application/xml
#53032 - Add FAQ on burning ISOs

1 zhen 1.3 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 swift 1.65 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml,v 1.64 2004/06/27 13:20:11 swift Exp $ -->
3 drobbins 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4    
5 zhen 1.2 <guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
6 drobbins 1.1 <title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
7 swift 1.54 <author title="Chief Architect">
8     <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
9     </author>
10     <author title="Reviewer">
11     Colin Morey
12     </author>
13     <author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
14     John P. Davis
15     </author>
16     <author title="Editor">
17     <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
18     </author>
19     <author title="Editor">
20     <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
21     </author>
22     <author title="Editor">
23     <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
24     </author>
25     <author title="Editor">
26     <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
27     </author>
28     <author title="Editor">
29     <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
30     </author>
31    
32 vapier 1.49 <abstract>
33 swift 1.54 This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev
34     mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add,
35     please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.
36 vapier 1.49 </abstract>
37 drobbins 1.1
38 swift 1.42 <license/>
39    
40 swift 1.65 <version>2.6</version>
41     <date>July 03, 2004</date>
42 swift 1.36
43     <chapter>
44     <title>Featured Questions</title>
45     <section>
46     <title>Getting Started</title>
47     <body>
48 swift 1.54
49 swift 1.36 <ul>
50 swift 1.54 <li>
51 swift 1.61 <uri link="#pronunciation">How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it
52 swift 1.55 mean?</uri>
53 swift 1.54 </li>
54     <li>
55 swift 1.61 <uri link="#differences">What makes Gentoo different?</uri>
56 swift 1.54 </li>
57 swift 1.36 </ul>
58 swift 1.54
59 swift 1.36 </body>
60     </section>
61     <section>
62     <title>Installation</title>
63     <body>
64 swift 1.54
65 swift 1.36 <ul>
66 swift 1.54 <li>
67 swift 1.61 <uri link="#optimizations">I'm finding things to be really unstable and
68 swift 1.55 I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What
69 swift 1.54 gives?</uri>
70     </li>
71     <li>
72 swift 1.61 <uri link="#password">How can I change the root (or any other user's)
73 swift 1.55 password?</uri>
74 swift 1.54 </li>
75     <li>
76 swift 1.61 <uri link="#useradd">How do I add a normal user?</uri>
77 swift 1.54 </li>
78     <li>
79 swift 1.61 <uri link="#su">Why can't a user su to root?</uri>
80 swift 1.54 </li>
81     <li>
82 swift 1.61 <uri link="#devfs">How do I disable devfs?</uri>
83 swift 1.54 </li>
84     <li>
85 swift 1.61 <uri link="#upgrade">Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to
86 swift 1.55 another without reinstalling?</uri>
87 swift 1.54 </li>
88     <li>
89 swift 1.61 <uri link="#bootrescue">My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should
90 swift 1.55 I do now?</uri>
91 swift 1.54 </li>
92     <li>
93 swift 1.61 <uri link="#proxy">My proxy requires authentication, what do I
94 swift 1.54 have to do?</uri>
95     </li>
96 swift 1.65 <li>
97     <uri link="#isoburning">How do I burn an ISO file?</uri>
98     </li>
99 swift 1.36 </ul>
100 swift 1.54
101 swift 1.36 </body>
102     </section>
103     <section>
104     <title>Package Management</title>
105     <body>
106 swift 1.54
107 swift 1.36 <ul>
108 swift 1.54 <li>
109 swift 1.61 <uri link="#ebuilds">In what format are the packages stored?</uri>
110 swift 1.54 </li>
111     <li>
112 swift 1.61 <uri link="#configure">I want to perform the ./configure step myself.
113 swift 1.54 Can I?</uri>
114     </li>
115     <li>
116 swift 1.61 <uri link="#norsync">What if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri>
117 swift 1.54 </li>
118     <li>
119 swift 1.61 <uri link="#firewall">How do I use emerge from behind a
120 swift 1.54 firewall?</uri>
121     </li>
122     <li>
123 swift 1.61 <uri link="#unison">Can I rsync from another operating
124 swift 1.54 system?</uri>
125     </li>
126     <li>
127 swift 1.61 <uri link="#manualdownload">I have only slow modem connection at home. Can
128 swift 1.55 I download sources somewhere else and add them to my system?</uri>
129 swift 1.54 </li>
130     <li>
131 swift 1.61 <uri link="#distfiles">.tar.gz sources for installed software are
132 neysx 1.56 piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles using valuable space. Is it safe to
133 swift 1.55 delete there files?</uri>
134 swift 1.54 </li>
135     <li>
136 swift 1.61 <uri link="#tmpportage">What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to
137 swift 1.54 delete the files and directories in /var/tmp/portage?</uri>
138     </li>
139 swift 1.36 </ul>
140 swift 1.54
141 swift 1.36 </body>
142     </section>
143     <section>
144     <title>Usage</title>
145     <body>
146 swift 1.54
147 swift 1.36 <ul>
148 swift 1.54 <li>
149 swift 1.61 <uri link="#rootssh">I have installed openssh on my box, but can
150 swift 1.54 only log in as root - my normal user account doesn't work.</uri>
151     </li>
152     <li>
153 swift 1.61 <uri link="#rootX">I can start X applications as root only</uri>
154 swift 1.54 </li>
155     <li>
156 swift 1.61 <uri link="#intkeyboard">How do I set up an International Keyboard
157 swift 1.54 Layout?</uri>
158     </li>
159     <li>
160 swift 1.61 <uri link="#rootdns">DNS name resolution works for root only.</uri>
161 swift 1.54 </li>
162     <li>
163 swift 1.61 <uri link="#crontab">Why can't my user use their own crontab?</uri>
164 swift 1.54 </li>
165     <li>
166 swift 1.61 <uri link="#numlock">How do I get numlock to start on boot?</uri>
167 swift 1.54 </li>
168     <li>
169 swift 1.61 <uri link="#clear">How do I have my terminal cleared when I log
170 swift 1.54 out?</uri>
171     </li>
172 swift 1.36 </ul>
173 swift 1.54
174 swift 1.36 </body>
175     </section>
176     <section>
177     <title>Maintenance</title>
178     <body>
179 swift 1.54
180 swift 1.36 <ul>
181 swift 1.54 <li>
182 swift 1.61 <uri link="#filecorruption">ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues --
183 swift 1.55 how to fix'em, etc.</uri>
184 swift 1.54 </li>
185     <li>
186 swift 1.61 <uri link="#metalogd">Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</uri>
187 swift 1.54 </li>
188 swift 1.36 </ul>
189 swift 1.54
190 swift 1.36 </body>
191     </section>
192     <section>
193     <title>Development</title>
194     <body>
195 swift 1.54
196 swift 1.36 <ul>
197 swift 1.54 <li>
198 swift 1.61 <uri link="#reportbugs">Where can I report bugs?</uri>
199 swift 1.54 </li>
200     <li>
201 swift 1.61 <uri link="#releases">How often are new releases made?</uri>
202 swift 1.54 </li>
203     <li>
204 swift 1.61 <uri link="#addfaq">How can I add a question or answer to this
205 swift 1.55 FAQ?</uri>
206 swift 1.54 </li>
207     <li>
208 swift 1.61 <uri link="#beeping">My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling
209 swift 1.55 Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps?</uri>
210 swift 1.54 </li>
211 swift 1.36 </ul>
212 swift 1.54
213 swift 1.36 </body>
214     </section>
215     <section>
216     <title>Resources</title>
217     <body>
218 swift 1.54
219 swift 1.36 <ul>
220 swift 1.54 <li>
221 swift 1.61 <uri link="#resources">Where can I find more information about Gentoo
222 swift 1.55 Linux?</uri>
223 swift 1.54 </li>
224     <li>
225 swift 1.61 <uri link="#buycd">Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</uri>
226 swift 1.54 </li>
227     <li>
228 swift 1.61 <uri link="#mailinglist">Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo
229 swift 1.55 mailinglist, does my answer only go to the original poster and not the
230 swift 1.54 entire list?</uri>
231     </li>
232     <li>
233 swift 1.61 <uri link="#help">This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I
234 swift 1.55 do now?</uri>
235 swift 1.54 </li>
236 swift 1.36 </ul>
237 swift 1.54
238 swift 1.36 </body>
239     </section>
240     </chapter>
241    
242 swift 1.54 <chapter>
243     <title>Getting Started</title>
244    
245 swift 1.61 <section id="pronunciation">
246 swift 1.54 <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
247     <body>
248    
249     <p>
250 swift 1.55 A <e>Gentoo</e> is a species of a small, fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (the
251     "g" in "gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle"). The latin name of the Gentoo
252     penguin is <e>Pygoscelis papua</e>. The name <e>Gentoo</e> has been given to the
253     penguin by the inhabitants of the Falkland Islands.
254 swift 1.54 </p>
255    
256     </body>
257     </section>
258 swift 1.61 <section id="differences">
259 swift 1.54 <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
260     <body>
261 drobbins 1.1
262 swift 1.54 <p>
263 swift 1.55 Gentoo uses a BSD ports-like system called <uri
264     link="/proj/en/portage">Portage</uri>. Portage is a package management system
265     that allows great flexibility while installing and maintaining software on a
266     Gentoo system. It provides compile-time option support (through <uri
267 neysx 1.57 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">USE flags</uri>),
268 swift 1.55 conditional dependencies, "fake" installs, safe installation (through
269     sandboxing) and uninstallation of software, system profiles, <uri
270 neysx 1.57 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=4#doc_chap1">configuration
271 swift 1.55 file protection</uri> amongst several other <uri
272 neysx 1.57 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=3">features</uri>.
273 swift 1.54 </p>
274 drobbins 1.1
275 swift 1.54 <p>
276 swift 1.55 With Gentoo you can build your entire system from source completely using your
277     choice of optimizations. You have complete control over what packages are or
278     aren't installed. Gentoo provides you with numerous choices so you can install
279     Gentoo to your own taste. This is why Gentoo is called a
280     <e>meta-distribution</e>.
281 swift 1.54 </p>
282    
283     <p>
284 swift 1.55 Gentoo is very actively developed. Not only the <e>ebuilds</e> themselves (the
285     package format Gentoo uses) but the entire distribution uses a rapid pace
286     development style. Patches to the packages are quickly integrated in the
287     mainline tree, documentation is updated on daily basis, portage features are
288     added frequently, releases succeed each other quickly, ...
289 swift 1.54 </p>
290    
291     </body>
292     </section>
293 swift 1.55 </chapter>
294    
295     <chapter>
296     <title>Installation</title>
297 swift 1.61 <section id="optimizations">
298 swift 1.54 <title>
299     I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math
300     -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?
301     </title>
302     <body>
303    
304     <p>
305 swift 1.60 Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't supported by
306 swift 1.54 current versions of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the
307     compiler to streamline the assembly code to the point where it doesn't quite
308 swift 1.55 do the same thing anymore.
309 swift 1.54 </p>
310    
311     <p>
312 swift 1.55 Please try to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march= -O2</c> first before reporting a
313 swift 1.54 bug.
314     </p>
315    
316     </body>
317     </section>
318 swift 1.61 <section id="password">
319 swift 1.55 <title>How can i change the root (or any other user's) password?</title>
320 swift 1.54 <body>
321    
322     <p>
323     You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged
324     into. For extra options and setting, please see <c>man passwd</c> once you've
325     completed the install.
326     </p>
327    
328     </body>
329     </section>
330 swift 1.61 <section id="useradd">
331 swift 1.54 <title>How do i add a normal user?</title>
332     <body>
333    
334     <p>
335     The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called gentoo. The next step
336     is to give this user a password and <c>passwd</c> will do exactly that.
337     </p>
338    
339     <p>
340     Instead of <c>adduser</c> you can also use:
341     </p>
342    
343     <pre caption="Using useradd">
344     # <i>useradd gentoo -m -G users,audio,wheel -s /bin/bash</i>
345     </pre>
346    
347     <p>
348 swift 1.59 This will add a user gentoo, will make possible for him/her to use sound-related
349     devices (<path>/dev/sound/*</path>), will make possible for him/her to switch to
350     root (using <c>su</c>) and will make <path>/bin/bash</path> his/her login shell.
351 swift 1.54 </p>
352    
353     <p>
354     You can also install <c>superadduser</c> using <c>emerge superadduser</c> and
355     then issue <c>superadduser gentoo</c> to add a user called gentoo. Just follow
356     the instructions given to you by <c>superadduser</c>.
357     </p>
358    
359     </body>
360     </section>
361 swift 1.61 <section id="su">
362 swift 1.54 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
363     <body>
364    
365     <p>
366     For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
367 cam 1.58 <e>wheel</e> group. To add a <e>username</e> to the <e>wheel</e> group, issue
368 swift 1.54 the following command as root:
369     </p>
370    
371     <pre caption="Adding a user to the wheel group">
372 swift 1.55 # <i>gpasswd -a username wheel</i>
373 swift 1.54 </pre>
374    
375     </body>
376     </section>
377 swift 1.61 <section id="devfs">
378 swift 1.54 <title>How to I disable devfs?</title>
379     <body>
380    
381     <p>
382 swift 1.55 If you plan on using Gentoo with the "old-style" <path>/dev</path> approach, you
383     can disable devfs by passing the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> to the kernel. If on the
384     other hand you want to use <uri link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev</uri> (2.6
385     kernels only), you can disable devfs by passing the <c>devfs=nomount</c> option
386     to the kernel. Don't forget to read up on our <uri
387     link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev guide</uri> too.
388 swift 1.54 </p>
389    
390     </body>
391     </section>
392 swift 1.61 <section id="upgrade">
393 swift 1.54 <title>
394 swift 1.55 Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to another without reinstalling?
395 swift 1.54 </title>
396     <body>
397    
398     <p>
399 swift 1.55 In fact there is no difference between the various releases
400     <b>after they have been installed</b>. Gentoo 1.4 and later are
401     <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based. As such running <c>emerge sync; emerge -u world</c>
402     will bring your entire system up to speed with the "latest Gentoo".
403     The true differences between individual releases lie in the installation.
404 swift 1.54 </p>
405    
406 swift 1.62 <p>
407     More information can be found in our <uri link="gentoo-upgrading.xml">Gentoo
408     Upgrading Guide</uri>.
409     </p>
410    
411 swift 1.54 </body>
412     </section>
413 swift 1.61 <section id="bootrescue">
414 swift 1.54 <title>My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should I do now?</title>
415     <body>
416    
417     <p>
418     You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but only the
419     kernel-stuff and all associated steps. Suppose you have installed Gentoo
420     on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with
421     <path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space:
422     </p>
423    
424     <pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel">
425 swift 1.37 <comment>Boot from the LiveCD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment>
426     <comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment>
427     # <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
428     # <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
429     # <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
430     # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
431     <comment>Then we chroot into our Gentoo environment and configure the kernel:</comment>
432     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
433     # <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
434     # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
435     # <i>make menuconfig</i>
436     <comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment>
437     <comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment>
438     # <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make bzImage modules modules_install</i>
439     <comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment>
440     # <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</i>
441     <comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment>
442     # <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
443     <comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment>
444     # <i>exit</i>
445     # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
446     # <i>reboot</i>
447 swift 1.54 </pre>
448    
449     <p>
450     If on the other hand the problem lays with your bootloader configuration,
451     follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel you
452     should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary).
453     </p>
454    
455     </body>
456     </section>
457 swift 1.61 <section id="proxy">
458 swift 1.54 <title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title>
459     <body>
460    
461     <p>
462     When you have to download something using <c>wget</c>, use the
463     following syntax to authenticate yourself:
464     </p>
465    
466 bennyc 1.40 <pre caption = "Proxy-authentication using wget">
467 swift 1.38 # <i>wget --proxy-user=</i><comment>username</comment><i> --proxy-passwd=</i><comment>password</comment><i> &lt;url&gt;</i>
468     </pre>
469 swift 1.54
470     <p>
471     To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in
472     <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
473     </p>
474    
475 swift 1.38 <pre caption = "/etc/make.conf">
476     FETCHCOMMAND="wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
477     RESUMECOMMAND="/usr/bin/wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -c -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
478     </pre>
479 swift 1.54
480     <p>
481     Sadly, <c>rsync</c> doesn't seem to support username/password
482 neysx 1.56 authentication for proxies. See <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect3">What
483 swift 1.54 if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri> for more information on how to
484     handle this situation.
485     </p>
486    
487     </body>
488     </section>
489 swift 1.65 <section id="isoburning">
490     <title>How do I burn an ISO file?</title>
491     <body>
492    
493     <p>
494     You need to burn the file in so-called <e>raw</e> mode. This means that you
495     should <e>not</e> just place the file on the CD, but interpret the file as an
496     entire CD.
497     </p>
498    
499     <p>
500     There are lots of CD burning tools available; covering them all would be a
501     Sisyphean problem. Describing a few popular tools however doesn't hurt :)
502     </p>
503    
504     <ul>
505     <li>
506     With EasyCD Creator you select <c>File</c>, <c>Record CD
507     from CD image</c>. Then you change the <c>Files of type</c> to <c>ISO image
508     file</c>. Then locate the ISO file and click <c>Open</c>. When you click on
509     <c>Start recording</c> the ISO image will be burned correctly onto the CD-R.
510     </li>
511     <li>
512     With Nero Burning ROM, cancel the wizard which automatically pops up and
513     select <c>Burn Image</c> from the <c>Recoder</c> menu. Select the image you
514     want to burn and click <c>Open</c>. Now hit the <c>Burn</c> button and watch
515     your brand new CD being burnt.
516     </li>
517     <li>
518     With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace
519     <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
520     by the path to the ISO file :)
521     </li>
522     <li>
523     With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn Image</c>. Then
524     you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click
525     <c>Start</c>.
526     </li>
527     </ul>
528    
529    
530     </body>
531     </section>
532 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
533    
534     <chapter>
535 swift 1.54 <title>Package Management</title>
536 swift 1.61 <section id="ebuilds">
537 swift 1.54 <title>In what format are the packages stored?</title>
538     <body>
539    
540 swift 1.45 <p>
541 swift 1.55 They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; Gentoo is
542 swift 1.54 primarily a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts
543     (<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a special system (Portage) so that you can build
544     apps from sources. We generally only build binaries for releases and snapshots.
545     The <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-howto.xml">Development HOWTO</uri> covers the
546     contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we
547     create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format
548     (<c>.tar.bz2</c> compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the
549     file).
550 swift 1.45 </p>
551    
552 swift 1.54 </body>
553     </section>
554 swift 1.61 <section id="configure">
555 cam 1.58 <title>I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</title>
556 swift 1.54 <body>
557    
558     <p>
559     Yes, but it is not trivial, and the next method only works when it is a simple
560     ebuild (i.e. just <c>./configure</c> and <c>make &amp;&amp; make install</c>).
561     Be sure to read the ebuild itself to see how Gentoo handles it.
562     </p>
563    
564     <p>
565     Start with unpacking the ebuild: <c>ebuild
566     /usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt; unpack</c>.
567     </p>
568    
569     <p>
570     Next, go to <path>/var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/work</path>.
571     Inside it you'll find the unpacked sources. Execute the steps you need to
572     perform to configure and compile the package.
573     </p>
574    
575     <p>
576     When finished, execute <c>touch
577     /var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/.compiled</c> to trick Portage
578     into thinking it configured and compiled the package. Then finish up with
579     <c>ebuild /usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt;
580     merge</c>.
581     </p>
582    
583     </body>
584     </section>
585 swift 1.64 <section id="norsync">
586 swift 1.54 <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
587     <body>
588    
589     <p>
590     If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit rsync traffic, then you can use
591     <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch and install a Portage snapshot for you
592     through regular HTTP. <c>emerge-webrsync</c> uses <c>wget</c> to download, so
593     proxy is fully supported.
594     </p>
595    
596     <pre caption="Using emerge-webrsync">
597     # <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
598     </pre>
599    
600     </body>
601     </section>
602 swift 1.61 <section id="firewall">
603 swift 1.54 <title>How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</title>
604     <body>
605    
606     <p>
607     Edit the PROXY settings in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If that doesn't work,
608     edit <path>/etc/wget/wgetrc</path> and edit http_proxy and ftp_proxy
609     appropriately.
610     </p>
611    
612     </body>
613     </section>
614 swift 1.61 <section id="unison">
615 swift 1.54 <title>Can I rsync from another operating system?</title>
616     <body>
617    
618     <p>
619     There's a program called unison that works under both UNIX and Win32, available
620     from <uri>http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~bcpierce/unison/</uri>.
621     </p>
622    
623     </body>
624     </section>
625 swift 1.61 <section id="manualdownload">
626 swift 1.54 <title>
627     I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere
628     else and add them to my system?
629     </title>
630     <body>
631    
632     <p>
633     Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
634     are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where
635     to download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>. Download
636     sources and bring them on any media home. Put the sources into
637     <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run <c>emerge package</c> to see it
638     picking up the sources you just brought in!
639     </p>
640    
641     </body>
642     </section>
643 swift 1.61 <section id="distfiles">
644 swift 1.54 <title>
645     .tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in
646     /usr/portage/distfiles/ using valuable space. Is it safe to delete these
647     files?
648     </title>
649     <body>
650    
651     <p>
652     Yes, you can safely delete these files. But if you are on a slow
653     connection, such as a modem, you might want to keep the archives if
654     possible; often several ebuilds will be released for the same version of
655     a specific piece of software - if you have deleted the archive and you
656     upgrade the software it will have to be downloaded from the internet
657     again.
658     </p>
659    
660     </body>
661     </section>
662 swift 1.61 <section id="tmpportage">
663 swift 1.54 <title>
664 cam 1.58 What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to delete the files and
665     directories in /var/tmp/portage?
666 swift 1.54 </title>
667     <body>
668    
669     <p>
670     During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in
671     <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. It is safe to clean out all contents of this
672     directory.
673     </p>
674    
675     </body>
676     </section>
677     </chapter>
678    
679     <chapter>
680     <title>Usage</title>
681 swift 1.61 <section id="rootssh">
682 swift 1.54 <title>
683     I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal
684     user account doesn't work.
685     </title>
686     <body>
687    
688     <p>
689     This is most probably because your user account doesn't have a valid shell
690     specified. Check for your user entry in <path>/etc/passwd</path> and see if it
691     ends in /bin/bash (or any other shell). If it doesn't, you must set a shell for
692     the user. This is done using the usermod command, like this:
693     </p>
694    
695     <pre caption="Using usermod">
696     # <i>usermod -s /bin/bash myuser</i>
697     </pre>
698    
699     </body>
700     </section>
701 swift 1.61 <section id="rootX">
702 swift 1.54 <title>I can start X applications as root only.</title>
703     <body>
704    
705     <p>
706     Your <path>/tmp</path> directory has the wrong permissions (it needs the
707     sticky bit set). Type the following as root:
708     </p>
709    
710     <pre caption="Changing /tmp permissions">
711     # <i>chmod 1777 /tmp</i>
712     </pre>
713    
714     </body>
715     </section>
716 swift 1.61 <section id="intkeyboard">
717 swift 1.54 <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
718     <body>
719    
720     <p>
721     Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>.
722     Then either reboot or restart the keymaps script:
723     <c>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</c>.
724     </p>
725    
726     </body>
727     </section>
728 swift 1.61 <section id="rootdns">
729 swift 1.54 <title>DNS name resolution works for root only.</title>
730     <body>
731    
732     <p>
733     <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as
734     follows:
735     </p>
736    
737     <pre caption="Changing permissions on /etc/resolv.conf">
738     # <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i>
739     </pre>
740    
741     </body>
742     </section>
743 swift 1.61 <section id="crontab">
744 swift 1.54 <title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
745     <body>
746    
747     <p>
748     You need to add that user to the <c>cron</c> group.
749     </p>
750    
751     </body>
752     </section>
753 swift 1.61 <section id="numlock">
754 swift 1.54 <title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
755     <body>
756    
757     <p>
758     If you log on graphically, or want numlock to be activated when
759     you issue <c>startx</c>, then you must <c>emerge numlockx</c> and
760     add <c>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</c> to
761     <path>/etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc</path> (for <c>startx</c>) or
762     <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path> (for any graphical login manager) such
763     as <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/Gnome</path> for GDM.
764     </p>
765    
766     <p>
767     If you work in commandline, you only need to <c>rc-update add
768     numlock default</c> and numlock will be activated on the next
769     reboot.
770     </p>
771    
772     </body>
773     </section>
774 swift 1.61 <section id="clear">
775 swift 1.54 <title>How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</title>
776     <body>
777    
778     <p>
779     To have your terminal cleared, add <c>clear</c> to your
780     <path>~/.bash_logout</path> script:
781     </p>
782    
783     <pre caption = "Clearing the terminal during logout">
784     $ <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; ~/.bash_logout</i>
785     </pre>
786    
787     <p>
788     If you want this to happen automatically when you add a new
789     user, do the same for the <path>/etc/skel/.bash_logout</path>:
790     </p>
791    
792     <pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout">
793     # <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre>
794     </body>
795    
796     </section>
797     </chapter>
798    
799     <chapter>
800     <title>Maintenance</title>
801 swift 1.61 <section id="filecorruption">
802 swift 1.54 <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</title>
803     <body>
804    
805     <p>
806     If your ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo
807     Linux boot CD and run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on
808     the corrupted filesystem. This should make the filesystem consistent
809     again, although you may have lost some files or directories due
810     to the corruption.
811     </p>
812    
813     </body>
814     </section>
815 swift 1.61 <section id="metalogd">
816 swift 1.54 <title>Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</title>
817     <body>
818    
819 swift 1.41 <p>
820     Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately
821     recorded into the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this
822     performance-enhancing behavior is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux
823     system is up and running, you can send metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily
824     turn off this message buffering (meaning that <c>tail -f
825     <path>/var/log/everything/current</path></c> will now work in real time, as
826     expected) and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on again. If you want to
827     disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to
828     METALOG_OPTS="-B -s" in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>.
829     </p>
830    
831     <pre caption="Turning metalog buffering on/off">
832     <codenote>To turn the buffering off:</codenote>
833     # <i>killall -USR1 metalog</i>
834     <codenote>To turn the buffering back on:</codenote>
835     # <i>killall -USR2 metalog</i>
836     </pre>
837    
838 swift 1.54 </body>
839     </section>
840 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
841    
842     <chapter>
843 swift 1.54 <title>Development</title>
844 swift 1.61 <section id="reportbugs">
845 swift 1.54 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
846     <body>
847    
848     <p>
849     For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise,
850     use our Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can
851     also visit us in <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri
852     link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network.
853     </p>
854    
855     </body>
856     </section>
857 swift 1.61 <section id="releases">
858 swift 1.54 <title>How often are new releases made?</title>
859     <body>
860    
861     <p>
862     New releases are announced on the <uri
863     link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri>
864     mailing list. In reality the packages themselves are updated shortly after the
865 swift 1.55 main authors release new code. As for when Gentoo makes new releases, check our
866     <uri link="/proj/en/releng">Release Engineering Project</uri> page.
867 swift 1.54 </p>
868    
869     </body>
870     </section>
871 swift 1.61 <section id="addfaq">
872 swift 1.54 <title>How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</title>
873     <body>
874    
875     <p>
876     Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the
877     "Docs-user" product, "Gentoo Linux FAQ" component.
878     </p>
879    
880     </body>
881     </section>
882 swift 1.61 <section id="beeping">
883 swift 1.54 <title>
884     My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console
885     beeps?
886     </title>
887     <body>
888    
889     <p>
890     Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this:
891     </p>
892    
893     <pre caption="Using setterm">
894     # <i>setterm -blength 0</i>
895     </pre>
896    
897     <p>
898     If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot
899     you need to put this command in <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However,
900     this only disables beeps for the current terminal. To disable
901     beeps for other terminals, pipe the command output to the
902     target terminal, like this:
903     </p>
904    
905     <pre caption="Using setterm (bis)">
906     # <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i>
907     </pre>
908    
909     <p>
910     You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal you would like to disable
911     console beeps for.
912     </p>
913    
914     </body>
915     </section>
916 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
917    
918     <chapter>
919     <title>Resources</title>
920 swift 1.61 <section id="resources">
921 swift 1.54 <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
922     <body>
923    
924     <p>
925     The official Gentoo documentation can be found on
926     <uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>; general Linux information is at
927     <uri>http://www.tldp.org</uri>.
928     </p>
929    
930     </body>
931     </section>
932 swift 1.61 <section id="buycd">
933 erwin 1.52 <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
934     <body>
935    
936 swift 1.54 <p>
937     Yes! LiveCDs for all supported architecture are available on
938 erwin 1.52 our <uri link="http://store.gentoo.org/">Gentoo Store</uri>. When you
939     purchase a CD from our store, you are also supporting our development.
940     So, please consider buying from our store if possible :-)
941     </p>
942    
943     <p>
944     You can also find fresh CDs from
945 swift 1.63 <uri link = "http://www.tuxcds.com/section.php?section=42">
946 erwin 1.52 tuxcds</uri> for a very good price. These people also bounce back a
947     portion of the profits to the Gentoo project, so buy them while they are hot!
948     </p>
949    
950     </body>
951     </section>
952 swift 1.61 <section id="mailinglist">
953 swift 1.54 <title>
954     Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer
955     only go to the original poster and not the entire list?
956     </title>
957     <body>
958 drobbins 1.1
959 swift 1.54 <p>
960     The mailing list administrators have decided to go with minimal munging
961     (altering of mail headers), which means that they have decided against
962     altering headers to have replies go to the mailing list. There are various
963     reasons for this. For example, if a subscriber has a full mailbox, the
964     entire list receives notice of this every time that something is posted.
965     </p>
966    
967     <p>
968     Most GUI based mailers have a "reply to all" function. This will ensure that
969     your reply goes to the mailing list as well as the original poster. Most
970     users of text based emailers already know the methods to use, but if you
971     don't, in Pine, there is a "reply to group" option. Setting Mutt to reply to
972     the list is covered in the unofficial documentation at
973     <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=1085">forums.gentoo.org</uri>.
974     </p>
975    
976     <p>
977     Some list members do not like this method, but it was very heavily
978     discussed when it went into effect, with arguments on both sides.
979     Eventually the list administrators decided to keep it this way. Discussing
980     it on the mailing list will sometimes bring a polite explanation and other
981     times a rather brusque comment to check the archives. Although the
982     administrators regret the inconvenience that it may cause some users, it is
983     felt that at present it is preferable to the alternative for several
984     reasons, many of these covered
985     <uri link="http://www.unicom.com/pw/reply-to-harmful.html">here</uri>.
986     </p>
987    
988     <p>
989     (There are other eloquent arguments in favor of munging, and yes, the list
990     administrators have seen them).
991     </p>
992    
993     </body>
994     </section>
995 swift 1.61 <section id="help">
996 swift 1.54 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
997     <body>
998    
999     <p>
1000     A good first step is to browse through the relevant <uri
1001     link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/index.xml">documentation</uri>, failing that,
1002     the various Gentoo Linux mailing lists listed on <uri
1003     link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo
1004     mailing lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all
1005     else fails, or you just want to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc:
1006     <c>#gentoo</c> on <c>irc.freenode.net</c>.
1007     </p>
1008    
1009     </body>
1010     </section>
1011 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
1012 swift 1.54
1013 drobbins 1.1 </guide>

  ViewVC Help
Powered by ViewVC 1.1.20