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1 zhen 1.3 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 neysx 1.73 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml,v 1.72 2004/10/02 21:53:56 cam Exp $ -->
3 drobbins 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4    
5 zhen 1.2 <guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
6 drobbins 1.1 <title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
7 swift 1.71 <author title="Previous Chief Architect">
8 swift 1.54 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
9     </author>
10     <author title="Reviewer">
11     Colin Morey
12     </author>
13     <author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
14     John P. Davis
15     </author>
16     <author title="Editor">
17     <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
18     </author>
19     <author title="Editor">
20     <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
21     </author>
22     <author title="Editor">
23     <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
24     </author>
25     <author title="Editor">
26     <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
27     </author>
28     <author title="Editor">
29     <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
30     </author>
31    
32 vapier 1.49 <abstract>
33 swift 1.54 This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev
34     mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add,
35     please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.
36 vapier 1.49 </abstract>
37 drobbins 1.1
38 swift 1.42 <license/>
39    
40 cam 1.72 <version>2.9</version>
41     <date>October 2, 2004</date>
42 swift 1.36
43     <chapter>
44     <title>Featured Questions</title>
45     <section>
46     <title>Getting Started</title>
47     <body>
48 swift 1.54
49 swift 1.36 <ul>
50 swift 1.54 <li>
51 swift 1.61 <uri link="#pronunciation">How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it
52 swift 1.55 mean?</uri>
53 swift 1.54 </li>
54     <li>
55 swift 1.61 <uri link="#differences">What makes Gentoo different?</uri>
56 swift 1.54 </li>
57 swift 1.36 </ul>
58 swift 1.54
59 swift 1.36 </body>
60     </section>
61     <section>
62     <title>Installation</title>
63     <body>
64 swift 1.54
65 swift 1.36 <ul>
66 swift 1.54 <li>
67 swift 1.61 <uri link="#optimizations">I'm finding things to be really unstable and
68 swift 1.55 I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What
69 swift 1.54 gives?</uri>
70     </li>
71     <li>
72 swift 1.61 <uri link="#password">How can I change the root (or any other user's)
73 swift 1.55 password?</uri>
74 swift 1.54 </li>
75     <li>
76 swift 1.61 <uri link="#useradd">How do I add a normal user?</uri>
77 swift 1.54 </li>
78     <li>
79 swift 1.61 <uri link="#su">Why can't a user su to root?</uri>
80 swift 1.54 </li>
81     <li>
82 swift 1.61 <uri link="#devfs">How do I disable devfs?</uri>
83 swift 1.54 </li>
84     <li>
85 swift 1.61 <uri link="#upgrade">Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to
86 swift 1.55 another without reinstalling?</uri>
87 swift 1.54 </li>
88     <li>
89 swift 1.61 <uri link="#bootrescue">My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should
90 swift 1.55 I do now?</uri>
91 swift 1.54 </li>
92     <li>
93 swift 1.61 <uri link="#proxy">My proxy requires authentication, what do I
94 swift 1.54 have to do?</uri>
95     </li>
96 swift 1.65 <li>
97     <uri link="#isoburning">How do I burn an ISO file?</uri>
98     </li>
99 swift 1.36 </ul>
100 swift 1.54
101 swift 1.36 </body>
102     </section>
103     <section>
104     <title>Package Management</title>
105     <body>
106 swift 1.54
107 swift 1.36 <ul>
108 swift 1.54 <li>
109 swift 1.61 <uri link="#ebuilds">In what format are the packages stored?</uri>
110 swift 1.54 </li>
111     <li>
112 swift 1.61 <uri link="#configure">I want to perform the ./configure step myself.
113 swift 1.54 Can I?</uri>
114     </li>
115     <li>
116 swift 1.61 <uri link="#norsync">What if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri>
117 swift 1.54 </li>
118     <li>
119 swift 1.61 <uri link="#firewall">How do I use emerge from behind a
120 swift 1.54 firewall?</uri>
121     </li>
122     <li>
123 swift 1.61 <uri link="#unison">Can I rsync from another operating
124 swift 1.54 system?</uri>
125     </li>
126     <li>
127 swift 1.61 <uri link="#manualdownload">I have only slow modem connection at home. Can
128 swift 1.55 I download sources somewhere else and add them to my system?</uri>
129 swift 1.54 </li>
130     <li>
131 swift 1.61 <uri link="#distfiles">.tar.gz sources for installed software are
132 neysx 1.56 piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles using valuable space. Is it safe to
133 swift 1.55 delete there files?</uri>
134 swift 1.54 </li>
135     <li>
136 swift 1.61 <uri link="#tmpportage">What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to
137 swift 1.54 delete the files and directories in /var/tmp/portage?</uri>
138     </li>
139 swift 1.36 </ul>
140 swift 1.54
141 swift 1.36 </body>
142     </section>
143     <section>
144     <title>Usage</title>
145     <body>
146 swift 1.54
147 swift 1.36 <ul>
148 swift 1.54 <li>
149 swift 1.61 <uri link="#rootssh">I have installed openssh on my box, but can
150 swift 1.54 only log in as root - my normal user account doesn't work.</uri>
151     </li>
152     <li>
153 swift 1.61 <uri link="#rootX">I can start X applications as root only</uri>
154 swift 1.54 </li>
155     <li>
156 swift 1.61 <uri link="#intkeyboard">How do I set up an International Keyboard
157 swift 1.54 Layout?</uri>
158     </li>
159     <li>
160 swift 1.61 <uri link="#rootdns">DNS name resolution works for root only.</uri>
161 swift 1.54 </li>
162     <li>
163 swift 1.61 <uri link="#crontab">Why can't my user use their own crontab?</uri>
164 swift 1.54 </li>
165     <li>
166 swift 1.61 <uri link="#numlock">How do I get numlock to start on boot?</uri>
167 swift 1.54 </li>
168     <li>
169 swift 1.61 <uri link="#clear">How do I have my terminal cleared when I log
170 swift 1.54 out?</uri>
171     </li>
172 swift 1.36 </ul>
173 swift 1.54
174 swift 1.36 </body>
175     </section>
176     <section>
177     <title>Maintenance</title>
178     <body>
179 swift 1.54
180 swift 1.36 <ul>
181 swift 1.54 <li>
182 swift 1.61 <uri link="#filecorruption">ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues --
183 swift 1.55 how to fix'em, etc.</uri>
184 swift 1.54 </li>
185     <li>
186 swift 1.61 <uri link="#metalogd">Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</uri>
187 swift 1.54 </li>
188 swift 1.36 </ul>
189 swift 1.54
190 swift 1.36 </body>
191     </section>
192     <section>
193     <title>Development</title>
194     <body>
195 swift 1.54
196 swift 1.36 <ul>
197 swift 1.54 <li>
198 swift 1.61 <uri link="#reportbugs">Where can I report bugs?</uri>
199 swift 1.54 </li>
200     <li>
201 swift 1.61 <uri link="#releases">How often are new releases made?</uri>
202 swift 1.54 </li>
203     <li>
204 swift 1.61 <uri link="#addfaq">How can I add a question or answer to this
205 swift 1.55 FAQ?</uri>
206 swift 1.54 </li>
207     <li>
208 swift 1.61 <uri link="#beeping">My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling
209 swift 1.55 Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps?</uri>
210 swift 1.54 </li>
211 swift 1.36 </ul>
212 swift 1.54
213 swift 1.36 </body>
214     </section>
215     <section>
216     <title>Resources</title>
217     <body>
218 swift 1.54
219 swift 1.36 <ul>
220 swift 1.54 <li>
221 swift 1.61 <uri link="#resources">Where can I find more information about Gentoo
222 swift 1.55 Linux?</uri>
223 swift 1.54 </li>
224     <li>
225 swift 1.61 <uri link="#buycd">Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</uri>
226 swift 1.54 </li>
227     <li>
228 swift 1.61 <uri link="#mailinglist">Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo
229 swift 1.55 mailinglist, does my answer only go to the original poster and not the
230 swift 1.54 entire list?</uri>
231     </li>
232     <li>
233 swift 1.61 <uri link="#help">This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I
234 swift 1.55 do now?</uri>
235 swift 1.54 </li>
236 swift 1.36 </ul>
237 swift 1.54
238 swift 1.36 </body>
239     </section>
240     </chapter>
241    
242 swift 1.54 <chapter>
243     <title>Getting Started</title>
244    
245 swift 1.61 <section id="pronunciation">
246 swift 1.54 <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
247     <body>
248    
249     <p>
250 swift 1.55 A <e>Gentoo</e> is a species of a small, fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (the
251     "g" in "gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle"). The latin name of the Gentoo
252     penguin is <e>Pygoscelis papua</e>. The name <e>Gentoo</e> has been given to the
253     penguin by the inhabitants of the Falkland Islands.
254 swift 1.54 </p>
255    
256     </body>
257     </section>
258 swift 1.61 <section id="differences">
259 swift 1.54 <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
260     <body>
261 drobbins 1.1
262 swift 1.54 <p>
263 swift 1.55 Gentoo uses a BSD ports-like system called <uri
264     link="/proj/en/portage">Portage</uri>. Portage is a package management system
265     that allows great flexibility while installing and maintaining software on a
266     Gentoo system. It provides compile-time option support (through <uri
267 neysx 1.73 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>),
268 swift 1.55 conditional dependencies, "fake" installs, safe installation (through
269     sandboxing) and uninstallation of software, system profiles, <uri
270 neysx 1.73 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=3&amp;chap=2#doc_chap3">configuration
271 swift 1.55 file protection</uri> amongst several other <uri
272 neysx 1.73 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">features</uri>.
273 swift 1.54 </p>
274 drobbins 1.1
275 swift 1.54 <p>
276 swift 1.55 With Gentoo you can build your entire system from source completely using your
277     choice of optimizations. You have complete control over what packages are or
278     aren't installed. Gentoo provides you with numerous choices so you can install
279     Gentoo to your own taste. This is why Gentoo is called a
280     <e>meta-distribution</e>.
281 swift 1.54 </p>
282    
283     <p>
284 swift 1.55 Gentoo is very actively developed. Not only the <e>ebuilds</e> themselves (the
285     package format Gentoo uses) but the entire distribution uses a rapid pace
286     development style. Patches to the packages are quickly integrated in the
287     mainline tree, documentation is updated on daily basis, portage features are
288     added frequently, releases succeed each other quickly, ...
289 swift 1.54 </p>
290    
291     </body>
292     </section>
293 swift 1.55 </chapter>
294    
295     <chapter>
296     <title>Installation</title>
297 swift 1.61 <section id="optimizations">
298 swift 1.54 <title>
299     I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math
300     -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?
301     </title>
302     <body>
303    
304     <p>
305 swift 1.60 Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't supported by
306 swift 1.54 current versions of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the
307     compiler to streamline the assembly code to the point where it doesn't quite
308 swift 1.55 do the same thing anymore.
309 swift 1.54 </p>
310    
311     <p>
312 swift 1.55 Please try to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march= -O2</c> first before reporting a
313 swift 1.54 bug.
314     </p>
315    
316     </body>
317     </section>
318 swift 1.61 <section id="password">
319 swift 1.55 <title>How can i change the root (or any other user's) password?</title>
320 swift 1.54 <body>
321    
322     <p>
323     You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged
324     into. For extra options and setting, please see <c>man passwd</c> once you've
325     completed the install.
326     </p>
327    
328     </body>
329     </section>
330 swift 1.61 <section id="useradd">
331 swift 1.54 <title>How do i add a normal user?</title>
332     <body>
333    
334     <p>
335     The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called gentoo. The next step
336     is to give this user a password and <c>passwd</c> will do exactly that.
337     </p>
338    
339     <p>
340     Instead of <c>adduser</c> you can also use:
341     </p>
342    
343     <pre caption="Using useradd">
344     # <i>useradd gentoo -m -G users,audio,wheel -s /bin/bash</i>
345     </pre>
346    
347     <p>
348 vapier 1.70 This will add a user gentoo, will make possible for him to use sound-related
349     devices (<path>/dev/sound/*</path>), will make possible for him to switch to
350 swift 1.59 root (using <c>su</c>) and will make <path>/bin/bash</path> his/her login shell.
351 swift 1.54 </p>
352    
353     <p>
354     You can also install <c>superadduser</c> using <c>emerge superadduser</c> and
355     then issue <c>superadduser gentoo</c> to add a user called gentoo. Just follow
356     the instructions given to you by <c>superadduser</c>.
357     </p>
358    
359     </body>
360     </section>
361 swift 1.61 <section id="su">
362 swift 1.54 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
363     <body>
364    
365     <p>
366     For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
367 cam 1.58 <e>wheel</e> group. To add a <e>username</e> to the <e>wheel</e> group, issue
368 swift 1.54 the following command as root:
369     </p>
370    
371     <pre caption="Adding a user to the wheel group">
372 swift 1.55 # <i>gpasswd -a username wheel</i>
373 swift 1.54 </pre>
374    
375     </body>
376     </section>
377 swift 1.61 <section id="devfs">
378 swift 1.54 <title>How to I disable devfs?</title>
379     <body>
380    
381     <p>
382 swift 1.55 If you plan on using Gentoo with the "old-style" <path>/dev</path> approach, you
383     can disable devfs by passing the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> to the kernel. If on the
384     other hand you want to use <uri link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev</uri> (2.6
385     kernels only), you can disable devfs by passing the <c>devfs=nomount</c> option
386     to the kernel. Don't forget to read up on our <uri
387     link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev guide</uri> too.
388 swift 1.54 </p>
389    
390     </body>
391     </section>
392 swift 1.61 <section id="upgrade">
393 swift 1.54 <title>
394 swift 1.55 Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to another without reinstalling?
395 swift 1.54 </title>
396     <body>
397    
398     <p>
399 swift 1.55 In fact there is no difference between the various releases
400     <b>after they have been installed</b>. Gentoo 1.4 and later are
401 cam 1.72 <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based. As such running <c>emerge --sync; emerge -u world</c>
402 swift 1.55 will bring your entire system up to speed with the "latest Gentoo".
403     The true differences between individual releases lie in the installation.
404 swift 1.54 </p>
405    
406 swift 1.62 <p>
407     More information can be found in our <uri link="gentoo-upgrading.xml">Gentoo
408     Upgrading Guide</uri>.
409     </p>
410    
411 swift 1.54 </body>
412     </section>
413 swift 1.61 <section id="bootrescue">
414 swift 1.54 <title>My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should I do now?</title>
415     <body>
416    
417     <p>
418     You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but only the
419     kernel-stuff and all associated steps. Suppose you have installed Gentoo
420     on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with
421     <path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space:
422     </p>
423    
424     <pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel">
425 swift 1.37 <comment>Boot from the LiveCD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment>
426     <comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment>
427     # <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
428     # <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
429     # <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
430     # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
431     <comment>Then we chroot into our Gentoo environment and configure the kernel:</comment>
432     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
433     # <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
434     # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
435     # <i>make menuconfig</i>
436     <comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment>
437     <comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment>
438     # <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make bzImage modules modules_install</i>
439     <comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment>
440     # <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</i>
441     <comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment>
442     # <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
443     <comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment>
444     # <i>exit</i>
445     # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
446     # <i>reboot</i>
447 swift 1.54 </pre>
448    
449     <p>
450     If on the other hand the problem lays with your bootloader configuration,
451     follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel you
452     should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary).
453     </p>
454    
455     </body>
456     </section>
457 swift 1.61 <section id="proxy">
458 swift 1.54 <title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title>
459     <body>
460    
461     <p>
462     When you have to download something using <c>wget</c>, use the
463     following syntax to authenticate yourself:
464     </p>
465    
466 bennyc 1.40 <pre caption = "Proxy-authentication using wget">
467 swift 1.38 # <i>wget --proxy-user=</i><comment>username</comment><i> --proxy-passwd=</i><comment>password</comment><i> &lt;url&gt;</i>
468     </pre>
469 swift 1.54
470     <p>
471     To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in
472     <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
473     </p>
474    
475 swift 1.38 <pre caption = "/etc/make.conf">
476     FETCHCOMMAND="wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
477     RESUMECOMMAND="/usr/bin/wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -c -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
478     </pre>
479 swift 1.54
480     <p>
481     Sadly, <c>rsync</c> doesn't seem to support username/password
482 neysx 1.56 authentication for proxies. See <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect3">What
483 swift 1.54 if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri> for more information on how to
484     handle this situation.
485     </p>
486    
487     </body>
488     </section>
489 swift 1.65 <section id="isoburning">
490     <title>How do I burn an ISO file?</title>
491     <body>
492    
493     <p>
494     You need to burn the file in so-called <e>raw</e> mode. This means that you
495     should <e>not</e> just place the file on the CD, but interpret the file as an
496     entire CD.
497     </p>
498    
499     <p>
500     There are lots of CD burning tools available; covering them all would be a
501     Sisyphean problem. Describing a few popular tools however doesn't hurt :)
502     </p>
503    
504     <ul>
505     <li>
506     With EasyCD Creator you select <c>File</c>, <c>Record CD
507     from CD image</c>. Then you change the <c>Files of type</c> to <c>ISO image
508     file</c>. Then locate the ISO file and click <c>Open</c>. When you click on
509     <c>Start recording</c> the ISO image will be burned correctly onto the CD-R.
510     </li>
511     <li>
512     With Nero Burning ROM, cancel the wizard which automatically pops up and
513 neysx 1.69 select <c>Burn Image</c> from the <c>File</c> menu. Select the image you
514 swift 1.65 want to burn and click <c>Open</c>. Now hit the <c>Burn</c> button and watch
515     your brand new CD being burnt.
516     </li>
517     <li>
518     With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace
519     <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
520     by the path to the ISO file :)
521     </li>
522     <li>
523     With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn Image</c>. Then
524     you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click
525     <c>Start</c>.
526     </li>
527 swift 1.66 <li>
528     With Mac OS X Panther, launch <c>Disk Utility</c> from
529     <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Open</c> from the
530     <c>Images</c> menu, select the mounted disk image in the main window and
531     select <c>Burn</c> in the <c>Images</c> menu.
532     </li>
533     <li>
534     With Mac OS X Jaguar, launch <c>Disk Copy</c> from
535     <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Burn Image</c> from the
536     <c>File</c> menu, select the ISO and click the <c>Burn</c> button.
537     </li>
538 swift 1.65 </ul>
539    
540    
541     </body>
542     </section>
543 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
544    
545     <chapter>
546 swift 1.54 <title>Package Management</title>
547 swift 1.61 <section id="ebuilds">
548 swift 1.54 <title>In what format are the packages stored?</title>
549     <body>
550    
551 swift 1.45 <p>
552 swift 1.55 They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; Gentoo is
553 swift 1.54 primarily a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts
554     (<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a special system (Portage) so that you can build
555     apps from sources. We generally only build binaries for releases and snapshots.
556     The <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-howto.xml">Development HOWTO</uri> covers the
557     contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we
558     create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format
559     (<c>.tar.bz2</c> compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the
560     file).
561 swift 1.45 </p>
562    
563 swift 1.54 </body>
564     </section>
565 swift 1.61 <section id="configure">
566 cam 1.58 <title>I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</title>
567 swift 1.54 <body>
568    
569     <p>
570     Yes, but it is not trivial, and the next method only works when it is a simple
571     ebuild (i.e. just <c>./configure</c> and <c>make &amp;&amp; make install</c>).
572     Be sure to read the ebuild itself to see how Gentoo handles it.
573     </p>
574    
575     <p>
576     Start with unpacking the ebuild: <c>ebuild
577     /usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt; unpack</c>.
578     </p>
579    
580     <p>
581     Next, go to <path>/var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/work</path>.
582     Inside it you'll find the unpacked sources. Execute the steps you need to
583     perform to configure and compile the package.
584     </p>
585    
586     <p>
587     When finished, execute <c>touch
588     /var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/.compiled</c> to trick Portage
589     into thinking it configured and compiled the package. Then finish up with
590     <c>ebuild /usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt;
591     merge</c>.
592     </p>
593    
594     </body>
595     </section>
596 swift 1.64 <section id="norsync">
597 swift 1.54 <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
598     <body>
599    
600     <p>
601     If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit rsync traffic, then you can use
602     <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch and install a Portage snapshot for you
603     through regular HTTP. <c>emerge-webrsync</c> uses <c>wget</c> to download, so
604     proxy is fully supported.
605     </p>
606    
607     <pre caption="Using emerge-webrsync">
608     # <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
609     </pre>
610    
611     </body>
612     </section>
613 swift 1.61 <section id="firewall">
614 swift 1.54 <title>How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</title>
615     <body>
616    
617     <p>
618     Edit the PROXY settings in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If that doesn't work,
619     edit <path>/etc/wget/wgetrc</path> and edit http_proxy and ftp_proxy
620     appropriately.
621     </p>
622    
623     </body>
624     </section>
625 swift 1.61 <section id="unison">
626 swift 1.54 <title>Can I rsync from another operating system?</title>
627     <body>
628    
629     <p>
630     There's a program called unison that works under both UNIX and Win32, available
631     from <uri>http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~bcpierce/unison/</uri>.
632     </p>
633    
634     </body>
635     </section>
636 swift 1.61 <section id="manualdownload">
637 swift 1.54 <title>
638     I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere
639     else and add them to my system?
640     </title>
641     <body>
642    
643     <p>
644     Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
645     are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where
646     to download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>. Download
647     sources and bring them on any media home. Put the sources into
648     <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run <c>emerge package</c> to see it
649     picking up the sources you just brought in!
650     </p>
651    
652     </body>
653     </section>
654 swift 1.61 <section id="distfiles">
655 swift 1.54 <title>
656     .tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in
657     /usr/portage/distfiles/ using valuable space. Is it safe to delete these
658     files?
659     </title>
660     <body>
661    
662     <p>
663     Yes, you can safely delete these files. But if you are on a slow
664     connection, such as a modem, you might want to keep the archives if
665     possible; often several ebuilds will be released for the same version of
666     a specific piece of software - if you have deleted the archive and you
667     upgrade the software it will have to be downloaded from the internet
668     again.
669     </p>
670    
671     </body>
672     </section>
673 swift 1.61 <section id="tmpportage">
674 swift 1.54 <title>
675 cam 1.58 What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to delete the files and
676     directories in /var/tmp/portage?
677 swift 1.54 </title>
678     <body>
679    
680     <p>
681     During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in
682     <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. It is safe to clean out all contents of this
683     directory.
684     </p>
685    
686     </body>
687     </section>
688     </chapter>
689    
690     <chapter>
691     <title>Usage</title>
692 swift 1.61 <section id="rootssh">
693 swift 1.54 <title>
694     I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal
695     user account doesn't work.
696     </title>
697     <body>
698    
699     <p>
700     This is most probably because your user account doesn't have a valid shell
701     specified. Check for your user entry in <path>/etc/passwd</path> and see if it
702     ends in /bin/bash (or any other shell). If it doesn't, you must set a shell for
703     the user. This is done using the usermod command, like this:
704     </p>
705    
706     <pre caption="Using usermod">
707     # <i>usermod -s /bin/bash myuser</i>
708     </pre>
709    
710     </body>
711     </section>
712 swift 1.61 <section id="rootX">
713 swift 1.54 <title>I can start X applications as root only.</title>
714     <body>
715    
716     <p>
717     Your <path>/tmp</path> directory has the wrong permissions (it needs the
718     sticky bit set). Type the following as root:
719     </p>
720    
721     <pre caption="Changing /tmp permissions">
722     # <i>chmod 1777 /tmp</i>
723     </pre>
724    
725     </body>
726     </section>
727 swift 1.61 <section id="intkeyboard">
728 swift 1.54 <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
729     <body>
730    
731     <p>
732     Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>.
733     Then either reboot or restart the keymaps script:
734     <c>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</c>.
735     </p>
736    
737     </body>
738     </section>
739 swift 1.61 <section id="rootdns">
740 swift 1.54 <title>DNS name resolution works for root only.</title>
741     <body>
742    
743     <p>
744     <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as
745     follows:
746     </p>
747    
748     <pre caption="Changing permissions on /etc/resolv.conf">
749     # <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i>
750     </pre>
751    
752     </body>
753     </section>
754 swift 1.61 <section id="crontab">
755 swift 1.54 <title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
756     <body>
757    
758     <p>
759     You need to add that user to the <c>cron</c> group.
760     </p>
761    
762     </body>
763     </section>
764 swift 1.61 <section id="numlock">
765 swift 1.54 <title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
766     <body>
767    
768     <p>
769     If you log on graphically, or want numlock to be activated when
770     you issue <c>startx</c>, then you must <c>emerge numlockx</c> and
771     add <c>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</c> to
772     <path>/etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc</path> (for <c>startx</c>) or
773     <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path> (for any graphical login manager) such
774     as <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/Gnome</path> for GDM.
775     </p>
776    
777     <p>
778 swift 1.67 GNOME 2.6 users however will notice that this doesn't work. Instead, they will
779     need to start the <c>gnome-session-properties</c> tool. At the top of the
780 neysx 1.68 Window, select <c>Startup Programs</c> and click the <c>Add</c> button. Now
781 swift 1.67 insert the location of the <c>numlockx</c> tool (for instance
782     <path>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</path>) and exit.
783     </p>
784    
785     <p>
786 swift 1.54 If you work in commandline, you only need to <c>rc-update add
787     numlock default</c> and numlock will be activated on the next
788     reboot.
789     </p>
790    
791     </body>
792     </section>
793 swift 1.61 <section id="clear">
794 swift 1.54 <title>How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</title>
795     <body>
796    
797     <p>
798     To have your terminal cleared, add <c>clear</c> to your
799     <path>~/.bash_logout</path> script:
800     </p>
801    
802     <pre caption = "Clearing the terminal during logout">
803     $ <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; ~/.bash_logout</i>
804     </pre>
805    
806     <p>
807     If you want this to happen automatically when you add a new
808     user, do the same for the <path>/etc/skel/.bash_logout</path>:
809     </p>
810    
811     <pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout">
812     # <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre>
813     </body>
814    
815     </section>
816     </chapter>
817    
818     <chapter>
819     <title>Maintenance</title>
820 swift 1.61 <section id="filecorruption">
821 swift 1.54 <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</title>
822     <body>
823    
824     <p>
825     If your ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo
826     Linux boot CD and run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on
827     the corrupted filesystem. This should make the filesystem consistent
828     again, although you may have lost some files or directories due
829     to the corruption.
830     </p>
831    
832     </body>
833     </section>
834 swift 1.61 <section id="metalogd">
835 swift 1.54 <title>Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</title>
836     <body>
837    
838 swift 1.41 <p>
839     Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately
840     recorded into the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this
841     performance-enhancing behavior is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux
842     system is up and running, you can send metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily
843     turn off this message buffering (meaning that <c>tail -f
844     <path>/var/log/everything/current</path></c> will now work in real time, as
845     expected) and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on again. If you want to
846     disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to
847     METALOG_OPTS="-B -s" in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>.
848     </p>
849    
850     <pre caption="Turning metalog buffering on/off">
851     <codenote>To turn the buffering off:</codenote>
852     # <i>killall -USR1 metalog</i>
853     <codenote>To turn the buffering back on:</codenote>
854     # <i>killall -USR2 metalog</i>
855     </pre>
856    
857 swift 1.54 </body>
858     </section>
859 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
860    
861     <chapter>
862 swift 1.54 <title>Development</title>
863 swift 1.61 <section id="reportbugs">
864 swift 1.54 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
865     <body>
866    
867     <p>
868     For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise,
869     use our Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can
870     also visit us in <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri
871     link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network.
872     </p>
873    
874     </body>
875     </section>
876 swift 1.61 <section id="releases">
877 swift 1.54 <title>How often are new releases made?</title>
878     <body>
879    
880     <p>
881     New releases are announced on the <uri
882     link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri>
883     mailing list. In reality the packages themselves are updated shortly after the
884 swift 1.55 main authors release new code. As for when Gentoo makes new releases, check our
885     <uri link="/proj/en/releng">Release Engineering Project</uri> page.
886 swift 1.54 </p>
887    
888     </body>
889     </section>
890 swift 1.61 <section id="addfaq">
891 swift 1.54 <title>How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</title>
892     <body>
893    
894     <p>
895     Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the
896     "Docs-user" product, "Gentoo Linux FAQ" component.
897     </p>
898    
899     </body>
900     </section>
901 swift 1.61 <section id="beeping">
902 swift 1.54 <title>
903     My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console
904     beeps?
905     </title>
906     <body>
907    
908     <p>
909     Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this:
910     </p>
911    
912     <pre caption="Using setterm">
913     # <i>setterm -blength 0</i>
914     </pre>
915    
916     <p>
917     If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot
918     you need to put this command in <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However,
919     this only disables beeps for the current terminal. To disable
920     beeps for other terminals, pipe the command output to the
921     target terminal, like this:
922     </p>
923    
924     <pre caption="Using setterm (bis)">
925     # <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i>
926     </pre>
927    
928     <p>
929     You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal you would like to disable
930     console beeps for.
931     </p>
932    
933     </body>
934     </section>
935 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
936    
937     <chapter>
938     <title>Resources</title>
939 swift 1.61 <section id="resources">
940 swift 1.54 <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
941     <body>
942    
943     <p>
944     The official Gentoo documentation can be found on
945     <uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>; general Linux information is at
946     <uri>http://www.tldp.org</uri>.
947     </p>
948    
949     </body>
950     </section>
951 swift 1.61 <section id="buycd">
952 erwin 1.52 <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
953     <body>
954    
955 swift 1.54 <p>
956     Yes! LiveCDs for all supported architecture are available on
957 erwin 1.52 our <uri link="http://store.gentoo.org/">Gentoo Store</uri>. When you
958     purchase a CD from our store, you are also supporting our development.
959     So, please consider buying from our store if possible :-)
960     </p>
961    
962     <p>
963     You can also find fresh CDs from
964 swift 1.63 <uri link = "http://www.tuxcds.com/section.php?section=42">
965 erwin 1.52 tuxcds</uri> for a very good price. These people also bounce back a
966     portion of the profits to the Gentoo project, so buy them while they are hot!
967     </p>
968    
969     </body>
970     </section>
971 swift 1.61 <section id="mailinglist">
972 swift 1.54 <title>
973     Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer
974     only go to the original poster and not the entire list?
975     </title>
976     <body>
977 drobbins 1.1
978 swift 1.54 <p>
979     The mailing list administrators have decided to go with minimal munging
980     (altering of mail headers), which means that they have decided against
981     altering headers to have replies go to the mailing list. There are various
982     reasons for this. For example, if a subscriber has a full mailbox, the
983     entire list receives notice of this every time that something is posted.
984     </p>
985    
986     <p>
987     Most GUI based mailers have a "reply to all" function. This will ensure that
988     your reply goes to the mailing list as well as the original poster. Most
989     users of text based emailers already know the methods to use, but if you
990     don't, in Pine, there is a "reply to group" option. Setting Mutt to reply to
991     the list is covered in the unofficial documentation at
992     <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=1085">forums.gentoo.org</uri>.
993     </p>
994    
995     <p>
996     Some list members do not like this method, but it was very heavily
997     discussed when it went into effect, with arguments on both sides.
998     Eventually the list administrators decided to keep it this way. Discussing
999     it on the mailing list will sometimes bring a polite explanation and other
1000     times a rather brusque comment to check the archives. Although the
1001     administrators regret the inconvenience that it may cause some users, it is
1002     felt that at present it is preferable to the alternative for several
1003     reasons, many of these covered
1004     <uri link="http://www.unicom.com/pw/reply-to-harmful.html">here</uri>.
1005     </p>
1006    
1007     <p>
1008     (There are other eloquent arguments in favor of munging, and yes, the list
1009     administrators have seen them).
1010     </p>
1011    
1012     </body>
1013     </section>
1014 swift 1.61 <section id="help">
1015 swift 1.54 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
1016     <body>
1017    
1018     <p>
1019     A good first step is to browse through the relevant <uri
1020     link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/index.xml">documentation</uri>, failing that,
1021     the various Gentoo Linux mailing lists listed on <uri
1022     link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo
1023     mailing lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all
1024     else fails, or you just want to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc:
1025     <c>#gentoo</c> on <c>irc.freenode.net</c>.
1026     </p>
1027    
1028     </body>
1029     </section>
1030 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
1031 swift 1.54
1032 drobbins 1.1 </guide>

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