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1 zhen 1.3 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 bennyc 1.75 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml,v 1.74 2004/11/09 08:11:00 swift Exp $ -->
3 drobbins 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4    
5 zhen 1.2 <guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
6 drobbins 1.1 <title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
7 swift 1.71 <author title="Previous Chief Architect">
8 swift 1.54 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
9     </author>
10     <author title="Reviewer">
11     Colin Morey
12     </author>
13     <author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
14     John P. Davis
15     </author>
16     <author title="Editor">
17     <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
18     </author>
19     <author title="Editor">
20     <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
21     </author>
22     <author title="Editor">
23     <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
24     </author>
25     <author title="Editor">
26     <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
27     </author>
28     <author title="Editor">
29     <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
30     </author>
31 bennyc 1.75 <author title="Editor">
32     <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
33     </author>
34 swift 1.54
35 vapier 1.49 <abstract>
36 swift 1.54 This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev
37     mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add,
38     please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.
39 vapier 1.49 </abstract>
40 drobbins 1.1
41 swift 1.42 <license/>
42    
43 swift 1.74 <version>2.10</version>
44 bennyc 1.75 <date>November 17, 2004</date>
45 swift 1.36
46     <chapter>
47     <title>Featured Questions</title>
48     <section>
49     <title>Getting Started</title>
50     <body>
51 swift 1.54
52 swift 1.36 <ul>
53 swift 1.54 <li>
54 swift 1.61 <uri link="#pronunciation">How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it
55 swift 1.55 mean?</uri>
56 swift 1.54 </li>
57     <li>
58 swift 1.61 <uri link="#differences">What makes Gentoo different?</uri>
59 swift 1.54 </li>
60 swift 1.36 </ul>
61 swift 1.54
62 swift 1.36 </body>
63     </section>
64     <section>
65     <title>Installation</title>
66     <body>
67 swift 1.54
68 swift 1.36 <ul>
69 swift 1.54 <li>
70 swift 1.61 <uri link="#optimizations">I'm finding things to be really unstable and
71 swift 1.55 I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What
72 swift 1.54 gives?</uri>
73     </li>
74     <li>
75 swift 1.61 <uri link="#password">How can I change the root (or any other user's)
76 swift 1.55 password?</uri>
77 swift 1.54 </li>
78     <li>
79 swift 1.61 <uri link="#useradd">How do I add a normal user?</uri>
80 swift 1.54 </li>
81     <li>
82 swift 1.61 <uri link="#su">Why can't a user su to root?</uri>
83 swift 1.54 </li>
84     <li>
85 swift 1.61 <uri link="#devfs">How do I disable devfs?</uri>
86 swift 1.54 </li>
87     <li>
88 swift 1.61 <uri link="#upgrade">Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to
89 swift 1.55 another without reinstalling?</uri>
90 swift 1.54 </li>
91     <li>
92 swift 1.61 <uri link="#bootrescue">My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should
93 swift 1.55 I do now?</uri>
94 swift 1.54 </li>
95     <li>
96 swift 1.61 <uri link="#proxy">My proxy requires authentication, what do I
97 swift 1.54 have to do?</uri>
98     </li>
99 swift 1.65 <li>
100     <uri link="#isoburning">How do I burn an ISO file?</uri>
101     </li>
102 swift 1.36 </ul>
103 swift 1.54
104 swift 1.36 </body>
105     </section>
106     <section>
107     <title>Package Management</title>
108     <body>
109 swift 1.54
110 swift 1.36 <ul>
111 swift 1.54 <li>
112 swift 1.61 <uri link="#ebuilds">In what format are the packages stored?</uri>
113 swift 1.54 </li>
114     <li>
115 swift 1.61 <uri link="#configure">I want to perform the ./configure step myself.
116 swift 1.54 Can I?</uri>
117     </li>
118     <li>
119 swift 1.61 <uri link="#norsync">What if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri>
120 swift 1.54 </li>
121     <li>
122 swift 1.61 <uri link="#firewall">How do I use emerge from behind a
123 swift 1.54 firewall?</uri>
124     </li>
125     <li>
126 swift 1.61 <uri link="#unison">Can I rsync from another operating
127 swift 1.54 system?</uri>
128     </li>
129     <li>
130 swift 1.61 <uri link="#manualdownload">I have only slow modem connection at home. Can
131 swift 1.55 I download sources somewhere else and add them to my system?</uri>
132 swift 1.54 </li>
133     <li>
134 swift 1.61 <uri link="#distfiles">.tar.gz sources for installed software are
135 neysx 1.56 piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles using valuable space. Is it safe to
136 swift 1.55 delete there files?</uri>
137 swift 1.54 </li>
138     <li>
139 swift 1.61 <uri link="#tmpportage">What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to
140 swift 1.54 delete the files and directories in /var/tmp/portage?</uri>
141     </li>
142 swift 1.36 </ul>
143 swift 1.54
144 swift 1.36 </body>
145     </section>
146     <section>
147     <title>Usage</title>
148     <body>
149 swift 1.54
150 swift 1.36 <ul>
151 swift 1.54 <li>
152 swift 1.61 <uri link="#rootssh">I have installed openssh on my box, but can
153 swift 1.54 only log in as root - my normal user account doesn't work.</uri>
154     </li>
155     <li>
156 swift 1.61 <uri link="#rootX">I can start X applications as root only</uri>
157 swift 1.54 </li>
158     <li>
159 swift 1.61 <uri link="#intkeyboard">How do I set up an International Keyboard
160 swift 1.54 Layout?</uri>
161     </li>
162     <li>
163 swift 1.61 <uri link="#rootdns">DNS name resolution works for root only.</uri>
164 swift 1.54 </li>
165     <li>
166 swift 1.61 <uri link="#crontab">Why can't my user use their own crontab?</uri>
167 swift 1.54 </li>
168     <li>
169 swift 1.61 <uri link="#numlock">How do I get numlock to start on boot?</uri>
170 swift 1.54 </li>
171     <li>
172 swift 1.61 <uri link="#clear">How do I have my terminal cleared when I log
173 swift 1.54 out?</uri>
174     </li>
175 swift 1.36 </ul>
176 swift 1.54
177 swift 1.36 </body>
178     </section>
179     <section>
180     <title>Maintenance</title>
181     <body>
182 swift 1.54
183 swift 1.36 <ul>
184 swift 1.54 <li>
185 swift 1.61 <uri link="#filecorruption">ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues --
186 swift 1.55 how to fix'em, etc.</uri>
187 swift 1.54 </li>
188     <li>
189 swift 1.61 <uri link="#metalogd">Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</uri>
190 swift 1.54 </li>
191 swift 1.36 </ul>
192 swift 1.54
193 swift 1.36 </body>
194     </section>
195     <section>
196     <title>Development</title>
197     <body>
198 swift 1.54
199 swift 1.36 <ul>
200 swift 1.54 <li>
201 swift 1.61 <uri link="#reportbugs">Where can I report bugs?</uri>
202 swift 1.54 </li>
203     <li>
204 swift 1.61 <uri link="#releases">How often are new releases made?</uri>
205 swift 1.54 </li>
206     <li>
207 swift 1.61 <uri link="#addfaq">How can I add a question or answer to this
208 swift 1.55 FAQ?</uri>
209 swift 1.54 </li>
210     <li>
211 swift 1.61 <uri link="#beeping">My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling
212 swift 1.55 Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps?</uri>
213 swift 1.54 </li>
214 swift 1.36 </ul>
215 swift 1.54
216 swift 1.36 </body>
217     </section>
218     <section>
219     <title>Resources</title>
220     <body>
221 swift 1.54
222 swift 1.36 <ul>
223 swift 1.54 <li>
224 swift 1.61 <uri link="#resources">Where can I find more information about Gentoo
225 swift 1.55 Linux?</uri>
226 swift 1.54 </li>
227     <li>
228 swift 1.61 <uri link="#buycd">Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</uri>
229 swift 1.54 </li>
230     <li>
231 swift 1.61 <uri link="#mailinglist">Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo
232 swift 1.55 mailinglist, does my answer only go to the original poster and not the
233 swift 1.54 entire list?</uri>
234     </li>
235     <li>
236 swift 1.61 <uri link="#help">This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I
237 swift 1.55 do now?</uri>
238 swift 1.54 </li>
239 swift 1.36 </ul>
240 swift 1.54
241 swift 1.36 </body>
242     </section>
243     </chapter>
244    
245 swift 1.54 <chapter>
246     <title>Getting Started</title>
247    
248 swift 1.61 <section id="pronunciation">
249 swift 1.54 <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
250     <body>
251    
252     <p>
253 swift 1.55 A <e>Gentoo</e> is a species of a small, fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (the
254     "g" in "gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle"). The latin name of the Gentoo
255     penguin is <e>Pygoscelis papua</e>. The name <e>Gentoo</e> has been given to the
256     penguin by the inhabitants of the Falkland Islands.
257 swift 1.54 </p>
258    
259     </body>
260     </section>
261 swift 1.61 <section id="differences">
262 swift 1.54 <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
263     <body>
264 drobbins 1.1
265 swift 1.54 <p>
266 swift 1.55 Gentoo uses a BSD ports-like system called <uri
267     link="/proj/en/portage">Portage</uri>. Portage is a package management system
268     that allows great flexibility while installing and maintaining software on a
269     Gentoo system. It provides compile-time option support (through <uri
270 neysx 1.73 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>),
271 swift 1.55 conditional dependencies, "fake" installs, safe installation (through
272     sandboxing) and uninstallation of software, system profiles, <uri
273 neysx 1.73 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=3&amp;chap=2#doc_chap3">configuration
274 swift 1.55 file protection</uri> amongst several other <uri
275 neysx 1.73 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">features</uri>.
276 swift 1.54 </p>
277 drobbins 1.1
278 swift 1.54 <p>
279 swift 1.55 With Gentoo you can build your entire system from source completely using your
280     choice of optimizations. You have complete control over what packages are or
281     aren't installed. Gentoo provides you with numerous choices so you can install
282     Gentoo to your own taste. This is why Gentoo is called a
283     <e>meta-distribution</e>.
284 swift 1.54 </p>
285    
286     <p>
287 swift 1.55 Gentoo is very actively developed. Not only the <e>ebuilds</e> themselves (the
288     package format Gentoo uses) but the entire distribution uses a rapid pace
289     development style. Patches to the packages are quickly integrated in the
290     mainline tree, documentation is updated on daily basis, portage features are
291     added frequently, releases succeed each other quickly, ...
292 swift 1.54 </p>
293    
294     </body>
295     </section>
296 swift 1.55 </chapter>
297    
298     <chapter>
299     <title>Installation</title>
300 swift 1.61 <section id="optimizations">
301 swift 1.54 <title>
302     I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math
303     -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?
304     </title>
305     <body>
306    
307     <p>
308 swift 1.60 Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't supported by
309 swift 1.54 current versions of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the
310     compiler to streamline the assembly code to the point where it doesn't quite
311 swift 1.55 do the same thing anymore.
312 swift 1.54 </p>
313    
314     <p>
315 swift 1.55 Please try to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march= -O2</c> first before reporting a
316 swift 1.54 bug.
317     </p>
318    
319     </body>
320     </section>
321 swift 1.61 <section id="password">
322 swift 1.55 <title>How can i change the root (or any other user's) password?</title>
323 swift 1.54 <body>
324    
325     <p>
326     You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged
327     into. For extra options and setting, please see <c>man passwd</c> once you've
328     completed the install.
329     </p>
330    
331     </body>
332     </section>
333 swift 1.61 <section id="useradd">
334 swift 1.54 <title>How do i add a normal user?</title>
335     <body>
336    
337     <p>
338     The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called gentoo. The next step
339     is to give this user a password and <c>passwd</c> will do exactly that.
340     </p>
341    
342     <p>
343     Instead of <c>adduser</c> you can also use:
344     </p>
345    
346     <pre caption="Using useradd">
347     # <i>useradd gentoo -m -G users,audio,wheel -s /bin/bash</i>
348     </pre>
349    
350     <p>
351 vapier 1.70 This will add a user gentoo, will make possible for him to use sound-related
352     devices (<path>/dev/sound/*</path>), will make possible for him to switch to
353 swift 1.59 root (using <c>su</c>) and will make <path>/bin/bash</path> his/her login shell.
354 swift 1.54 </p>
355    
356     <p>
357     You can also install <c>superadduser</c> using <c>emerge superadduser</c> and
358     then issue <c>superadduser gentoo</c> to add a user called gentoo. Just follow
359     the instructions given to you by <c>superadduser</c>.
360     </p>
361    
362     </body>
363     </section>
364 swift 1.61 <section id="su">
365 swift 1.54 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
366     <body>
367    
368     <p>
369     For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
370 cam 1.58 <e>wheel</e> group. To add a <e>username</e> to the <e>wheel</e> group, issue
371 swift 1.54 the following command as root:
372     </p>
373    
374     <pre caption="Adding a user to the wheel group">
375 swift 1.55 # <i>gpasswd -a username wheel</i>
376 swift 1.54 </pre>
377    
378     </body>
379     </section>
380 swift 1.61 <section id="devfs">
381 bennyc 1.75 <title>How do I disable devfs?</title>
382 swift 1.54 <body>
383    
384     <p>
385 swift 1.55 If you plan on using Gentoo with the "old-style" <path>/dev</path> approach, you
386     can disable devfs by passing the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> to the kernel. If on the
387     other hand you want to use <uri link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev</uri> (2.6
388     kernels only), you can disable devfs by passing the <c>devfs=nomount</c> option
389     to the kernel. Don't forget to read up on our <uri
390     link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev guide</uri> too.
391 swift 1.54 </p>
392    
393     </body>
394     </section>
395 swift 1.61 <section id="upgrade">
396 swift 1.54 <title>
397 swift 1.55 Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to another without reinstalling?
398 swift 1.54 </title>
399     <body>
400    
401     <p>
402 swift 1.55 In fact there is no difference between the various releases
403     <b>after they have been installed</b>. Gentoo 1.4 and later are
404 cam 1.72 <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based. As such running <c>emerge --sync; emerge -u world</c>
405 swift 1.55 will bring your entire system up to speed with the "latest Gentoo".
406     The true differences between individual releases lie in the installation.
407 swift 1.54 </p>
408    
409 swift 1.62 <p>
410     More information can be found in our <uri link="gentoo-upgrading.xml">Gentoo
411     Upgrading Guide</uri>.
412     </p>
413    
414 swift 1.54 </body>
415     </section>
416 swift 1.61 <section id="bootrescue">
417 swift 1.54 <title>My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should I do now?</title>
418     <body>
419    
420     <p>
421     You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but only the
422     kernel-stuff and all associated steps. Suppose you have installed Gentoo
423     on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with
424     <path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space:
425     </p>
426    
427     <pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel">
428 swift 1.37 <comment>Boot from the LiveCD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment>
429     <comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment>
430     # <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
431     # <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
432     # <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
433     # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
434     <comment>Then we chroot into our Gentoo environment and configure the kernel:</comment>
435     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
436     # <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
437     # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
438     # <i>make menuconfig</i>
439     <comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment>
440     <comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment>
441     # <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make bzImage modules modules_install</i>
442     <comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment>
443     # <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</i>
444     <comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment>
445     # <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
446     <comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment>
447     # <i>exit</i>
448     # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
449     # <i>reboot</i>
450 swift 1.54 </pre>
451    
452     <p>
453     If on the other hand the problem lays with your bootloader configuration,
454     follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel you
455     should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary).
456     </p>
457    
458     </body>
459     </section>
460 swift 1.61 <section id="proxy">
461 swift 1.54 <title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title>
462     <body>
463    
464     <p>
465     When you have to download something using <c>wget</c>, use the
466     following syntax to authenticate yourself:
467     </p>
468    
469 bennyc 1.40 <pre caption = "Proxy-authentication using wget">
470 swift 1.38 # <i>wget --proxy-user=</i><comment>username</comment><i> --proxy-passwd=</i><comment>password</comment><i> &lt;url&gt;</i>
471     </pre>
472 swift 1.54
473     <p>
474     To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in
475     <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
476     </p>
477    
478 swift 1.38 <pre caption = "/etc/make.conf">
479     FETCHCOMMAND="wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
480     RESUMECOMMAND="/usr/bin/wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -c -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
481     </pre>
482 swift 1.54
483     <p>
484     Sadly, <c>rsync</c> doesn't seem to support username/password
485 neysx 1.56 authentication for proxies. See <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect3">What
486 swift 1.54 if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri> for more information on how to
487     handle this situation.
488     </p>
489    
490     </body>
491     </section>
492 swift 1.65 <section id="isoburning">
493     <title>How do I burn an ISO file?</title>
494     <body>
495    
496     <p>
497     You need to burn the file in so-called <e>raw</e> mode. This means that you
498     should <e>not</e> just place the file on the CD, but interpret the file as an
499     entire CD.
500     </p>
501    
502     <p>
503     There are lots of CD burning tools available; covering them all would be a
504     Sisyphean problem. Describing a few popular tools however doesn't hurt :)
505     </p>
506    
507     <ul>
508     <li>
509     With EasyCD Creator you select <c>File</c>, <c>Record CD
510     from CD image</c>. Then you change the <c>Files of type</c> to <c>ISO image
511     file</c>. Then locate the ISO file and click <c>Open</c>. When you click on
512     <c>Start recording</c> the ISO image will be burned correctly onto the CD-R.
513     </li>
514     <li>
515     With Nero Burning ROM, cancel the wizard which automatically pops up and
516 neysx 1.69 select <c>Burn Image</c> from the <c>File</c> menu. Select the image you
517 swift 1.65 want to burn and click <c>Open</c>. Now hit the <c>Burn</c> button and watch
518     your brand new CD being burnt.
519     </li>
520     <li>
521     With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace
522     <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
523     by the path to the ISO file :)
524     </li>
525     <li>
526     With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn Image</c>. Then
527     you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click
528     <c>Start</c>.
529     </li>
530 swift 1.66 <li>
531     With Mac OS X Panther, launch <c>Disk Utility</c> from
532     <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Open</c> from the
533     <c>Images</c> menu, select the mounted disk image in the main window and
534     select <c>Burn</c> in the <c>Images</c> menu.
535     </li>
536     <li>
537     With Mac OS X Jaguar, launch <c>Disk Copy</c> from
538     <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Burn Image</c> from the
539     <c>File</c> menu, select the ISO and click the <c>Burn</c> button.
540     </li>
541 swift 1.65 </ul>
542    
543    
544     </body>
545     </section>
546 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
547    
548     <chapter>
549 swift 1.54 <title>Package Management</title>
550 swift 1.61 <section id="ebuilds">
551 swift 1.54 <title>In what format are the packages stored?</title>
552     <body>
553    
554 swift 1.45 <p>
555 swift 1.55 They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; Gentoo is
556 swift 1.54 primarily a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts
557     (<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a special system (Portage) so that you can build
558     apps from sources. We generally only build binaries for releases and snapshots.
559 swift 1.74 The <uri link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Gentoo
560     Ebuild HOWTO</uri> covers the
561 swift 1.54 contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we
562     create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format
563     (<c>.tar.bz2</c> compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the
564     file).
565 swift 1.45 </p>
566    
567 swift 1.54 </body>
568     </section>
569 swift 1.61 <section id="configure">
570 cam 1.58 <title>I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</title>
571 swift 1.54 <body>
572    
573     <p>
574     Yes, but it is not trivial, and the next method only works when it is a simple
575     ebuild (i.e. just <c>./configure</c> and <c>make &amp;&amp; make install</c>).
576     Be sure to read the ebuild itself to see how Gentoo handles it.
577     </p>
578    
579     <p>
580     Start with unpacking the ebuild: <c>ebuild
581     /usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt; unpack</c>.
582     </p>
583    
584     <p>
585     Next, go to <path>/var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/work</path>.
586     Inside it you'll find the unpacked sources. Execute the steps you need to
587     perform to configure and compile the package.
588     </p>
589    
590     <p>
591     When finished, execute <c>touch
592     /var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/.compiled</c> to trick Portage
593     into thinking it configured and compiled the package. Then finish up with
594     <c>ebuild /usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt;
595     merge</c>.
596     </p>
597    
598     </body>
599     </section>
600 swift 1.64 <section id="norsync">
601 swift 1.54 <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
602     <body>
603    
604     <p>
605     If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit rsync traffic, then you can use
606     <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch and install a Portage snapshot for you
607     through regular HTTP. <c>emerge-webrsync</c> uses <c>wget</c> to download, so
608     proxy is fully supported.
609     </p>
610    
611     <pre caption="Using emerge-webrsync">
612     # <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
613     </pre>
614    
615     </body>
616     </section>
617 swift 1.61 <section id="firewall">
618 swift 1.54 <title>How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</title>
619     <body>
620    
621     <p>
622     Edit the PROXY settings in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If that doesn't work,
623     edit <path>/etc/wget/wgetrc</path> and edit http_proxy and ftp_proxy
624     appropriately.
625     </p>
626    
627     </body>
628     </section>
629 swift 1.61 <section id="unison">
630 swift 1.54 <title>Can I rsync from another operating system?</title>
631     <body>
632    
633     <p>
634     There's a program called unison that works under both UNIX and Win32, available
635     from <uri>http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~bcpierce/unison/</uri>.
636     </p>
637    
638     </body>
639     </section>
640 swift 1.61 <section id="manualdownload">
641 swift 1.54 <title>
642     I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere
643     else and add them to my system?
644     </title>
645     <body>
646    
647     <p>
648     Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
649     are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where
650     to download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>. Download
651     sources and bring them on any media home. Put the sources into
652     <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run <c>emerge package</c> to see it
653     picking up the sources you just brought in!
654     </p>
655    
656     </body>
657     </section>
658 swift 1.61 <section id="distfiles">
659 swift 1.54 <title>
660     .tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in
661     /usr/portage/distfiles/ using valuable space. Is it safe to delete these
662     files?
663     </title>
664     <body>
665    
666     <p>
667     Yes, you can safely delete these files. But if you are on a slow
668     connection, such as a modem, you might want to keep the archives if
669     possible; often several ebuilds will be released for the same version of
670     a specific piece of software - if you have deleted the archive and you
671     upgrade the software it will have to be downloaded from the internet
672     again.
673     </p>
674    
675     </body>
676     </section>
677 swift 1.61 <section id="tmpportage">
678 swift 1.54 <title>
679 cam 1.58 What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to delete the files and
680     directories in /var/tmp/portage?
681 swift 1.54 </title>
682     <body>
683    
684     <p>
685     During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in
686     <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. It is safe to clean out all contents of this
687     directory.
688     </p>
689    
690     </body>
691     </section>
692     </chapter>
693    
694     <chapter>
695     <title>Usage</title>
696 swift 1.61 <section id="rootssh">
697 swift 1.54 <title>
698     I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal
699     user account doesn't work.
700     </title>
701     <body>
702    
703     <p>
704     This is most probably because your user account doesn't have a valid shell
705     specified. Check for your user entry in <path>/etc/passwd</path> and see if it
706     ends in /bin/bash (or any other shell). If it doesn't, you must set a shell for
707     the user. This is done using the usermod command, like this:
708     </p>
709    
710     <pre caption="Using usermod">
711     # <i>usermod -s /bin/bash myuser</i>
712     </pre>
713    
714     </body>
715     </section>
716 swift 1.61 <section id="rootX">
717 swift 1.54 <title>I can start X applications as root only.</title>
718     <body>
719    
720     <p>
721     Your <path>/tmp</path> directory has the wrong permissions (it needs the
722     sticky bit set). Type the following as root:
723     </p>
724    
725     <pre caption="Changing /tmp permissions">
726     # <i>chmod 1777 /tmp</i>
727     </pre>
728    
729     </body>
730     </section>
731 swift 1.61 <section id="intkeyboard">
732 swift 1.54 <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
733     <body>
734    
735     <p>
736     Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>.
737     Then either reboot or restart the keymaps script:
738     <c>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</c>.
739     </p>
740    
741     </body>
742     </section>
743 swift 1.61 <section id="rootdns">
744 swift 1.54 <title>DNS name resolution works for root only.</title>
745     <body>
746    
747     <p>
748     <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as
749     follows:
750     </p>
751    
752     <pre caption="Changing permissions on /etc/resolv.conf">
753     # <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i>
754     </pre>
755    
756     </body>
757     </section>
758 swift 1.61 <section id="crontab">
759 swift 1.54 <title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
760     <body>
761    
762     <p>
763     You need to add that user to the <c>cron</c> group.
764     </p>
765    
766     </body>
767     </section>
768 swift 1.61 <section id="numlock">
769 swift 1.54 <title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
770     <body>
771    
772     <p>
773     If you log on graphically, or want numlock to be activated when
774     you issue <c>startx</c>, then you must <c>emerge numlockx</c> and
775     add <c>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</c> to
776     <path>/etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc</path> (for <c>startx</c>) or
777     <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path> (for any graphical login manager) such
778     as <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/Gnome</path> for GDM.
779     </p>
780    
781     <p>
782 swift 1.67 GNOME 2.6 users however will notice that this doesn't work. Instead, they will
783     need to start the <c>gnome-session-properties</c> tool. At the top of the
784 neysx 1.68 Window, select <c>Startup Programs</c> and click the <c>Add</c> button. Now
785 swift 1.67 insert the location of the <c>numlockx</c> tool (for instance
786     <path>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</path>) and exit.
787     </p>
788    
789     <p>
790 swift 1.54 If you work in commandline, you only need to <c>rc-update add
791     numlock default</c> and numlock will be activated on the next
792     reboot.
793     </p>
794    
795     </body>
796     </section>
797 swift 1.61 <section id="clear">
798 swift 1.54 <title>How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</title>
799     <body>
800    
801     <p>
802     To have your terminal cleared, add <c>clear</c> to your
803     <path>~/.bash_logout</path> script:
804     </p>
805    
806     <pre caption = "Clearing the terminal during logout">
807     $ <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; ~/.bash_logout</i>
808     </pre>
809    
810     <p>
811     If you want this to happen automatically when you add a new
812     user, do the same for the <path>/etc/skel/.bash_logout</path>:
813     </p>
814    
815     <pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout">
816     # <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre>
817     </body>
818    
819     </section>
820     </chapter>
821    
822     <chapter>
823     <title>Maintenance</title>
824 swift 1.61 <section id="filecorruption">
825 swift 1.54 <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</title>
826     <body>
827    
828     <p>
829     If your ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo
830     Linux boot CD and run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on
831     the corrupted filesystem. This should make the filesystem consistent
832     again, although you may have lost some files or directories due
833     to the corruption.
834     </p>
835    
836     </body>
837     </section>
838 swift 1.61 <section id="metalogd">
839 swift 1.54 <title>Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</title>
840     <body>
841    
842 swift 1.41 <p>
843     Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately
844     recorded into the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this
845     performance-enhancing behavior is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux
846     system is up and running, you can send metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily
847     turn off this message buffering (meaning that <c>tail -f
848     <path>/var/log/everything/current</path></c> will now work in real time, as
849     expected) and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on again. If you want to
850     disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to
851     METALOG_OPTS="-B -s" in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>.
852     </p>
853    
854     <pre caption="Turning metalog buffering on/off">
855     <codenote>To turn the buffering off:</codenote>
856     # <i>killall -USR1 metalog</i>
857     <codenote>To turn the buffering back on:</codenote>
858     # <i>killall -USR2 metalog</i>
859     </pre>
860    
861 swift 1.54 </body>
862     </section>
863 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
864    
865     <chapter>
866 swift 1.54 <title>Development</title>
867 swift 1.61 <section id="reportbugs">
868 swift 1.54 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
869     <body>
870    
871     <p>
872     For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise,
873     use our Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can
874     also visit us in <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri
875     link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network.
876     </p>
877    
878     </body>
879     </section>
880 swift 1.61 <section id="releases">
881 swift 1.54 <title>How often are new releases made?</title>
882     <body>
883    
884     <p>
885     New releases are announced on the <uri
886     link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri>
887     mailing list. In reality the packages themselves are updated shortly after the
888 swift 1.55 main authors release new code. As for when Gentoo makes new releases, check our
889     <uri link="/proj/en/releng">Release Engineering Project</uri> page.
890 swift 1.54 </p>
891    
892     </body>
893     </section>
894 swift 1.61 <section id="addfaq">
895 swift 1.54 <title>How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</title>
896     <body>
897    
898     <p>
899     Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the
900     "Docs-user" product, "Gentoo Linux FAQ" component.
901     </p>
902    
903     </body>
904     </section>
905 swift 1.61 <section id="beeping">
906 swift 1.54 <title>
907     My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console
908     beeps?
909     </title>
910     <body>
911    
912     <p>
913     Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this:
914     </p>
915    
916     <pre caption="Using setterm">
917     # <i>setterm -blength 0</i>
918     </pre>
919    
920     <p>
921     If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot
922     you need to put this command in <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However,
923     this only disables beeps for the current terminal. To disable
924     beeps for other terminals, pipe the command output to the
925     target terminal, like this:
926     </p>
927    
928     <pre caption="Using setterm (bis)">
929     # <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i>
930     </pre>
931    
932     <p>
933     You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal you would like to disable
934     console beeps for.
935     </p>
936    
937     </body>
938     </section>
939 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
940    
941     <chapter>
942     <title>Resources</title>
943 swift 1.61 <section id="resources">
944 swift 1.54 <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
945     <body>
946    
947     <p>
948     The official Gentoo documentation can be found on
949     <uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>; general Linux information is at
950     <uri>http://www.tldp.org</uri>.
951     </p>
952    
953     </body>
954     </section>
955 swift 1.61 <section id="buycd">
956 erwin 1.52 <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
957     <body>
958    
959 swift 1.54 <p>
960     Yes! LiveCDs for all supported architecture are available on
961 erwin 1.52 our <uri link="http://store.gentoo.org/">Gentoo Store</uri>. When you
962     purchase a CD from our store, you are also supporting our development.
963     So, please consider buying from our store if possible :-)
964     </p>
965    
966     <p>
967     You can also find fresh CDs from
968 swift 1.63 <uri link = "http://www.tuxcds.com/section.php?section=42">
969 erwin 1.52 tuxcds</uri> for a very good price. These people also bounce back a
970     portion of the profits to the Gentoo project, so buy them while they are hot!
971     </p>
972    
973     </body>
974     </section>
975 swift 1.61 <section id="mailinglist">
976 swift 1.54 <title>
977     Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer
978     only go to the original poster and not the entire list?
979     </title>
980     <body>
981 drobbins 1.1
982 swift 1.54 <p>
983     The mailing list administrators have decided to go with minimal munging
984     (altering of mail headers), which means that they have decided against
985     altering headers to have replies go to the mailing list. There are various
986     reasons for this. For example, if a subscriber has a full mailbox, the
987     entire list receives notice of this every time that something is posted.
988     </p>
989    
990     <p>
991     Most GUI based mailers have a "reply to all" function. This will ensure that
992     your reply goes to the mailing list as well as the original poster. Most
993     users of text based emailers already know the methods to use, but if you
994     don't, in Pine, there is a "reply to group" option. Setting Mutt to reply to
995     the list is covered in the unofficial documentation at
996     <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=1085">forums.gentoo.org</uri>.
997     </p>
998    
999     <p>
1000     Some list members do not like this method, but it was very heavily
1001     discussed when it went into effect, with arguments on both sides.
1002     Eventually the list administrators decided to keep it this way. Discussing
1003     it on the mailing list will sometimes bring a polite explanation and other
1004     times a rather brusque comment to check the archives. Although the
1005     administrators regret the inconvenience that it may cause some users, it is
1006     felt that at present it is preferable to the alternative for several
1007     reasons, many of these covered
1008     <uri link="http://www.unicom.com/pw/reply-to-harmful.html">here</uri>.
1009     </p>
1010    
1011     <p>
1012     (There are other eloquent arguments in favor of munging, and yes, the list
1013     administrators have seen them).
1014     </p>
1015    
1016     </body>
1017     </section>
1018 swift 1.61 <section id="help">
1019 swift 1.54 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
1020     <body>
1021    
1022     <p>
1023     A good first step is to browse through the relevant <uri
1024     link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/index.xml">documentation</uri>, failing that,
1025     the various Gentoo Linux mailing lists listed on <uri
1026     link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo
1027     mailing lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all
1028     else fails, or you just want to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc:
1029     <c>#gentoo</c> on <c>irc.freenode.net</c>.
1030     </p>
1031    
1032     </body>
1033     </section>
1034 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
1035 swift 1.54
1036 drobbins 1.1 </guide>

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